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MICROBIOLOGY

REVIEW NOTES

MEDPGNOTES
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MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES

CULTURE AND STERILISATION

CONTENTS
CULTURE AND STERILISATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9
CULTURE ................................................................................................................................................................... 9
STERILISATION........................................................................................................................................................... 9
DISINFECTION ......................................................................................................................................................... 10
BACTERIAL GENETICS .................................................................................................................................................. 11
GENERAL FEATURES OF BACTERIA.......................................................................................................................... 11
GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM NEGATIVE ORGANISMS............................................................................................. 12
LIGAND AND HOST RECEPTORS FOR MICROORGANISMS ...................................................................................... 12
MULTIPLICATION OF BACTERIA .............................................................................................................................. 13
BACTERIAL RESISTANCE .......................................................................................................................................... 13
BIOTERRORISM AND VESICANTS ............................................................................................................................ 14
BACTERIOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
GENERAL FEATURES OF BACTERIA.......................................................................................................................... 15
FEATURES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS ........................................................................................................................... 17
SPECIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS ............................................................................................................................... 18
DISEASES CAUSED BY STAPHYLOCOCCUS ............................................................................................................... 19
TOXINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS ................................................................................................................................ 19
STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING .................................................................................................................... 20
FEATURES OF STREPTOCOCCUS.............................................................................................................................. 20
SPECIES OF STREPTOCOCCUS.................................................................................................................................. 21
DISEASES CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS ................................................................................................................. 22
TOXINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS .................................................................................................................................. 22
CROSS SENSITIVITY OF STREPTOCOCCAL ANTIGEN ................................................................................................ 23
ENTEROCOCCUS...................................................................................................................................................... 23
PNEUMOCOCCUS.................................................................................................................................................... 23
GENERAL FEATURES OF NEISSERIA ......................................................................................................................... 24
NEISSERIA GONORRHOEA ....................................................................................................................................... 24
NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS........................................................................................................................................ 25
GENERAL FEATURES OF CLOSTRIDIA....................................................................................................................... 26
CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS .................................................................................................................................. 26
GAS GANGRENE ...................................................................................................................................................... 27
CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI ............................................................................................................................................. 27

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MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES

CULTURE AND STERILISATION

GENERAL FEATURES OF TETANUS........................................................................................................................... 27
MANAGEMENT OF TETANUS .................................................................................................................................. 28
PREVENTION OF TETANUS ...................................................................................................................................... 28
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM .................................................................................................................................... 29
BOTULISM ............................................................................................................................................................... 29
CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICLE AND PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS .............................................................................. 30
GENERAL FEATURES OF CORYNEBACTERIUM......................................................................................................... 30
CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIA........................................................................................................................... 31
FEATURES OF DIPHTHERIA...................................................................................................................................... 31
MANAGEMENT OF DIPHTHERIA ............................................................................................................................. 32
HEMOPHILUS .......................................................................................................................................................... 33
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 33
BRUCELLA................................................................................................................................................................ 34
BARTONELLA ........................................................................................................................................................... 35
ACTINOMYCES......................................................................................................................................................... 35
NOCARDIA............................................................................................................................................................... 36
LISTERIA .................................................................................................................................................................. 36
BACILLUS ANTHRACIS ............................................................................................................................................. 37
BACILLUS CEREUS.................................................................................................................................................... 38
LEGIONELLA ............................................................................................................................................................ 38
CAMPYLOBACTER.................................................................................................................................................... 39
HELICOBACTER ........................................................................................................................................................ 39
PASTEURELLA .......................................................................................................................................................... 39
FRANSCIELLA ........................................................................................................................................................... 40
YERSINIA.................................................................................................................................................................. 40
PSEUDOMONAS ...................................................................................................................................................... 41
BURKHOLDERIA....................................................................................................................................................... 42
GENERAL FEATURES OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE .................................................................................................... 42
E.COLI ...................................................................................................................................................................... 42
PROTEUS ................................................................................................................................................................. 43
SALMONELLA .......................................................................................................................................................... 43
TYPHOID.................................................................................................................................................................. 44
SHIGELLA ................................................................................................................................................................. 45
FEATURES OF VIBRIO .............................................................................................................................................. 46

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....................................................................................................... 54 VIROLOGY ....... 63 INFLUENZA VIRUS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 SMALL POX................ 52 NON VENERAL TREPONEMES...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com 4 ....................................................................................................................................... 51 EHRILICHIA ........... 54 BORRELIA .................................................................................... 57 PARVOVIRUS .................................................................................................................... 48 GENERAL FEATURES OF RICKETTSIA ................... 61 PAPOVA VIRUS ........................................................................................ 51 CHLAMYDIA............................. 63 COXSACKIE VIRUS........................................................................................................................................................................ 53 LEPTOSPIRA........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 49 EPIDEMIC TYPHUS...... 63 MEASLES ...........................medpgnotes........................ 50 Q FEVER............................................................................................................. 58 CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Yaw and Pinta ................................................................ 58 EBSTEIN BARR VIRUS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 HALOPHILIC VIBRIO .................................................................. 61 POLIO VIRUS..................... 55 HERPES VIRUS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 ENTEROVIRUS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 ROTAVIRUS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 SCRUB TYPHUS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 GENERAL FEATURES OF VIRUS ............................................................................................................................................MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION CHOLERA ......................................................................................................................................... 49 ENDEMIC TYPHUS ............................................................................................................................................................ 64 http://www........ 59 VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS ............................................................................................................................................... 50 RICKETTSIAL POX..................................... 47 ATYPICAL MYCOBACTERIA .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 ROSEOLA INFANTUM ............................ 51 MYCOPLASMA......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 ADENOVIRUS.

..................................................................................................................... 73 KAPOSI’S SARCOMA .................... 80 CANDIDA ....... 83 MADURELLA ......................................................................................................... 68 WEST NILE FEVER ..................................................... 75 TREATMENT OF AIDS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 73 MANIFESTATIONS OF AIDS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com 5 ................................................................... 66 GENERAL FEATURES OF ARBOVIRUS............................................................................................... 67 CHIKUNGUNYA....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 72 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV ........................................................................................................................ 82 HISTOPLASMOSIS ................................................................................................... 78 MYCOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................ 70 RUBELLA ............... 68 YELLOW FEVER . 79 DIMORPHIC FUNGI........................ 82 BLASTOMYCOSIS .......... 83 MUCOR .................................................... 81 PNEUMOCYSTIS JEROVECI ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 80 DERMATOPHYTES ............... 69 KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 FEATURES OF HIV ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 82 ASPERGILLUS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 84 http://www....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 TRANSMISSION OF HIV .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 RABIES ..................................................................................................................... 75 PREVENTION OF HIV ................................. 70 REOVIRUS........................................ 69 RESPIRATORY SYNCITIAL VIRUS ........................................................................ 69 HANTA VIRUS ............................................................................................. 67 DENGUE ................................................................................................................................... 77 PRIONS AND SLOW VIRUS.................................................................. 68 JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS .medpgnotes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION MUMPS ................ 79 GENERAL FEATURES OF FUNGI ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 CRYPTOCOCCUS ...................................................................................................................... 74 DIAGNOSIS OF AIDS ....................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 84 CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS........................................... 99 MANAGEMENT OF FILARIASIS .................................................................................... 98 FEATURES OF FILARIASIS...........medpgnotes......... 92 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA ........... 93 DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA .......................................................................................................................................................................... 90 CYCLOSPORA .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com 6 ............................................................................ 97 TAENIA SOLIUM ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86 GIARDIA.......................................................................... 96 DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM ..................................................................................... 95 CLONORCHIS ............................................................. 85 AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS .......................................................... 100 ENTEROBIUS........................................................ 93 TREATMENT OF MALARIA ....................................................................................... 96 FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI .................................................................... 98 ECHINOCOCCUS ......................... 90 ISOSPORA ............................................................................................................................................................................. 88 TOXOPLASMA............................................................. 97 TAENIA SAGINATA................................................ 100 http://www................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 GENERAL FEATURES OF HELMINTH ............................................................................................................................... 96 FASCIOLA HEPATICA.............................................................................................................................. 90 CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS ............ 90 FEATURES OF PLASMODIUM ........................ 89 BABESIOSIS................................................................... 84 GENERAL FEATURES OF PROTOZOA ............................... 86 TRYPANOSOMA...................................................................................................................................................... 84 ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA ....................................................MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION SPOROTRICHOSIS ............................................................................................................................................... 91 FEATURES OF MALARIA .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 BALANTIDIUM COLI..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 84 PROTOZOA ..................................................................... 96 ASCARIS.................................................................................. 86 LEISHMANIA..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 HELMINTHS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..... 100 GUINEA WORM ...........................................................................................................................................................MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION TRICHINELLA ................................................................................................................medpgnotes................................................. 101 STRONGYLOIDES ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 102 http://www............... 101 SCHISTOSOMA ......................................com 7 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 102 HOOKWORM................................................................ 101 TRICHURIS .......................

Asked in any previous medical entrance examinations Text in bold font – Point from Harrison’s text book of internal medicine 18th edition Text in italic font – Can be read if you are thorough with above two http://www.medpgnotes.MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION KEY TO THIS DOCUMENT Text in normal font – Must read point.com 8 .

bacterial spores. 2N concentration NaOH Chlorhexidine.com 9 . T. Ethylene oxide.leprae. E. Cresol Cetrimide + chlorheximide Bleaching powder Phenol require organic matter to act Glutaraldehyde. Halogens Glutaraldehyde.medpgnotes. T.pallidum. Rickettsia Treponema pallidum.000 Fluorescence microscope Basal media Enrichment media Differential media Blood Agar Bacteriostatic Promotes growth of staphylococcus aureus and candida 4-6 Virus.CULTURE AND STERILISATION MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CULTURE AND STERILISATION CULTURE Father of medical microbiology Exceptions to Koch’s postulates NOT true about Koch’s postulates Resolution provided by light microscope Magnification of electron microscope up to Ultraviolet source is used in Nutrient broth is Fastidious organisms are grown by McConkey’s agar medium is NOT a selective media A substance when added to culture causes inhibition of multiplication but on removal causes enhanced growth In patient with UTI CLED cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient media is preferred over McConkey media because pH of Sabroud’s dextrose agar adjusted to Intracellular Organisms can NOT be cultured in cell free medium Does NOT grow in cell free media Viable non cultivable is used for NOT a method of cultivation of viruses Organism cannot be cultured Robert Koch M. Formaldehyde. Pneumoystis jiroveci. Chlorine dioxide http://www. Isopropylalcohol. Treponema pallidum Chemically defined media Pneumocystis jiroveci.gonorrhea.00. Rickettisa. Chlamydia. Formaldehyde. leprae. bacteria Heating at 134*C for 5 hours. Rhinosporidium seeberi M.leprae. Rhinosporidium seeberi STERILISATION Asepsis means Process of destroying all microbes including spores NOT a complete sterilization Most resistant to antiseptics Decreasing order of resistance to sterilization Sterilization of prion Reliably used for hand washing Savlon contains Algae growth in water controlled by NOT true about Phenol Sporicidal agents Sporicidal Absence of pathogenic microbes Sterilization Sodium hypochlorite Prion Prions.coli (cannot be grown in cell free media also) Antibiotics cure the disease 200 nm 1. pallidum M. N.

by using filter of 5 mm pore size with 20 air changes and adequate ventilation. bacterial count can be reduced to NOT a best way to sterilize sputum Hospital waste are disposed by Best method to sterilize by dry heat Gamma radiation are used for sterilizing Irradiation NOT used to sterilize Autoclaving at 120*C for 15 mins Sporicidal Virucidal Denaturation and Protein coagulation 120 degree Celsius for 30 minutes 49-63 degree Celsius Bacillus stearothermophilus Bone graft.medpgnotes. formaldehyde is bactericidal. glutaraldehyde is sporicidal and NOT inactivated by organic matter. suture UV rays 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes Glutaraldehyde Ethylene oxide Ionising radiation Hot air oven 1/2500 solution of iodine Sodium hypochlorite Tyndallisation Dry heat Hot air oven Autoclaving Seitz filter Radiation Radiation Ethylene oxide gas Ethylene Oxide gas Formaldehyde gas 200 CFU/m3 Chlorhexidine Incineration Hot air oven Syringes Bronchoscope DISINFECTION Disinfectants Disinfectant destroys NOT true about disinfectants Rideal and walker coefficient is employed for Hypochlorites are bactericidal and inactivated by organic matter.com 10 .CULTURE AND STERILISATION MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Spores of bacteria are destroyed by Glutaraldehyde is Hypochlorites are Principle of autoclave Autoclaving is done at Operating temperature in a ethylene oxide sterilization during warm cycle Used as control during plasma gas sterilization Radiation can be used to sterilize Rays used for Cold sterilization Endoscope disinfected by Proctoscope is sterilized by Heat labile instruments such as plastic syringes sterilized by Plastic syringes are sterilized by Glassware and syringes sterilized by Lippe’s loop is sterilized by Infant feeding bottle is sterilized by Egg containing culture media are sterilized by Best method for sterilizing liquid paraffin Oil and grease are sterilized by Culture media sterilized by Vaccines are sterilized by Sterilization method for catgut suture Surgical instruments are sterilized by Heat labile instruments for use in surgical procedures can be best sterilized by Heart Lung machine is sterilized by Operation theatre is sterilized by In operation theatre. artificial tissue graft. sporicidal and virucidal All harmful microbes but not spores Phenol usually requires organic matter to act Germicidal power of disinfectant http://www.

BACTERIAL GENETICS

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES
assessment of
Standard against which disinfectants are measured
Disinfection of water by routine chlorination can be
classified as
Precurrent disinfection
Chlorine exerts disinfectant action in
Required amount of bleaching powder necessary to
disinfect choleric stools
Disinfection of sputum by
Disinfectant used for blood spills
Most powerful chemical disinfectant
Ethylene oxide is an
Disinfectant acting by causing plasma membrane
damage
Castellani’s paint for disinfecting skin
contains
Frequency of microwaves for disinfection
Sputum can NOT be disinfected by
NOT true about spaulding’s criteria
NOT an disinfectant
NOT a test to test the efficiency of disinfectant
Most likely cause of infection after
disinfection procedure that killed
vegetative cells but does not kill spores

Phenol
Precurrent disinfection
Hand washing, pasteurization of milk,
chlorination of water
Bleaching powder, Halozone tablets, Sodium
hypochlorite
50 gm/lit
Boiling, autoclaving, burning, cresol
Sodium hypochlorite
Lysol
Intermediate disinfectant
Ammonium compounds
Phenol, resorcinol, basic fuschin, boric
acid, acetone
2450 MHz
Chorhexidine
Semi critical items need low level disinfection
100% alcohol
Hugh Leifson test (to differentiate micrococci from
staphlococci)
Clostridia

BACTERIAL GENETICS
GENERAL FEATURES OF BACTERIA
Smallest size that can be seen by naked
eye
Smallest size that can be seen by light
microscope
Smallest size that can be seen by electron
microscope
Dye used in fluorescent microscopy
Total number of microbes
Rearing of animals under sterile conditions
Prokaryotic organism have
Prokaryotes refers to organism with
Prokaryotes are characterized by
Prokaryotes have
Prokaryotic counterpart of mitochondria

200 micron
0.3 micron
10^(-4) micron
Auramine
10^30
Gnotobiotics
DNA without Nucleus
Chromosome
Absence of nuclear membrane
DNA
Mesosomes

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BACTERIAL GENETICS

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES
Prokaryotic DNA differ from eukaryotic organism by
Muramic acid is present in
Steroids are present in
Doth DNA and RNA found in
Absent in bacteria
Bacteria lacks in
Bacterial flagella confers
Lophotrichous
Dark ground microscopy used to see
Peritrichous flagella
Peritrichous flagella is NOT seen in
Bacteria growing between 25 – 40 * C
Bacterial genome completely recognized for
Lyophilisation means
Bacteriocins are
Dipicolinic acid is found in
Few gram negative organisms inject toxin directly to host
target cells by means of complex set of proteins
Should NOT be refrigerated before primary inoculation
Gold standard for bacterial strain analysis

No complex with proteins
Prokarytoes
Eukaryotes
Bacteria
Mitochondria
Sterol
Specific antigenecity
Tuft of flagella at one pole
Flagella
E.coli, salmonella, proteus, listeria,
bacillus, clostridium
Vibrio cholera
Mesophilic
H.pylori
Preserving microorganisms
Antibiotic like substance produced by Coliform bacteria
Spores
Type III secretion (Salmonella, Yersinia, Pseudomonas)
CSF
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis

GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM NEGATIVE ORGANISMS
GRAM POSITIVE
2 layers (inner cytoplasmic membrane,
outer thick peptidoglycan)
Low lipid
No endotoxin except listeria
monocytogenes
Teichoic acid

Associated with protein F

GRAM NEGATIVE
3 layers (inner cytoplasmic membrane,
thin peptidoglycan, LPS)
High lipid
Endotoxin
Aromatic aminoacids, indole ring (eg.
Cholera), periplasmic space, porin channel,
resistant to penicillin and lysozyme attack
Associated with Pili, Fimbriae

LIGAND AND HOST RECEPTORS FOR MICROORGANISMS
P. falciparum
P. vivax
E. histolytica
Influenza
Mealses
HSV

ORGANISM

LIGAND
Erythrocyte binding protein – 175
Merozoite
Surface lectin
Hemagglutin
Hemagglutin
Glycoprotein C

HOST RECEPTOR
Glycophorin A
Duffy antigen
N – acetyl glucosamine
Sialic acid (N – acetylneuramic acid)
CD 46/mosein
Heparin sulphate

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BACTERIAL GENETICS

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES

MULTIPLICATION OF BACTERIA
Phase of bacterial growth during which growth rate of
bacteria is constant
Sporulation occurs in
Sporulation does NOT occur in
A bacterium can divide every 20 minutes. how many
bacteria will be there if there is exponential growth for
3 hours
Substance when added to a culture causes inhibiton of
multiplication but on removal enhanced growth
Area of Lysis produced by Bacterial Lawn Culture
True about bacteriophage
Lambda phage

Lytic phase of bacteriophage is an
example for
NOT true about lambda phage
Bacteriophage is
Bacteriophage replication occurs through

Stationary phase
Stationary phase
Live organisms
512
Bactericidal
Plaque
It imparts toxigenicity to bacteria
In lysogenic phase it fuses with host chromosome and
remain dormant, in lytic phase it fuses with host
chromosome and replicates, in lytic phase it cause cell
lysis and releases virus particles
Type C response
Lytic and lysogenic phase occur together
Virus that invade bacteria
Transduction

BACTERIAL RESISTANCE
Bacteria may acquire characteristics by
Antibiotic resistance

Bacterial drug resistance in tuberculosis is via
MDR acts by
Tranferable resistance
F factor integrates with bacterial chromosome to form
Ability to form or grow in multicellular masses
Phenomenon responsible for antibiotic resistance in
bacteria due to slime production
Bacteria can NOT acquire characteristics by
NOT true about antibiotic resistance
Not used to introduce genome into the bacteria
NOT true about Bacteriophage
Does NOT transfer drug resistance
Organ of attachment of bacteria

Taking up soluble DNA fragments across their cell wall,
through bacteriophage, through conjugation
MC mechanism is production of neutralizing enzymes
by bacteria, Complete elimination of target is the
mechanisms by which enterococci develop resistance to
vancomycin, Alteration of target lesions lead to
development of resistance in pneumococci, Drug
resistance commonly acquired horizontally
Mutation
Cause efflux of drug
High degree of resistance, Involves resistance to
multiple drug, Plasmids play a role
Hfr
Biofilm
Biofilm formation
Incorporating part of host DNA
Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance is always
transmitted vertically
FISH
It transfers only by chromosomal gene
Hfr
Fimbriae

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mediate drug resistance. Imparts capsule and pili formation. doxorubicin. Q fever. DNA transmitted by vector belongs to Plasmid Plasmid Drug resistance most commonly transmitted by Plasmid is responsible for NOT true regarding plasmid Process of host gene transfer through F factor E strip method is used for Fimbriae Pili Staphylococcus aureus.Plasmid Drug resistance Extrachromosomal Sexduction Minimum inhibitory concentration BIOTERRORISM AND VESICANTS Category A bioterrorism agents Category B bioterrorism agents Category C bioterrorism agents Strain used in anthrax bioterrorism Vesicants Vesicants Treatment of mechlorethamine induced vesicles Anthrax. SARS and emerging infections Ames strain Mustard. pneumococcus Transduction Bacteria Transferred by conjugation. viral encephalitis. Straphylococcal enterotoxin B. plague. Vibrio cholera. water safety threat Nipah. Melidiosis. Shigella dysenteriae Salmonella Streptococci Transposons Transposons Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Bacteriophage Transformation Bacillus. Epsilon of clostridium perfringens. hemophilus. Eliminated by heating with radiation. phosgene oxime Thiosulphate http://www. Typhus fever. viral hemorrhagic fever Brucellosis. Transmission of different species.BACTERIAL GENETICS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Surface appendage of bacteria function as organ of adhesion Organ of bacterial adherence Phage typing is used as an epidemiological tool for Phage typing is NOT useful in Phage typing NOT used as an epidemiological tool in Segment of DNA between chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA molecules within the cell Jumping gene Horizontal transfer of R factor occurs from one bacteria to other Multidrug resistance is transmitted through Transmitted through pili Conjugation does NOT involve Free DNA across cell membrane transferred by Transformation is seen in Virus mediated transfer of host DNA from one cell to another is known as In transduction. Glanders (Burkholderia mallei). food safety threat.com 14 . Botulism. Ricinus communis. determine pili production Involved in conjugation and multidrug resistance transfer. Psittacosis. Can cause lysogenic conversion R. tularemia. vincristine. Hanta. lewisite. BAL.medpgnotes. small pox. phosgene Mechlorethamine.

