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DOCUMENTOS DE TRABALHO

WORKING PAPERS

GESTÃO

MANAGEMENT

Nº 03/2011
TreKker Model® - CASE STUDY ON TreKker Model®’s IMPACT
ON SELF-BELIEFS

Marina Ventura
Universidade Católica Portuguesa (Porto)

Magda Rocha
Universidade Católica Portuguesa (Porto)

Margarida Amorim
Universidade Católica Portuguesa (Porto)

Título Completo:
TreKker Model® - Case study on TreKker Model®‟s impact on self-beliefs
TreKker Model® - Estudo de caso do impacto do Model TrekKer nas crenças pessoais
TreKker Model® - Estudio de caso del impacto del Modelo Trekker en las creencias
personales

Título abreviado:
TreKker Model®
Autores e Titulação:
Mestre Marina Ventura (1)
Doutora Magda Rocha (2)
Licenciada Margarida Amorim (3)

Afiliação Institucional:
(1)

+ (3) Portuguese Catholic University

Regional Centre of Porto
Faculty of Economics and Management
Porto
Portugal
(2)

Portuguese Catholic University

Regional Centre of Porto
Faculty of Economics and Management
Organizational Behaviour Department-CEGE
Porto
Portugal

E-mails e endereço:
Marina Ventura: mventura@porto.ucp.pt
Magda Rocha: mmrocha@porto.ucp.pt
Margarida Amorim: margaridapaivaamorim@gmail.com

Porto. Rua Diogo Botelho, 1327; 4169-005 Porto. Portugal. Telefone: 22 619 6223; Fax: 22 6196291

. Instituições de Ensino Superior na Europa são obrigadas a focarem-se em habilidades e competências em vez das tradicionais palestras centradas nas habilidades técnicas (Comissão Europeia. Como resultado da implementação do Processo de Bolonha. This model was created to be used as a framework for individual skills development in an academic environment. The study had some limitations related to number of subjects and execution time and must be repeated in order to have more consistent results. fizemos uma experiência com a combinação de cursos de graduação. auto-eficácia e auto-confiança. Inteligência Emocional. 2009a). In 2009/ 2010 we experimented with combining degree courses. Faculdade de Biotecnologia. inteligência emocional e habilidades transferíveis. Os primeiros resultados após a intervenção parecem promissores em termos de aumento da autoestima dos estudantes. Educação permanente.Resumo Trekker é um modelo de intervenção concebido para estudantes que visa desenvolver o indivíduo como um todo integrado. Neste contexto. In this framework. Early results following the intervention appear promising in terms of increases in students‟ self-esteem. This article presents an exploratory study with students from the Catholic University of Portugal. the TreKker model was used to support the development of lifelong learning. As a result of the implementation of the Bologna Process. Auto-eficácia Abstract TreKker is an intervention model designed for students which aims to develop the individual as an integrated whole. Este artigo apresenta um estudo exploratório com estudantes da Universidade Católica de Portugal. O estudo apresenta algumas limitações relacionadas ao número de participantes e tempo de execução e deve ser repetido para ter resultados mais consistentes. Higher Education Institutions in Europe are required to be more focused on skills and competences than on traditional lectures centered on technical skills (European Commission. These courses would then both focus on the same skills development and share assessment techniques. Em 2009/ 2010. Palavras-chave: Habilidades. emotional intelligence and transferable skills. Este modelo foi criado para ser usado como referencial para o desenvolvimento de habilidades individuais em ambiente acadêmico. 2009a). self-efficacy and self-confidence. o modelo de Trekker foi usado para apoiar o desenvolvimento da aprendizagem ao longo da vida. Biotechnology College.

la autoeficacia y la confianza en sí mismo. el modelo Trekker se utilizó para apoyar el desarrollo del aprendizaje permanente. Autoeficacia . Continuing Education. El estudio tuvo algunas limitaciones relacionadas con diversos temas y el tiempo de ejecución y debe repetirse a fin de tener resultados más consistentes. Self Efficacy Resumen Trekker es un modelo de intervención diseñado para estudiantes que pretende desarrollar al individuo como un todo integrado. En este artículo se presenta un estudio exploratorio con estudiantes de la Universidad Católica de Portugal. la inteligencia emocional y habilidades transferibles. En 2009 / 2010 se experimentó con la combinación de cursos de grado. Inteligencia emocional. Emotional intelligence. Este modelo fue creado para ser utilizado como un marco para el desarrollo de las habilidades individuales en un ambiente académico. Palabras-clave: Habilidades. Los primeros resultados tras la intervención parecen prometedores en términos de aumentos en los estudiantes la autoestima. 2009a).Key-words: Skills. Estos cursos de entonces ambos se centran en el desarrollo de las mismas habilidades y compartir técnicas de evaluación. centrado en las competencias técnicas (Comisión Europea. En este marco. Instituciones de educación superior en Europa están obligados a estar más centrado en las habilidades y competencias que en las clases magistrales. Biotecnología Colegio. Educación continua. Como resultado de la aplicación del Proceso de Bolonia.

