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1) A project has an initial investment of Rs. 1, 00,000. It will produce Cash flow after Tax of Rs.

25,000 per
annum for seven years. Compute the payback period for the project.
2) A project has an initial investment of Rs. 1, 00,000 and the following investments will also be required to stay
in the scheme 50 thousand 25 thousand 12.5 thousand at the end of 1st , 2nd and 3rd year respectively . It will
produce Cash flow after Tax of Rs. 25,000 per annum for ten years. Compute the payback period for the
project.
3) Project X has an initial investment of Rs. 10 Lakhs. Its Cash flows for five years are 4, 00,000, Rs 3, 00,000,
Rs 2, 00,000, Rs 1, 64,000 and Rs 3, 40,000. Determine the payback period.
4) Project L requires buying a machine of Rs 10 Lakhs with salvage value of 10 ,000 at the end of 5 th year and
yields Profit after Tax as follows
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Profit after Tax (Rs )
50,000 75,000
125,000
130,000
80,000
5) New thoughts company is evaluating an investment proposal of Rs 306,000 with expected cash flows asYear
1
2
3
4
100,00 120,00
CFAT (Rs )
150,000
100,000
0
0
6) FMCG ltd. is planning investing in a project that costs Rs 500,000. The estimated salvage value after 5 years
is 15, 000, however the company wanted to depreciate only 80% of the machine value; tax rate is 30%. The
company uses straight line method of depreciation for tax purposes and its cash flow before tax are as follows:
YEAR
1
2
3
4
5
100,00
CFBT 100,000
150,000 150,000 250,000
0
Determine the following: Payback period
and Average rate of return.
7) Ajay ltd is considering the following investment projects:
Investmen
Profits
Profits
Profits
Profits
Profits
t
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
Amount (Rs ) (250,000)
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
10,000
The residual value at the end of the project is expected to be Rs 40,000 and depreciation of the original
investment is on straight line basis. Using average profits and average capital employed calculate the ARR for
the project and the payback period.
8) Zion ltd is planning for the purchase of machinery that would cost Rs 1, 00,000 with the expectation that Rs
20,000 per year could be saved in after-tax cash costs if the machine was acquired. The machines estimated
useful life is ten years, with no residual value, and would be depreciated by the straight-line method. You are
required to calculate the payback period.
9) Project K has an initial investment of Rs. 10 Lakhs. Its Cash flows for five years are 3, 00,000,
Rs 3,
60,000, Rs 3, 00,000, Rs 2, 64,000 and Rs 2, 40,000. Determine the Payback Period assuming a discount rate
of 10% p.a.
10) Compute ARR if Cost of asset is Rs 2,00,000, useful life=5years, Cash Flows after Taxes=Rs 86,000 p.a.
11) A ltd. Is considering a new 5-year project. Its investment costs and annual profits are projected as followsInvestment
Profits
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
40,00 30,00 20,00 10,00 10,00
Amount (Rs)
(250,000)
0
0
0
0
0
Residual value at the end of the project is expected to be Rs 40,000 and Depreciation of the Original
Investment is on straight line basis. Using Average Capital Employed, calculate ARR for the project and also
the Payback Period.
12) A doctor is planning to buy an X-ray machine for his hospital, He has two options. He can either purchase it
by making a cash payment of Rs 5 Lakhs or Rs 615,000 are to be paid in six equal annual instalments. Which
option do you suggest to the Doctor assuming the Rate of Return is 12%? Present Value of Rs 1 at 12% rate of
discount for 6 years is 4.111.