Isospora. Yersinia pestis. eggs of tenia saginata. decolorisation. mucopeptide Abscess formation Adhesion. pseudomonas mallei. Campylobacter jejuni Polysaccharide. staphylococci. rhodococcus Hemophilus ducreyi. lipids Formation of phagolysosome Spherical Can NOT be eradicated by antimicrobial agents Established only after neonatal period Bacterial Disease Aromatic amino acids Crystal violet. Nocardia. Cryptococci Pneumococcus. Spirochete (Transverse fission. Complex fission) Muramic acid.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Treatment of vincristine induced vesicles Hyaluronidase BACTERIOLOGY GENERAL FEATURES OF BACTERIA Bacteria Bacteria does NOT divide by binary fission Bacterial cell wall is composed of Zwitter ionic pattern of capsular polysaccharide is responsible for Responsible for inherent virulence of organism Bacteria survive intracellularly by inhibiting Shape of Cocci Normal microbial flora Normal bacterial flora Pharyngoscleroma is a Difference between gram positive and gram negative organisms is that gram negative organisms contain Steps in gram staining Gram’s stain is NOT useful in diagnosing Which is NOT present in gram negative bacteria NOT gram negative Acid fast organisms Acid fast organisms Bipolar staining Craige’s tube differentiates Non motile organism Darting motility Stain not taken by capsule if it contains Capsulated organism Polysaccharide capsule related antigen antibody responses present in Pigment produced by serratia Safety pin appearance Organism arranged in cubical pocket of eight cocci Bacteremia is associated with Mitochondria always absent. capsule. iodine.cholera. protein Klebsiella. Hemophilus influenza Prodigiosin Chlamydia. campylobacter granulomatis Motile and non motile Klebsiella V. E.coli http://www. Cyclospora Legionella. Spores. Divide by binary fission Chlamydia.medpgnotes. head of sperm. Cryptosporidium. Meningococcus. pseudomonas pseudomallei. safranin Streptococcal pharyngitis Teichoic acid Acinetobacter Mycobacteria. glucosamine. hemophilus ducreyi Sarcina Pneumococci.com 15 .

by both gram positive and gram negative organisms Heat stable Lipopolysaccharide Cholera Proteus. Vibrio cholera cAMP cGMP (exception S. ST of ETEC. necrotizing fasciitis Red fluorescence when exposed to UV light Shock and DIC Penicillin Metronidazole Anaerobic bacterial synergistic gangrene Pyoderma gangrenosum.cereus Longer incubation period Staphylococcus enterotoxin. Clostridium botulinum toxin Heat labile Bacillus cereus. E. peroxidase (POD) and catalase present SOD. POD. NOT uniformly sensitive to metronidazole. peritonitis. Shigella toxin. Exotoxin A of pseudomonas Vibrio cholera O1. Heat labile E. acne.aureus. emetic type of B.Coli. emetic type of bacillus cereus. catalse negative Two enzymes present.com 16 . Yersinis enterocolitica.aureus – vagal action) S. Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus http://www.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Toxins inhibiting protein synthesis Toxins mediated by cAMP Heat stable E. Bacteroides Frequent anaerobe isolated from clinical samples. one absent One enzyme present.medpgnotes. Yersinia enterocolitic toxin. Vibrio cholera O137.coli. coli toxin is mediated by Heat labile toxin is mediated by Obligate aerobe Obligate anaerobe Facultative anerobe Facultative aerobe Ratio of anaerobe to aerobe in stool Anaerobes grow in Obligatory anerobes Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides may cause Bacteroides cause Bacteroides melaninogenica is associated with Bacteremia due to bacteroides fragilis do NOT cause NOT useful in anaerobic infection Drug of choice for bacteroides infection Meleney gangrene PAPA Exotoxins are Exotoxin NOT true about exotoxins Endotoxin from gram negative organism Gram negative bacteria without endotoxin Act by increasing c-AMP level Heat labile toxin is associated with Heat stable toxin is associated with Preformed toxin is important in food poisoning due to Preformed toxin Heat stable enterotoxin Diarrhea type of Bacillus cereus Heat stable enterotoxin causing food poisoning produced by Food poisoning with shortest incubation period Verotoxin of E. enterotoxin of klebsiella pneumonia. LPS formed by bacteroides fragilis is structurally and functionally different from conventional endotoxin Gram negative anaerobic non sporing bacillus Peritonitis Carbuncle. septic pyogenic arthritis Highly antigenic Heat labile. Clostridium botulism. coli toxin cGMP cAMP Superoxide dismutase (SOD). two absent 1000:1 CDC anerobic blood agar Clostridium botulinum.

resistant. Chlamydia. coagulase positive. Leptospira canicola. chlamydia Clostridium perfringens. methicillin resistance in staphylococcus aureus in independent of beta lactamase production Gram positive.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Stool examination is required for diagnosis of infection with Pus cell in diarrhea seen in Microorganisms invading GIT causing gasteroenteritis Biosafety precaution grade III is followed in Organism known to survive intracellularly Intracellular organisms Obligatory intracellular Obligate intracellular parasites Rhabdomyolysis is associated with F fever Sodoku Rat bite fever is caused by Rat bite fever is caused by Haverhill fever is caused by Strongly urease positive Urease positive bacteria Ureaplama urealyticum Acinetobacter baumannii Superinfection is common with Treatment for aeromonas infection Treatment for chrysobacterium infection Staphylococcal food poisoning. Enterobius vermicularis Shigella. klebsiella. Mycobacterium tuberculosis N. Clostridium tetani Spirillium minus. Salmonella Human influenza virus. bacterial vaginosis Combat related infection in Iraq and Afghanistan. staphylococci Non gonococcal urethritis. Campylobacter. Shigella. pathogenicity is indicated by coagulase positivity Coagulase Staphylococcus aureus http://www.pylori > Proteus Proteus.meningitits. blood agar.medpgnotes. Streptococcus. rickettsia Chlamydia Prions. Campylobacter. carbopenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is treated with colistin and polymyxin Immunocompromised host Ciprofloxacin Fluoroquinolones FEATURES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococci Staphylococcus Important virulent factor in staphylococcus aureus Abnormal neutrophil function is 30% of population is healthy nasal carriers. rickettsia. streptobacillus moniliformis Spirillum infection Spirillum minus Streptobacillus moniliformis Streptobaciilus moniliformis H. Coxiella burnetti. Clostridia. beta lactamase production in staphylococci is under plasmid control. campylobacter Shigella. epididymitis. clear zone of hemolysis. Vibrio parahemolyticus. treated with sulbactam. methicillin resistance is chromosomally mediated Majority of infection caused by coagulase negative staphylococci are due to staphylococcus epidermidis. legionella pneumophilia Virus. virus. Salmonella typhi.com 17 . epidermolysin and TSS toxin are superantigens.

medpgnotes. Teichoplanin.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES associated with recurrent infections caused by Antibody marker in serum for staphylococcal endocarditis Staphylococcus remains in skin for longer period because of MC human staphylococcus aureus infection is due to capsular subtype MC mechanism of drug resistance in Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus differs from staphylococci epidermidis by Differentiation of staphylococcus aureus from other staphylococci Protein A is the component of cell wall of NOT true about Staphylococcus aureus NOT true about staphylococcus Methicillin resistance Methicillin resistant bacteria are Resistance in MRSA is produced by Methicillin resistance by Staphylococci is expressed when incubated at MRSA resistance MRSA resistance primarily mediated by Infections caused by community acquired MRSA Streptococcal gangrene is same as Drug of choice for MRSA Drug of choice for MRSA Drug of choice for MRSA Useful for MRSA MRSA infection in ward. Purpura fulminans Necrotizing fasciitis Vancomycin. Linezolid Quinupristin/dalfopristin. sepsis with Waterhouse Friedrichson syndrome. necrotizing pneumonia. Best way to control infection Drug of choice for MRSA MRSA NOT expected to respond to NOT used for MRSA Antiteichoic acid Hyaluronidase 5.8 Transduction S. Ciproflaxacin. catalase positive and coagulase negative MC gram positive cause of UTI among sexually active women Gram positive cocci Coagulase positive Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus saphrophyticus cause UTI in female.com 18 . expression of resistance is enhanced by incubating at 37*C during susceptibility testing Chromosomal MecA gene Necrotizing fasciitis. micrococci are oxidase positive. Teicoplanin Teicoplanin Cotrimoxazole. gram positive cocci. Linezolid.aureus is coagulase positive Coagulase test Staphylococci Most common source of infection is by cross infection from infected patients Catalase negative Chromosomally mediated Staphylococcus Alteration in penicillin binding protein (MeCA gene) 30 degree Celsius Resistance may be produced because of hyperproduction of beta lactamase. Vancomycin Vancomycin given empirically to all patients Glycopeptides Carbapenem Cefaclor SPECIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS Staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis by ICU on CVP line. pneumococci are capsulated http://www.

Staphylococcus epidermidis DISEASES CAUSED BY STAPHYLOCOCCUS Oppurtunistic infection most commonly seen in children with neutropenia MC cause of surgical wound infections MC caue of pyopneumothorax and pyopericarditis in infants Botryomycosis is caused by Pedal botyromycosis is caused by Staphylococci can cause Pyomyositis is caused by Postoperative parotitis is caused by Lymphangitis is caused by Common cause of acute borne infections Ritter’s disease is caused by A boil in staphylococcal infection of Carbuncle caused by Carbuncle are common in Carbuncle is treated by MC cause of epidural abscess MC cause of sepsis in India within 2 months Right sided endocarditis in IV drug abusers MC cause of primary bacterial infection MC cause of endocarditis in prosthetic valve replacement within one year MC catheter induced blood infection due to Non coagulase staphylococci Toxic shock syndrome is due to Toxic shock syndrome is caused by Toxic shock syndrome caused by Toxic shock syndrome is associated with Toxic shock syndrome is mainly caused by Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Furuncle. Panton valentine toxin Necrotizing fascitis Furunculosis Beta hemolysin Enterotoxin B and Enterotoxin C (heat stable) Exfoliative toxin http://www.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Novobiocin susceptible staphylococci Staphylococcus hemolyticus.medpgnotes. sycosis barbae Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Hair follicle Staphylococcus Lower neck Incision and drainage Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase positive staphylococci aureus Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase negative staphylococci Coagulase negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus epidermidis) Coagulase negative staphylococci Infect indwelling prosthesis Forgotten tampon Clostridium sordelli (endometrium) Infected measles vaccine Large amount IL-2 Staphylococci TOXINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS Superantigens Staphylococcus infection spreads by Synergohymenotrophic toxin of staphylococci consists of Panton valentine leucocidin toxin is associated with Panton valentine (leucocidin) toxin is associated with Hot cold phenomenon in staphylococcus is due to Staphlococcal toxic shock syndrome is due to Ritter’s syndrome is caused by Epidermolysin.com 19 . TSS toxin Hyaluronidase Gamma toxin.

Sore throat culture also revealed beta hemolysis.G is based on Streptococcus pyogenes with type 12 M protein cause Micrococci are A child had a skin infection.B.D.C.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Toxin responsible for SSSS NOT a toxin of staphylococcus Exfoliative toxin Erythrogenic toxin STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING Staphylococcal food poisoning Incubation period of Staphylococcal food Poisoning Staphylococcus in stool occurs in Food poisoning within 6 hours of intake of milk is caused by Vomiting and diarrhea within few hours after taking food MC cause of food poisoning Gastroenteritis 4 to 6 hours after consumption of food Mechanism of vomiting in Staphylococcal food poisoning NOT true about staphylococcal food poisoning NOT true about staphylococcal food poisoning Optimal temperature for formation of toxin 37* C. a catalase negative organism was isolated which showed haemolysis andwas sensitive to bacitracin.com 20 . The correct statement is Boy with skin ulcer on leg reveals beta hemolysis. incubation period 1-6 hours 1-6 hours Staphylococcal food poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Vagal stimulation Fever common Toxins can be destroyed by boiling for 30 minutes FEATURES OF STREPTOCOCCUS Differentiation of streptococci from staphylococci Streptococci Streptococci Lancefield group of streptococci is done using Lancefield group A contains PYR positive Lancefield classification based on Streptococcus pyogenes is classified on the basis of Mainly responsible for virulence in streptococci Nephritogenic strain of Streptococci identified by Classification of pathogenic streptococci into group A. Similarity is Infective skin lesions of leg in infants. gram positive Catalase test M protein responsible for virulence. mucoid colonies are virulent. Streptolysin O is active in reduced state (oxygen labile) Group C carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus pyogenes alone Enterococcus. no resistance to penicillin has been reported Streptodornase cleaves DNA. Another doctor isolated a similar organism from the throat of the child. streptococcus pyogenes Carbohydrate antigen M protein M protein M typing Antigenicity of cell wall carbohydrate Soft tissue infection resembling TSS of Staphylococcus Oxidase positive Skin infection by group D C carbohydrate antigen is same Bacitracin sensitivity http://www. intradietetic toxins are responsible for intestinal symptoms.medpgnotes.

negative bile solubility. resistance to bacitracin and positive CAMP test.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES chain cocci. negative inulin fermentation. hydrolyse hippurate In the absence of a specific antibody. Most likely organism Causative organism of late prosthetic valve endocarditis Features of streptococcus viridans Streptococcus causing dental caries Bacteria causing neonatal meningitis. phagocyte recognition and killing do not proceed normally Group B streptococcus Bacitracin sensitivity Specific for S. pneumococci Streptococcus viridians Streptococcus viridans Negative quellung test. shows beta hemolysis. Test identifying organism Differentiation of group A streptococci from other beta hemolytic streptococci Component of streptococci pyogenes having cross reactivity with synovium of human Mucoid colonies Function of adherence factor for colonization of mucous membrane Mucoid colonies are due to production of Antistreptolysin titre Streptokinase is produced from NOT true about streptococcus Transport medium for streptococci Bacitracin test Capsular hyaluronic acid Virulent but M protein is NOT responsible for production of mucoid colonies Lipoteichoic acid of streptococcus pyogenes Capsule of hyaluronic acid Low in acute glomerulonephritis Serotype A. bacitracin resistance.agalactiae Alpha hemolytic Group B streptococcus CAMP factor Cause neonatal meningitis. Meningitis acquired through birth canal is due to Child presents with sepsis. intraperitoneal inoculation in mice is non pathogenic Streptococcus mutans Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae S. hemolytic colonies. Streptococcus pneumonia is MC cause of meningitis in 1 year old child Group B streptococcus produce Group B streptococcus Pathogenesis of group B streptococcal disease in neonate Does not affect fetus by transplacental spread To show identified organ group A streptococci Bacitracin sensitivity Enterococci and non enterococci belong to Streptococcus bovis grows in Longest streptococcal chain Viridans group.com 21 .K Pyrogenic toxin A is plasmid mediated Pike’s media SPECIES OF STREPTOCOCCUS Streptococci with no lancefield antigen classification A patient with RHD developed infective endocarditis after dental extraction.medpgnotes. Beta hemolysis on blood agar. opsonization. CAMP positive.C. pyogenes Group D streptococci 40% bile Streptococcus salivarius http://www.

com 22 . salivarius DISEASES CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS Causative agent of subacute bacterial endocarditis is cultured in MC cause of Subacute bacterial endocarditis MC organism causing cellulitis Streptococcus pyogenes Impetigo contagiosa is caused by Necrotizing fasciitis Erysipelas is caused by Erysipelas Primary pyomyositis is caused by Erythema marginatum can be caused by Millian sign NOT true about erysipelas Group A Streptococcus does NOT cause Group B cause Group D cause MC agent responsible for human bite infections Infection caused by anaerobic gram positive cocci Chronic burrowing ulcer Drug of choice for sore throat caused by group A beta hemolytic streptococci Used in prophylaxis of streptococcal sore throat Treatment of streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis Blood agar Streptococci Streptococcus pyogenes Bacitracin sensitive Group A beta hemolytic streptococci Infection of fascia and subcutaneous tissue.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES NOT a medically important streptococci S. surgical debridement is mandatory Beta hemolytic Streptococci Peu de orange texture Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pyogenes Erysipelas Contagious and infectious. Erythrogenic toxin.medpgnotes.pyogenes Toxin of streptococcus causing hemolysis Toxin involved in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is due to Antigenically similar to Streptolysin O Streptolysin O is inactivated by Post streptococcal infection is best diagnosed by Serological marker for retrospective diagnosis of infection due to streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcal glomerulonephritis is best diagnosed by Enterotoxin is NOT produced by Streptolysin O. penicillin. Common in tropics Epidermolysis bullosa Neonatal meningitis UTI Anerobic streptococci Puerperal infection Microaerophilic streptococci Penicillin Injection benzathine penicillin Debridement. MC group A beta hemolytic streptococci. Tetanolysin Oxygen Streptozyme test Anti DNAase antibody Anti-DNAase. clindamycin TOXINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS Toxin produced by S. Anti-hyaluronidase Streptococcus pyogenes http://www. Hyaluronidase Streptolysin S Pyrogenic exotoxin M protein Clostridium perfringens toxin.

Bile ascenlin hydrolysis is positive Treatment of enterococcus infection Drugs approved for vancomycin resistant enterococci Enterococcus resistance Common species are enterococcus fecalis and enterococcus faecium. central venous line 1 week. ceftazidime and amikacin. cause for peritonitis. Quinopristin/Dalfopristin Chromosomally mediated PNEUMOCOCCUS Discovery of gene transformation come from study of Most virulent type of pneumococci Pneumococcus Pneumococci Streptococci pneumonia Streptococcus pneumonia Enolase binds to Streptococcus pneumonia Type 3 Capsule aids in virulence. gentamycin. cause for intrabdominal abscess Enterococcus Enterococcus fecalis Enterococcus fecalis Enterococcus fecalis Ampicillin Linezolid. Vancomycin.5% NaCl.5% NaCl and arginine. respiratory tract carriers are most common source of infection Pneumolysin is a thiol activated toxin. greenish color on blood agar due to reduction of iron in hemoglobin Fibronectin http://www.com 23 . blood culture positive for gram positive cocci in chains catalase negative. Anticapsular antibodies are serotype specific Bile insoluble and optochin sensitive Alpha hemolytic. Vancomycin started culture remained positive even after 10 days of therapy Organism when isolated in blood require synergistic activity of penicillin plus an aminoglycoside for appropriate therapy Intrabdominal abscess. growth in 6. Grows well in presence of 6. ampicilin resistant.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CROSS SENSITIVITY OF STREPTOCOCCAL ANTIGEN Capsular hyaluronic acid Group A carbohydrate antigen Cytoplasmic membrane antigen Cell wall protein Peptidoglycan Synovial fluid Cardiac valves Vascular intima Myocardium Skin antigen ENTEROCOCCUS Enterococcus Beta hemolytic bacteria resistant to vancomycin. exerts a variety of events on ciliary and PMN’s action. commonest cause of otitis media.medpgnotes. Non bile sensitive ICU. Spike of fever. Autolysin can contribute to pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease by lysing bacteria.

gram positive cocci Austrian syndrome Differentiation of pneumococci from other alpha hemolytic streptococci High grade fever respiratory distress at the time of presentation.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Griffith demonstrated biotransformation with Property demonstrated by Griffith with experiments on mice using Pneumococcus Virulence in pneumococci due to Thiol activated toxin Orbital cellulitis. non capsulated. Caused by Streptococcus pneumonia Optochin test Optochin Bile solubility Gram positive cocci in pairs.com 24 . catalase negative bile soluble Pneumococci Capsular swelling (Pneumococcus) Pneumococcal Streptococcus pneumonia Virulence of pneumococci depend only on production of capsular polysachharides Catalase positive Pneumococcal vaccine GENERAL FEATURES OF NEISSERIA Neisseria is a Most abundant gonococcal surface protein Type IV pili is associated with Differentiation between Neisseria gonorrhea and Neisseria meningitides by Complement deficiency associated with Neisseria Thayer Martin Media for Gas liquid chromatography NOT true about neisseria Gram negative cocci Porin Neisseria Maltose fermentation C5-C9 (late complement) Neisseria Neisseria All strains are highly sensitive to penicillin NEISSERIA GONORRHOEA Features of Neisseria gonorrhea Kidney shaped. ferment glucose only http://www. gram positive cocci. Blood agar positive result. chest pain. Gram positive cocci. greenish colonies and Optochin sensitivity 8 year old child. cough with sputum. pain and discharge from ear. Alpha hemolytic colonies. pneumonia and endocarditis. differentiate this from other gram positive cocci Sputum of 70 years old male cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. fever. susceptible to 65 year male. fever neck rigidity and positive Kernig’s sign.medpgnotes. alpha hemolytic colonies next day Draughtsman colonies Quellung phenomenon is due to MC infection after splenectomy MC cause of pyogenic meningitis in 6 months to 2 years of age NOT true about pneumococci NOT true about pneumococci Prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV Pneumococcus Transformation Capsular polysachharide Pneumolysin Pneumococcus Pneumococcus Triad of meningitis.

ferments both glucose and maltose Neisseria meningitides Nasopharynx CD46 Endotoxin Schwartzmann reaction IgA1 protease Plasmid Neisseria meningitis Carriers Neisseria meningitides Neisseria meningitides Hypovolemic shock Penicillin.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Neisseria gonorrhea Kidney shaped organism Virulence factor of Neisseria gonorrhea include IgA1 protease is associated with Opacity associated protein is associated with Most abundant gonococcal surface protein Neisseria gonorrhea ferments Incubation period of Gonorrhoea Watercan perineum caused by NOT a virulence factor for Neisseria gonorrhea NOT true about Neisseria gonorrhea NOT a metastatic complication of gonococci Diagnosis of gonorrhea established by Gonorrhea can be diagnosed by Treatment of penicillinase producing neisseria gonorrhea Gonorrhea shows QRNG means Exclusive human pathogen. IgA1 protease Pneumococci. capsulated. Most patients present with symptoms of dysuria Gonococci Outer membrane protein. red spot on applying BP cuff Source of infection in menigococcus is mainly MC cause of meningitides in children NOT a cause of neonatal meningitis Death from meningococcal disease is due to Prophylaxis of meningococcal infection Meningococcal meningitis Treatment of meningococcal infection Lens shaped. Cefotaxime Marked resistance to multidrug therapy Quinolone resistant Neisseria gonococci NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS Features of Neisseria meningitides Intracellular gram negative diplococci Only reservoir meningococci Protein expressed in choroid plexus of meningeal epithelium for binding of meningococcal endotoxin Skin reaction in meningococcal meningitis is due to Subcutaneous injection of gram negative organism evokes hemorrhagic reaction after 24 hours. Some strains may cause disseminated disease. sulfonamide. Pili. Vaccine is not effective in children below 2 years Cephalosporin http://www. neisseria Neisseria gonorrhoea Porin Glucose only 2-8 days Neisseria gonorrhea M protein Highly sensitive to penicillin Nephritis Complement fixation tests Pili agglutination test Ciprofloxacin. On intravenous injection of same give rise to Neisseria meningitides is associated with NOT found in meningococci Female with fever.com 25 . rifampicin Disease is more common in dry and cold months.medpgnotes. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts of cases is recommended. Acute urethritis is the most common manifestation in males.

Cl. Gamma – hyaluronidase. necrotizing enterocolitis. non motile.perfringens produce heat resistant spores Most important toxin is hyaluronidase Clostridium perfringens Lecithinase Clostridium perfringens Lecithinase http://www. necrotizing. hemolytic. metronidazole CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS Non motile clostridia Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens Clostridium welchii Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin of clostridium perfringens Food poisoning in Clostridium perfringens NOT true about clostridium perfringens NOT true about clostridium perfringens and gas gangrene NOT motile Opacity around colonies of clostridium perfringes Nagler reaction is shown by Nagler’s reaction is due to Clostridium perfringens Commonest cause of gas gangrene. Delta . C.tetanomorphum. Cl. clostridium cochleum Clostridium novyi Clostridium Alpha – lethal. cl. Gas is invariably present in muscle compartment Found in intestinal tract of some healthy patients Capsulated. Gas gangrene producing spores are NOT heat resistant.botulinium.com 26 . Cl. Principal toxin is alpha toxin. type A causes gastroenteritis A – food poisoning.sordelli Subterminal spores cl. Normally present in human feces. Beta – DNAase. W135 Group B meningococci GENERAL FEATURES OF CLOSTRIDIA Sacchrolytic clostridium Sub terminal spores Clostridium novyi Drum stick appearance Oval bulging terminal spore Tennis racket spores Gas in tissue should be differentiated with Post abortal sepsis causing renal failure is likely due to Toxins of Clostridium septicum Citron bodies Septicemic orchitis is caused by Management of clostridium tertium Cl. Food poisoning producing spores are heat resistant.sphenoids Cl. theta toxin perfringolysin Liberation of phosphoryl choline from lecithin and hemolysis Stimulating calcium dependent alteration in permeability Gas gangrene producing strains of C.tetani.septicoysin Clostridium septicum Clostridium tertium Vancomycin. C – enteritis necroticans. B and D – epsilon toxin.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal meningitis carrier Vaccine against Neisseria meningitides contain Meningococcal vaccines are available for Vaccine NOT available for Rifampicin Capsular polysaccharide A.tertium Clostridium difficle. Welchi. cl. Septicum Cl. Y.medpgnotes. clostridium tertium.sporogenes.

Penicillin. Cl. cl. NO man to man transmission Aerobic.com 27 . Gram positive.fallax Alpha toxin.histolyticum.septicum.perfringes.medpgnotes.novyi. Produce heat resistant spores. Surgical debridement Clindamycin CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani Spherical and terminal bulging spore are seen in Swarming growth of gram positive bacilli Non flagellated Clostridium tetani NOT true regarding clostridium tetani Gram positive. Variable incubation period First symptom to spasm Delayed None http://www. Cl.perfringens Necrotizing enteritis Clostridium perfringes MC site is perineum Clostridium welchi GAS GANGRENE Gas gangrene is caused by Toxins responsible for gas gangrene Clostridium perfringes causes Not a cause of Gas gangrene Gas gangrene is NOT caused by Incubation period of clostridium septicum gas gangrene Incubation period of clostridium novyi gas gangrene Foaming liver Hyperbaric oxygen is used in Best way to prevent gas gangrene Hypotension in case of gas gangrene is treated by Treatment of gas gangrene after contaminated road traffic accident Treatment of gas gangrene Cl.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Gastrointestinal enteritis necroticans caused by Pigbel is Vomiting and diarrhea 6-10 hours after party NOT true about necrotizing fasciitis Administration of immunoglobulins is life saving in Cl. Cl. theta toxin Gas gangrene Clostridium difficle Clostridium sporogenes 1-3 days 4-6 days Gas gangrene Gas gangrene Proper wound debridement Ringer lactate IV administration of anti gas gangrene serum. Motile Swarming growth Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani Type 6 Seen commonly in winter and dry season GENERAL FEATURES OF TETANUS Cause of Localised tetanus Tetanus is noticed usually in Tetanus is due to Tetanus Period of tetanus refers to time between If incubation period of tetanus is more than 30 days Communicable period in tetanus Incomplete immunity Wounds contaminated with fecal matter Exotoxin bound to motor end plate Spread through nerve.

com 28 . Anxious expression. again to deliver within 11 months.medpgnotes. full course of tetanus immunization. clean non penetrating wound sustained 2 hours before Pregnant women. umbilical sepsis. TT2 injection coverage in pregnant mothers > 90% MANAGEMENT OF TETANUS Drug used for tetanus Metronidazole PREVENTION OF TETANUS Vaccine preventable neonatal disease Vaccine routinely indicated in pregnancy Maternal antibody does NOT protect neonate from Tetanus Immunization 10 years age. Best approach regarding tetanus immunization in this case would be Previously unimmunized against tetanus. she will require No of tetanus toxoid injection to vaccinate all pregnant woman in one year in a village with population of 1000 with birth rate of 30/1000 in one year A full course of immunization against tetanus with 3 doses of toxoid confers immunity for Booster dose of tetanus should be given every Neonatal tetanus best prevented by Most effective way of PREVENTING tetanus NOT done to prevent tetanus NOT a strategy for prevention of neonatal tetanus Dose of human tetanus Immunoglobulin for post exposure prophylaxis Best preventive measure against Tetanus Neonatorum Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus TT and Ig both may be given in suspected cases Single dose of tetanus toxoid Give a dose of tetanus toxoid and explain to her that it will not protect the newborn and she should take second dose after 4 weeks even if she delivers in the meantime Tetanus toxoid complete course 0 doses of TT 60 10 years 5 years Toxoid to mother Tetanus toxoid Injection penicillin to all neonates Giving penicillin to newborn 250 units Active immunization of mother http://www. suckling difficulty. generalized stiffness NOT true regarding tetanus NOT true about tetanus Diagnosis of tetanus is made Indicators of elimination of neonatal tetanus includes Presynaptic terminal of spinal cord Sleeplessness.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Main site of action of tetanus toxin Premonitary symptoms of tetanus Sardonic grin Risus sardonicus 8 day old extensor posture 3 day old excessive cry. She has not any antenatal care till now. Headache Tetanus Tetanus Neonatal tetanus Neonatal tetanus Man to man transmission Neonatal tetanus develops after passage through contaminated birth canal Clinically Incidence rate < 0.1/1000 live births. presents with clean wound without laceration A 37 weeks pregnant woman attends an antenatal clinic at a primary health centre.