Chan. 2003). in order to deal with the current learning challenges and contexts. adapting their actions to meet their needs. 2009b. In the literature. 2008. one needs to develop certain attributes as a lifelong learner. 2001.Theoretical framework Lifelong learning is defined by all of the learning activities performed throughout one‟s life in formal. 2009. 2000). The European Commission (2009b. learning to learn. 2005). Washer. . Freire. Unlike technical skills that could become outdated as a result of new innovations. 2010) and The Conference Board (1999) stress the importance of transferable skills. 1994. non-formal or informal contexts. Printrich & De Groot. European Commission. The broad importance of establishing close cooperative links between employers and HEI has been highlighted (Arnold & Davey. competitiveness and innovation and identify the following key skills: communication in the mother tongue. According to Candy (1995. Young. sense of initiative and entrepreneurship. thus contributing to building a solid bridge between academia and the workplace (Boud. Edwards & Usher. civic or social perspective (Commission of the European Communities. Confidence is an important element in the learning process (Norman & Hyland. Lifelong learning is also related to “learning to learn” as an endless process that includes actions such as: raising individual personal awareness and the capacity of self-monitoring and reflection about one‟s learning and experiences (Bilimória & Almeida. The term used in this study is transferable skills because it illustrates that once developed they can be transferred from one area of life to another (Bennet. Estêvão & Silva. digital competence. 2010. Ranson & Strain. 2002). Vorhaus. 2004. social and civic competences. 2002. mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology. Yorke. The students‟ ability to make a commitment to their own learning and invest in it is also important for continuous learning (Adams. 2003). Dunne & Carré. and cultural awareness and expression. and to assess their outcomes and process (Boud. 1999. 2001. abilities or skills in a personal. Evers. Rush & Berdrow. 2009a. 2001). 2007). communication in foreign languages. It is suggested that Higher Education Institutions (HEI) encourage students to adopt lifelong learning perspectives. interests and stages of life. with the goal of promoting the development of knowledge. 1998). 2004. 2007). 2006. 1990. emphasising the importance of skills for productivity. Lifelong learners will be equipped with a range of resources that allow them to invest in their own development in a consistent and continuous way. transferable skills tend to continuously increase. transferable skills are designated in several different ways (Cabral-Cardoso. Edwards.

transferable skills can be developed primarily by being incorporated into curricula or worked on in parallel (Washer. 2000. 2003. It is important to develop methodologies that incorporate emotional intelligence in HEI because students demonstrate a better performance when their Emotional Quotient (EQ) is well developed (Qualter et al.. With higher levels of emotions management. Whittle & MurdochEaton. Salovey. In the academic context. 2002. 1999) and consequently. as well as on emotional skills (Damásio. 2000). 2000). This information is important to HEIs. Bedell. 2006). 2007). people tend to better manage instability and stressful situations. Robley. implying that it is as important as technical skills development (Clark. in order to prepare students for future personal. fundamental contribution from employers is important when defining and assessing the importance of transferable skills in the business world and in a successful lifelong worker. Holland & Beckett. Callister & Wallace. Chan & Caputi. associating technical skills development with transferable skills development (Brown et al. This is often referred to as a „bolt-on‟ approach (Cranmer. 2002). 2006. Klime & Leutner. The first option implies that skills would be embedded in the curricula. The second option can be implemented through modules dedicated to the development of skills. 2005). 2007). Ashkanasy & Härtel. and in addition. The growing interest in transferable skills and their inclusion in academic curricula in Higher Education is justified by a number of economic. 2006). Nevertheless. 2002. dealing with their own and others‟ emotions. challenges and demands (B-HERT Position Paper. to choose what and how one learns. Koeppen. depends both on cognitive skills. Developing emotional intelligence (EI) can result in graduates having positive levels of selfmotivation. in special by reflecting upon and communicating their problems (Ventura. in addition to the degree (Washer. 2003). lifelong learning. 2010.. 2002. 2003). Jaeger. 2009.. 2008). Hartig. Yorke & Knight. technological and educational reasons (Hager. high general intelligence quotient contributes substantially to intellectual and emotional well-being (Ciarrochi. 1998. Hager et al. they also have the tendency to be better leaders (George.Conference Board. (Evers et al.. . 2005). These interventions which aim to enhance transferable skills should take place whilst the student undertakes their degree programme and equip them for their future employment and subsequent lifelong learning. 2000. Jordan. It is important to highlight that the optimal decision making process. B-HERT Position Paper. 2007). People with high level of EI also have better resistance levels to tension and act more proactively. Biotechnology Skills Profile Report. as well as managing instability and change (Hromek & Roffey. Detweiler & Mayer. academic and professional flexibility. Jaeger. and also by creating a program that results in a certification in transferable skills.