13) Bhilwara Co.s cost of capital is 10% and it is subject to 50% tax rate. The Company is considering buying a
new finishing machine. The machine will cost Rs 2 Lakhs and will reduce materials waste by an estimated
amount of Rs 50,000 a year. The machine will last for 10 years and will have a zero salvage value. Assume
straight-line method of depreciation on asset.
a)
Compute the Annual Cash Inflows, Present Value, Net Present Value, and Profitability Index.
b)
Should the Company purchase the new finishing machine?
14) A company proposes to install a machine involving a capital cost of Rs 360,000. The life of the machine is 5
years and its salvage value at the end of the life is nil. The machine will produce the net operating income
after depreciation of Rs 68,000 per annum. The companys Tax Rate is 45%. Calculate IRR of the proposal.
The PV factors for 5 years is as underDiscounting Factor
14
15
16
17
18
Cumulative Factor
3.43
3.35
3.27
3.20
3.13
15) The following cash-flow streams need to be analysedCash-Flow Stream Year end 1 Year end 2 Year end 3 Year end 4 Year end 5
A
Rs 100
Rs 200
Rs 300
B
Rs 600
Rs 200
Rs 300
C
Rs 1,200
D
Rs 200
Rs
Rs 300
a)
Calculate the terminal value of each stream at the end of year 5 with an interest rate of 10%.
b)
Compute present value of each stream if the discount rate is 14%.
c)
Compute the IRR of each stream, if the initial investment at time 0 were Rs 600.
16) Given the following table of discounting factorsGiven
Discount
below factor
are data on a Capital
15% Project M:
14%
Annual Cost
Saving
Rs 60,000
1 year
0.869
0.877
Useful life
2 years
0.756
0.769 4 years
IRR 3 years
0.658
0.675 15 %
Profitability
Index
4 years
0.572
0.592 1.604
Salvage Value
0
Total
2.855
2.913

You
13%are required12%
to calculate for this project M
1.
Cost of Project
0.885
0.893
2.
Payback period
0.783
0.797
3.
Cost of Capital
0.693
0.712
0.613
0.636
4.
Net Present value
2.974
3.038

17) ABC ltd is evaluating the purchase of a new project with a depreciable base of Rs 100,000; expected
economic life of 4 years and change in earnings before taxes and depreciation of Rs 45,000 in year 1, Rs
30,000 in year 2, Rs 25,000 in year 3 and Rs 35,000 in year 4. Assume straight-line depreciation and a 20%
tax rate. You are required to compute relevant cash flows.
18) Dryash ltd is considering buying a new machine which would have a useful economic life of five years, a cost
of Rs 125,000 and a scrap value of Rs 30,000 with 80% of the cost being payable at the start of the project and
20% at the end of the first year. The machine would produce 50,000 units per annum of a new project with an
estimated selling price of Rs 3 per unit. Direct costs would be Rs 1.75 per unit and annual fixed costs,
including depreciation calculated on a straight-line basis, would be Rs 40,000 per annum.
In the first year and the second year, special sales promotion expenditure, not included in the above costs,
would be incurred, amounting to Rs 10,000 and Rs 15,000 respectively.
Evaluate the project using the NPV method of investment appraisal, assuming the companys cost of capital to
be 10%.
19) You are required to compute the internal rate of return (IRR) of the project given below and advise whether
the project should be accepted if the company requires a minimum return of 17%.
Time
Rs
0
(4,000)
1
1,200
2
1.410
3
1,875
4
1,150
20) Beetal ltd is trying to decide whether to buy a machine for Rs 80,000 which will save costs of Rs 20,000 per
annum for 5 years and which will have a resale value of Rs 10,000 at the end of 5 years. If it is the
companys policy to undertake projects only if they are expected to yield a return of 10% or more, you are
required to advise Beetal ltd whether to undertake this project or not.