5 hours ago Active immunity offered by tetanus toxoid is effective nearly Administration of Tetanus antitoxin serum Neonatal tetanus is said to be eliminated when the rate is Human tetanus globulin and single dose of toxoid 100% of patients Neutralizes toxin < 0. No fever.1 per 1000 CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM Cl. static and dynamic wrinkles. constipation. Clear sensorium. F Type G (enterotoxic) Clostridium botulism Clostridium botulinium Clostridia Clostridia Closure of ca++ channels at presynaptic membrane Botulinium toxin Phage mediated Inhibiting release of acetylcholine BOTULISM Botulism Botulism Botulinum affects Feature of botulism Feature of Botulism Infant botulism is caused by Type of paralysis in botulism Botulinium toxin Most Powerful exotoxin Botulinium toxin acts by Mechanism of action of botulism toxin Non Neurotic toxin of Botulism Gene for botulism toxin is coded by Caused by Exotoxin. Detection of antitoxin in serum can aid in diagnosis Symmetric descending flaccid paralysis Neuromuscular junction.com 29 .botulinium causing human disease Botulinium causing human disease Non neurotoxic type of clostridium botulinium Contaminant in home canned vegetables and smoked fish Food poisoning associated with constipation instead of diarrhea Food poisoning in canned food is due to Paralytic food poisoning is caused by Botulinum toxin acts by Most potent biological toxin Botulinum toxin is Botulinum toxin produce skeletal muscle paralysis by A (severe). Honey ingestion can cause infant botulism. clean wound without any laceration injury sustained 2. Invariably decreased Ach in Neuromuscular junction Botulinium toxin Inhibiting release of acetylcholine Complete failure of all cholinergic neurotransmission D Bacteriophage http://www. B.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Complete immunization against tetanus 10 years ago. E A. Constipation is seen. C. B.medpgnotes. preganglionic junction. Exaggerated tendon reflexes Ingestion of spores Descending paralysis Effective for 3-4 months. Cranial nerve palsy Diplopia. Used in treatment of Blepharospasm. postganglionic nerves Afebrile.

cytotoxic test.com 30 . PCR for C. treated by vancomycin Gram positive bacillus Antibiotic colitis Small ulceration with slough Pseudomembranous colitis Stool culture Cell culture.difficle toxin B gene Vancomycin Metronidazole 10 days GENERAL FEATURES OF CORYNEBACTERIUM Ehrlich phenomenon is seen in Multidrug resistant Corynebacterium responding only to Vancomycin Erythrasma is caused by Corynebacterium Corynebacterium jeikeium Corynebacterium miniutissimum http://www. increase in proportion of hospital stay Clindamycin Clindamycin Ampicillin Clostridium difficle Normal commensal of gut Toxin A (Enterotoxin). blurring of vision. pantoprazole. areflexia.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES 18 year old male. Toxin B (Cytotoxin) Organism is normal commensal of gut. acute onset of descending paralysis 3 days duration. both pupils NON reactive In a 6 months old baby.medpgnotes. rectal thermometer. quadriparesis. floppy infant syndrome is seen commonly due to infection with Disease not associated with antitoxin antibodies in serum of recovering patients MC cause of death in Untreated Botulism Best sample for clostridium botulinium food poisoning NOT a feature of botulism NOT true about botulism NOT a differential diagnosis of Botulism NOT true about botulism Botulism Clostridium botulinum Botulism Respiratory Failure Stool Diarrhea Ascending paralysis Clostridial myonecrosis Infant botulism is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICLE AND PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS Clostridium difficle infection is associated with Commonly associated with clostridium difficle colitis Antibiotic induced colitis Pseudomembranous colitis associated with Pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficle Toxins involved in Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembrane Punctuate yellow exudates in colon on endoscopic examination Pathological appearance in pseudomembranous colitis Mushroom cloud appearance of intestinal mucosa Most sensitive test for Clostridium difficle infection Most specific investigation for Clostridium difficle infection Treatment of Pseudomembranous colitis (severe) Treatment of clostridium difficle associated diarrhea (mild) Duration of antibiotic therapy for antibiotic induced diarrhea Prolonged antibiotic therapy.

Non motile. diphtheria Polymetaphosphate Toluidine blue Atleast 2 days before considering negative Loeffler’s serum slope. schick test detects susceptibility. toxin act by inhibiting protein synthesis. lysogenic phase cause disease Deep invasion is NOT seen. Myocarditis may be a complication Endemic in india Lysogenic conversion by β phage Toxemia Incubation period 2-6 days. portal of entry is through an infective agent http://www. Local reaction is due to membrane. toxin may affect heart and nerves Corynebacterium diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Metachromatic granules.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Alkaline encrusted cystitis is caused by Daisy head colonies are produced by MDR resistant corynebacterium sensitive to vancomycin Corynebacterium urealyticum C.diphtheria gravis C. seen in mycobacteria.medpgnotes. Non sporing. Chinese characters Gram positive. Non capsulated.com 31 . Toxin production is by Lysogenic conversion Organism may be identified by tests of toxigenicity. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Corynebacterium intermedius FEATURES OF DIPHTHERIA Diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria is Diphtheria Laryngeal diphtheria mandates tracheostomy. Elek gel PRECIPITATION test is done for toxigenecity.striatum CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIA Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheria Clostridium diphtheria Kleb Loeffler’s bacteria (KLB) Elek’s gel precipitation test Non motile Albert staining. Ponder’s staining Volutin granules Metachromatic granules made of Metachromatic granules are stained with Tellurite plates should be incubated for Corynebacterium diphtheria are cultured on NOT true about corynebacterium diphtheria Does NOT produce spore Diphtheroids Preisz Nocard bacillus Non hemolytic frog’s egg colony on cysteine tellurite blood agar Club shaped bacillary appearance. Child is infectious with faucial diphtheria. gardenella. Metachromatic granules are seen Iron is required for toxin production. palisades. Systemic effects are due to toxin. tellurite blood agar Toxin mediated by chromosomal gene Corynebacterium diphtheria Rhodococcus equi.

diagnosis made by culture in Diphtheroids grow on Selective media for isolation of diphtheria from carriers Corynebacterium diphtheria can be grown within 6-8 hours on Investigation of choice for diphtheria carrier Investigation of choice for diphtheria carrier Investigation NOT done for a child with fever and pharyngitis Prophylaxis of household contacts of diphtheria Prophylaxis of diphtheria Drug of choice for Diphtheria carrier Drug for unimmunized contacts in Diphtheria One unit of diphtheria antitoxin is defined as the Diphtheria Loeffler medium Potassium tellurite medium Potassium tellurite medium Loeffler’s serum slope Throat swab culture Culture in tellurite blood agar Widal test Erythromycin Erythromycin Erythromycin Erythromycin + Antitoxin + Toxoid 100 MLD of toxin http://www. Schick test demonstrates circulating antitoxin Phage mediated Schick test Carrier of diphtheria Susceptible to diphtheria Immunity to diphtheria Will prevent toxemia but NOT a carrier state 70% MANAGEMENT OF DIPHTHERIA Loeffler/Tinsdale selective medium Child present with white patch over tonsils.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Diphtheria susceptibility Diphtheria Bull neck adenitis Bull neck in Diphtheria is due to The term Leather is used for Type of diphtheria with highest mortality Colour of diphtheric membrane is Common source of diphtheria Incubation period of diphtheria Short incubation period Babes Ernst Granules associated with Commonest cause of death in diphtheria MC ocular complication of diphtheria Single infection in diphtheria does NOT give Diphtheria NOT associated with Diphtheria is NOT characterized by NOT a complication of Diphtheria Diphtheria toxin is a powerful Diphtheria toxin inhibitis Diphtheria toxin is Diphtheria toxin Skin test based on Neutralisation reaction Shick test does NOT indicate Positive Schick test indicate that person is A negative schick test indicate Immunization against diphtheria Percentage of herd immunity required to prevent endemic spread of diphtheria 2-5 years Punched out ulcer Diphtheria Lymphadenopathy Diphtheria Laryngeal Gray Carriers 2-6 days Diphtheria Diphtheria Myocarditis Paralysis of accommodation Lifelong immunity Rash Endotoxemia Hepatic failure Exotoxin Protein synthesis (blocks elongation of protein) Exotoxin. Toxin production depends on optimal concentration of iron.medpgnotes.com 32 . Inhibiting protein synthesis.

Requires hemin and NAD for growth in culture medium.influenza Beta lactamase producing hemophilus influenza. Type b is responsible for invasive disease Hemophilus influenza Type b (capsulated) is associated with meningitis and epiglottis. fimbria. secondary attack rate is high Erythromycin prevent spread of disease between children http://www. sinusitis Hemophilus Satellitism on Flide medium. Non typable (non capsulated) is associated with otitis media.com 33 . Pneumococci) Bordetella Affect children of 1 year of age. Brazilian purpuric fever. Leads to invasion of respiratory mucosa. Can be a part of normal flora in some persons. influenza.influenza Capsular polypeptide protein is responsible for virulence Chancroid. grow on chocolate agar Immunogenic antiphagocytic capsule Serotyping is based on capsular polysaccharide. contagious in catarrhal stage. iridescence on Levinthal medium Capsular polysaccharide Hemophilus Hemophilus influenza H.medpgnotes. Infection is NOT prevented by acellular vaccine Aerobic Filamental hemagglutinin. LRI.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES smallest amount of antitoxin required to neutralize HEMOPHILUS Hemophilus influenza Hemophilus influenza produces Hemophilus influenza Gram negative coccobacilli.influenza Brazilian purpuric fever is caused by Prophylaxis of H. resistant to chloramphenicol Hemophilus ducreyi Gram negative. Acute epiglottitis. Meningitis Hemophilus influenza biogroup aegypticus Rifampicin Third generation cephalosporins Chocolate agar with isovitale X BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS Bordetella pertussis Bordetella pertussis is Bordetella pertussis is associated with Organism in which capsule does not have virulence factor Piracy of adhesins is associated with Aluminum paint appearance Whooping cough Pertussis Strict human pathogen. pertactin Bordetella pertussis Bordetella (promotes coating of H. Can be cultured from patient during catarrhal stage. culture only on chocolate agar not on blood agar Types of hemophilus Pfeifers bacillus Features of hemophilus Important role in pathogenesis Satellitism is seen in culture of Pleomorphism is most commonly seen in Bacterial vitamins X and Y are required for NOT true about influenza Diseases caused by H.

Droplet infection. Pneumonia is most common complication. suis in pig Brucella abortus Transmitted by ingestion of milk. NOT immunized. oxidase positive Malta fever is caused by Undulant fever Disease occurring both in man and animals Brucella commonly affect Brucella infection NOT a method of transmission of brucella Brucella is NOT transmitted by Medium for Brucella Milk ring test for Coomb’s test may be useful in Brucella abortis is capnophilic. best specimen to isolate organism and confirm diagnosis Child cough. Transmitted by aerosol can occur occasionally.medpgnotes. audible whooph. sample for investigation Cough plate is used for Regan Lowe characoal medium for Treatment of pertussis contacts children Drug of choice in pertussis Treatment of bordetella infection Associated with inspiratory wheeze. Parapertussis is less severe than pertussis Erythromycin should be given to contacts ADP ribosylation of protein associated with receptors. sheep. increase cyclic AMP. gram negative short bacilli. goat Melitensis in goat. Trypticose soy agar Brucellosis Brucellosis http://www. Pasteurization can occur occasionally Camel. cause spinal spondylitis. causes GE Brucella Brucella melitensis Brucella melitensis Brucella abortis Lumbar spine Anterosuperior epiphysitis (Pedro Pon sign) Person to person transmission Person to person Serum dextrose agar. inspiratory whoop.com 34 . abortis in cow. acts through G alpha subunit 7-14 days Less than 5 years Cough due to Bordetella pertussis 3-4 weeks 90% Cerebellar ataxia Pertussis Pertussis Pertussis Nasopharyngeal swab Nasopharyngeal swab Bordetella pertussis Bordetella Prophylactic antibiotic for 10 days Erythromycin Macrolide BRUCELLA Brucella Brucella melitensis is common in Brucella Capnophilic brucella Brucellosis Pyrexia of unknown origin in veterinary doctor.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Pertussis Pertussis Mechanism of pertussis toxin Incubation period of pertussis Pertussis affect 100 day cough A child with pertussis should be isolated for Secondary attack rate of pertussis NOT a feature of pertussis Congenital passive immunity is NOT observed in Newborns does NOT have transplacental immunity against Post exposure prophylaxis NOT useful in Recurrent bouts of severe cough.

actinomycosis Israeli. bacillary peliosis Liver Trench fever 5 day fever.com 35 . Complement fixation test. Quintan fever Louse Carrion disease (Bartonellosis) Oroya fever. Bartonella quinatana Bartonella henslae Cat scratch disease Cat scratch fever Bartonella quintana 14 – 21 days Multiple hemangioma like lesion on AIDS patient.medpgnotes. suphur granules in pus. Caused by actinomycetes and filamentous fungi. can be cultured Actinomycosis http://www. Nocardiosis. Streptomyces Gram positive organism Cervicofacial Usually respond to antibiotics Demonstration of filaments. bacillary angiomatosis. Verruga peruana Lutzomyia Ctenocephalides felis Bartonella Henslae.Doxycyline Penicillin BARTONELLA Bartonella henslae Bacillary peliosis primarily involve Bartonella Quintana Trench fever Intermediate host for trench fever Bartonella bacilliformis Stages of carrion disease Carrion disease is transmitted by Cat flea Bacillary angiomatosis is caused by Cat scratch disease is caused by Macular scar Mollaret debra test for Cats are NOT associated with Incubation period of Bartonellosis Bacillary angiomatosis Verruca peruana is caused by Cat scratch disease.Streptomycin. Coomb’s test IgG Standard agglutination test Streptomycin Rifampicin. Biopsy with Warthin starry stain shows bacilli Bartonella bacilliformis ACTINOMYCES True of Actinomyces Mycetoma Granules discharged in mycetoma contains Actinomyces is Most common actinomyces Actinomycetoma is caused by Actinomycotic mycetoma is caused by Actinomycosis is caused by Commonest form of actinomycosis Actinomycosis Actinomycosis Rivalta disease Causes endogenous infection Can affect upper and lower extremities.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Investigation for Brucellosis Serological tests for brucellosis 2 mercaptoethanol is used to detect NOT a serological test for diagnosis of Brucellosis Treatment of brucellosis Drugs used for Brucellosis NOT a treatment of Brucellosis Standard agglutination test 2 mercaptoethanol test. Diagnosis is by examination of pus Fungal colonies (erodes bone) Gram positive bacteria Actinomyces israeli Bacteria Actinomyces.

abscess usually erode Actinomycetoma Madurella Actinomycosis is sensitive to Drug of choice for thoracic actinomycosis Actinomyces israeli Actinomycosis Wooden fibrotic masses Actinomyces viscosus Pelvic actinomycosis Organism Misnomer.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Spidery colonies on solid media and fluffy ball in thioglycollate liquid media Sunray appearance Actinomycosis is associated with Maxillary osteomyelitis is associated with Frozen pelvis Most predominant constituent of sulphur granules of Actinomycosis Sulphur granules Colour of granules of actinomyces Sulphur granules is a feature of Bread crumb colony appearance is of Lumpy jaw is seen in Discharging sinus A patient with fistula and chronic pain discharge from lower face and mandible is most commonly suffering from In actinomycosis of spine. alcian blue. mucin stain Acid fast (Ziehl Nielson stain) Paraffin bait technique Amikacin LISTERIA Listeria is a Temperature for listeria LLO means Listeria Gram positive bacilli 1 – 45*C Listeriolysin Gram positive but produces exotoxin and endotoxin http://www.medpgnotes. inflammatory cells with filaments of bacteria Yellow Actinomyces Actinomyces Israeli Actinomycosis Actinomycosis Acinomycosis Towards the skin Responds to antibiotics Does NOT respond to antibiotics Penicillin Penicillin NOCARDIA Nocardia resemble actinomyces but morphologically NOT true about nocardia Causative organism of mycetoma MC cause of mycetoma in India MC cause of mycetoma in India Persistent fever and cough. Aerobic branching gram negative filaments that are partially acid fast MC form of Nocardia Characteristic infection of Nocardia asteroids Stains for Nocardia Nocardia is stained by Best method for selective isolation of Nocardia Nocardia is susceptible to Aerobic Penicillin is the drug of choice Nocardia Nocardia brasiliensis Actinomadura madurae Nocardia asteroids Pneumonia Brain abscess Acid fast. Features suggestive of pneumonia.com 36 .

medpgnotes. McFaydean reaction Anthrax bacillus toxin Non motile Capsulated. high chloride in CSF Gram positive small to medium coccobacilli that are pleomorphic occurring in short chains. Capsular polysaccharide aids virulence by inhibiting phagocytosis Non motile Polypeptide capsule Bacillus anthracis McFadyean reaction Bacillus Bacillus anthrax Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracis Anthrax Bacillus anthracis cAMP liberate edema factor. this reaction is called String of pearl colonies on nutrient agar Medusa head colonies Frosted glass appearance Inverted fir tree appearance of culture Ascoli thermoprecipitation test Gram positive bacilli in long chains. capsular polysaccharide aids virulence by inhibiting phagocytosis. plasmid http://www. response to penicillin Non capsulated.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Listeria monocytogenes Tumbling motility (end over end motility) is seen in Not true about listeria Listeria transmitted by Main step in pathogenesis of listeriosis Zipper type of phagocytosis in Listeriosis in pregnancy Culture media for Listeria After 5 days of birth. non motile. direct wet mount from culture show tumbling motility d-xylose negative. factor III – lethal factor Bacillus anthracis Plasmid is responsible for toxin production.com 37 . no flagella Factor I – edema factor.monocytogenes within mononuclear phagocytes and host epithelial cells Listeria Granulomatus infantiseptica Blood agar Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes BACILLUS ANTHRACIS Anthrax bacilli is differentiated from anthracoid bacilli by Features of anthrax Anthracoid bacilli Only bacterium with capsule having protein Anthrax bacilli Factors in bacillus anthracis Largest pathogenic bacilli Anthrax Anthrax bacilli differs from anthracoid bacilli by being Virulence of bacillus anthracis is associated with McFadyean reaction Methylene blue discolours the capsule of bacillus anthracis. d-methyl d-mannoside positive Listeria Gram negative bacteria Refridgerated food Survival and multiplication of L. Cutaneous anthrax generally resolve spontaneously. fever with low protein. low sugar. motile. no response to penicillin Bacillus anthracis (poly D glutamic acid) Non motile. baby developed poor feeding. factor II – protective antigen. convulsions.

respiratory quinolones http://www. Uncapsulated. Central crustation with black eschar. confusion. Satellite nodule around inguinal region Trichrome methylene blue helps in diagnosis BACILLUS CEREUS A patient present with vomiting he had eaten rice 6 hours before.com 38 . legionella pneumophila is NOT effectively killed by polymorphonuclear leukocyte No man to man transmission L. high grade fever. temperature > 40% Acute respiratory infection BCYE agar Legionella Urinary antigen testing Erythromycin Macrolides. Most probable cause Non invasive diarrhea is caused by Characteristic of Bacillus cereus food poisoning Selective medium for Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus Abdominal pain Mannitol egg yolk phenol red polymyxin agar (MYPA) LEGIONELLA Legionella is Legionella Transmission of Legionella MC serotype isolated from humans Toxicity of legionella through Contaminated water source is associated with infection of Legionella by 28 year female. Humans are usually resistant to infection. Oxidase positive Can be grown on complex media. Sputum microscopy helps in diagnosis Anthrax Anthrax of skin Painless.pneumophilia serogroup 1 Toxin Legionella Inhalation of aerosol in the air conditioned room Legionella Legionella Legionella Legionella Hyponatremia. diarrhea. bilateral pneumonitis Pontiac fever is caused by Causative agent of Pneumonia associated with Aerosols spread Epidemics are associated with Legionella pneumophilia is associated with Legionnaire’s disease cause Good media for Legionnaire’s disease Growth on charcoal yeast medium Test for legionella in community Treatment of choice for legionairre’s disease Treatment for Legionella infection Gram negative. Whole area is congested and edematous.medpgnotes.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Commonest form of anthrax Anthrax Gasteroenteritis with high fatality is caused by Malignant pustule (Hide Porter disease) Cutaneous anthrax Person working in Abattoir presented with papule on hand which turned in to an ulcer responsible for toxin production Cutaneous McFadyean reaction shows capsule.

pylori Even with chronic infection. Common in adults of developing countries.com 39 . Causes chronic gastritis in adults due to reinfection. non motile.pylori H. Anti urease antibody are produced only by invasive strains.medpgnotes. oxidase positive. 75% of ulcers associated with H. urease breath test remains positive. urease negative http://www. curved rod. Spore forming Campylobacter Campylobacter Culture on Skirrow’s medium incubated at 42*C under microaerophilic condition CVA medium. flagellated. Endoscopy is diagnostic. Transmitted from man to man. tumbling motility.pylori. Urease activity provide protective environment to the bacilli Vacuolated cytotoxin Mucosa It should be eradicated in all cases whenever detected Gastric leiomyoma Rapid urease test PASTEURELLA Mode of infection of Pasturella multocida Common organism isolated from cat bite Gram negative bacilli sensitive to penicillin Features of pasteurella multocida Animal bite or scratches Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida Gram negative bacilli.pylori remains life long if untreated. Toxigenic strains usually cause ulcer. pylori H. H. Campylobacter blood agar. indole positive.pylori Helicobacter pylori NOT associated with Most sensitive test for H. fecoorally and by orogastric route. Controlled urease breath is negative with massive infection. Treatment prevents gastric lymphoma.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CAMPYLOBACTER Microaerophilic bacteria Microaerophilic bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Alpha chain disease Campylobacter associated with seagull NOT true about Campylobacter Fecal leucocytes are present in One of the leading causes of traveller’s diarrhea Method of choice for culture of stool for campylobacter jejuni Culture media for campylobacter DOC fo Campylobacter Jejuni associated Diarrhoea 10 % CO2 Campylobacter Microaerophilic. Invasive Immunoproliferative small intestine disease associated with campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter luri Human is the only reservoir. Skirrow medium. Regan Lowe media Erythromycin HELICOBACTER Helicobacter pylori H. C14 urease breath test is used in diagnosis.pylori found in NOT true about H. acid from sucrose. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice Gram negative bacilli.