. aiming to attain a certain goal in a given area and is a fundamental part of academic development (Lima. the Bologna Process is integrated in the Framework of the European Union‟s Lisbon Summit where the objective to make Europe “the most competitive and dynamic economy of knowledge in the world by 2010”. In conclusion. 2006. Companies are increasingly willing to recruit graduates from any course of studies. Powell. Warn and Tranter (2001) define skill as the capacity to use attributes and knowledge in an effective way. Biotechnology Skills Profile Report. Gardner & Whiteley. 2006. Malouff. Hall. as these can be applied to their subject areas (Huba & Freed. 2007). Schutte. Sherlock. Alic. Van HattunJanssen & Vasconcelos. Students acquire technical skills from their own experience and reflection: it is as important to develop student‟s critical thinking and communication skills. . 2000). 2008) which is specific to different study areas. provided that they present a high level of transferable skills (Brown et al. as opposed to the traditional methodologies centred on the teacher where a student had a passive role to play (Powell. Haggerty. it translates as new ways of teaching and learning. 2002) and have to decide the best pedagogical methodologies (Orsmond. 2004. Flores & van Hattum-Janssen. Qualter. 2008. Proposals on the adoption of new methodologies where teaching-learning systems become more centred on the students. 2001). For teachers to be able to incorporate these skills into their curricula. 1998. 2000. 2004). Through these skills. (European Council... The Salovey. Golden & Dornheim. they will also need to develop them and develop new pedagogical ways to teach it (Gould. 2009.. 2002). 2007). therefore. Mayer and Caruso (2002) model of Emotional intelligence was our framework and it is divided into quadrants: (insert Table 1) Technical skills can be described as those skills that differentiate a certain specialized area of knowledge (Evers et al. 2004. it has become important to embed aspects of emotional intelligence into teaching and learning strategies. Consequently. 2003.1994. 1998. Brown et al. It is possible to develop emotional intelligence in students in two ways: i) using evaluation measures to identify areas in which a given person is less competent and. 2010. ii) incorporating socio-emotional learning into curricula by training the teachers who would be facilitators in the emotional integration of experiences and in the transfer of these to real life (Clark et al. define ways of developing those areas through an intervention based on praxis and reflection of experiences. Cooper. 2007). 2007. Evans. students have access to a recognized body of knowledge which may be essential to the entry into a particular profession (Alic. Hromek & Roffey. could help to combine a range of skills with the teaching of technical aspects. Qualter et al. Tanner & Tanner. 2007.. 1996). Jaeger. In a broad sense when curricula innovation is referred to. Yorke & Knight. Savery & Duffy. Carvalho. 2003.

Yorke & Knight.e. Yorke. Making the journey is a personal adventure. Knight and Yorke (2006) point out that people can increase their likelihood of securing graduate jobs if they are able to demonstrate their level of skilful practice development to potential employers. Watts (2006) emphasises sustainable Employability which focuses on aspects such as skills development and lifelong learning. The aim is for students to develop individual mechanisms that contribute to their wellbeing. 2006) emphasizes HEI‟s role in the development of these dimensions. TreKker is used as a metaphor to illustrate that in life people have the control to choose their own path and the ability to define their journey or „trek‟. Marques.. 2001. identify and develop strategies to achieve goals. Vrasidas. 2004) in terms of technical and other soft skills. When teaching methods are meant to be “student-centered”. Hillage and Pollard (1998) and Kuijpers and Scheerens (2006) suggest that the actual labour market changing context is something upon which the individual has no control over. Tanner . ensures they understand what is expected of them. success and integration in a variety of contexts throughout their lives. López. i. lifelong learning. and encourages autonomy and self-regulation (Alarcão. Tynjälä. that in turn have a positive impact on technical skills. 2006. curricula should be broader in order to meet the market needs. identify and select information sources and evaluates their own progress in learning (Chan. so their choices are regulated by what the market offers. The TreKker Model is a proposed model for developing skills. Cowan. 2006. 2002). 2000). It is proposed as a model to support curricula innovation by developing transferable. the self-regulated student is able to identify objectives. 1999. To sum up. It will become more effective if it is truly integrated across the institution and accepted as part of academic culture (Atlay & Harris. reflect on their learning. 2006. 1996. 1996. and emotional intelligence skills. Goodnough (2006) argues that a more constructivist approach adopted by teachers will promote a greater use of self regulated skills by students and result in greater understanding. 2010). Students establish their own employability parameters in the sense that they have the necessary tools to enter the professional world and to maintain their employability. Individuals are responsible for their professional path development as well as their autonomy and personal management capacities. Purdie & Hattie. need to incorporate transferable skills in addition to subject specific technical skills (Hager et al. unique as each individual. Results suggest that employers from five countries view transferable skills as of greater importance than subject specific technical skills when recruiting graduates (Biotechnology Skills Profile Report. develop plans of study. Therefore.2006). they are intended to promote proactivity and construction of meanings which implies respect for the student‟s time. 1997. Knight and York (2002. 2000.

