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# Experiment 6

APPLIED PHYSICS

HYSTERESIS CURVE
6.1

OBJECTIVES:
Observe Hysteresis curve for given transformer and determine Retentivity.

6.2
1.
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6.
6.3

SAFETY NOTES:
Do not touch buttons and knobs of function generator and oscilloscope
unnecessarily.
Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before turning
on the input signal. Increase AC voltages on the transformer only gradually; do not
apply higher voltages directly.
Avoid overheating of the transformer.
Maximum permissible AC voltage per winding 15 V AC.
Maximum permissible power consumption 40 W.
Make connections carefully and call teacher to check the connections before turning
on the power supply.

EQUIPMENTS/ REQUIREMENTS:
1 AC power supply
1 Transformer Pannel.
2 Multimeter.
1 Digital Oscilloscope.
6 Connecting lead 100 cm black
6. 1 Capacitor 47μF.
7. 2 Resistors 1Ohm, 100kOhm.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.4

THEORY:
A great deal of information can be learned about the magnetic properties of a
material by studying its hysteresis loop. A hysteresis loop shows the relationship
between the induced magnetic flux density (B) and the magnetizing force (H). It is
often referred to as the B-H loop. An example hysteresis loop is shown below.
The loop is generated by measuring the magnetic flux of a ferromagnetic material
while the magnetizing force is changed. As the applied field strength (H), the stronger
the magnetic field (B) or highly the
material magnetized. At point "a" almost
all of the magnetic domains are aligned.
The material has reached the point of
magnetic saturation. When (H) is reduced
to zero, the curve will move from point "a"
to point "b." At this point, it can be seen
that some magnetic flux remains in the
material even though the magnetizing
force is zero. This is referred to as the
point of retentivity on the graph and
indicates the remanance or level of
residual magnetism in the material.
(Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned but some have lost their alignment.)
As the magnetizing force is reversed, the curve moves to point "c", where the flux
has been reduced to zero. This is called the point of coercivity on the curve. (The
reversed magnetizing force has flipped enough of the domains so that the net flux
within the material is zero.) The force required to remove the residual magnetism
from the material is called the coercive force or coercivity of the material.
As the magnetizing force is increased in the negative direction, the material will again
become magnetically saturated but in the opposite direction (point "d"). The curve did
not return to the origin of the graph because some force is required to remove the

Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz

Page|6–1

6. OBSERVATIONS: Np = _________. 5.5 APPLIED PHYSICS residual magnetism. Use information to calculate retentivity. 4. a number of magnetic properties of a material can be determined. InputVoltage (Vin) Volts OutputVoltage (Vo) Volts GRAPH: Observe graph on Oscilloscope and sketch it on graph paper.8 PROCEDURE: Make Connections as shown in figure 2. Area of iron core = ___________m2. ‘Basic Electronics’. 4. Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|6–2 . Retentivity Residual Magnetism or Residual Flux Coercive Force or Coercivity of the material Permeability. 6.6 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 6.7 1. The curve will take a different path from point "f" back to the saturation point where it with complete the loop. 3. GROB 2. 6. 3. ‘Physics’ by Halliday Resnick and Krane. Reluctance REFERENCES: 1.Experiment 6 1. 2. R = ______Ohms.9  OutputVoltage (Vo) Volts C = ________ Farad. From the hysteresis loop. 2. Increase the input voltage till you get proper loop. Observe the loop and note down output voltage corresponding input voltage on it. InputVoltage (Vin) Volts 6.

RC   Vo Np B / A Retentivity = B ( for H = 0) = _____________Tesla. Since.10 APPLIED PHYSICS CALCULATIONS: For Vin = 0 Vo = _________Volts.11 RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Lab Instructor Arshia Aijaz Page|6–3 . 6.Experiment 6 6.