Repeated cultures is diagnostic Yersinia Yersinia Plague Metazoonotic Both sexes of rat flea bite to transmit disease.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES FRANSCIELLA Ulcerated inguinal lymphadenopathy Fransciella tularensis is related to Tularemia Parinaud complex is associated with Treatment of tularemia Fransciella Rabbit Ulcer with black base. hypotension. fever. time required to declare an area free from plague is Plague epidemic is controlled by NOT done to control epidemic in plague Treatment of plague Drug of choice in chemoprophylaxis in contacts of a patient of pneumonic plague MC presentation of Yersinia enterocolitica Gram negative non motile cocco bacilli. culture in glucose broth show stalactite growth Most efficient vector for plague Plague in Surat in 1995 has occurred after a silence period of Most dangerous type of Plague Highly infectious clinical form of plague Isolation is strictly recommended for Incubation period of pneumonic plague MC type of plague Main reservoir of plague in India Lifelong immunity NOT seen with Maximum explosiveness of plague is determined by Cheopsis index Most effective method to break transmission chain in plague in Flea bite in wheat godown. chancriform lesion. malaise. Infants under 6 months are not given killed vaccine Yersinia pestis Xenopsylla cheopis 28 years Pneumonic plague Pneumonic plague Pneumonic plague 1 – 3 days Bubonic plague Tatera indica Plague Cheopsis index Average no of cheopsis per rat Control of rat flea Wayson staining 48 hours of treatment 14 days Isolation of patients Vaccination of susceptible Streptomycin Tetracycline Self limiting diarrhea http://www.com 40 . IP for bubonic plague is 2-6 days. buboes Preauricular lymphnode enlargement Gentamycin YERSINIA Yersinia pestis Stalactite growth in ghee broth agar Fermentation of glycerol is the basis of classification of Bioterrorism agent Plague is Plague Girl from shimla.medpgnotes. Axillary lymphadenopathy Plague patient is kept isolated till Longest and shortest incubation period of plague are 7 days and 2 days respectively. axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy.

flagella.com 41 . Ceftazidime Imipenem and amikacin Colistin Tobramycin + Ticarcillin Carbenicillin Ceftazidime Cloxacillin Cefoperazone Effective in pseudomonas infection Gentamicin Vancomycin Azithromycin Cephadroxil Oxacillin Vancomycin Cephalexin http://www. Obligate aerobe Pili. Type III secretion system. LPS. antibiotics Bacteria act by inhibiting protein synthesis NOT true about pseudomonas NOT a coccobacilli Blue pus Green coloured colonies Gunmetal colonies Fruity odour Species of pseudomonas commonly associated with intravenous catheter related infection Puncture wound through sneakers in children is associated with Other Pseudomonas Pseudomonas septicemia cause Ecthyma gangrenosum is caused by Shock associated with bullous skin lesion Hot tub folliculitis is associated with Green nail is due to Does NOT cause food borne infection Cetrimide agar for Pseudomonas is eradicated by local application of Effective against pseudomonas Pseudomonas producing extended spectrum beta lactamase enzyme Antibiotic potent against Pseudomonas Drug of choice for Pseudomonas septicemia Penicillin effective against proteus and pseudomonas Cephalosporin active against Pseudomonas Antipseudomonal penicillin Antipseudmonal action Carbenicillin In treatment of pseudomonas infection.medpgnotes. exotoxin Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Ferments glucose forming acid and gas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas osteomyelitis Burkholderia. phospholipases. cabenicillin is frequently combined with NOT used in pseudomonas infection NOT used for pseudomonas NOT having good activity against pseudomonas aerugenosa NOT used against pseudomonas NOT antipseudomonal NOT an antipseudomonal Oxidase positive. Ciprofloxacin. Polar flagellate.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES PSEUDOMONAS Pseudomonas aeroginosa Pseudomonas Strictly anaerobic Organism having considerable resistance to antiseptics. Cefoperazone. Piperacillin. Stenotrophomonas (soil organism) Ecthyma gangrenosum Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Pyocyanin Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Acetic acid Colistin. disinfectants. proteases.

All are oxidase negative Peritrichous Glucose in NOT fermented by all members of the family Shigella.coli EHEC Enteroaggregative E.coli Attach to uroplakin by mannose binding type I pili Labile toxin in ETEC act via CAMP.medpgnotes.COLI Many E.coli E.coli E.coli E. Gram negative bacilli with bipolar staining.coli Stacked brick pattern of adherence Enterotoxigenic E.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES BURKHOLDERIA Melidiosis is caused by Chronic alcoholic agricultural worker. coli Traveller’s diarrhea http://www.coli causing hemorrhagic colitis Enterohemorrhagic E. distinct rough corrugated grey white colonies on blood agar. multiple subcutaneous nodules on extensor surface. EIEC invasiveness under plasmid control Aerobe and facultative anaerobe. gram negative aerobic bacteria Burkholderia cepacia GENERAL FEATURES OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE Enterobacteriaceae Flagellar pattern in enterobacteriaceae Enterobacteriaceae Non lactose fermenters Fever. leucopenia. E. DIC and hypotension caused by members of enterobacteriaceae family are strongly associated with ELISA for virulence marker antigen(VMA) is done to detect virulence in Glucose is NOT fermented by all members of the family. UTI causing E. bipolar staining of etiological agent is with methylene blue stain. bilateral crepitation with scattered rhochi.coli is motile by peritrichate flagella Non capsulated Fucose E. coli O157:H7 Hemolytic uremic syndrome Ferments sorbitol. shigella E. Elaborates shiga like exotoxin Persistent diarrhea Enteroaggregative E.coli isolated from UTI E.coli.coli attaches through pili. chills rigor. Causes HUS.coli attached to surface with the help of Lactose fermenting colonies on EMB agar Serotype of E.com 42 . salmonella Lipid A Enteroinvasive E. motile oxidase positive Melidiosis Syndrome of respiratory distress and septicemia in cystic fibrosis (Cepacia syndrome) Burkholderia psedomallei Melidiosis Common form pulmonary infection.

typhi Salmonella Indole negative Vi http://www. Fimbrial adhesion NOT a appropriate candidate Eiken test for E. Proteus vulgaris Proteus Proteus Proteus mirabilis 4% SALMONELLA Organism requiring tryptophan for growth Microorganism that can enter freshly laid eggs Feature common to all species of Salmonella Antigen blocking agglutination of salmonella by O antiserum S.coli act by E.Coli PROTEUS Proteus Phenylalanine deaminase positivity is shown by Proteus Diene’s phenomenon Maximum urease production Seminal smell on culture Swarming growth To prevent swarming.coli heat labile toxin resembles action of Incubation period 6-7 hours for Preformed toxin is NOT important in food poisoning due to MC cause of liver abscess E. Proteus cause deamination of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvic acid Proteus Urease positive Proteus mirabilis.coli gives pink colour with Culture media used for EHEC O157:H7 ELISA for Virulence Marker Antigen is done to detect virulence Common cause of acute watery diarrhea in children in developing countries Heat labile enterotoxin Contaminated water Plasmid Produce disease similar to Shigellosis EIEC Epidemic Cause acute gastroenteritis in infants P1 pili Precipitin test Decreasing protein synthesis Vibrio cholera E. coli is under control of Enteroinvasive E.coli food poisoning ETEC E.coli A microbiologist wants to develop a vaccine for prevention of attachment of diarrheagenic E.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES ETEC ETEC ETEC spread by Enteroinvasiveness of E. the percentage of Nutrient agar is increased to Forms struvite stone.coli Verocytotoxin of E.medpgnotes.coli McConkey medium Sorbitol McConkey media Enteroinvasive E.coli Sereny test is positive in EPEC is associated with Enteropathogenic E.coli to specific receptors in GIT.com 43 .

Urine carrier is associated with anomalies Male carriers though less are more dangerous 3 – 21 days Enteric fever Enteric fever Enteric fever Enteric fever Enteric fever Mild splenomegaly is usual Affects Peyer patches Typhoid Typhoid http://www. Antacid and prolonged antibiotic administration promote infection. Gram negative bacilli isolated on culture Salmonella infection Food poisoning after 16 hours Enrichment media of choice for Salmonella DT104 strain belong to Prolonged salmonella septicemia is caused by Non typhoid salmonella NOT true about non typhoid salmonella Type III secretion Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhi S. Food borne to man and animal Urinary carriers are more dangerous. hypoechoic shadow in spleen near hilum. common in immunocompromised individuals. Symptoms appear between 4 to 48 hours Increased incidence in developed countries.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Salmonella is associated with Ebeth Gaffky Bacillus Only salmonella not producing H2S Only non motile salmonella Fever for 3 weeks.medpgnotes. splenomegaly. Vi ab is used for detecting carrier. poultry and undercooked meat.typhi is inhibited by Infective dose of Salmonella typhi Food poisoning after 24 hours Salmonella gastroenteritis Salmonellosis Typhoid Typhoid Incubation period of typhoid Reserve and source of infection are same for 10 year old child 10 days continuous fever.com 44 . resistance to fluoroquinolones are emerged Blood culture is more sensitive than stool culture in gastroenteritis in adults TYPHOID Both lactose positive and lactose negative colonies on EMB agar NON gas producing salmonella Agglutination with O antigen of S. enlarged spleen Rose spot Erythema marginatum Coma vigil is seen in Typhoid in children Salmonella typhi infection in intestine Pea soup stool Muttering delirium is associated with Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhi Vi antigen 10^2 to 10^5 bacilli Salmonella gastroenteritis Caused by animal products. gallinarum pyllorum Salmonella Blood culture is positive in 3-7 days Salmonella Selenite F broth Salmonella typhimurum Salmonella cholera suis Transmission is most commonly associated with eggs.

coli by Shigella MC species of shigella in India Most virulent shigella Exotoxin is produced by Shigella are subdivided based on their ability to ferment Shigella dysenteriae Shigella does not produce gas from glucose.5 days Monovalent vaccine SHIGELLA Role of plasmid in conjugation first described by Lederberg and tatum in Shigella can be differentiated from E.com 45 .3. Previous infection affects Widal test. H antigen titre remains positive for several months and reaction to it is rapid Appears first and persists for long period Agglutination test Widal test Blood culture O antibodies are least useful First test is confirmatory Widal test Ampicillin Cholecystectomy with ampicillin Ceftriaxone Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Amikacin Typhoid Oral vaccine 1. Shigella is non motile SMALL dose can cause infection. causes bloody diarrhea. Gut pathology is due to toxin Shigella flexneri Shigella dysenteriae Shigella dystenteriae Mannitol http://www. Associated with HUS. Shigella does not ferment lactose.medpgnotes.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Perforation of gut associated with Massive splenomegaly is NOT seen in NOT a feature of typhoid NOT common in typhoid Highest incidence of typhoid fever Incubation period of typhoid Isolation in salmonellosis done till Maximum isolation period of enteric fever Enrichment media for Salmonella typhi Which gives strong evidence of typhoid fever carrier status Chronic carrier state in typhoid is diagnosed by Widal test Antibody to H antigen Widal test is an rd Diagnosis of typhoid in 3 week st Typhoid is diagnosed on 1 week by NOT true about widal test NOT true about Widal test Typhoid carriers are NOT detected by Drug of choice for carriers of typhoid Most successful method for treatment of typhoid carriers Drug of choice for treatment of typhoid fever in pregnancy Treatment of salmonella typhi Treatment of Chloramphenicol resistant typhoid infection NOT commonly used against enteric fever Chemoprophylaxis is NOT done for Ty21a is a Typhoid oral vaccine is given Immunization of choice for typhoid in India Typhoid Typhoid Non involvement of ileum Constipation 5-19 years 10-14 days Stool culture negative for three times Till three consecutive negative urine/stool culture samples are obtained from the patient Selenite F broth Isolation of Vi antigen Vi agglutination test Tube agglutination test.

gram negative aerobic. shigella sonnei. non halophilic. epidemiologically undistinguished from O1 El tor strain O:139 O antigen O139 vibrio ogawa Classical. ferments glucose.01 El tor Clinical manifestations are similar to O1 el tor strain.com 46 .5 – 1% 7% NaCl Quorum sensing Incessant chatting of microbes Vibrio cholera ETEC (but more potent) Vibrio cholera Motility. shigella boydii Shigella dysenteriae Shiga toxin Toxic megacolon Isolation from feces Stool culture Deoxycholate citrate agar Hektoen enteric agar Triple sugar iron agar FEATURES OF VIBRIO Robert Koch discovered Vibrio cholera in Vibrio cholera first isolated by Cholera caused by O139 vibrio is derived from Vibrio cholera O139 Stain of vibrio cholera in Bengal Pathogenecity of O139 vibrio is due to Recent infection of cholera in india is caused by Types of O1 vibrio Eltor vibrio differentiated from classical cholera by El tor cholera El tor vibrio El tor vibrio Seventh pandemic of cholera caused by Vibrio cholera Vibrio cholera Napiform liquefaction in gelatin swab Optimal growth of Vibrio cholera Growth of Vibrio cholera is inhibited by Virulence is controlled by Quorum sensing Endotoxin of the following gram negative bacteria does not play any part in pathogenesis of natural disease Vibrio cholera toxin is similar to Bacteria acts by increasing cAMP V. able to survive longer. killed by boiling for 30 seconds More subclinical cases.medpgnotes. can survive in cold water for 2-4 weeks. man is only natural host Has marked tolerance of alkaline pH. Produces indole and reduces nitrate.cholera able to stay in GIT because of Diarrhea due to vibrio cholera Africa Koch Vibrio cholera 0. Occurrence of many cases in the same http://www. El tor is milder than classical. Synthesize neuraminidase Vibrio cholera 0. grows on simple media. less mortality. El tor Chick erythrocyte agglutination Infection is mild and asymptomatic. harder E1 tor Transported in alkaline medium. chronic carriers are common Humans are only reservoir. Binds to specific receptors Neutophilia. resistant to polymyxin unit disc.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Shigella does not have Lactose fermenter Acrogenic shigella Enterotoxin produced by Toxin acts by inhibiting protein synthesis Shigella is associated with Gold standard test for Shigella dysentery Shigellosis is best diagnosis by Medium for shigella Selective media for shigella Differential media for shigella H antigen Shigella sonnei Shigella dysenteriae.

BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Cholera red reaction is tested by adding Selective media and best suitable media for vibrio Transport medium for Cholera Selective medium for vibrio cholera locality Sulphuric acid TCBS VR Medium TCBS-Thiosulphate. Bile salt. Sucrose CHOLERA Incubation period less than 1 week Prevalence of cholera measured by Cholera transmission by Mode of spread of cholera Cholera A convalescent case of cholera remain infective for Cholera toxin acts by Cholera toxin in small intestine acts by Cholera toxin Function of B subunit of cholera toxin Modification occurring in Gs subunit leading to watery diarrhea in cholera Cholera toxin Vibrio cholera diarrhea is associated with Washerwoman skin is associated with Cholera gravis Death in cholera is due to Drug of choice for treating cholera in pregnant woman Drug of choice for treating cholera in children Antibiotic of choice for treating cholera in an adult is a single dose of Mechanism by which cholera might be maintained during intervals between peak cholera session is Best approach to prevent cholera epidemic in a community Tetracycline used in prophylaxis of Drug of choice for chemoprophylaxis of cholera NOT a measure recommended for controlling outbreak of cholera Best disinfectant for cholera stools Cholera Vibriocidal antibody Food and healthy carriers John snow Culture medium TCBS agar.flovalis http://www. Citrate.alginolyticus. V. V.medpgnotes. A subunit detaches and becomes activated by proteolytic cleavage. produces indole and reduce nitrate.com 47 . synthesize neuraminidase 14-21 days Stimulation of adenylate cyclase ADP Ribosylation of G regulatory protein Oligomeric protein composed of one A subunit and five B subunits (AB5). allowing it to catalyze the ADP ribosylation of the Gαs subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein resulting in constitutive cAMP production. To bind GM1 ganglioside receptor ADP ribosylation Causes continued activation of adenylate cyclase Neutrophilia Cholera Life threatening diarrhea Hypovolemic shock Furazolidone Cotrimoxazole Doxycycline Continuous transmission in man Safe water and sanitation Cholera Tetracycline Mass chemoprophylaxis Cresol HALOPHILIC VIBRIO Halophilic vibrio Vibrio parahemolyticus.

siniae Photochromogen M.scrofulaceum.paratuberculosis.smegmatis. Rifabutin.kansasii M. M.smegmatis Mycobacterium intracellulare Tropic zone geographic distribution. M. M. M. rarely cause ulcer in mouse foot pad M. no pigment production in light. M.kansasi M.marinum. Ciprofloxacin Cotrimoxazole http://www.fortuim. cause chronic progressive ulcer. M.kansasii.gordonae/acquae M.ulcerans.medpgnotes. M.hemophilum M.szulgai.marinum M. M.fortuitum M.phlei Immunomodulator Clarithromycin Clarithromycin.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Vibrio parahemolyticus associated with Vibrio parahemolyticus Toxin is NOT a pathogenic mechanism in Recently visited sea coast presented with ulcer over left leg Cellulitis is associated with Vulfincus means Shell fish Food borne enteritis.marinum.leprae.smegmatis M. fortuitum M. M. Amidase Causes decreased efficacy of BCG due to cross immunity Atypical Mycobacterium avium complex Do NOT form pigment Mycobacterium avium Mycobacterium avium complex Azithromycin M. Kanagawa phenomenon – hemolysis on Wagatsuma agar Vibrio parahemolyticus Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio vulvifuncus Wound maker ATYPICAL MYCOBACTERIA Mycobacterial species differentiated by Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis Tubercle bacilli showing yellow orange pigment MC cause of non tubercular mycobacteria pulmonary disease Mycobacterium avium NOT photochromogen Lady windermere syndrome is caused by Prevention of MAC in HIV Second most common cause of non tubercular mycobacteria pulmonary disease Can cause disease indistinguishable from tuberculosis Exposure to the organism having antagonistic effect on BCG Rapidly growing atypical organism NOT involved in lung infection Scotochromogens Photochromogens Mycobacterium siniae is Rapid growers Rapid grower and pathogenic to humans Cutaneous lesions produced by Mycobacterium can be grown in 1-2 weeks Pedicure bath and leg shaving is associated with Swimming pool granuloma (fish tank) Mycobacterium that grows best at 45*C Battey bacillus Mycobacterium ulcerans Non pathogenic Mycobacterium vaccae Most useful in treatment of mycobacterium avium complex Active against atypical mycobacteria Drug of choice for treatment of skin infection with Catalase test.kansasii M. Niacin. M. M.com 48 . M.asiaticum. M.tuberculosis.chelonei M.chelonei.kansasi M.

endemic typhus. Transmitted by bite of fleas (rat flea) Flea Endemic typhus EPIDEMIC TYPHUS Epidemic typhus is also known as Only rickettsial disease showing recrudescence Man presents with fever.medpgnotes.conori African tick bite fever Maculatum disease Tick borne lymphadenopathy is caused by Flea borne spotted fever Tunica reaction Antigen used for Weil felix reaction obtained from Typhus fever is diagnosed by Weil felix reaction is POSITIVE in Weil felix reaction is Weil Felix reaction is NEGATIVE in Neil Mooser reaction given by Neil Mooser reaction is positive in OK-19 is positive in Gram negative.typhi Epidemic typhus. R. delirious at the time of presentation.marinum NOT a treatment of MAC (avium) Pyrazimanide GENERAL FEATURES OF RICKETTSIA Rickettsia Primary site of multiplication of Rickettsial organisms Transovarial transmission occurs in Only rickettsiae able to grow in cell free media Oriental Spotted fever is caused by Rash starting peripherally is a feature of Murine typhus Mediterranean spotted fever is caused by Vector for R.africae R. mooseri Proteus Weil Felix reaction Epidemic typhus Agglutination reaction Q fever. Brill Zinser disease ENDEMIC TYPHUS Endemic typhus Vector for endemic typhus Mooser bodies Caused by R.quintana Rickettsia japonica Indian tick typhus R. typhi (transmitted by Xenopsylla) R.conori Mite R. non motile Endothelial cells of small vessels Rickettsiae R.slovaca R.pox and trench fever Rickettsial infection R. maculopapular rash on trunk.felis R. rashes all over body.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES M.com 49 . which spreads peripherally Chills and fever following louse bite 2 weeks before. vasculitis due to Rickettsial infection Sutama (Crouching) Epidemic typhus Epidemic typhus R. chills 2 weeks after a louse bite.typhi.prowazekii http://www.parkeri R.

Tetracycline is the drug of choice.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Vasculitis due to rickettsia by Jail fever is associated with Rickettsiae prowazeki is transmitted by Epidemic typhus is transmitted by Brill Zinser disease Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia prowazeki Louse Louse Recrudescence SCRUB TYPHUS Scrub typhus Rash starting peripherally Disease caused by mite Which transmit both rickettsial disease(R pox) and oriental disease (scrub typhus) Leptotrombidium deliensis Transovarian transmission is associated with NOT true about scrub typhus Weil felix reaction is Weil felix reaction with OXK Adult mite feeds only on plants.tsutusgamushi Vector is trombiculid mite. Eschar indicates the location of mite bite. Spread by infected chigger Scrub typhus Scrub typhus Trombiculid mite Trombiculid mite Scrub typhus Transmitted by adult mites when feed on hosts OX-K R.medpgnotes.rickettsii Tick Dog tick (Dermacentor) Pinpoint.com 50 . R. petechial lesions of palm and volar aspect of wrist Bacterial meningitis Rocky mountain spotted fever Rocky mountain spotted fever Rocky mountain spotted fever Indirect immunofluorescence http://www.tsutsugamushi RICKETTSIAL POX Rickettsial pox is caused by Rickettsial pox transmitted by Vector for Rickettisal pox Herald spot R.akari Mite Gamasid mite Rickettsial pox ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER Most severe form of Rickettsial infection is caused by Rocky mountain spotted fever is caused by RMSF transmitted by RMSF is transmitted by Rocky mountain spotted fever RMSF resembles OX-2 and OX-19 positive in Rumpel Leede test for NOT a viral hemorrhagic fever MC serological test for RMSF Rickettsia rickettsii R.

HeP2. best approach to isolate possible causative organism Fitz Hugh Kurtis syndrome Chlamydia is associated with Chlamydia does NOT cause Chlamydia does NOT cause Gram negative but do not have peptidoglycan.com 51 . do not have muramic acid Basophilic viruses Their cell wall lacks a peptidoglycan layer. No rash is seen Highly infectious zoonotic disease.McCoy Continuous cell lines Chlamydia Can grow in cell free culture media McCoy culture Culture on McCoy cells Perihepatitis in female caused by Chlamydia trachomatis Coronary artery disease Parotitis Community acquired pneumonia http://www. pus cells but no organisms 45 year female. Can NOT grow in cell free media. cervicitis along with mucopurulent cervical discharge. lower abdominal pain and vaginal discharge. no rash or local lesion Transmitted by inhalation of aerosol of unpasteurized milk Q fever Inhalation of aerosol Q fever Coxiella burnetti EHRILICHIA Ehrilichiosis Human granulocytic ehrilichiosis is caused by Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Cytoplasmic mulberries (morula) are seen in blood granulocyte in which of the following Tick borne bacterial infection Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ehrlichia chaffeensis Ehrlichiosis CHLAMYDIA Chlamydia Chlamydia is also known as Chlamydia Obligate parasite Infectious part of chlamydia Chlamydia escape killing by Chlamydia grow in Hep2 cells are example of Ornithosis is caused by NOT true about Chlamydia Young male with UTI. Obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia Elementary body Molecular mimicry HeLa.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Q FEVER Q fever is caused by Q fever Q fever Coxiella burnetti Rash is absent in Mode of transmission of Q fever Lice is NOT a vector for Organism NOT needing vector for transmission Coxiella burnetti Zoonotic disease. mode of transmission is by inhalation.medpgnotes. Human disease is characterized by an interstitial pneumonia.