2007). These three elements are the crucial connection between the development of knowledge. Conway & Dhuigneain. Vrasidas. According to some literature (Humphrey. Matos. Reflecting on experiences and assessing progress are decisive for self-efficacy. On the other hand. understanding. Mahoney. experience. 2000. and even if it is a small change. 2002. iii) skills for self regulated learning. 2006). Zimmerman et al. Cruz. 2002. Purdie & Hattie. 2005. 2007. people with positive self beliefs are confident in their abilities and tackle difficult tasks as challenges to overcome. 2007). Coimbra & Fontaine. 2004. it represents a positive result. 2006. Robins & Pals. Subject tutors have an important role to play in the process by explaining it to students and by establishing partnerships with employability staff (Baker. 2004). 2008). Alves. 1999. 1991. Kame‟enui. may be more prepared to engage in proposed academic activities (Guidano. ii) heuristic strategies for analyzing and solving problems. 2002. thus avoiding these situations (Coelho et al. Gould. Tanner & Tanner. Therefore. being integrated into the whole academic experience. 2004. 2000). self beliefs are a fundamental factor of students‟ academic performance (Pintrich. Bandura & Martinez-Pons. thinks. and employability. v) emotions and positive attitudes related to their academic performance (De Corte. 2004. Viveiros. personal attributes. 2004. iv) self beliefs. Rocha. Vasconcelos-Raposo & Fernandes (2007).& Tanner. 1999. 2007. Young. (Coelho. Ferreira & Dias. Purdie & Hattie. It is important to reflect on Robins and Pals‟ (2002) view which stresses that self theories become relatively stable over time. selfconfidence and self-esteem development (Monks. 1996. Knight & Yorke. Tynjälä. 2007). University learning is dependent on the following factors: i) access to the support theory of that domain of knowledge. 2006. Pajares. Students are more likely to engage in this type of personal development when they can provide meaning to their daily life experiences and consequently. In general. Simmons & Simonsen.. supported by teachers and staff. Self-efficacy is positively correlated . they are the beliefs that each one has about his/her own ability to deal with a situation that influences the way the self feels. 1992). Gomes. cited in Yorke & Knight. Yorke & Knight. Thus. 1992). Zimmerman. The importance of Emotional intelligence in the model is related to its moderating qualities in the association between self efficacy and academic performance (Adeyemo. 1991. Bloxham. 1996. skills. In other words. self theories are elements which positively influence the process of developing skills. those with negative self theories doubt their abilities and tend to perceive difficult tasks as personal threats. Self beliefs are the beliefs that people have about their ability to reach certain levels of performance. Yorke and Knight. 1999). is motivated and behaves. it will become more effective for the student.. In this model it is believed that people can change over time. 2002.

Eleven respondents are males and twenty nine are females. Methodology Participants Initially there were 51 respondents in the study. through the individual‟s relationship with others and the world (Guidano.Constructivist approach. presenting lower anxiety levels when facing evaluation. but only 40 (N=40) participated in the complete study. 1994. and activities with which they comes into contact (Cannella & Reiff. it is expected that an intervention at the transferable skills level. making them more persistent and resilient. thus being capable of more self-regulated learning. Through the extensive literature review presented. and also. events. Constructivism sustains that a person creates or constructs their own understanding or knowledge through the interaction between what they already know and believe. with an age range between 20 and 36 years old. career is a developmental concept and should be promoted from childhood onwards (Super. Self efficacy is implicit when students are encouraged to be autonomous.Developmental . The inferior number of .with academic performance because it influences the way students accept challenges and see opportunities in obstacles. the development of lifelong learning skills. 2002). 1999. Zusho & Pintrich. In this sense. Richardson. Mahoney. Participants were students from the Catholic University of Portugal. 1990). At each life stage it is possible for the person to rebuild their reality and to change the way they embody concepts of the past (Kegan. The age average was 22 years (SD=2. 1997. Biotechnology College. self-confidence and selfefficacy. Pintrich. 1982). life experiences and the structures of meaning that have been developed throughout the life cycle. and the ideas. developing strategies to cope with emotional stress and demotivation.). will have a positive impact on self-efficacy beliefs. The ecological perspective is related to a holistic view that is intended in the process. to outline objectives and to plan their own development (Boekaerts. but as a reflection of the perception built in the context of personal history. Objectives The main goal of this study is to assess whether an intervention with university students based on the TreKker‟s model has had a positive impact on self-esteem. The Trekker Model features an Ecological . and demonstrating flexibility in the methods of study they used. 1991. 1991. 2003).69) which is expected since they were all finalists in their third year of studies (N=42). The constructivist model proposes the non-existence of objective reality.

