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Before construction starts,

Site Investigation
The general contractor orders a survey to be made of adjacent structures and terrain, both for the record and to become knowledgeable of
local conditions. A survey is then made to lay out construction.
Mobilization and Demobilization
Temporary Facilities, Temporary Electrical and Water Supply, Field offices for the contractor are erected on or near the site.
If desirable for safety reasons to protect passersby
Erection of fence around the site and an overhead protective cover, called a bridge.
Structures required to be removed from the site are demolished and the debris is carted away. (Optional)
Next, the site is prepared to receive the building. This work may involve

Grading the top surface to bring it to the proper elevation


Excavating to required depths for basement and foundations
Shifting of utility piping.
For deep excavations, earth sides are braced and the bottom is drained. (Optional)

Major construction starts

Placement of foundations, on which the building rests.


Erection of load-bearing walls and structural framing.
Depending on the height of the building, Ladders, stairs, or elevators maybe installed to enable construction personnel to travel
from floor to floor and eventually to the roof.
Also, hoists may be installed to lift materials to upper levels.
If needed, temporary flooring may be placed for use of personnel.
As the building rises, pipes, ducts, and electric conduit and wiring are installed.
Then, permanent floors, exterior walls, and windows are constructed.
At the appropriate time, Permanent elevators are installed.
If required, fireproofing is placed for steel framing.
Next, fixed partitions are built and the roof and its covering, or roofing, are put in place.

Finishing operations follow.


These include installation of the following:
ceilings;
tile;
wallboard;
wall paneling;
plumbing fixtures;
air-conditioning equipment;
heating and cooling devices for rooms;
escalators;
floor coverings;
window glass;
movable partitions;
doors;
finishing hardware;
electrical equipment and apparatus,

including lighting fixtures,


switches, outlets, transformers, and controls; and other items called for in the drawings and specifications.
Field offices, fences, bridges, and other temporary construction must be removed from the site.
Utilities, such as gas, electricity, and water, are hooked up to the building.
The site is landscaped and paved.
Finally, the building interior is painted and cleaned.
The owners/representatives then give the building a final inspection.