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# Experiment 5

APPLIED PHYSICS

SERIES RESONANT CIRCUIT
5.1

OBJECTIVES:
1. Take observations for series RLC circuit for different values of Resistances and plot
resonance curve.
2. Determine its resonance frequency and Q factor.

5.2

SAFETY NOTES:
1. Do not touch buttons and knobs of function generator and oscilloscope unnecessarily.
2. Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before turning
on the input signal.

5.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.4

EQUIPMENTS/ REQUIREMENTS:
1 Function Generator
1 Oscilloscope
1 Digital Multimeter
Capacitor 0.1μF, Inductor, Resistances 10Ωand 100Ω (1 each)
THEORY:

When inductor and capacitor are used in an ac circuit, inductive reactance X L increases as
the frequency of applied voltage is increased, but capacitive reactance X C decreases with
higher frequencies. At a certain frequency, called the resonance frequency f r, the XL becomes
equal to XC. This case of equal and opposite reactance is called resonance, and the circuit is
called resonant circuit. Since,

X C  1  2fC  and X L 2fL

At resonant frequency (f = fr)
XL = X C

fr 

1
2 LC

Series Resonant circuit:
In series RLC circuit, at low frequencies, there is large capacitive
reactance XC so very small current will flow through the circuit
and minimum voltage drop across R and L. Since voltage across
capacitor VC and voltage across inductor V L opposes each other
diametrically, so, the total reactive voltage is V L - VC. At very high
frequencies, inductor L will be an open circuit, and again very
small current will flow. However, at intermediate frequencies,
both XC and XL will be moderate, and the difference between
them will be small. At resonance, that difference will be zero, and
only R will limit the current flowing in the circuit. At resonance
maximum current will flow through the circuit so this circuit is also
called acceptor circuit.

Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz

Page|5–1

(1)

higher the sharpness higher the Q magnification factor.play-hookey.com EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|5–2 . In series RLC circuit. 2.6 REFERENCES: ‘Basic Electronics’. is indicated by the factor Q. or figure of merit. Δf is the bandwidth of resonance curve. Band Width of Resonance Curve: The width of group of frequencies centered around resonant frequency that gives a response of 70.com/ac_theory/ac_rlc_series.7% of the maximum or more is called bandwidth of the tuned circuit.wikipedia. GROB ‘Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Krane. www. Q = fr/Δf (3) Where. Q 1 R L C (2) Since the series resistance limits the amount of current at resonance so lower the resistance R sharper the increase to maximum current at resonant frequency and higher the Q factor. 4. Q factor can also be calculated by using bandwidth. 3.html www. Δf = f2.f1 (4) 5.Experiment 5 APPLIED PHYSICS Q Magnification factor of Resonant Circuit: The sharpness of resonance curve describe the quality. 5.5 1.

7 APPLIED PHYSICS PROCEDURE: 6Make connections as shown in figure.Experiment 5 5. 4. near the resonance. Determine resonance frequency and bandwidth.f1=__________ kHz.    For R=10Ω: From graph f1 = __________ kHz and f2 =__________ kHz. Use back of the sheet for calculations 5. and smaller intervals say 0. 100Ω).4 Hz. resonance frequency. fr = _________kHz. 2.9 GRAPH: Plot graphs of amplitude versus frequency using your observations for each resistance (10Ω.4 3. Value of Q factor using graph (Q = fr / Δf) is __________ Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|5–3 . Band width Δf = f2 . 1. 5. 5.8 OBSERVATIONS: Frequency kHz Output Voltage (Volts) 10Ω 100Ω 5. Use appropriate frequency intervals. Repeat observations for R = 10Ω. Increase the frequency from 2 kHz to 20 kHz of input signal and read output peak-topeak signal (Vp-p) on oscilloscope as shown in figure 5. say 3kHz before and after resonance.10  CALCULATIONS: From graph. Use R = 100Ω.

Band width Δf = f2 . Value of Q factor using graph (Q = fr / Δf) is __________ RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|5–4 .f1=__________ kHz.Experiment 5     5.11 APPLIED PHYSICS For R=100Ω: From graph f1 = __________ kHz and f2 =__________ kHz.