(2006)]. by Martens. 2003). Vealey and Burton (1990) . again in a likert scale format.Scale of Self-Confidence. Both former procedures were carried out with PAWS statistical package. namely "Development of personal skills" and "Project". General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale. from “Totally Disagree” to “Totally Agree” [Adapted by Rocha and Matos (see Rocha. Mean differences between pre-test and post-test scores were performed appealing to paired samples t-test for a significance level of p<0. This method is fairly suitable for situations where we want to assess changes in behaviour or perception. again at a significant level of p<0. multivariate tests were conducted having Pillai‟s trace as criterion. or to facilitate change and learning (Almeida & Freire. Thus about a semester mediates both administrations. The first order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed with an effective of 51 respondents. by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1993). These subjects are both part of the curricula of the 3rd year of Bio-Engineering and Bio-Sciences. The first evaluation was performed on February 22nd. Instruments The following instruments were used at the study‟s two stages (pre intervention and post intervention): Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. and internal consistency studies were conducted using PAWS statistical package (version 18). from the 1st cycle of university studies. Design and Statistical Analysis This is a pre-test/post-test design using time (the two administrations levels for selfconfidence. with six points. These procedures were performed using EQS statistical program.. is a ten items self-report measure of global self-esteem.males in the sample is justified by the large effective number of females in the Biotechnology College. 2010 and the second one occurred on July 29th of the same year. The instrument also has ten items and is presented as a four points likert scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. self-efficacy and self-esteem) as factors. version 18. from “Nothing” to “Much” [Adapted to Portuguese by Cruz et al.1. This scale is constituted by 10 in a four likert scale response. by Rosenberg (1965). The teachers of these subjects worked together in order to respond positively to the challenges of implementing Bologna guidelines and to provide a teaching-learning environment appropriate for self-regulated learning. Procedures The model was integrated in two subjects. from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree” [Adapted by Coimbra and Fontaine (1999)]. . version 6.05.05. 2008)].

another 3rd year subject. define hypotheses and make decisions.The Project‟s subject was developed in a project-based learning strategy and aimed to develop technical skills in a specific scientific area while simultaneously developing transferable skills. . providing students with useful strategies for the problem solving process . At this stage. taking into account the reasoning process used . focused on researching and solving real problems. having a role that is active: . which envisage learning as an active process.After a self-study phase. The discipline of Project will be developed in interaction with the discipline of DCP and is based on Problem Based Learning. with a better definition of problem. organizing their knowledge in individual cognitive structures. we integrated the skills needed into the "Development of personal skills" (DCP). due to its nature. In educational terms. and previous phase is recycled. the development of skills that are transferable to other contexts. while teachers appear as facilitators and enablers of that journey.Tutorials / DCP. . by which students build new ideas and concepts based on their own knowledge. where they are encouraged to discover basic principles for themselves. as well as knowledge each one already possesses and what they need to acquire (learning needs). such as: analysis and problem solving. In practical terms this approach has several phases. but it also allows. Forming groups to discuss the problem. to reach a solution.Project: Scientific Tutor. real and relevant to the discipline. . It fits within the constructivist theories of learning. which is a practical and active teaching technique. this theory implies that learning and developing skills is an autonomous task carried out by the students. students prepare answer or solution to the problem. is presented to students without all information being present (incompletely defined problem) – Project.During the process. teacher can act as a facilitator.Presentation of the problem – in which a problem that is authentic. presenting and discussing hypotheses or pointing out gaps to be filled . decision making and self-regulation. Students select and transform information. critical thinking. This type of learning leads not only to the acquisition of technical skills specific to the discipline or area involved.Preparation and presentation of answer .after the process of defining problem and search for information is complete. group meets again to share results achieved. In order to accomplish these objectives. the group defines key points of the problem being discussed. which must be presented and defended. in which students take responsibility for the learning pathway they chose. cooperation and teamwork.