21) Mahalaxmi ltd is considering to spend Rs 400,000 on a project to manufacture and sell a new product. The
unit variable cost of the product is Rs 6. It is expected that the new product can be sold at 10 Rs per unit. The
annual fixed cost (only cash) will be Rs 20,000. The cost of capital of the company is 15%. The only uncertain
factor is the volume of sales. To start with, the company expects to sell at least 40,000 units during the first
year. Ignore taxation. You are required to calculate:
a)
Net present Value of the project based on the sales expected during the first year and on the assumption
that it will continue at the same level during the remaining years.
b)
The minimum volume of sales required to justify the project.
22) A plant which costs Rs 16,00,000 has a life of 10 years. At the end of its life, its estimated scrap value is Rs
100,000. The firms cut-off rate (cost of capital) is 12%. The plant is expected to yield an annual profit after
tax of Rs 140,000, depreciation being reckoned on straight line basis for tax purposes. At the end of the tenth
year is 0.322.Assume tax rate 30%. Ascertain the Cash flows from the plant for each year and the NPV of the
plant.
23) A firm is considering a project which has an initial cash outflow of Rs 1, 00,000 with cash inflows of Rs
22,300, Rs 25,800, Rs 35,000, Rs 45,000 and 70,000 for next five years.
a)
Calculate the NPV for the project if the cost of capital is 10%. What is projects IRR?
b)
Recompute the projects NPV assuming a cost of capital of 10% for 1 st two years, 12% for next two
years, 13% for last year. Should the project be accepted.
24) Compute ARR if cost of asset is Rs 200,000, useful life 5 years, Cash flows Rs 86,000 p.a.
25) LIFE SAVER Hospital is considering a Blood Testing Machine (BTM) machine costing Rs. 1, 50, 000. This
machine will require a room, which is currently being used by Hospital as its in house medical shop. This
medical shop yields a contribution of 25, 000 p.a. (before taxes). The projected life of the machine is 8 years,
and it has an expected salvage value of Rs. 10,000 at the end of 8 th year. The annual operating cost of the
machine is 10, 000. It is expected to generate revenues of 85,000 per year for 8 years. At the end of 8 years the
machine was sold for 15, 000. Presently the Hospital is outsourcing the blood testing and earning commission
income of Rs. 6000 per annum, net of taxes. Assume tax on business gain at 25% and on capital gain as 50%.
The hospital requires your expert opinion weather to buy the machine or still outsource it? PV factor 10%.
26) A company is considering the proposal of taking up a new project which requires an investment of Rs. 400
lakhs on machinery and other assets. The project is expected to yield the following Earnings ( before tax and
depreciation ) over the next 5 years:
Year
Earnings (in lakh)
1
160
2
160
3
180
4
180
5
150
The cost of raising the additional funds is 12% and assets have to be depreciated at SLM basis. The scarp
value of the machine was estimated as 50, 000. At the end of 5 th year the machine got obsolete and had nil
value on scrap. Income tax rate applicable to company was 50%.
Calculate NPV and state you comments to the management. Also calculate the IRR ( hint 10 18 )%.
27) Your Company is considering a proposal of installing a Cleaning machine. The equipment would involve a
cash outlay of Rs. 6,00,000 and net working capital of Rs. 80,000. The expected life of the project is 5 years
withput any salvage value.
The estimated before tax cash inflows are given below
YEAR
1
2
3
4
5
Before Tax Cash Inflow (Rs 000s)
240
275
210
180
160
The applicable income tax rate to the company is 35%. If the company opportunity cost is 12% , calculate
the machiness (A) discounted pay back (B) NPV (C) IRR. Hint ( 12-15) %.
28) PAISA JUGAD Ltd. is a company where you are the finance manager. The production manager has raised a
demand for the latest model of ZORB machine the cash price of which cost 10, 00, 000. You have 3 options to
buy the machine 1st outright buy, 2nd loan buy and 3rd lease buy.
In the 1st option there would be a one time cash payment at the start of the project. On this option the
suppliers have agreed to offer a 2.5% discount on the list price.
In the 2nd option APNA SAPNA bank is willing to offer you a loan of the list price at 14%. The
is repayable in 5 instalments of 2,00,000 each plus interest.