Affinity for mammalian cell membrane. reticulate body divides by binary fission. Resistant to beta lactams. Tissue culture using irradiated McCoy cells and BHK cells Enzyme immunoassay Blood culture Nucleic acid amplification Ordinary media Azithromycin Cefotaxime Bacteria Elementary body is NOT metabolically active.medpgnotes. leucocyte esterase positive. tetracycline Psittacosis Cause non gonococcal urethritis MYCOPLASMA Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma differ from Rickettsia by NOT obligate intracellular organism. evades phagocytosis inside the cell. biphasic. Multiply by binary fission. Can pass through filters of 450 mm pore size. L form is commonest No cell wall http://www. Diagnosed by serum cold antibody May be commensal in growth. 50 WBC. Lack cell wall.com 52 . genital chlamydial infections are often asymptomatic. gonococcal culture negative Chlamydia trachomatis is NOT associated with Chlamydia trachomatis NOT associated with Chlamydia is isolated by Most sensitive test for detecting cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection Serology of choice for Chlamydia Drug of choice for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy Chlamydia pneumonia Chlamydia showing only one serotype Chlamydia psittaci Levinthal colle lille bodies NOT true about Chlamydia psittaci Yolk sac inoculation Yolk sac inoculation. Raised ESR. inclusion conjunctivitis caused by C. Requires sterols for their growth. can be cultured. pneumonia. Smallest prokaryotic organisms that can grow in cell free media. ulcer in genitals.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Isolation of Chlamydia from tissue specimen is done by Method of isolation of Chlamydia from clinical specimen NOT a method of isolation of Chlamydia from clinical specimens NOT useful for Chlamydia Chlamydia Chlamydia can NOT grow in Drug of choice of Chlamydia infection in Pregnancy NOT useful in Chlamydia treatment Chlamydia trachomatis is a Chlamydia trachomatis In reticulate body of Chlamydia Halber Steadter Prowazeki bodies Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K cause Burning micturition in sexually active male.trachomatis serotype D and K RNA > DNA Chlamydia trachomatis Urethritis Chlamydia trachomatis Group specific antigen is responsible for production of complement fixing antibodies Community acquired pneumonia Yolk sac inoculation Polymerase chain reaction(Nucleic acid amplification) Microimmunofluorescence Azithromycin Group specific antigen is responsible for the production of complement fixing antibodies Chlamydia Pneumoniae Acquired from bird droppings.

perteune. Secondary yaw can involve bone Treponema pertunae.carateum Treponema pertenua NOT sexually transmitted.com 53 . skin to skin transmission. gangosa Later stages involve heart and bone Spread by sexual transmission CANNOT be differentiated by serological tests T.medpgnotes. non ulcerative papule. T. destructive gumma Also known as pian. crab like gait.pertenue. bouba. secondary yaws can involve bone T. occurs in early childhood. framboesia. carateum. require sterol for growth NOT true about mycoplasma NOT true about mycoplasma Mycoplasma and Penicillin G Mycoplasma pneumonia is differentiated from other forms of mycoplasma and other L forms of bacteria by Metabolizes arginine Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Dienes method Mycoplasma in cell culture Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Obligate intracellular parasites Inhibited by penicillin Resistant The ability of its colonies to adsorb sheep blood cells Mycoplasma hominis NON VENERAL TREPONEMES Does NOT develop resistance to penicillin Non veneral treponemal infection Non veneral treponemas Yaws caused by Yaws Yaws Yaw Yaw NOT true about Yaw NOT true about Yaws Yaw and Pinta Pinta caused by Pinta Pinta is associated with Bejel is caused by Treponema Yaws.carateum T. Caused by T. Pinta. raspberry like. Endemic syphilis T. can grow in cell free media. dyschromic or achromic macule Purpura Treponema endemicum http://www. non venerally.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Positive cold agglutination test is seen in infections with Gliding motility Mycoplasma is stained by Dappe’s stain Diene’s method Cell wall deficient organisms Eaton agent Fried egg colonies L forms are found in Pleomorphic organism Pleuropneumonia like organisms Multiply by binary fission. ulcerative papilloma in extremities. pertenue. non destructive. skin to skin transmission. late childhood.

renal failure. rice fields True about leptospirosis Reservoir of Leptospirosis Transmitted by Rat urine Characteristic feature of Leptospira Leptospira Disease seen in Sewer worker Leptospirosis Accidental and dead end host in leptospirosis Leptospirosis Leptospirosis High grade fever. Intrathecal IgA confirms meningitis Lyme’s disease CSF pleocytosis http://www. Rodents act as natural host. purpuric hemorrhages. Man acts as accidental host and dead end.com 54 . hematuria. Transmitted by Ixodes tick (deer tick). albuminuria. Erythema chronicum migrans may be a clinical feature Borrelia burgdorferi replicates locally and invades locally. pyrexia Quinolones are drug of choice Weil felix reaction Lice act as vector Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Korthof Microscopic agglutination test Microscopic agglutination test Penicillin G Erythromycin BORRELIA Lyme’s disease Lyme disease Bull’s eye lesion Lyme disease Borrerlia burgdorferi. bleeding diathesis. penicillin. conjunctival effusion.BACTERIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES LEPTOSPIRA Most widespread zoonotic disease in world Rat. Rats are the reservoir.medpgnotes. antibodies NOT usually detectable in first week Weil’s disease Leptospira icterohemorrhagica Hepatorenal damage. jaundice. elevated serum bilirubin and serum urea. Infection progresses inspite of good humoral immunity. mortality is 5-15% in severe cases. altered sensorium. rain. person to person transmission is rare Man Urine may show microscopic hematuria. Incubation period in leptospirosis ranges from 2 – 20 days Infection acquired by direct contact with infected urine. comatosed and conjunctival hemorrhage. icterus. serological test Diagnosis of Leptospirosis Treatment of leptospirosis Drug having no effect of leptospira Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Rats are prime reservoirs Rat Leptospira Hooked ends Viable as long as 10 days at room temperature in blood Leptospirosis Zoonosis. negative peripheral blood for malarial parasite Weil’s disease caused by Features of Weil’s disease NOT true about Leptospirosis NOT used in leptospirosis NOT true about leptospirosis EMJH medium Korthof culture media for Culture medium for Leptospirosis 14 year boy.

penicillin Borrelia recurrentis Borrelia recurrentis Borrelia recurrentis Borrelia duttoni. heat labile. Louse borne relapsing fever also known as epidemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis Headache Chloramphenicol. erythromycin. NOT affected by antibiotics Capsid Cell culture Virus yields high hemagglutinin titre but low in infectivity Viral interference Invade and multiply Viruses Quantitative assay of infectivity of virus Measuring the number of infectious virus particles Quantitative assay of infectivity of virus http://www. Ceftriaxone (IV) VIROLOGY GENERAL FEATURES OF VIRUS National institute of virology is located in Viroids Viroids Virion Virus contains Virus DNA covering material of virus is called Virus grows well on Von magnus phenomen nd One virus particle prevents multiplication of 2 virus. Borrelia parkeri Borrelia Borrelia Borrelia Stain for inculsion bodies within the cells involved in rash Chronic fatigue syndrome Doxycycline (oral). this phenomena is called Virulent strain has ability to Electron microscope is used to study the morphology of Plaque formation in virus is done for Plaque assay is done for Viral plaque made for Pune Resistant to heat Infectious nucleic acid Extracellular infectious virus particle Either DNA or RNA Form extracellular infectious particle. Borrelia hermsii.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Bannwarth syndrome(meningopolyneuritis) is Erythema migrans is a feature of Skin feature of lyme disease NOT true about lyme’s disease NOT true about Lyme disease Relapsing fever MC symptom of tick borne relapsing fever Treatment of relapsing fever Organism using antigenic variation as a major means of invading host defences Louse borne relapsing fever caused by NOT associated with tick borne relapsing fever Tick borne relapsing fever caused by Noguchi medium Barber Stonner Kelly medium Kelly’s medium Borrelia infection is confirmed by Misdiagnosis of Lyme disease Treatment of Lyme disease Lyme’s diseae Lyme disease Acrodermatitis chronic atrophica Intrathecal specific IgA antibodies is diagnostic Polymorphonuclear lymphocytes in CSF suggest meningitis Tick borne relapsing fever (Ornithodoros tick).com 55 .medpgnotes. doxycycline.

VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Pocks on chick embryo is formed by Hemadsorption is exhibited by Property of elution (reversal of hemagglutin due to presence of neuraminidase that destroys receptor) NOT a cytopathic effect of virus NOT a test for lab diagnosis of viral respiratory track infection Single stranded viruses Double stranded viruses Negative stranded viral RNA Negative stranded RNA viruses RNA viruses undergoing replication in nucleus Segmented double stranded RNA virus Non enveloped DNA virus Simian virus 40 is Cytoplasmic vacuolation is associated with MC cause of URI Ideal temperature for Rhinovirus Virus causing gasteroenteritis Viruses showing renal involvement Virus associated with malignancy Virus is definitely associated with New infectious agents Latent infection is associated with Reverse transcriptase PCR is used in diagnosis of Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction can NOT aid in diagnosis of NOT a method for detection of viral respiratory tract infection Continuous cell lines for virus are Non cultivable virus SARS is caused by Super spreaders are associated with Incubation period of SARS SARS is identified on Crimean congo fever is caused by Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever NOT common in India Virus etiology is NOT implicated in Vector for vaccine preparation Used for vaccine preparation Orf Arena virus Variola. measles vaccine Myxovirus Budding Detection of viral hemagglutinin inhibiting antibodies in single serum specimen Papova virus Pox virus. Lassa virus. Norwalk virus. CMV Astrovirus. Lymphocytic http://www. Papova virus DNA virus SV40 Rhinovirus 33*C Rotavirus. Hep2 Rota virus. Picorna virus.com 56 . Filoviridae.HIV. vaccinia. Hairy cell leukemia Nipah virus. Papova virus Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Rota virus Adenovirus Direction of viral hemagglutinin inhibiting HAI antibodies in single serum specimen Vero. Retrovirus. Develop petechial patches. Has high fatality Lassa fever Condyloma lata Vaccinia Adenovirus Parapox virus Old world virus eg. HIV. Recently reported in Gujarat. EBV. reovirus Requires a special polymerase in virion Rhabdoviridae. Hela. cowpox Rabies virus. Bunyaviridae. Arenaviridae. orthomyxovirus Reovirus Adenovirus. Enterovirus CMV.HBV Herpes virus. Reoviridae Retrovirus. Norwalk virus. Adenovirus. SARS HSV 2. Orthomyxoviridae.medpgnotes. Parvo virus. Corona virus. Paramyxoviridae. Molluscum contagiosum Corona virus Corona virus 2 – 7 days 2003 Nairo virus Zoonosis.

Hanta virus Orapouche.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Transovarian transmission is seen in Bunyaviridiae cause Ganjam virus belongs to Mayor fever is transmitted by Ebola virus Bowl of sphagetti appearance Ebola virus is diagnosed by choriomeningitis Bunyaviridae eg. Treatment is with acyclovir HSV II Focal encephalitis HHV 6 Focal encephalitis Exanthema subictum Exanthema subictum and erythema infectiosum HHV8 HHV. low toxicity for host cells. Encephalitis can be caused by HSV II. varicella zoster Acyclovir Inhibits DNA synthesis and viral replication. HSV II involve below diaphragm Herpes virus Double stranded DNA virus Herpes virus Herpes HSV-1 HSV 1 Rugby players Primary infection is usually widespread.medpgnotes. Newborn can acquire infection via birth canal at the time of labour. Toscana fever Bunyaviridae Heamagogus virus Flavivirus Ebola virus Bromide green dye for PCR HERPES VIRUS Herpes group virus Lipid envelope is found in HSV is a Varicella. Recurrent attacks are due to reactivation of latent infection. Nairo virus. renal impairment necessitates dose reduction http://www.com 57 .8 Finger Surgery Wrestler Sacral ganglia Tzank smear Multinucleated keratinocytes Herpes simplex. Punta toro infection. EBV belong to Focal degeneration (pocks in chorioallantoic membrane) Cold sore is caused by Encephalitis is caused by Scrum pox is common in HSV II Neonatal herpes is caused by Virus B6-7 is causative agent in Roseola infantum or Exanthem subictum is caused by HHV 6B cause Nagayama spot Rash usually appears after fever has subsided Kaposi sarcoma caused by Castleman disease is caused by Herpetic whitlow in NOT a treatment of herpetic whitlow Herpetic gladiatorum Herpes virus may remain dormant in Genital herpes simplex can be diagnosed by Biopsy of herpes simplex viral lesion Cowdry A intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies Drug of choice for Herpes simplex Acyclovir Ether sensitive. Sandfly fever. may cause malignancy.

Has affinity for erythrocyte progenitor cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Burkitt’s lymphoma EBV EBV Epstein Barr virus EBV EBV EB virus Polyclonal B cell activation EBV http://www. aplastic crisis. Aplastic anemia. Arthropathy Parvovirus B19 Repiratory route Arthropathy Parvo virus. Hodgkin’s and Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Causes transient aplastic crisis. severe anemia. Transplacental transfer occur in 30% of cases Parvovirus Parvovirus Immature cells in erythroid lineage Erythema infectiosum. Oral hairy leukoplakia. Slapped cheek appearance Erythema infectiosum (Parvovirus) Erythema infectiosum Erythema infectiosum EBSTEIN BARR VIRUS EBV EBV belongs to EBV EBV Virus spreading through both hematogenous and neural route Infectious mononucleosis is caused by Diseases associated with EBV Infectious mononucleosis is caused by Oral hairy leukoplakia is associated with Patient with sore throat having positive paul bunnel test Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis in HIV infected individual is commonly caused by Epitrochlear lymphadenopathy is associated with African Burkitt’s lymphoma is caused by EBV cause autoimmunity by Sore throat and positive paul bunnel test HHV 4 Herpes group Double stranded DNA virus Gp350 binds to CD21 EBV Epstein barr virus Infectious mononucleosis. SINGLE stranded DNA virus. linear DNA. Ca tonsil. icosahedral symmetry DNA virus. crosses placenta frequently Spread by respiratory route.medpgnotes.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Mechanism of action of acyclovir Famcicyclovir Valacyclovir Inhibits HSV polymerase Prodrug of peniclovir Prodrug of acyclovir PARVOVIRUS Parvovirus Parvovirus B19 Parvovirus B19 Virus with smallest genome Smallest DNA virus Target for parvovirus Parvovirus cause th 5 disease is caused by Predominant route of parvovirus Common manifestation of Parvovirus infection in adult Erythema infectiosum Lazy reticular rash is associated with Slapped cheek appearance Glove and stock syndrome is a variant of Non enveloped.com 58 .

viruses are present in Owl eye appearance on picture Congenital CMV infection Great concern for CMV infection Congenital CMV infection in infant established by Does NOT establish diagnosis of congenital CMV in neonate Drug used in CMV infection Famciclovir is a prodrug of HHV 5 CMV CMV Hepatosplenomegaly CMV CNS infection WBC CMV Hepatosplenomegaly 2nd month after transplantation Urine culture of CMV. During deferverescence rash appears Roseola infantum VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS Varicella zoster virus Varicella are classified under HHV 3 Herpes virus http://www. Intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes.medpgnotes. carcinoma tonsil Kaposi’s sarcoma Adult T cell Leukemia Thrombocytopenia Infectious Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis Monospot test Skin rash CYTOMEGALOVIRUS Cytomegalovirus is Post kidney transplantation caused by Mononucleosis like syndrome is caused by MC presentation of congenital CMV Maternal viremia most commonly spreading to fetus in utero CMV rarely cause In CMV infection of brain. Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Rash appear in trunk.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES EBV is associated with NOT caused by EBV Ebstein Barr Virus does NOT cause EBV is NOT associated with Inclusion bodies are NOT seen in Paul bunnel test is done for Most sensitive test for diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis Ampicillin NOT given in EBV infection because of Post transplant lymphoreticular disease.com 59 . CMV viral DNA in blood by polymerase chain reaction IgG CMV antibodies in blood Gancyclovir Penciclovir ROSEOLA INFANTUM A patient had fever and coryza for last 3 days developed maculopapular erythematous rash which lasted for 48 hours and disappeared without leaving behind pigmentation is commonly due to Roseola infantum Fever stops and rash begins is diagnostic of Roseola infantum HHV 6 and 7. Bell’s palsy.

medpgnotes. All stages of rash are seen at same time. 7 Serotype 40. Pleomorphic rash. conjunctivitis Pharyngoconjunctival fever is caused by Serotype 1. Rash can occur in axilla Quick prodromal period. Rapid progression from macule to vesicle. diarrhea.2 Serotype 3.7 Serotype 4. quick evolution. Pharyngitis. Rash commonly seen in flexor area. rash begins on trunk Centripetal Varicella Chicken pox 1 – 2 weeks 6 days after onset of rash Trigeminal ganglion CNS Varicella Varicella Secondary bacterial infection Pancreatitis Enteritis Scabs are infective Crusts contain live virus Only single stage infection found at a time Following chickenpox FAMA (Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen). 41 Serotype 11. conjunctivitis Adenovirus Adenovirus Adenovirus Respiratory disease Pharyngoconjunctival fever (swimming pool conjunctivitis) Military recruits respiratory distress Diarrheal illness in children Hemorrhagic cystitis in children http://www. Secondary attack rate is 90% Centripetal rash. ELISA VZ immunoglobin ADENOVIRUS Adenovirus Grape clump appearance is associated with Virus with space vehicle appearance Basophilic inclusion body Disease caused by Adenovirus Shipyard eye is caused by Virus causing hemorrhagic cystitis.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Virus causing chicken pox belongs to NOT a pox virus Herpes zoster is caused by Varicella Chicken pox Chicken pox Rash of chickenpox Rash pattern in chickenpox Dew drop on petal appearance Pleomorphic rash Incubation period of Varicella Zoster Infectivity of chickenpox lasts for Varicella zoster remains latent in MC extraskin manifestation of Varicella Intrauterine infection associated with limb reduction defects and scarring of skin Hypoplasia of limb and scarring caused by MC complication of chickenpox in children Known complication of chicken pox NOT a complication of chicken pox NOT true about chicken pox NOT true about chickenpox NOT true about varicella infection Multiple calcification in chest X ray Sensitive test for VZV Prevention of VZV in HIV Herpes virus (HHV3) Chicken pox virus Varicella No recurrence(single infection gives lifelong immunity).com 60 . Lesion appear in crops Rash appears on first day.12 Double stranded DNA virus Adenovirus Adenovirus Adenovirus Pneumonia.

VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Serotype 8. Infection provided lifelong immunity Cross immunity with animal pox virus April Fowl pox PAPOVA VIRUS Papova virus DNA virus. warts and http://www. Rota C can cause diarrhea in children Rota virus VP6.com 61 . virus shed in stool Rotavirus Rota virus Children 5 years Rotavirus Terminal ileum villi destroyed Decreased absorption by villi Infantile diarrhea Antigen in stool Presence of antigen in stools by ELISA Genetic reassortment SMALL POX Largest DNA virus DNA virus with complex capsid symmetery Pox virus Inclusion bodies in cytoplasm is seen with Pox virus Guarneri bodies are seen in Most sensitive method for diagnosis of small pox Protection against small pox by previous infection with cowpox represents Successful eradication of small pox because of Small pox eradication was NOT due to India become small pox free in Bollinger bodies Pox virus Poxviridae Double standed DNA virus encoding DNA dependent RNA polymerase Pox virus Complex shape. non enveloped icosahedral virus. Rota B can grow in cell culture. 37 Cowdry B intranuclear basophilic bodies Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis Adenovirus ROTAVIRUS Rota virus Segmented gene Rota virus Reassortment is typically seen in Virus enterotoxin detected as a possible mechanism of action Rota virus commonly affects Rota virus infection in children below MC cause of gastroenteritis in children Rota virus Diarrhea in Rotavirus infection due to Rota virus are responsible for Rota virus detected by Rota virus is diagnosed by Best vaccine for Rota virus Culture can NOT be done. A highly effective vaccine was available. 19.medpgnotes. relicate and assemble in cytoplasm (unique feature) Small pox Smear test Antigenic cross reactivity Subclinical cases did not transmit the disease.

foot and mouth virus. very difficult to eliminate. follow up examination is done after Epidemiological trend of Polio Prevalence of all clinical cases of polio can be estimated by multiplying the no of residual paralytic cases For every case of poliomyelitis. SV 40 is oncogenic Viral warts resolve spontaneously. increasing in tropics. Asymptomatic infections are common in children. Increased muscular activity leads to increased paralysis Responsible for most epidemics. responsible for vaccine induced paralytic polio Highly antigenic Vaccine induced paralysis due to mutation GIT Type 3 IM injection and increased muscular activity increases the risk of paralytic polio Paralytic polio is most common Polio Polio virus Polio Polio Poliomyelitis Bulbar poliomyelitis 1-5 days Extensor plantar Progressive course Can transmit it by nasal discharge 0-15 years 60 days of onset of paralysis Sporadic to epidemic.com 62 . Plantar warts should not be excised.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES papilloma. irrespective of their previous immunization status http://www. the subclinical cases of poliomyelitis to be estimated Sample used to isolate polio virus earliest Cowdry B intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies Kenny packs were used in treatment of Best way to stop epidemic poliomyelitis spread Pulse polio immunization Polio virus. encephalomyocarditis Transmitted by fecooral route. Affects higher age groups 1.medpgnotes. Live attenuated vaccine produces herd immunity.33 1000 children and 75 adults Stool Polio Poliomyelitis OPV drops to all children All children between 0-5 years of age on a single day. Callosity are formed occupationally Warts POLIO VIRUS Picorna viruses Polio virus Type I polio virus Type II polio virus Type III polio virus Main portal of polio virus Wide polio outbreak in 2nd half of 2007 Polio Polio Disease transmitted by water Virus that spread by both hematogenous and Neural route Isolation NOT needed for Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy Neuronophagia is seen in Biot’s respiration Acute stage of poliomyelitis lasts for NOT seen in non paralytic polio NOT a feature of poliomyelitis NOT true about polio patient who had paralysis Acute flaccid paralysis in children aged Under AFP surveillance.

Hand foot mouth disease. Easily transported ENTEROVIRUS Total sheet degeneration is associated with MC cause of Rubelliform(discrete) rash Epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus associated with Enterovirus 71 is associated with Bornholm disease Hallmark of pleurodynia Summer grippe Virus shed in stool in Enterovirus does NOT cause Enterovirus Echovirus 9 Picorna virus (enterovirus which is a subtype of Picorna virus) Myocarditis.00. Poliomyelitis in contacts of recipient Poor growth in stable cell line of monkey kidney 3. Infantile myocarditis Aseptic meningitis Vesicles on hand Cox sackie A virus Bornholm disease Erythema subictum Coxsackie virus INFLUENZA VIRUS Segmented RNA virus M protein in orthomyxovirus maturation Influenza A All pandemic of influenza by Pandemic of influenza is caused by Influenza Influenza Influenza virus Serves as a recognition site for nucleocapsid at the inner face of plasma membrane Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase is strain specific Influenza A only Antigenic shift Primary infectious pneumonia is less common than secondary bacterial pneumonia Major epidemics are due to antigenic SHIFT.com 63 . Pleurodynia. herpangina Pleurodynia Servere muscle pain Non specific febrile illness seen in enterovirus infection Herpangina Hemorrhagic fever COXSACKIE VIRUS Coxsackie virus causes Cox sackie group A commonly causes Cox sackie A 16 is associated with Herpangina is caused by Cox sackie virus does NOT cause Coxsackie virus does NOT cause Suckling mice is used for culture of Herpangina.medpgnotes. Antigenic drift is gradual antigenic change over a period of time. http://www. Antigenic shift is due to genetic recombination of virus. Oral polio can be given as booster. Herpangina Hand foot mouth disease.000 TCID 50 Prevent paralysis.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Target age group under pulse polio programme OPV OPV strain Concentration of type 3 virus in OPV Salk vaccine Under 5 years Poliomyelitis in recipients.