Responsible for discipline assesses proposals presented according to their educational component. Throughout the process. to those responsible for the discipline. Final written work: scientific paper format (according to Biotechnology Letters: http://www. “Planning and Organization”. critical thinking and teamwork.com/west/home/biomed?SGWID=4-124-70-35665545-0). building bridges for better employability. presentation of work developed.springer. Oral . Both disciplines should share scheduling. results and main conclusions of work (maximum 2 pages). In this process. supervisor should take responsibility for their costs and ensure that all conditions necessary for its completion occur. students will receive tools in order to develop skills to be evaluated in the Project. the following will be considered: Work developed. The final presentation will serve three key objectives: a) Provide assessment of personal skills . particularly in terms of communication. 3. organization. if in Project groups are working on planning. so that activities are consistent and interconnected. whether in the classroom or through team coaching. -A progress report (sent by e-mail) should be submitted. choosing the most appropriate to the characteristics of the discipline in question. c) Allow for creation of link between companies and universities. b) Provide assessment of the ability to solve a scientific problem and its associated skills – Project. Innovation and Change” Project course content .DCP + Project The link between Project and DCP will be as follows: 1.in its preparation and its theoretical foundation – Public presentation with companies invited .Biosciences -When submitting a proposal for a work topic. “Critical thinking” and “Creativity. -Any problem arising that could significantly undermine project‟s implementation. This report should briefly include objectives. DCP‟s course contents (All topics involve 4 hours of work between workshops and tutorials): “Oral Communication” and “Teamwork”. they will receive "training" in this area in DCP classes 2. should be communicated in due course by students or supervisors.DCP. For example.

First order CFA‟s on all instruments showed adequate fit indexes. all instruments were submitted to confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis (Cronbach‟s alpha) to study the psychometric qualities of the three instruments. secondly. financial and social implications of project developed. -Work will be performed in small groups. Oral presentation of work developed. economic. there will be trips to manufacturing facilities of companies involved. and students will be supported by companies in those industries. Results Results of this exploratory study will be presented at three analysis levels: first. students present work done in previous week and present plan for following week. -Topics will relate to Technologies used in the selected areas. -Where appropriate. psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure Self-esteem. environment or biomedical). Self-Confidence and Self-efficacy. -Work will be performed in real environment. -Evaluation process will involve those responsible for discipline -In this process following will be considered: Work developed.Project course content – Bioengineering -The discipline will include preparation of a work-project on a topic from the field of specialization selected by students (food. whenever possible including a brief analysis of organizational. “Development of personal .and third the participants evaluation of the intervention. This CFA was based on the results of the scales completed at the intervention prior stage (pre-test). suggesting that the Trekker model developed under both subjects. presenting good results. Results are presented in the Results section. -The topic may be proposed by students or teacher. Psychometric instrument’s properties: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Internal consistency studies Through first order Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the three scales in the study. one can conclude that the three scales used are appropriate to evaluate the intervention of the target population. -This work‟s main goals are to stimulate synthesis and teamwork skills. Although the study has an exploratory quality (N=52 in the first evaluation). presenting the Paired samples t-test results. as well as to foster mastery of the various fields necessary to an Engineering professional. meeting weekly with teacher. Final written work.

eta-square value specify a small effect (η2=-0.g. (Insert Table 5). once again it seems to be a growing tendency in the scores of self-efficacy. after the application of Trekker‟s model there was an increase in student‟s measure of self-esteem. e. as can be observed in Table 5. (Insert Table 3). 95. self confidence and self-efficacy. All consider that this development has contributed to their general performance. although in propensity manner. some students are uncertain or disagree with the ones selected to be developed in this specific subject. revealed that though there was not a significant statistical result [t(39)=-0. some seem to be uncertain with its integration into academic curriculum. Self-efficacy t-test for paired samples had a non-significant result [t(39)=-1. From these students.04). Note that none of these figures were statistically significant. (η2=-0.77].552] the scores attained delineate an increasing trend from pre-test to posttest with an eta squared statistic indicating a small effect. Results were acceptable.02). professional future and other areas. p=0. self-confidence and self-efficacy. Students‟ agree with the importance of transferable skills‟ development for academic performance. 5% consider to have developed transferable skills in the academic context. some students seem to have not understood the motives.skills" and "Project" fits this sample data. but again scores show a positive inclination from the pre to the post-test intervention. Also one can observe that all three scales present high Cronbach‟s values.60. objectives for the .668. Paired samples t-test The impact of the intervention in self Beliefs theories was evaluated among the 40 students enrolled in the subject “Personal Skills Development”. Table 2 shows the results (Insert Table 2). A paired-samples t-test was conducted to test the hypothesis of the intervention have positive effects on self-esteem. Concerning the process of transferable skills development in the scope of this subject and its quality. p=0. as previously described in "Procedures". The size effect was yet again small (η2=-0. See Table 3 for mean and standard deviation results. (Insert Table 4). 22 answered this evaluation questionnaire. although the majority consider them adequate. The test for self-esteem. Table 4 show the means and standard deviation for the pre and post-test occasions. For self-confidence the paired sample t-test also exposed a non-significant result [t(39)=0. In terms of impact of transferable skills development. However.01). Students Evaluation From the 49 students in this subject. in general.103]. though it was the largest of the three paired variables in test.

5% participated in coaching activities and the ones that did not participate mainly state that they lacked the time to participate and information on the activity. there is a clear improvement along the semester. Anyway. In terms of suggestions regarding the intervention teams . It was previously understood that the sample was small and the time of intervention would not be sufficient to make accurate assumptions about the .”.”. Nonetheless. it was mentioned: “Intervention would have to be more active and consistent along time. it becomes complicated to maintain the desired quality. 4.”. On the other hand. The one that agrees to some extent that his/her pedagogical practice developed with this initiative. these answers seem to demonstrate that teachers feel that they have already too much work and seem to be not available enough for the kind of work a project like this one involves. a program to complete and so much work. and skills‟ definition and performance criteria to be effective. Teachers Evaluation Teachers‟ assessment of the quality of the process of integration of transferable skills into curriculum and the activities performed by the Fs-Biotech team demonstrates their satisfaction and agreement. most consider that the teachers‟ proved to be able to motivate students and provide feedback in this matter. Teachers do not seem to consider that this experienced promoted the development of their pedagogical practice.development of these specific skills. “It is very hard to identify a relation of cause and effect. From these students. Discussion This was an exploratory study and should be replicated using a larger sample in order to obtain more consistent results. Students do not seek support in the development of these skills by their own initiative. states that he/she became more aware of the transferable skills included in classes‟ activities and that that could be even more improved.participation in the subjects and how it could be improved in order to guarantee the impact in terms of transferable skills‟ development. these results show that teachers might benefit from more training and preparation for this kind of activities. “In my case it‟s complicated because I was already identifying skills and the collaboration in the Project becomes a burden and with few classes. However. especially in terms of oral communication. They seem uncertain in what concerns materials‟ utility and the teacher‟s ability to relate skills with the subject. Another stated that the nature of the subject already implied the development of transferable skills.

Koul. respectively. 2009. continuity in execution time. 2000). but more importantly. 1996. Cunha & Kamoche. At the first level of analysis. Nadler & Tushman. Between the pre-test and the post test. Participation was mandatory for third year students and so 40 participants were submitted to the program and therefore assessed on both scheduled occasions.implementation of the model. Conclusions. 0. as literature points out. Kongsuwan & Suji-Vorakul. as well as speedy technological development. it is important to deepen this study in the future. Gow & McDonald. Global market demands. In this study. the labour market searches for employees that integrate in their organizations in terms of emotional labour (Morris & Feldman. although t-tests results were not statistically significant. Nevertheless. These psychological interventions need. This result is important for future research. Stasz. Regarding the statistics. in a changing continuum.14. results are satisfactory. with fourteen hours total for the three practical workshops. 1997. and three hours total for coaching sessions. 2009b. The scales can be used in other studies since they seem to present good psychometric properties (both in terms of indices of adjustment. 2001. in turn. 2009a. It cannot be said that the hypothesis was confirmed. 1990). 2010. compatible with contemporary reality and needs. These circumstances. 0. 1987) and HEI‟s may contribute to the development of this skill that enhances one‟s ability to adapt to different work contexts. but only that maybe the trend found is consistent with what was expected. . the intervention length. This absence of significance could represent two different factors: the low numbers in the sample. Rafaeli & Sutton. self-confidence and self-efficacy scores increased. there were a sufficient number of participants to perform the first order confirmatory factor analysis to the scales used in the study taking into account the parameters to estimate (note that each scale had only 10 items). every care was taken in order to present results as close as possible to reality although the size of the sample and the time of the intervention were not being ideal. products and services that vary according to different cultural patterns (Cunha. showing that the intervention performed could have had an impact on the student‟s who participated. self-esteem. 1989. and more integration moments at the end of the experience. both to be able to deal with the academic context as well as with future professional contexts (European Commission. However.05. results are indicative of a positive trend between the first and the second evaluation. and of internal consistency). students have to develop their skills.06 and 0. create the need for HEI to strengthen the development of technical and transferable skills. generate a constant need for new tools. Clariana. In addition. Wooldridge & Floyd. Limitations and Recommendations for future research In the current context.