Neuraminidase. Infections confer lifelong immunity. Flaring up of TB Fever occurs 7-10 days after occurrence of infection. Meningoencephalitis can precede parotitis. single dose of vaccine gives 95% protection Immunosuppression Koplik spots appear in prodromal stage. Only one strain cause infection.medpgnotes.com 64 .VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Segmented RNA H5N1 H1N1 swine flu was found on Gradual and sequential change in antigenic structure at regular intervals Influenza causes new epidemic by Antigenic shift Shift occurs only with Reye syndrome is associated with Antigenic variation NOT seen in Influenza Influenza is associated with Most serious complication of Influenza B Immunofluorescence Amantidine and rimantidine are active against Amantidine is most effective for Which is a Neuraminidase Inhibitor Avian influenza treated by Oseltamivir is used to treat Oseltamivir inhibit Mechanism of action of oseltamivir Dose of oseltamivir in adults Newer influenza vaccine Influenza A is subjected to frequent antigenic variations Influenza Bird flu virus 2009 Antigenic drift Antigenic drift Gradual Influenza A Influenza B Influenza C Affects all sexes and ages. immunity develops after 7 days of vaccination. Recombinant vaccine MEASLES Moribilli Measles Measles virus Syncitium formation is associated with NOT a teratogenic virus Measles Measles Measles Measles Epidemiology of measles Measles Single stranded negative sense RNA virus Paramyxovirus Measles Measles Higher secondary attack rate. Infectious in prodromal period. Fever stops after onset of rash Secondary attack rate of measles is less than that of rubella http://www. Incubation period 18 – 72 hours Myositis and rhabdomyolysis Reye syndrome Detection of influenza Influenza A only Influenza A Oseltamivir Oseltamivir Influenza A & B Neuraminidase Inhibition of a viral enzyme that aids the spread of virus through respiratory mucus and is required for release of progeny virus 75 mg BD Split virus vaccine.

keep up. follow up for Epidemiological determinants of measles Man 10 days 4 days before rash and 5 days after rash 1 day before rash Rash Post auricular region Measles Measles Measles Measles Measles Measles Measles Measles ASOM Measles SSPE Diarrhea Pneumonia Immunomodulation Measles Measles Not infectious In prodromal stage Pancreatitis Measles Catch up Measles MUMPS Mumps virus belongs to Virus easily cultured from CSF Virus NOT causing pneumonia NOT transmitted transplacentally Presternal edema is seen in Mumps Mumps cause Commonest complication of mumps MC complication of mumps in children MC ocular manifestation of mumps NOT a complication of mumps Paramyxovirus Mumps Mumps Mumps Mumps Menigoencephalitis can precede parotitis Aseptic meningitis in children Orchitis and oophoritis Aseptic meningitis Dacroadenitis Parotid abscess http://www.medpgnotes.com 65 .VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Epidemiological determinants of measles Reservoir for measles Incubation period of measles Measles is infectious Koplik spot appear Clinical manifestation of measles appearing last Rash in measles occur first in Fever with centrally distributed maculopapular eruption Macular rash with red margins Remission in Nephrosis Comphy’s sign (white patches due to degenerated squamous epithelium occurring on buccal mucosa and gums) A line of conjunctival inflammation in lower eyelid margin is diagnostic of Warthin finkedly cells (giant cells) Bolognini symptom (a feeling of crepitation occurring from gradual increasing pressure on the abdomen) Hetch giant cell pneumonia MC complication of measles in children Infection having most neurological complications Least common complication of measles MC cause of post measles death Cause of death in measles Bronchopneumonia in measles due to Ice berg phenomenon NOT seen in Chronic carrier NOT seen in NOT true about measles NOT a complication of Measles Chemoprophylaxis not done in Measles vaccination strategy in 9 months to 4 years Catch up.

biting animal observed for NOT done for dog bite Class II exposure in animal bite Which should be injected in and around wound in class II rabies bite NOT a treatment of class III bite Antiseptic/disinfectant is best for local wound application in case of dog bite Rabies vaccine first developed by Commercially available rabies vaccine NOT a commercially available rabies vaccine Rhabdoviridae Negative polarity Multiple strains are seen Bullet shape Intracytoplasmic basophilic inclusion bodies are seen in brain cells Vaccine virus has fixed incubation period. Human diploid cell vaccine. All bites on fingers with laceration are class III injuries Phenol.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES RABIES Vesicular stomatitis virus Rabies virus RNA Rabies Shape of rabies virus Rabies Rabies Rabies virus inactivated by Paralytic rabies is caused by bite of an infected Incubation period of rabies depends on Characteristic manifestation of rabies MC type of pathological change in Rabies Rabies is transmitted by Rabies NOT transmitted by Mode by which Rabies virus NOT transmitted Foaming at mouth is associated with Rabies free area FALSE about Rabies Bite of which of the following animals do not result in human rabies Rabies free country Rabies is NOT found in Most suitable clinical sample that can confirm the antemortem diagnosis of Rabies Rabies best diagnosed by Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Negri body seen in Negri bodies commonly seen in Negri body Babes nodule in rabies Negri bodies are NOT found in NOT used for confirming rabies encephalitis In case of dog bite. Andaman Nicoar islands Corneal impression smear for immunofluorescence stain Immunofluorence study Rabies Rabies Cerebellum > Hippocampus Eosinophilic cytoplasm Microglia White matter PCR 10 days Immediate wound closure Licks on a fresh wound Antirabies serum Immediately stitch wound under antibiotic coverage Alcohol Louis Pasteur Killed sheep brain vaccine. Britain Lakshwadeep. BPL Vampire bat Site of bite Meningitis Brainstem encephalitis Dogs. Jakal Ingestion Sexual Rabies No indigenously acquired case for 2 years Limited to brain Mouse Australia.com 66 . Vampire bat. Vero continuous cell vaccine Recombinant glycoprotein vaccine http://www. UV radiation. IP depends on site of bite.medpgnotes.

medpgnotes. Puumala virus Heat labile Arbovirus Yellow fever. West Nile fever.3. Japanese encephalitis. Reduced air entry into Right lung Dengue hemorrhagic fever is due to NOT true about dengue hemorrhagic fever NOT a feature of dengue shock syndrome Minimum platelet count for diagnosis of Dengue Most sensitive diagnostic test for dengue Most specific dengue diagnosis Arbovirus Flavi virus All 4 types Transovarian transmission of virus Endemic in india Life long Till death Most common arboviral infection.7. self limiting disease Dengue fever Aedes mosquito Reinfection with different serotype of dengue virus Dengue hemorrhagic fever Infection by another strain of dengue virus Shock Decreased hemoglobin 100000 Neutralization test IgM ELISA http://www.14. Chikungunya fever DENGUE Break bone fever caused by Dengue virus is a In India. break bone fever.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Vaccine prepared by embryonated hen’s egg Number of HDCV for pre exposure prophylaxis of rabies Pre exposure prophylaxis of rabies Post exposure prophylaxis for rabies Rabies 3 0. Can survive in ambient temperature.28 and booster dose after 2 years HDCV 0. mechanism of dengue virus survival in the inter epidemic period Dengue Infective fever of aedes mosquito for classical dengue fever Infective period of Aedes mosquito in Dengue Dengue fever Dengue Classical dengue fever Saddle back temperature Classical dengue fever is transmitted by Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by 5 year petechial rash. Vector aedes aegypti usually bite during day time. Dengue Dengue. dengue viruses associated with human infections Dengue virus appears to have direct man to man cycle in India. Can be both epidemic as wall as endemic. Pleural effusion present Case fatality is low. Decreased platelet.30 booster dose 90 days GENERAL FEATURES OF ARBOVIRUS Arboviral disease Arboviruses are Suckling mice used for cultivation of Arboviral diseases Only group A arbovirus causing epidemic disease in India KFD.com 67 .7. Lymphadenopathy. Ganjam virus. Vector is Aedes aegypti Increased hematocrit. Positive tourniquet test.

medpgnotes. Aedes aegypti index should be less than 1% Virus is NOT present 3-6 days 6 days Yellow fever Central institute kasauli 1% 400 m 10 years starting 10 days after vaccination JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Old name for Japanese encephalitis Mosquito borne encephalitis caused by JE does NOT cross react with Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Subclinical infection is common with Japanese encephalitis commonly seen in Von economo encephala Group B Arbovirus (Flavivirus) Dengue virus Man is incidental dead end host. Incidence is increased by humidity. Case fatality rate upto 80%. Transmitted by culex. ratio of inapparent to apparent infection >100:1 Zoonoses Japanese encephalitis Pigs http://www. Validity of international certificate lasts up to 10 years. Rice fields are breeding places.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CHIKUNGUNYA Chikungunya Epidemic caused by Type A arbovirus in India Vectors for Chikungunya Vector for Chikungunya fever Alpha virus Chikungunya Aedes. Hepatic and renal involvement in severe cases. Urban form is controlled by 17D vaccine. One attack gives lifelong immunity. children frequently affected. Transmitted by aedes.com 68 . Vaccine is 17D Incubation period is 3-6 days. Caused by flavi virus. 85% of cases occur in children <15 years of age Pigs are amplifiers for flavivirus. mansonia Aedes YELLOW FEVER Arboviral disease NOT reported in India Yellow fever Yellow fever Yellow fever is NOT present in India because Incubation period of yellow fever Quarantine period for Yellow fever Torres bodies Yellow fever reference centre No risk of yellow fever if aedes aegypti index remains below Vector control for yellow fever around an airport is done upto a distance of Validity of yellow fever vaccination certification Yellow fever Subclinical cases present. Primary doses of vaccine consists of two doses Two or three cases per village suggest epidemic. Culicine and anopheles vectors involved. culex.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal failure Inhalation of rodent urine and feces http://www.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Amplifier host of Japanese encephalitis Only domestic animal showing signs of encephalitis due to JE virus Man in Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis in India is associated with Most important vector of Japanese encephalitis in south India Japanese encephalitis is associated with Aedes does NOT transmit Vector for Japanese encephalitis Epidemic in Japanese encephalitis is declared if Abnormal signals in bilateral thalami on MRI brain NOT true about Japanese encephalitis NOT true about Japanese encephalitis virus NOT true about Japanese encephalitis NOT a feature of Japanese encephalitis Major deterrant in elimination of Japanese encephalitis Pig Horses Dead end host Culex vishnui Culex tritaeniorhynchus Culex tritaenorrhyunchus Japanese encephalitis Culex 2-3 cases in a village Japanese encephalitis Man to man transmission Four doses of vaccine 90-100% mortality rate Infected pigs manifest symptom of encephalitis Large inapparent infections WEST NILE FEVER Found in India Culex transmit Polio like encephalopathy West Nile fever West nile fever West Nile fever KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE Flavivirus closely related to Russian spring summer encephalitis causing virus KFD Viral encephalitis Viral infection transmitted by tick KFD transmitted by NOT useful in prevention of KFD KFD Zoonosis. Causes recurrent respiratory infection.medpgnotes. caused by virus KFD Kyasanur forest disease Hard tick – Hemophysalis Deforestation HANTA VIRUS Sin Nombe virus Hanta virus Hanta virus pulmonary syndrome is caused by Hanta virus RNA virus. Caused by rodents.com 69 . affects monkeys.

com 70 . Salt pepper fundus Rubella Rubella. Deafness. Chances of congenital malformation NOT true about rubella Rubella Rubella Rubella Rubella Microphthalmia. Congenital cataract. Encephalitis Encephalitis Unborn child Women of child bearing age Sleeping sickness PDA. PDA Rubella embryopathy Infection after 16 weeks of gestation results in major congenital defects 6-12 weeks of pregnancy 40% 5-10% Incubation period more than 10 days http://www. scarlet fever 2-3 weeks Arthritis. Cataract VSD.medpgnotes.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES RESPIRATORY SYNCITIAL VIRUS Virus lacking hemagglutinin and neuraminidase but have membrane fusion protein RSV does NOT cause RSV Bronchitis REOVIRUS Virus composed of two distinct capsules enclosing double stranded RNA Segmented double stranded RNA is found in Reovirus Reovirus RUBELLA rd 3 day disease 8 years following URTI developed maculopapular rash rd on jaw spreading on to trunk which cleared on 3 day without desquamation and tender postauricular and suboccipial lymphadenopathy Maculopapular rash on jaw cleared on 3rd day without desquamation and tender postauricular and suboccipital lymphadenopathy Exanthema spreads from hairline to downwards and clears as it spreads Rubella causes Multiple sites of narrowing of peripheral pulmonary arteries Forscheimer spots are seen in Incubation period of rubella Complications of Rubella Uncommon clinical feature of Rubella Most severely affected in Rubella infection MC age group affected by rubella Average incubation period of Rubella is equal to that of Features of Congenital rubella Congenital rubella syndrome is associated with Multiple sites of narrowing of peripheral pulmonary artery NOT true about congenital rubella Risk of fetal damage in rubella is maximum if mother gets infected in Chance of transmission of rubella In 9 – 10 weeks pregnancy Rubella infected a mother at 10-14 weeks of Gestation. infectious mononucleosis. Arthralgia.

macrophage is the reservoir for virus Vpu. CXCR 4 CCR 5 CXCR4 Virus attachment Matrix protein Envelop protein Gag.3% H2O2 RNA – DNA .VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES FALSE about rubella infection Recommended vaccination strategy of rubella is to vaccine first Rose spots on soft palate Women of 15-49 years FEATURES OF HIV Retrovirus DNA form of retroviral genome Retrovirus contain HIV 1 and HIV 2 HTLV 1 HIV discovered in AIDS HIV belongs to Retrovirus Main HIV in India MC subtype of HIV in India HIV belongs to HIV HIV virus has HIV is HIV Accessory proteins associated with HIV Relation between HIV and CCR5 with homozygous mutation in an individual is Primary receptor for HIV Receptors for HIV Co receptor for HIV T cell trophic HIV needs the following co receptor for entry and fusion Gp120 in HIV helps in P17 Gp160 Genes present in HIV genome Viral gene NOT associated with HIV Gag encodes for Reverse transcriptase endoded by Tat encodes HIV is inhibited by Reverse transcriptase sequence in HIV Reverse transcriptase Unusual mode of replication is seen in CCR 5 mutation in HIV is related to NOT true about HIV Isolation NOT needed for HIV is common in HIV commonly affects NOT a target for initiation and maintenance of HIV RNA dependent DNA polymerase Provirus Large terminal repeats Lentivirus (Retrovirus) Delta virus (Retrovirus) 1983 HTLV III E AII Retrovirus Thermolabile HIV 1 C Lentivirus ssRNA Single stranded RNA Enveloped RNA P24 early diagnosis.medpgnotes. Vpx Protective against HIV infection CD4 CCR 5.RNA RNA dependent DNA polymerase Retrovirus High resistance to infection Increased release of acid labile interferon AIDS Males than females Helper cells Neutrophil http://www.com 71 . lysis of infected CD4. pol and env Tat Core antigen Pol Transactivator protein 0.

com 72 . cardiomyopathy Aortic aneurysm Kaposi sarcoma. CNS lymphoma. bystander killing Cryptococcus. cardiac tamponade. Infant rate transmission <50%.5 to 1% Heterosexual.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES infection Seroconversion in HIV Window period Window period of AIDS Window period in HIV HIV antibodies show CNS infection in HIV is caused by MC site of lymphoma in AIDS patient Most characteristic CNS lesion of HIV MC CNS Neoplasm in HIV Common late CNS complication of HIV Most common in childhood AIDS NOT a feature of CNS involvement in AIDS NOT a cause of seizure in HIV patient NOT found in CNS in case of AIDS Most common vascular tumour in AIDS patient In AIDS. virus can be isolated from http://www.medpgnotes.Toxoplasma CNS Microglial nodule Primary CNS Lymphoma Dementia Recurrent chest infection with typical organisms Vasculitis PML Inclusion bodies Kaposi sarcoma Non specific enlargement of lymphnode Pericardial effusion. lymphadenopathy is most often due to Cardiovascular complication of HIV NOT a cardiovascular complication of HIV Malignancy associated with AIDS Cancer NOT seen in AIDS CMV retinitis in HIV when CD4 below Cryptococcus neoformans infection in HIV when CD4 below Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in AIDS in indicated NOT a feature of AIDS NOT an opportunistic infection of AIDS NOT common in HIV infection NOT seen in childhood AIDS Body fluid having maximum HIV load Diagnosis of AIDS according to WHO 4 weeks Antibody is absent 3-12 weeks Period between onset of infection and clinically detectable level of antibodies Antibody enhancement.3% 0. homosexual Perinatal Cannot be diagnose by routine confirmatory test. Non hodgkin’s lymphoma Carcinoma Colon 50 200 Cryptosporidiosis Toxocara uveitis Rhizopus Aspergillus Kaposi sarcoma Breastmilk 2 major signs and 1 minor sign TRANSMISSION OF HIV HIV MC mode of HIV infection worldwide Commonest transmission of HIV from mother to baby Chance of acquiring HIV infection following needle prick Percentage of risk of HIV transmission by needle stick injuries Transmission of AIDS in India in descending order MC mode of HIV transmission from mother to child Perinatal transmission of HIV Male to female transmission is more common than female to male transmission Heterosexual During delivery through vagina 0. transplacental.

preterm. Infectious in window period. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity activity reaction. Children are rarely affected Thailand Tamil nadu Nagaland December 1 30-44 years 1981 Generalised epidemic 15-30 % Pre exposure prophylaxis Providing treatment to 3 million sufferers by 2005 2010 MANIFESTATIONS OF AIDS Cells infected by HIV virus HIV commonly infects HIV infection HIV infection HIV infection associated with HIV in neonate CD4+ T lymphocytes CD4 cells Following needle stick injury. Southern Africa have 72% of total global burden. http://www. risk of transmission to child NOT a OSHA guideline for needle stick injury 3 by 5 implementation by WHO in 2003 Achieve zero level transmission of HIV by Seminal secretion are highly infectious than vaginal secretion.com 73 . Lysis of infected CD4 cells. Gamma interferon is acid STABLE Glandular fever like illness. Rate of killing is directly proportional to T4 molecules on cell surface. P24 is used for early diagnosis.infectivity is reduced by administration of nucleoside analogues. Generalized lymphadenopathy. lactation and non lactation. Presenile dementia Cannot be diagnosed accurately by current methods.medpgnotes. term. from conception. after delivery. Macrophage is a reservoir for the virus Caused by enveloped RNA virus. Gonococcal septicemia.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Percentage of transplacental transmission of AIDS Maximum risk of transmission of HIV Intravenous drug abusers in HIV is a NOT a high risk group for HIV transmission NOT a method of transmission of HIV Least common mode of HIV transmission NOT an effective strategy to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV mother’s milk 30-40% Blood transfusion High risk group Healthcare workers Intact skin Homosexual Vaginal cleansing before delivery EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV Epidemiology of AIDS First country in South East Asian region to report AIDS Maximum number of AIDS cases in India From epidemiological point of view of AIDS which of the following states in India put in group I (epidemiological cases of HIV > 5%) World AIDS day Age group of highest number of AIDS cases in India First case of AIDS reported in India If prevalence of HIV is constantly >1% in pregnant woman Without any specific intervention of HIV positive mother.

Atypical blood vessels have solid spindle cell appearance Kaposi’s sarcoma Lymphadenopathy HHV 8 http://www. Chronic diarrhea > 1 month. complains of visual disturbance. Fever.carni infection in HIV if Failure to thrive may be presentation. Weight loss > 10% Opportunistic infection Hairy leukoplakia Candida Herpes Seborrhoic dermatitis Depression HIV Anemia HIV Pneumocystis carnii. Cryptococcus CD4+ < 100/microliter Stage III Esophageal candidiasis. Cryptococcosis Strongyloides Aspergillosis CD4 <200/microlitre KAPOSI’S SARCOMA Kaposi sarcoma Multifocal tumor of vascular origin in a patient of AIDS Endemic kaposi’s sarcoma associated with Virus associated with Kaposi sarcoma Microscopically lesion similar to granulation tissue. Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia.medpgnotes. wasting syndrome Oropharyngeal candidiasis Oral thrush Hypogammaglobulinemia 50 Cytomegalovirus Cryptosporidium Mycobacterium avium intracellulare Rotavirus.com 74 . pneumocystis carni pneumonia. Persistent diarrhea Generalized lymphadenopathy. weight loss and fatigue.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Characteristic finding in HIV in children AIDS defining criteria Major signs for AIDS case definition according to WHO A patient with AIDS related complex is most likely suffering from Lesion associated with HIV Oral ulcer in HIV patients commonly due to MC genital lesion in HIV patient Cutaneous manifestation of AIDS MC psychological feature of AIDS Painful articular syndrome is associated with MC hematological manifestation of HIV Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) in Fungal infection associated with AIDS patient Meningitis due to cryptococcal meningitis occurs when Oral candidiasis Stage IV NOT an AIDS defining illness WHO stage IV does NOT include NOT associated with HIV infection CMV retinitis in HIV occurs when CD4 counts fall below In HIV patient. fundal examination shows bilateral renal exudates and perivascular hemorrhages MC causative agent of diarrhea in HIV patient A patient with HIV has diarrhea with AFB positive organism in stool Diarrhea syndrome in AIDS children can be due to NOT associated with persistent diarrhea in AIDS patient Commonest helminthic infection in AIDS NOT a common infection in HIV Prophylactic therapy in P. Prolonged fever more than 1month. Cryptospora Giardia. Candida. Mycobacterium avium infection. Penicilliuea marneffi. Transmission vertically from mother Recurrent chest infection Generalized lymphadenopathy. Dilated and irregular blood vessels with interspread infiltrate of lymphocyte and plasma cells.

diarrhea. NASBA technique (isothermic) P24 antigen assay P24 antigen More sensitive. loss of other activities ELISA TREATMENT OF AIDS WHO stage I and II WHO stage III and IV Anti HIV never given as rechallenge once history of allergic reaction to that drug in known Nucleoside Reverse transcriptase Inhibitor Abacavir is Side effect of Abacavir Abacavir hypersensitivity is associated with Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitior ARV prophylaxis ART Abacavir Abacavir Guanosine analogue Hypersensitivity HLA-B57 Zalcitabine.VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES MC type of Kaposi sarcoma in African children Kaposi sarcoma is tumour arising from Tissue of origin of Kaposi sarcoma MC site of Kaposi sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma common in Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with gut seen in Multicentric castleman disease Castleman disease Most important in prognosis of castleman disease NOT true about Kaposi sarcoma Lymphadenopathic type Vascular tissue Vascular Skin Lower limb HIV KSHV associated lymphoproliferative disorder. onion skin appearance Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia IL 6 Occurs in AIDS patient only DIAGNOSIS OF AIDS Unlinked anonymous serological testing is carried out in Antenatal material in HIV diagnosis is of importance in Full blown immunodeficiency syndrome is Screening test for HIV Marker of HIV infection in blood Most sensitive test for test for diagnosis of AIDS in one year old child HIV can be detected and confirmed by P24 antigen disappears from blood after P24 antigen Direct detection of HIV by Sore throat. Didanosine http://www. best investigation to rule out HIV Best method for diagnosis of HIV in childhood Compared to western blot. Stavudine Zidovudine. ELISA is Characteristic western blot pattern in AIDS NOT a method of diagnosis of HIV infection in 2 month old child HIV To prevent vertical transmission High viral titres with low CD4 count ELISA Reverse transcriptase HIV RNA PCR Reverse transcriptase PCR 6-8 weeks of infection of HIV High false positivity P24 antigen capture assay.medpgnotes.com 75 . Less specific Absence of p24. sexual contact 2 weeks before.

nevirapine. delaviridine Abacavir. Steatosis.com 76 .VIROLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES NOT a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Infant of HIV positive mother Zidovudine in post exposure prophylaxis Complication of zidovudine Zidovudine causes MC side effect of zidovudine Main side effect of Zidovudine Anti HIV drug known to cause myopathy resembling mitochondrial myopathy with ragged red fibers NOT a side effect of zidovudine Zidovudine is associated with Resitance to zidovudine develops due to Resistance to zidovudine develops due to In ART. tenofovir Dysphoria Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Effective for repeated pregnancies also Steven Johnson syndrome Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor. indicated in combination with other retroviral agents Acute renal failure Lamivudine Acts a substrate for p glycoprotein and action is mediated by mdr 1 gene. Undergo hepatic oxidative metabolism Powerful enzyme inhibitors. cause hepatotoxicity.medpgnotes. nelfinavir Amprenavir Ritonavir Ritonavir Ritonavir Saquinavir Saquinavir Saquinavir http://www. Vomiting. zidovudine should NOT be combined with Maximum peripheral neuritis is caused by Stavudine is ART not causing peripheral neuropathy Lamivudine is Maximum risk of pancreatitis Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nucleoside nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor Side effects of efavirenz Nevirapine Nervirapine Nevirapine is associated with Tenofovir Side effects of tenofovir Not a NNRTI Protease inhibitor Protease inhibitors Hypertriglyceridemia and Hypercholesterolemia seen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Treated with Protease inhibitors Protease Inhibitor in treatment of HIV Protease inhibitor having boosting effect Protease inhibitor with maximum enzyme inhibition Strongest inhibitor of CYP3A Weakest CYP3A inhibitor First licensed protease inhibitor Protease inhibitor with least enzyme inhibition Nevirapine AZT therapy Protects against acquiring HIV infection Nausea. all protease inhibitors are substrate for P glycoprotein coded by MDR gene Protease Inhibitors Saquinavir. Anemia Neutropenia Anemia Granulocytopenia Zidovudine Peripheral neuropathy Increased MCV Mutation at reverse transcriptase Mutations at reverse transcriptase Stavudine Stavudine Thymidine analogue Lamivudine Cytidine analogue Didanosine Efavirenz. asthenia is a common side effect.

VIROLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES
Basis of combining ritonavir with lopinavir
NOT a protease inhibitor
Ritonavir
Antiretroviral drug avoided in ATT with rifampicin
First protease inhibitor whose clinical efficacy is
demonstrated
First protease inhibitor used in combination
Non peptidic protease inhibitor
NOT a CYP3A inhibitor
Drug causing lipodystrophy
Side effects of saquinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir
Side effect of indinavir
Antiviral drug NOT causing dyslipidemia
Integrase inhibitor
Virus HIV intergrase inhibitor
Enfuvirtide
Enfuvirtide act at
Maraviroc
Side effects of maraviroc
Triple nucleoside regimen is recommended
for
Bone marrow depressive drug in AIDS treatment
Treatment of chorioretinitis in AIDS patient
Drug avoided with retroviral drugs
NOT useful for AIDS
Does NOT act against HIV 2
Triple ARV prophylaxis
IRIS
Immune reconstitution inflammatory
syndrome occurs how many days after
ART

CYP3A4 inhibition by ritonavir
Abacavir
Interacts with terfenadine, GI symptoms
Ritonavir
Ritonavir
Indinavir
Tipranavir, Darunavir
Saquinavir
Saquinavir
PR, QT prolongation
Nephrolithiasis
Atazanavir
Raltegavir
Raltegravir
Fusion inhibitor
Gp41
Entry inhibitor
Postural hypotension, allergic reaction
associated hepatotoxicity
Patients with HIV 2 infection
Dapsone, Cotrimoxazole, Ganciclovir
Ganciclovir, Cidofovir
Rifampicin
Famcicyclovir
Efavirenz
Lamivudine, Efavirenz, Tenofovir
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, seen in ART
given in tuberculosis patient
2 – 12 weeks

PREVENTION OF HIV
Universal precaution is applied to
Right method to discard dressing of HIV positive patient
A poverty striken mother suffering from active
tuberculosis delivers a baby. advice
HIV infection following needle stick infection reduced
by
HIV prophylaxis for rape victim
Post exposure prophylaxis of HIV blood infected needle
stick injury
For prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV,
the NACO recommendation is to give

Semen
Put in appropriate bag and send for incineration
Breast feeding and isoniazid administration
Nucleoside analogues
Combivir (zidovudine with lamivudine) 1
BD for 28 days
Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Indinavir for 4 weeks
Nevirapine 200 mg in active labour to mother and syrup
nevirapine 2mg/kg body weight to newborn within 24
hours of delivery

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VIROLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES
Dose of nevirapine during labor
Interventions to prevent mother to child transmission
of HIV
Vertical transmission of HIV to mother to child
prevented by
All are done to prevent maternal to fetal transmission
of HIV except
NOT a part of targeted intervention in preventive
strategy in spread of AIDS

200 mg
HAART, elective caesarean section, intrapartum
zidovudine
Cesarean section
Vaginal delivery
Providing ART

PRIONS AND SLOW VIRUS
Most resistant to antiseptics
Prions are
Prions
Prion protein catalyse
Prions cause
Prions are made of
Human prions (Non Infectious) rich in
Prion associated diseases
Prion protein disease
Microscopic feature of prion disease
NOT a prion disease
MC Human Prion disease
Cruetzfeldt Jacob disease is caused by
60 year old man, progressive dementia of recent onset,
intermittent irregular jerky movements, periodic sharp
biphasic waves in EEG
Spongiform degeneration
Florid pattern
Secondary structure of prion protein in CJD
In CJ disease viruses are present in
Cruetzfeldt Jacob Disease IOC
T2W FLAIR in sporadic CJD
NOT true about Cruetzfeldt Jacob disease
NOT true about Prion disease
Mad cow disease is due to
Mad cow disease is due to
Human cannibalism is associated with
Defect in folding of protein
Kuru is associated with
Spongiform encephalopathy
Familial fatal insomnia associated with

Prions
Infectious proteins
Lack nucleic acids
Abnormal folding of protein
Misfolding of proteins
Protein only
α-helix
Kuru, Scrapie, Cruetzfeldt Jacob disease, Fatal Familial
Insomnia
Caused by infectious protein, brain biopsy is diagnostic,
commonly manifests as dementia
Lack of inflammation
Alzheimer’s disease
Sporadic Cruetzfeldt Jacob Disease
Prion and Genetic factors
Cruetzfeldt Jacob disease
Vacuoles in neutrophil
Variant CJD
Beta sheets
Microglia
PRPsc
Cortical ribboning
Myoclonus rarely seen
Myoclonus is seen only in 10% of patients
Slow virus
Prions
Kuru
Kuru
Shivering
Prion virus
Prion disease

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78

MYCOLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES

MYCOLOGY
GENERAL FEATURES OF FUNGI
Fungi are
Sporangium contains
Yeast reproduce by
Rate of reproduction of yeast is
Types of fungi

Yeast like fungus
Tangled mass of hyphae
Barrel shaped spores
Sexual spores
Asexual spores of fungi
NOT an asexual spore
Thick walled resting spores formed by round shape and
thickening of hyphal segments is a feature of
Fungi without sexual cycle are classified as
Fungi of medical importance belong to
Does NOT show yeast like morphology
Dye most suitable for fungal demonstration in biopsy
PAS stains
Penicillium marneffi

Neurotrophic fungus
Endemic fungal infection is caused by
Antigen in Maple bark disease
Valley fever/Desert Rheumatism
In tissue, coccidiodes immitis produce
Treatment of coccidiomycosis
Side effects of amphotericin reduced by
NOT a fungal infection
Galactomannan antigen test for
Drug approved for fungal infection in febrile neutropenic
patients
Prevention of fungal infection in HIV
Posconazole

Eukaryotes
Sporangiospores
Budding
Slower than bacteria
Ascomyces eg Tinea, Basidiomyces eg
Cryptococcus, Deuteromyces (Fungi
imperfecti) – no sexual spores
Candida, Geotrichum, Cryptococcus,
Penicillium marneffi
Mycelium
Coccidiodes
Ascospores
Arthrospores, Chlamydospores, Blastospores
Basidispore
Chlamydospore
Fungi imperfecti
Deuteromycetes
Aspergillus, Trichophyton
PAS
Glycogen, Lipid, fungal cell wall
Cause tuberculosis like disease, at 25* C
produces rose color pigment, at 37* C
produce yeast
Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasmosis, Candida,
Aspergillosis
Coccoides immitis, Blastomyces
Cryptosoma coricale
Coccidioidomycosis
Spherules and endospores
Amphotericin
Incorporating it in liposomal complex
Mycosis fungoides
Fungus
Itraconazole
Fluconazole/ Itraconazole
Approved for prophylaxis of aspergillosis and candidiasis in
high risk groups

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79

com 80 . sporotrichosis. Has 4 serotypes Capsular antigen is detected in CSF.medpgnotes. phenol oxidase and melanin production Grows at 5* and 37* C. coccidioidomycosis. Blastomycosis Cryptococcus neoformans. common in immunocompromised. superficial skin infection. blastomyces. Trichophyton Epidermophyton floccosum Clavate macroconidia Exophiala Werneckii Malassezia furfur Malassezia furfur Microsporum distortum Trichophyton CRYPTOCOCCUS Trojan horse invaders Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype of Cryptococcus causing most infections Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus Cryptococcus Cryptococcosis Urease positive. Aspergillus niger Cryptococcus neoformans DERMATOPHYTES Dermatophytosis is caused by Spreads from animal to man Fungal culture slow growing colony. Phialospora. Common in http://www. anticapsular antigen is detected in CSF. few small microconidia Black dot worm is caused by NOT a subcutaneous mycosis Organism that do NOT affect hair Tinea capitis (endothrix) is caused by Kerion is caused by Favus is caused by Tinea cruris is caused by Tinea pedis is caused by Characteristic feature of epidermophyton floccosum Tinea nigra is caused by Pityriasis versicolor is caused by Difficult to isolate from culture Does NOT cause dermatophytosis in India Hair perforation test is positive with Trichophyton T.MYCOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES DIMORPHIC FUNGI Feature of dimorphic fungi Dimorphic fungi Dimorphic fungi Dimorphic fungi NOT a dimorphic fungi NOT thermally dimorphic At body temperature yeast. verrucosum Trichophyton Trichophyton Trichophyton rubrum Epidermiphyton T. at 25* C mould Candida.tonsurans. T. sporothrix shenkii Sprothrix shenkii Sporotrichosis. philaspora. Coccidioidomycosis.violaceum Dermatophytes Trichophyton schenleinii Epidermiphyton. 4 serotypes. inositol accumulation. strongly positive mucicarmine stain is usually diagnostic A and D Urease positive. histoplasma.

Pseudohyphae in culture Germ tube is diagnostic for Reynolde Braude phenomenon Candida albicans Candida glabrata Pericae Median rhomboid glossitis is caused by Mucocutaneous candidiasis is associated with Bull’s eye lesion in USG abdomen Diabetes.com 81 . parapsilosis Candida albicans Candida albicans Candida albicans Seen in candida albicans. Pregnancy Myeloperoxide deficiency IUCD user Candida C. Strongly positive mucicarmine stain of organism in tissue is diagnostic Melanin Cryptococcus Cryptococcus Cryptococcal infection of skin Cryptococcal capsular material Lung and meninges CNS Kidney Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus Renal transplant patient Micrococcus sedentarius (Cryptococcus) Cryptococcus Anticapsular antibody prevents recurrence Cryptococcus Cryptococcus neoformans Hydrolyse urea Indian ink preparation CANDIDA Predisposing factors for candida infection Candida albicans infection is seen in Candida is NOT frequently associated with MC fungal infection in febrile neutropenia is Fungal infection spread in infants by hand spread HIV patient.MYCOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Cryptococcus neoformans produce Eucalyptus camaldulensis is associated with transmission of Fungi that possess a capsule Torulosis Phagocytosis is inhibited by Cryptococcus has predilection for Cryptococcus neoformans has special affinity for Cryptococcus is least likely to cause infection of MC form of deep mycosis in India Common organism causing meningitis in AIDS patient Cryptococcal meningitis is common in Pitted keratolysis Soap bubble lesion in virchow robbin perineural space of brain NOT true about Cryptococcus neoformans Latex agglutination test of the antigen in CSF helps in diagnosis of Maltese crossing in polarizing microscopy Feature for identification of Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans in CSF is best seen by immunocompromised patient. formation of germ tube Candida shows mycelia and chlamydospore on corn meal agar.medpgnotes. hyphae and growth in serum at 37*C showing budding yeast. present in nomal feces Only yeast form Candidiasis Candida albicans Adrenal insufficiency Candidiasis http://www. OCP. indurated ulcer over tongue. growth in cornmeal agar at 20*C.

cave exploring Thermal Dimorphic fungus Non encapsulated In early stage indistinguishable from TB In earlier stage.com 82 . cause disease only in immunocompromised host Pneumocystis <200 Diagnosis is by sputum microscopy Silver nitrate staining (Methaneamine silver) TMP/SMX Cotrimoxazole Pentamidine. Common in north America Blastomyces dermatidis Blastomyces dermatidis (pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia) Paracoccidioidomycosis Cryptococcosis Liposomal amphotericin B HISTOPLASMOSIS Histoplasma capsulatum infection is commonly associated with Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Bird and bat dropping.MYCOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES NOT true about candida Czapek Dox media Drug of choice in Systemic Candidiasis Treatment of Oral and esophageal candidiasis Treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis in HIV patients Treatment of disseminated candidiasis Blastomeres are seen in isolates Candida albicans Amphotericin Fluconazole Fluconazole Amphotericin. Gomori methamine silver stain is used. Commonly involves lung and skin. cell wall contains glucans May be associated with pneumatocele. dimorphic fungus. Dimorphic http://www. mitochondrial protein gene sequence and presence of thymidylate synthase. azoles. if CD4 count Pneumocystis jeroveci Pneumocystis carnii diagnosed by Prevention of pneumocystis jiroveci in HIV Treatment of Pneumocystis carnii Treatment of pneumocystis carnii rRNA. cotrimoxazole BLASTOMYCOSIS Blastomycosis North American blastomycosis Fungal infection resembling squamous cell carcinoma South American blastomycosis European blastomycosis Treatment of blastomyces dermatides Yeast like fungus. dapsone. diagnosed by sputum examination.it is indistinguishable from tuberculosis. Common in AIDS patient. echinocandins PNEUMOCYSTIS JEROVECI Pneumocystis carnii is a fungus because Pneumocystis jiroveci Tree in bud appearance in bone marrow transplant recipient Pneumocystitis carnii infection in HIV. Bone marrow is involved.medpgnotes.

active against aspergillosis. microsporidium MUCOR Mucor mycosis Non septate hyphae with wide angle branching Ribbon like hyphae Voriconazole NOT effective against Voriconazole Angioinvasion.MYCOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Disseminated small nodules in chest with calcification Clinical History of farmer. mimics Tuberculosis.com 83 . histoplasma.medpgnotes. Etiology is Culture of periorbital pus showed branching septate hyphae Halo sign is characteristically seen in Monad sign Crescent sign of chest X ray Drug of choice for aspergillus lung infection Drug NOT used for Aspergillus infection HEPA (high efficiency particulate filters are protective against Fumagillin is used for Septate hyphae Aspergillus Aspergillus flavus Oxalate Lungs Aspergillus fumigates Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus. available and effective as oral and intravenous therapy http://www. Picture of Organism given Histoplasmosis is associated with Microconidia as well as macroconidia is associated with Broncholithiasis is associated with Methaneaamine silver is used to stain Metheneamine silver is used to stain Gold standard for diagnosis of histoplasmosis fungus Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Tuberculate macroconidia Histoplasmosis Healed histoplasmosis Histoplasma Cryptococcus. Longterm desferioxamine therapy is a predisposing factor. Fusarium Aspergillus Aspergillus Aspergillus Aspergillosis Aspergilloma Invasive aspergillosis Amphotericin B Fluconazole Aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigates. pneumocystis Culture ASPERGILLUS Aspergillus Dichomotous branching Aflatoxin is produced by Aspergillus niger produce Most probable entry of aspergillus MC aspergillus causing human infection Malt worker lung is associated with Common fungus causing corneal ulcer MC etiological agent in paranasal sinus mycoses Corneal sample revealed narrow angled septate hyphae. May lead to blindness Mucor Mucormycosis Mucormycosis Inhibits cortisol biosynthesis.

series of ulcer in row in leg. spread along lymphatics. L. Potassium iodide is the drug of choice Sporothrix Sporothrix schenckii Sporothrix schenckii Sporothrix schenckii Sporotrichosis Sporotrichosis Culture Sporotrichosis CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS Phaehyphomycosis Chromoblastomycosis is caused by Brown. multiple vesicles on hand. trichomonas Man Stool test Toxocara. along lymphatics Asteroid bodies Cigar shaped globi and asteroid bodies seen in Definite diagnosis of sporotrichosis Postassium iodide useful in treatment of Sporothrix schenkii.com 84 .medpgnotes. cultured on sabourad’s dextrose agar Gardener.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES MADURELLA Farmer multiple discharging sinus in leg not responding to antibiotics Madura foot Madurella Can erode bone. Slow growing SPOROTRICHOSIS Sporotrichosis Pricking ulcer on finger with axillary lymphadenopathy Series of ulcers in lower extremities in sub Himalayan area is often caused by Himachal Pradesh. spherical and septate bodies Sclerotic bodies Brown spherical septate bodies from pus NOT a zoonotic disese Any infection with pigmented mould Cladosporium Chromoblastomycosis Chromoblastomycosis Chromomycosis Chromoblastomycosis PROTOZOA GENERAL FEATURES OF PROTOZOA Protozoa belong to kingdom Cyst phase is NOT seen in Chief source of major parasitic diseases in humans Hematophagus trophozoite is demonstrated by Loeffler’s syndrome Monera Dientamoeba.gingivalis. E.tryptophan http://www. strongyloides stercoralis.

many children studying in the same school had similar episodes Intestinal amoeba can cause MC extraintestinal site of amoebiasis Seizures NOT commonly seen in NOT a method of transmission of amoebiasis Culture medium for Entamoeba histolytica Pathogenic and non pathogenic strains of entamoeba histolytica can be differentiated by Invasive amoebiasis can be best diagnosed by Amoebic lung abscess is diagnosed by Diagnostic test for amoebic hepatitis Amoebic liver abscess can be diagnosed by Gastrointestinal bleed.dispar Entamoeba gingivalis Nuclear structure retains characteristic of trophozoite Show erythrophagocytosis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba histolytica Man Asymptomatic cyst passage Young adult male of low socioeconomic status Flask shaped Caused by Entamobea histolytica. ulcers in sigmoid. Caecum is the most common site Caecum Entamoeba histolytica Peritonitis Liver Amoebiasis Vertical transmission Boeck Drbohlav medium Electrophoretic study of zymodenes ELISA Trophozoite in pus Indirect hemagglutination test Demonstrating trophozoites in pus Intravenous metronidazole Diloxanide furoate Paromycin.com 85 . Iodoquinol Chloroquine Hepatic amoebiasis Emetine (derived from ipepac) Ementine http://www. flask shaped ulcer Intraluminal amoebicide of choice Treatment of luminal infection Drug used for extraintestinal amoebiasis Chloroquine is effective only in Drug used against entamoeba histolytica NOT a luminal amoebicide Cysts are necessary for transmission of infection from one host to other.medpgnotes. Cysts are found in submucosa of the lower intestinal wall 22 zymodenes (10 invasive and 12 non invasive) 8 nuclei Phosphoglucomutase 4 nuclei Nuclear structure retains characteristics of trophozoites E.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba has Entamoeba coli Most important enzyme associated with entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba cyst has Mature cyst of entamoeba Entamoeba histolytica is antigenically different from Entamoeba which is NOT found in gut Mature cyst of entamoeba histolytica Trophozoite of entamoeba histolytica Erythrophagocytosis is a feature of Ingested erythrocytes seen only in Main reservoir for Entamoeba histolytica MC form of amoebiasis Commonly affected by invasive amoebiasis Characteristic shape of amoebic ulcer Amoebic colitis Amoebic colitis commonly occurs in Teacher presents with profuse bloody diarrhea fever 104*. Flask shaped ulcers.

non infectious. CSF on wet mount microscopy revealed motile unicellular organism Humidifier fever by Acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Toxoplasma gondii. stool in wet mount shows mobile protozoa with pus and without RBC Giardia Digestion in intestinal mucosa is inhibited by Recurrent giardiasis associated with String test for Giardiasis is best diagnosed by Drug used for giardiasis and amoebiasis Drug used for giardiasis Drug used for giardiasis Duodenum and jejunum Duodenum Malabsorption commonly seen.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS Parasites causing encephalitis Parasitic encephalitis is caused by Most fatal amoebic encephalitis Neuropathogenic amoeba Brain eating amoeba Primary amoebic encephalitis is caused by 30 year patient. Trophozoite form is binucleate pear shaped. motility resembles falling leaf 4 nuclei Giardia Giardiasis Do not invade intestinal wall. binucleated Binucleated Tennis racket shaped. Trophozoites and cyst are seen in man Flagellate. Diarrhea is seen Jejunal wash fluid is diagnostic.com 86 . Entamoeba.medpgnotes. Angiostrongylus cantonensis. features of acute meningoencephalitis. Balamuthia Naegleria. Acanthamoeba. naegleria Naegleria Naegleria floweri Naegleria fowleri Naegleria floweri Diagnosed by trophozoite in CSF GIARDIA Normal habitat of giardia MC site of lodgement of giardia Giardia lamblia Giardia Trophozoite of giardia Trophozoite of giardia Mature cyst of giardia has Infection leading to Malabsorption Diarrhea. no blood in stool Giardia Common variable immunodeficiency Giardia lamblia Cyst and trophozoite in stool Metronidazole Furazolidone (MAO inhibitor) Quinacrine (only drug approved for giardia) LEISHMANIA Amatigote forms are seen in Leishmania http://www. Acanthomoeba Acanthamoeba. Trypanosoma cruzi Naegleria.

hepatosplenomegaly. reversal of albumin globulin ratio Raise in gamma globulin levels Surveillance Transmitted by bite of infected sandfly. infective Gp63 Abnormal T regulatory action Trypnothione rather than glutathione Leishmaniasis Lesions around mouth and nose (Espundia) Aldehyde test is NOT good for diagnosis.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Amastigote Amastigote Promastigote Glycoprotein in Leishmania promastigote Leishmania is associated with Leishmania use Espundia Mucous leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is associated with Napier aldehyde test is associated with Aldehyde test of Napier for Indian kala azar Kala azar is caused by Meaning of kala azar Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Oriental sore is caused by Chiclero ulcer caused by Visceral leishmanisis characterized by fever malise. Causative parasite is cultivated in NNN medium.com 87 . No drugs for personal prophylaxis Hyperalbuminemia.mexicanaum L. Indian leishmaniasis in non zoonotic infection with man as sole reservoir. Hyperpigmentation Clinical history of person from Bihar with Biphasic fever with Hepatosplenomegaly and Bone marrow aspirate study Picture is given Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by Vector for Kala azar Most important reservoir for leishmaniasis More prevalent in india Double rise of temperature within 24 hours Most severely affected in Kala Azar NOT an example for human dead end disease Reservoir for Indian Kala azar Kala azar is transmitted by Transovarian transmission Which DOES NOT cause brain lesion Aldehyde test for Aldehyde test in Kala azar positive after Leishmanin test in NOT useful in Montenegro skin test rK 39 Medium for Leishmania Tobies medium Scheider liquid culture Nucleus contains kinetoplast (multiplies copies of mitochondrial DNA) Without flagella Flagellate. Disease is endemic in Bihar.medpgnotes. loss of protein and fall in protein synthesis. Man is the only reservoir in India Leishmania donovani Black fever Leishmania donovani Leishmania tropicalis L.tropica Leishmaniasis Leishmania brasiliensis Sand fly Case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis Kala azar Kala azar Spleen Leishmaniasis Man Phlebotomus argentipus Phlebotomus Leishmania Leishmania 12 weeks Indian leishmaniasis Leishmanin test Rapid test NNN medium Only for promastigote For both promastigote and amastigote http://www. Co infection with AIDS in now emerging.

PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Visceral leishmaniasis NOT a lab test in Kala azar Amphotericin used in treatment of NOT used Leishmaniasis Drug of choice for kala azar Drug used for leishmaniasis Only drug approved for visceral leishmaniasis Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis Treatment of mucous leishmaniasis Treatment of L. Melasoprol. Seen in chaga’s disease Heart RBBB Reduvid bug Chaga disease of GIT Trypanosomiasis Sleeping sickness Microhematocrit tube containing acridine orange Chaga’s disease Nifurtimox.major – Iran) TRYPANOSOMA Amphixenosis is seen in Trypanosomiasis East African trypanosomiasis West African Trypanosomiasis Acute disease is associated with Poverty disease Chaga’s disease Chaga’s disease involve Romana sign Most commonly affected organ in Chaga’s disease Commonest cardiac defect in Chaga’s myocarditis Vector for Chaga’s disease Mega disease Winter bottom sign (enlargement of nodes of posterior cervical triangle) is seen in NOT found in India Diagnosis fo chaga’s disease Xenodiagnosis is helpful in diagnosis of Drug used for Chaga’s disease Drug used for Trypanosomiasis Treatment of East african trypanosomiasis with normal CSF Treatment of East African trypanosomiasis with abnormal CSF Treatment of West African trypanosomiasis with normal CSF Treatment of West African trypanosomiasis with abnormal CSF Side effect of suramin Trypanosoma cruzi Sleeping sickness Rhodesience Gambiense High parasitemia Chaga’s disease Trypanosoma cruzi Esophagus and colon Unilateral painless edema of palpebral and periocular region. Suramin (urea derivative).medpgnotes. guyanensis Aminoglycoside used in treatment of Kala azar Kala azar is NOT responding to primary treatment. Arsenical Suramin Melasoprol Pentamidine Eflornithine Renal damage http://www.com 88 . Now the treatment should include NOT used in treatment of visceral leishmaniasis Prevention of leishmaniasis Diagnosed by blood smear. Benznidazole Eflornithine. Antimonials are useful Immobilization test Kala azar Rifabutin Sodium stibugluconate Miltefosine Liposomal amphotericin B Pentavalent antimony Pentavalent antimony Pentamidine isethionate Paromomycin Amphotericin B Hydroxychloroquine Leishmanisation (inoculation of L.

medpgnotes.com 89 . cracked mud appearance Trophozoite Oocysts develop only in Freshly passed oocyst Oocyst of toxoplasma found in Cat is the definite host for Tachyzoites are seen in Bradyzoites has Route of transmission of Toxoplasma Transmission of toxoplasmosis Dissemination of toxoplasmosis via Main route of transmission of toxoplasmosis MC manifestation of acute toxoplasmosis NOT true about toxoplasmosis False about congenital toxoplamosis Sabin Feldman reaction for Goldmann Witmer coefficient for diagnosis of Local cerebral lesion with ring on CT scan Toxoplasmosis in fetus can be best diagnosed by Prevention of toxoplasmosis in HIV Drug of choice for treatment of toxoplasma infection in st 1 trimester of pregnancy Drug added to Pyrimethamine in treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection Used in therapy of toxoplasmosis Toxoplamosis is NOT treated by Toxoplasmosis Usually asymptomatic in adults.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES TOXOPLASMA Parasite affecting eye Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Cerebral calcification and hydrocephalus in a newborn A 2 years old child with head circumference of 55 cm is likely to have intrauterine infection due to Hydrocephalus and intracerebral calcification Adult toxoplasmosis resemble Macula is commonly involved in Headlight in fog appearance. Encephalitis is rare in immunocompetent individuals Laboratory tests are useful for making diagnosis. Maternal infection after 6 months has high risk of transmission Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Infectious mononucleosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis of eye Asexual form. Infection is severe and progressive in immunocompromised patients Oocyst in freshly passed cat’s feces is NOT infective. Anthroponotic disease. invades nucleated cells Intestine of definite host Non toxic Cat Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma Slowly multiplying round parasites Blood Ingestion of Bradyzoites Blood Oral Cervical lymphadenopathy IgG antibodies are diagnostic of congenital toxoplasmosis Avidity testing must be done to differentiate between IgA and IgM Toxoplasma Ocular toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma in fetus TMP/SMX Spiramycin Clindamycin Pyrimethamine Erythromycin http://www. May spread by organ transplantation.

com 90 . AFB positive cyst Cryptosporidium Nitrazoxanide ISOSPORA In HIV patient with malabsorption. with acid positive organism. acid fast with 12 micrometer diameter Treatment of isospora and cyclospora Cyclospora Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole BALANTIDIUM COLI Largest intestinal protozoa Bigger size Ciliated large intestine pathogen Drug used for Balantidiasis Balantidium coli Balantidium coli Balantidium coli Tetracycline http://www.medpgnotes.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES BABESIOSIS Obligate parasite of red blood cells Babesiosis Babesiosis is transmitted by NOT an intestinal protozoa Maltese crossing is characteristic of NOT responsible for pulmonary eosinophilia Babesiosis is transmitted by Treatment of mild babesiosis Treatment of severe babesiosis Atovoquone is used for Babesiosis Caused by Babesia microti. chronic diarrhea. Resides in RBC Tick (Isodex scapularis) Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Tick Azithromycin Clindamycin + Quinine Toxoplasmosis. what is the causative organism Autofluorescence Isospora Isospora CYCLOSPORA 25 year male diarrhea 6 month. babesiosis CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS Cryptosporidium parvum Acid fast organism with oocyte of size 5 micron on stool examination causing diarrhea in HIV positive patient Treatment of cryptosporidiosis Common opportunistic infection in AIDS. fever.