On the other hand. We hadn´t evaluated the students employability and the self regulated learning skills. With this approach.Yorke & Knight. by both teachers and students. not only because of the small number of students who participated in the study. 2003) that could result from it. 2004. it is intended to monitor future interventions for a longer period of at least one full academic year. Literature argues that self-efficacy beliefs are fundamental to good academic performance and thus. we still cannot draw more definitive conclusions from this experience. but also because of the reduced number of months. Results lead us to the hypothesis that an intervention for a greater length of time could have a bigger impact. In general. since changes at this level are processed slowly (Robin & Pals. 2002). teachers from science and engineering areas have also developed their own skills. The other limitation in this study was there was no control group to understand how deep the model influenced the students. it was intended to contribute to students increasing employability. these were not statistically significant. the evaluation could support another assessment stage. although there were some positive changes. with the regular meetings that were held. As for the hypothesis in which it was hoped that the intervention would have a positive impact on self-beliefs. Zimmerman et al. 1996. Purdie & Hattie. One semester is a relatively short period to be able to verify changes at the level of the theories of self. Although we had data in the literature that say that the self beliefs have a positive impact in the employability (Knight & York. In this case. At the same time. sharing practices and strategies that might transferable skills‟ integration into academic curriculum and its actual development. which might be related to the subjects‟ program and curriculum. assessments and learning outcomes of the different subjects or curricular areas was created. 2002) and self regulated learning skills (Zimmerman. 2005. thereby enriching the findings of the psychological processes involved in these acquisitions.1999. results show that teachers might benefit from more training and preparation for this kind of activities.involving a larger number of students because of the significance of statistical inferences (Almeida & Freire. as well as to perpetuate positive self beliefs and self regulated learning skills. students seem to consider that they have developed different skills according to the subject in question. 2000). This experience of linking Development of Personal Skills and Project was informally assessed as being positive. However. 1992). it is expected that subject´s submitted to this intervention in the future will achieve better learning outcomes and will be integrated more easily into the labor market (Printrich. . which may be necessary to make them more aware of the importance of their active participation in intervention task forces. in all of these subjects. A curriculum in which contents. Young. and length of the intervention sessions. Furthermore. we can conclude that.

more students should be included and a control group should also exist. and as we already said throughout the article. in terms of promoting employability and making students‟ adaptation in the global changes easier. Without this assumption we recognize that despite the model indicated a positive effect on the self-beliefs of the students we can‟t assume that the results of the model are concrete. we assume that this model is still a work in progress. execution time should be lengthened. We are confident that this model will be very useful for Bologna Process as to Lisbon strategy implementation.In conclusion. .

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Mayer and Caruso (2002) Table 2 Scales first order confirmatory factor analysis fit indexes and Cronbach alpha values Scales Self-Esteem scale Self-Confidence scale Self-Efficacy scale 41.13 0.05 Table 3 T-test results for paired samples: Self-Esteem Scale (pre-test and post-test).01(32) 0. None of the results were significant.70 0. Mayer and Caruso’s model: the quadrants Perceiving Emotions Using Emotions The ability to accurately perceive one‟s own. .44 Note.05.07 0. Table 4 T-test results for paired samples: Self-Confidence Scale (pre-test and post-test).30 0. None of the results were significant.073 0.08 0. Note: Based upon Salovey. N=40 Self-esteem Pre-test Post-test Mean Standard Deviation 5.06 0.07 0. Significance was tested for a p≤0. Understanding Emotions Managing Emotions The ability to understand.9 Fit Indexes/Cronbach’s α Chi square (df) p SRMR RMSEA CFI Cronbach’s α Note.88(31) 0.95 87.08 0. as well as other‟s The ability to use emotions to enhance an activity or relationship.77 5.13 0. and to predict the way in which feelings will evolve and change.12 0. emotional state.24 0.15(33) 0.05.97 88. N=40 Self-confidence Pre-test Post-test Mean Standard Deviation 3.1 41.Tables Table 1 Salovey. what makes a person feel a certain way. Chi-squared value significant at p.9 38.16 0. Significance was tested for a p≤0.<0.73 Note.47 3. The ability to be open to our own feelings and to those of others.96 89.

Significance was tested for a p≤0. N=40 Self-efficacy Pre-test Post-test Mean Standard Deviation 3.Table 5 T-test results for paired samples: Self-Efficacy Scale (pre-test and post-test).05.34 0.20 0.50 3. None of the results were significant. .40 Note.