vivax. P.ovale.malariae Vivax and ovale Vivax and ovale malaria Thrombocytopenia.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES FEATURES OF PLASMODIUM JSB stain is used for Stage of Falciparum NOT seen in peripheral blood smear Schuffner’s dot in malaria is due to Schuffner’s dot is associated with Malarial pigment is mainly formed by Exoerythrocytic Schizogony Radical cure is required form malaria caused by Enlarged erythrocytes Plasmodium falciparum cause Plasmodium falciparum infection in man is characterized by Incubation period for Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium with shortest incubation period Black water fever Only ring and gamete forms are found in Banana shaped gametocyte Maurer’s dots NOT seen in plasmodium falciparum malaria Accole forms are seen in Complications of malaria is common with Cerebral malaria is caused by Parasitemia is highest in Multiple ring and double chromatin dots Persistent exoerythrocytic cycle is absent in Post transfusion malaria is caused by Plasmodium malariae affects Band RBC are seen in Organ NOT affected by plasmodium falciparum 35 year male. sudden onset of high grade fever. hemolysis.com 91 .medpgnotes. on malarial slide examination all stages of parasites seen with schizonts of 20 microns size with 14 to 20 merozoites per cell and yellow brown pigment Plasmodium vivax attacks Senescent RBC mainly attacked by Older RBC’s are preferred by Reticulocytes are preferred by Duffy blood group antigen negativity confers protection against infection by Size of RBC are enlarged in Fimbriated RBCs are seen in Infective stage of mosquito in case of plasmodium vivax Incubation period of plasmodium vivax Fever every third day is associated with Plasmodium Schizont Pigment released from breakdown of hemoglobin Plasmodium vivax and ovale Hemoglobin P. P. DIC Multiple infection of erythrocytes seen 12 days Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Falciparum malaria Falciparum malaria Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium malariae Older cells Plasmodium malariae Liver Plasmodium vivax Young RBC Quartan malaria Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium ovale and vivax Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium vivax infection Plasmodium ovale Gametocyte 10 – 14 days Plasmodium vivax http://www. hematemesis.

dirus Antigenic variation Intracellular persistency Thalassemia. drug resistance in vector. in early stage of infection.com 92 . accole form and ring form Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae Schizonts Plasmodium knowlesi FEATURES OF MALARIA Cycle of malarial parasite is in sequence of Infective form for mosquito in plasmodium Gametocytes Period between blood meal and laying of egg Gonadotrophic cycle in anopheles Man is NOT dead end host in Secondary host for malaria Infective form of Malaria in vertebrate host Mosquito injects in to man Infectious stage of Malaria Stage of malarial parasite transmitted to man Among various species of mosquitoes belonging to anopheles genus. 48 hours Malaria Man Sporozoite Sporozoites Sporozoites Sporozoite Anopheles fluvitalis Female anopheles mosquito Stephensi. density may exceed 1000 per cu mm of blood Gonotrophic cycle Time between blood meal and laying of eggs.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Stages seen in peripheral smear of falciparum malaria Band shaped trophozoites are seen in Nephrotic syndrome is caused by Fever every 4th day is associated with NOT seen in falciparum malaria Monkey malaria of human is caused by Gametocytes. G6PD deficiency Hypnozoites Hypnozoites Appearance of gametocytes again Drug resistance in parasite. in vivax infection. antigenic variations in parasite Use of bed nets Hematocrit more than 15 Splenomegaly. 10-12 days in falciparum. sickle cell anaemia. sequestration of cerebral vessels by RBC Thick smear is used to diagnose parasite One hour after the height of paroxysm http://www. nephrotic syndrome Cytoadhesion.medpgnotes. one that is highly anthrophilic and transmits even at low density Malaria transmitted by Anopheles transmitting malaria in urban area Prolonged parasitism in malaria is due to Persistence of malaria infection is due to Malaria resistance is seen in Malaria relapse is due to Recurrence in malaria Recrudescence in malaria Contribute to Resurgence of malaria Factor NOT responsible for resurgence of malaria NOT true about severe malaria Chronic complication of malaria Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria Feature of Malaria Malarial parasites are easily detected if blood films are taken and examined Gametocytic stage Gametozoites Appear in blood 4-5 days after the appearance of asexual parasite.

pregnant woman in high endemic area Doxycycline Antimalarial Antimalarial Chloroquine Chloroquine Lichenoid eruptions.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA Epidemiology of malaria Most sensitive index of recent transmission of malaria in a community Most sensitive index for recent transmission of malaria Best indicator for malaria prevalence in a community API Annual Parasite Incidence Infective form of malarial parasite through blood transfusion Peak of fever in malaria coincide with the successive broods of Plasmodium ovale in India has been reported from NOT a malarial parasite in India Antimalaria month If API>2.medpgnotes. malathion spray should be done Malathion is used once Goal reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria in 2010 Mosquito acts as definite host Infant parasite rate Infant parasite rate Spleen rate Annual parasite incidence cases during one year ∗ 1000 Population Under Surveillance Trophozoite Merozoite into blood stream Gujarat.T wave change http://www. Detects histidine rich protein II. Detects aldolase antigens. Orissa Ovale (but now reported in india) June 3 round of malathion every 3 months 3 months 50% reduction DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA Jaswanth singh Bhattacharya stain and field stain for Blood smear in malaria used to identify Detected by antigen detection test for falciparum malaria Fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of falciparum Malaria Type of parasite Histidine rich protein II Immunochromatographic test.com 93 . Detects LDH antigen.visual deterioration. vector is resistant to DDT. traveler’s from non endemic to endemic area. detection of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen TREATMENT OF MALARIA Chemoprophylaxis for Malaria is given NOT used for prophylaxis of malaria Pyronaridine is Best associated with lumefantrine Drug of choice for malaria in pregnancy Bull’s eye maculopathy Long term use of chloroquine Workers for short period in endemic area.

com 94 . the radical treatment for plasmodium vivax infection after microscopic confirmation is administration of tablets primaquine in the daily dosage of Used for radical cure of malaria Contraindicated in pregnancy Prophylaxis of malaria in an area with P.medpgnotes.25 mg/kg body weight Primaquine Primaquine Primaquine Proguanil + chloroquine Proguanil Proguanil Atovoquone + Proguanil Atovoquone/proguanil 1-2 weeks before travel Type 2 resistance Falciparum malaria http://www.vivax Person wants to visit a malaria endemic of low level chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria Safe for use in pregnancy Antimalarial effective in pre erythrocyte phase in liver Malrone Prophylaxis of chloroquine. retinopathy Quinine Quinine Trophozoite stage Quinine Clindamycin Sulphadoxine + pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine Sulphalene and pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine Mefloquine Mefloquine Mefloquine Halofantrine Mefloquine Intravenous artesunate Artesunate Artesunate + quinine Rapid recrudescence of malaria Primaquine Primaquine 0.PROTOZOA MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Side effects of chloroquine Antimalarial of choice in chloroquine resistant pregnant woman Treatment for drug resistance in malaria Quinidine acts mainly on Can cause hypoglycemia in a patient of severe cerebral malaria on treatment Resistant falciparum malaria in the pediatric age group is treated by In chloroquine resistant zone the presumptive treatment of malaria to be given is Antimalarial which is a slow acting schizonticide Presumptive treatment of malaria in a chloroquine resistant area Drug of choice in chloroquine resistant pregnant woman in 1st trimester Prophylaxis of chloroquine resistant malaria Treatment of Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Food enhances the rate and absorption of Drug that be given simultaneously or with in 3 weeks of mefloquine Antimalarial causing neuropsychiatric adverse reaction Treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria Drug of choice in severe complicated falciparum malaria NOT an accepted regimen Drawback of artesunate Tissue schizonticide preventing relapse of vivax malaria Radical cure of malaria is done with In high risk areas. mefloquine resistant malaria Prophylaxis for malaria Marked reduction in asexual parasitemia in 48 hours without complete clearance in 7 days Synthetic cocktail vaccine SPf66 has shown potential for protection against in ECG Hypotensive shock.

medpgnotes. H.solium infection Fish http://www. ingestion by fish Strongyloides stercoralis. NOT a cause African eye worm Calabar swelling is caused by Lizard skin Observation of worm under conjunctiva and Calabar swellings is diagnostic for Raccoon ascaris Helminth found in mesentry Visceral larva migrans caused by Visceral larval migrans is treated by Drug of choice for Cutaneous larva migrans Small intestine helminth Larva found in stool in Parasites penetrate through skin and enter into body Parasites causing lung infection Pigs are reservoir for Fish act as intermediate host in Post saline purge is used in Intermediate host for Paragonimus Absent fragmentation.com 95 . intestinal flukes and paragonimus westermani Dew itch/Ground itch produced due to larva of Eggs concentrated in saturated salt solution Float in saturated salt solution Does NOT float in saturated salt solution Eggs having hexacanth embryo 7 year boy intermittent abdominal cramps. Trichinella spiralis Diphyllobothrium latum. Cylindrical body. Separate sexes.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES HELMINTHS GENERAL FEATURES OF HELMINTH Nematodes are differentiated from other worms by Cestode (tapeworm) Most anterior segment of tapeworm Helminthic infection resembling Crohn’s disease Dwarf tapeworm Smallest tapeworm Hymenolepis nana Egg containing polar filaments arising from either end of embropore Organisms with filariform larva as infective agent Heterophyes heterophyes is an Transmission of biliary flukes. E.granularis Fertilized eggs of ascaris. Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis Taenia solium. Necatar Paragonimus westermani. Ankylostoma. Strongyloides.nana Clonorchis sinensis Taenia solium. Strongyloides Ankylostoma. Necatar. Hymenolepis nana Opisthorcis viverrani Loa loa Loa Loa Loa loa Loiasis Baylisascarias procyonis Mansonella Toxocara canis Thiabendazole Thiabendazole Ascaris. Strongyloides Intestinal fluke Metacercaria. Necatar Trichuris. Larva of strongyloides. H. nana. Trichuris trichura. Necatar Ankylostoma. length can be upto 1000 – 2000 proglottids Scolex Anisakiasis Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis nana No intermediate host Hymenolepis nana Hookworm. Taenia saginata. GIT is formed completely Progressively elongating chain of proglottids (Strobilia). Ankylostoma. Clonorchis sinensis Niclosamide and T. loose stools on stool examination ova of size 100 micrometre.

Ascaris. buski F. Fasciola Clonorchis Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis Clonorchis sinensis Clonorchis sinensis Clonorchis sinensis DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM Diphyllobothrium Latum Infection is caused by ingestion of Human diphyllobothriasis results from consuming infected Second intermediate host for diphyllobothrium latum Megaloblastic anemia is caused by Plerocercoid Larva Fresh water fish Fresh water fish Diphyllobothrium latum FASCIOLA HEPATICA Man invertebrate host cycle is seen in Treatment of biliary fluke Fasciola hepatica Praziquantel. an egg was found in his biliary tract Ingestion of raw fish leads to gall bladder cancer due to Liver is the target organ for Clonorchis sinensis Fish Clonorchis sinensis.medpgnotes.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES westermani Man snail crab man cycle in Paragonimus westermani is NOT seen in Treatment of lung fluke Nitrazoxanide is appoved for Mechanism of action of Nitrazoxanide Paragonimus westermani Jammu and Kashmir Praziquantel Cryptosporidium Interferes with pyruvate ferredoxin dependent electron transfer reaction CLONORCHIS Parasite passing through three hosts Intermediate host for clonorchis sinensis Organism causing bile duct obstruction Biliary obstruction Helminthiasis is caused by Cholangiocarcinoma is caused by A traveler present with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and on investigation.com 96 .buski Bithinol http://www. Triclabendazole FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI Largest trematode infecting man NOT an inhabitant of liver Drug used for fasciolopsis hepatica F.

Acquired by eating pork Neurocysticercosis nd rd Brain Parenchyma. 3 Eye New onset Partial Seizures http://www. but on saturation with salt solution no eggs are seen. the eggs are likely to be of Larval form of Taenia referred to Consumption of uncooked pork is likely to cause Commonest parasite of CNS in India Cysticercus cellulose seen in Cysticercosis is caused by larva of Autoinfection is a mode of transmission in Most likely to be invaded by Cysticercus Comma shaped calcification in X ray Treatment of taenia solium Drug of choice for tapeworm infection Tenia solim Taenia solium Taenia solium Cysticercus Tenea solium Cysticercosis Taenia solium Taenia solium Cysticercosis Muscle Cysticercosis Praziquantel Praziquantel NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS MC central nervous system parasitic infection Neurocysticercosis is caused by Neurocysticercosis Multiple cystic lesion with calcified borders and contrast enhancement in CT scan MC Site of Neurocysticercosis MC manifestation of Neurocysticercosis Neurocysticercosis Taenia solium Acquired by eating contaminated vegetables. eggs are seen. 2 Subcutaneous tissue. Caused by regurgitation of larva. Acquired by orofecal route.com 97 .medpgnotes.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES ASCARIS Source of infection of Ascaris lumbricoides in man Associated with normal hemoglobin and hemocrit Does NOT cause malabsorption Ascaris lumbricoides cause deficiency of Medusa head colony on X ray Drug of choice for ascariasis Round worm infection best treated with Mechanism of action of albendazole Causes flaccid paralysis of ascariasis Drug of choice in worm colic due to ascariasis Adult dose of bephenium hydroxynaphthoate in the form of single dose Vegetables contaminated with eggs containing larval forms Ascaris Ascariasis Vitamin A Round worm infestation Albendazole Albendazole Binds to beta tubulin and inhibits polymerization Piperazine Mebendazole 5 gm TAENIA SOLIUM Longest worm Man is both intermediate and definite host for On microscopic examination.

flubendazole Albendazole and praziquantel Albendazole Niclosamide. There is difficulty in moving upwards and downwards.5 % Silver nitrate http://www.com 98 . Casoni test. CT scan showed cystic lesion with a hyperdense opacity within it. albendazole. located in the superior oblique muscle Cysticercosis is associated with Investigation for Neurocysticercosis Oedema in CT absent in which stage of Neurocysticercosis? Diagnosis of cysticercosis Drug of choice for Neurocysticercosis Neurocysticercosis Treatment of Neurocysticercosis Treatment of neurocysticercosis Drug of choice for neurocysticercosis NOT used in treatment of neurocysticercosis Cysticercosis cellulosae Cigar shaped soft tissue calcification CT scan Calcified nodular stage Immunoblast assay using lentil – lectin purified glycoprotein Albendazole Albendazole superior to praziquantel Praziquantel.saginata and t. False positive reaction in CFT Hydatidosis 0. cyst in cyst sign. Ivermectin TAENIA SAGINATA Longest worm Ova of t.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES 35 year old male presented with 15 day history of proptosis in right eye and pain on eye movement.medpgnotes.solium Intermediate host for taenia saginata Man is NOT dead end in Drug of choice for Taenia saginata Dose of niclosamide in tenia saginata infection in children Taenia saginata Can NOT be differenriated Cow Taeniasis Niclosamide 40 mg/kg single dose ECHINOCOCCUS Special feature of echinococcus among cestodes Tinea echinococcus causes Hydatid cyst of liver is caused by Hydatid cyst is caused by Transmitted by egg ingestion Intermediate host for Hydatid disease Vital layer of hydatid cyst Only living part of Hydatid cyst Fluid filling hydatid cyst is secreted by Hydatid cyst commonly occur in Hydatid cyst of lung common in Dropping water lilly sign is seen in Signs of hydatid cyst Sensitivity of casoni test Hydatid cyst ARE-C5 in countercurrent mechanism NOT a scolicidal agent Both intermediate and definite host are animals Hydatid cyst Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis Echinococcus granulosus Hydatidosis Man Germinal layer Germinal epithelium Germinal layer Liver Lower lobe Liver Cart wheel appearance. floating membrane sign 90% ELISA.

snowflake opacities in eye. Loa loa. firm. Terminal nuclei absent Long and thick – type I.medpgnotes. skin scraping contain Subcutaneous nodules are diagnostic of skin snip which is taken in Sowdah Onchocerciasis is associated with Adult worm of O.com 99 .infective Mf. malayi Terminal nuclei absent Brugia malayi Brugia Blurred and difficult to count Brugia malayi Intermediate host in India are Mansoni. bancrofti. short and thick – type II. Enveloped sheath. DEC is used in treatment Early lymphangitis stage Occult filariasis Filariasis Onchocerca volvulus Onchocerca volvulus Onchocerciasis Localized onchodermatitis in onchocerciasis Papular eruption. B. Gujarat Filarial endemicity rate Wuchereria bancrofti Wuchereria bancrofti Body is long and slender. non tender and mobile.malayi W.volvulus is found in Skin snip for UP. Mansonella http://www. Nuclei are blurred and so counting is difficult. Caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Adult worm is found in lymphatic system. hanging groin lymphnodes Subcutaneous tissue Onchocerca volvolus.ozzardi 8-16 months Dirofilaria imitis Man is definite host.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Used in hydatid disease Infection resembling malignancy Albendazole Echinococcus multilocularis FEATURES OF FILARIASIS Filiariasis is endemic in Percentage of persons examined showing microfilaria in blood or disease manifestation or both Organism commonly causing genital filariasis in most parts of Bihar and Eastern UP Hydrocele and edema of foot occur in Wuchereria bacrofti Types of microfilaria Non sheathed microfilaria Sheathed microfilaria Wuchereria bancrofti Sheathed microfilaria with nuclei upto tail tip Microfilaria with sheath and two nuclei at the end Nuclei in brugia malayi MC nematode in south india Brugia malayi Brugia malayi is common in NOT true about Brugia malayi Tail tip of microfilaria free from nuclei Clinical incubation period of filariasis Lymphatic filariasis is NOT caused by Filariasis Stage of filariasis in which microfilaria are seen in peripheral blood Meyer Kouvenaor syndrome Meyer Kouvenaor body River blindness is caused by Subcutaneous itchy nodules over left iliac crest. Involves lymphatic system. Bihar. long and thin – type III . Nocturnal periodicity Bihar and eastern UP Smooth curved in stain preparation Mf.

echinococcus Trichinella spiralis Ova encysted in muscle with hyalinised capsule.medpgnotes. membrane filter concertration method Humans Diethylcarbamazine DEC acts on adults. cheap and effective in Mass chemotherapy is used in Target year for elimination of filariasis Ultrasonography Xenodiagnosis. Ivermectin on microfilaria Microfilariae DEC 6 mg/kg/day for 12 days 6 mg/kg for 2 days Lakshadweep Islands Filariasis 2015 ENTEROBIUS Seatworm MC presenting symptom of threadworm infection Autoinfection is seen in Nematode residing in caecum and appendix Eggs causing intense pruritis in perianal skin Does NOT pass through lung Cellophane test for Feces examination NOT useful in diagnosing Enterobius Abdominal pain Enterobius Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius TRICHINELLA Viviparous Trichinella Larvae found in muscle Larvae found in muscle in Trichinellosis MC muscle group involved in Trichinella spiralis infection Viviparous Does NOT enter human body via skin NOT a neuroparasite Parasite causing myocarditis Muscle biopsy is indicated in Treatment of trichinella spiralis infection Trichinella spiralis Larva rest in nurse cell Trichinella spiralis.com 100 . Taenia saginata. associated with splinter hemorrhage and subconjunctival hemorrhage Extraocular muscles Trichinella spiralis Trichinella spiralis Trichinella spiralis Trichinella Trichinella spiralis Albendazole. glucocorticoids http://www.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES MANAGEMENT OF FILARIASIS Filaria dance sign is seen with Method used to detect low density microfilaria Microfilaria does NOT multiple in Drug of choice for Filariasis Difference between action of DEC and ivermectin in case of scrotal filariasis DEC is most effective against Currently given regimen for bancroftian filariasis Dose of DEC in mass prophylaxis of filariasis in India DEC mediated salt for mass treatment in lymphatic filariasis was shown to be safe.

no animal reservoir Dracunculus STRONGYLOIDES Stronglyoidosis is associated with Infection associated with colitis Unique feature of strongyloides stercoralis Larva currens is seen in Autoinfection seen with NOT transmitted by fecooral route Does NOT transmitted through egg NOT a water borne disease Diagnostic feature of uncomplicated strongloidiasis Enterotest for Treatment of strongyloidiasis Immunodeficiency Strongyloides Replicate in human host Strogyloides stercoralis Strongyloides Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloides Strongyloidosis Rhabditidiform larva Strongyloidosis Ivermectin SCHISTOSOMA Cercaria Natural habitat of Schistosoma NOT a cestode Redia stage is NOT seen in Painless terminal hematuria is associated with Katayama fever is caused by Swimmer’s itch is associated with Transmission of Schistosomiasis Liver manifestations of schistosoma hematobium Mature schistosomal larvae Veins of urinary bladder.medpgnotes. vesical plexus Schistosoma Schistosoma Schistosoma hematobium Schistosoma hematobium Schistosoma Cercaria from snail by skin penetration Symmer’s clay pipe stem fibrosis (Periportal) http://www. limited to tropical and subtropical region. portal and pelvic veins.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES GUINEA WORM Dragon / serpent worm Dracunculiasis Definite host of guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis is transmitted by Dracunculiasis is more common in Guinea worm infection is common in workers of Comma shaped calcification in tissue Guinea worm infection Drug preventing transmission of dracunculiasis Concentration of abate used in killing Cyclops Dracunculiasis Parasite does NOT enter the body by skin penetration Dracunculiasis Infection through ingestion of water containing cyclops Man Cyclops Rajasthan Step wells Guinea worm Metronidazole No drug 1 mg/L Eradicated in India.com 101 .

com 102 .medpgnotes.mansoni Splenic vein Schistosoma japonicum Small hook like spine Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis Nuclear pore filter Schistosomiasis Praziquantel Metrifonate Oxamniquine TRICHURIS Trichuris trichura Trichuris trichura maintains its position in the intestinal tract by Trichuris trichura resides in Lemon shaped eggs Eggs look like football with bumbs on each end Man is the only host in Trichuris trichura infection is associated with Rectal prolapse is associated with Infection does NOT affect eye Sputum examination is NOT useful in diagnosis of Does NOT pass through human lung No filariform stage. no invasion so eosinophil count is increased Anchorage with its anterior portion Caecum Trichuris trichura Trichuris trichura Trichuris trichura Chronic dysentery. calcifications in the wall of bladder and small contracted bladder Quantification of infection in Schistosoma hematobium Metrifonate is effective against Drug of choice for schistosomiasis Drug used for schistosoma hematobium Drug used for Schistosoma mansoni Schistosoma hematobium Cystoscopy Schistosoma hematobium Schistosoma mansoni Schistosoma mansoni eggs incite a fibrotic response in portal vein S. abdominal pain.mansoni Schistosoma mansoni S.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Helminth entering skin by penetration Investigation contraindicated in children coming with hematuria due to Schistosoma hematobium Peripheral smear is NOT useful in Cercarial dermatitis is caused by Pipestem cirrhosis Swimmer’s itch is associated with Rectal snip for Egg with lateral spine Schistosoma japonicum resides in Jacksonian epilepsy may be caused by Egg of schistosoma japonicum Parasitic infection is transmitted by direct penetration of larva Urinary bladder calcification radiologically which resemble fetal head in pelvis Hematuria. S. renal calculi. rectal prolapsed in children Trichuris trichura (whip worm) Trichuris Trichuris trichura Trichuris trichura HOOKWORM Old world hookworm Ancylostoma enters human body by Ancylostoma Penetration of skin http://www.japonicum.

skin rash in in a child Average blood loss associated with hook worm Ground itch Does NOT cause biliary tract obstruction Transmammary transplacental transmission is reported in Chandler’s index used for Warm load in community is measured by Chandler’s index Chandler’s index water containing 200-250 eggs should be considered Nematode present in jejunal mucosa Drug of choice for hookworm infection 103 Jejunum Ancylostoma brasiliensis Ancylostoma brasiliensis.com http://www.HELMINTHS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEW NOTES Habitat of ancylostoma Major cause of cutaneous larva migrans Creeping eruptions commonly seen in Anclyostoma cause Anemia.com . you can get the complete eBook collection by Medpgnotes by visiting http://www.2 ml/day Hook worm Ancylostoma duodenale Anclyostoma duodenale Ancylostoma duodenale Chandler’s Index No of hookworms per gram of stool Dangerous Necatar americanus Albendazole Do you like this eBook? If you really like this eBook.medpgnotes.medpgnotes. Ancylostoma carinum Asymptomatic infection Hook worm 0.