loan

In the 3rd option APNA SAPNA bank has given you an option of lease rentals of 305,410 p.a. for next
5 years.
The CEO of the company trusts your expertise and has demanded an answer from you for the best possible
was of financing the machine. Cost of your funds 18% , tax rate 25%.
29) C ltd. Is considering investing in a project. The expected investment in the project will be 2,00,000 , with
project life of 5 years and 10, 000 salvage value. The expected Net Cash Inflows after depreciation but before
tax during the life of the project will be
YEAR
1
2
3
4
5
Rs.
85000
100000
80000
80000
40000
The project will be depreciated at the rate of 20% on original cost. The company is subject to 30% tax rate .
Calculate
(1) Payback Period, (2) Average rate of return (ARR), (3) NPV and Net present value index, if cost of capital
is 10% (4) IRR (Hint 35 40) %
30) FMCG ltd. Is planning investing in a project that costs Rs 5,00,000. The estimated salvage value is nil; tax
rate is 30%. The company uses straight line method of depreciation for tax purposes and its cash flows before
tax are as follows:
YEAR
1
2
3
4
5
250,00
CFBT
100,000 100,000 150,000 150,000
0
Determine the following: Payback period and Average rate of return.
31) From the above question , calculate the discounted pay back period if discount rates are (i) 5% (ii) 8%.
32) A company is considering an investment proposal, involving cash outflow of Rs 45 Lakh. The project has an
expected life of 7 years and zero salvage value. At a required rate of return of 12%, the project has a PI of
1.182. Calculate the annual cash inflows.
33) Find the missing values for each of the following independent cases. Assume that there are no salvage values
for the investments and income taxes are to be ignored.
Annual Cash
Initial
Cost of
Life
Case
IRR
PI
NPV
Inflows
Outlay
capital
(Years)
A
150,000
?
?
20%
1.1809
?
10
B
?
300,000
16%
?
?
60,000
13
34) A company has to make a choice between two projects namely A and B. The initial capital outlays of two
projects are Rs 135,000 and Rs 240,000 respectively for A and B. There will be no scrap value at the end of
the life of both the projects. The opportunity cost of capital of the company is 16%. The annual incomes are as
under:
Year Project A
Project B
(Rs)
(Rs)
1
60,000
2
30,000
84,000
3
132,000
96,000
4
84,000
102,000
5
84,000
90,000
You are required to calculate for each project:
a)
Discounted payback period
b)
Profitability index
c)
Net present Value.

a)
b)
c)
d)

35) Hindlever Co. is considering a new product line to supplement its range line. It is anticipated that the new
product line will involve cash investments of Rs 700,000 at time 0 and Rs 10,00,000 in year 1. After-tax cash
inflows of Rs 250,000 are expeted in year 2, Rs 300,000 in year 3, Rs 350,000 in year 4 and Rs 400,000 each
year thereafter through year 10. Although the product line might be viable after year 10, the company prefers
to be conservative and end all calculations at that time.
If the required rate of return is 15%, what is the net present value of the project? Is it acceptable?
What would be the case if the required rate of return were 10%?
What is its internal rate of return?
What is the projects payback period?

36) A sole trader install plant and machinery in rented premises for the production of luxury article, the demand
for which is expected to last only 5 years. The total capital put in by the sole trader is as under:
Plant & Machinery
Rs 270,500
Working Capital
Rs 40,000
Rs 310,500
The working capital will be fully realised at the end of the 5 th year. The scrap value of the plant expected to
be realised at the end of the 5th year is only Rs 5,500.
The traders earnings are expected to be under:
Years
1
2
3
4
5

Cash profit(before depreciation and tax) Rs


90,000
1,30,000
1,70,000
1,16,000
19,500

Tax payable
20,000
30,000
40,000
26,000
5,000

Present values factors of various rates of interest are given below:


Years
11%
12%
13%
14%
15%
1
0.9009
0.8929
0.8850
0.8770
0.8696
2
0.8116
0.7972
0.7831
0.7695
0.7561
3
0.7312
0.7118
0.6931
0.6750
0.6575
4
0.6587
0.6355
0.6133
0.5921
0.5718
5
0.5935
0.5674
05428
0.5194
0.4972
You are required to compute the present value of cash flows discounted at the various rates of interests
given above and state the return from the project.
37) The Alpha Co. Ltd, is considering the purchase of a new machine. Two alternative machines A and B
have been suggested, each costing Rs. 4,00,000. Earnings after taxation but before depreciation are expected
to be as follows:
Year
Cash flows
Machine A
Machine B
Rs.
Rs.
1
40,000
1,20,000
2
1,20,000
1,60,000
3
1,60,000
2,00,000
4
2,40,000
1,20,000
5
1,80,000
80,000
Total
7,20,000
6,80,000
The company has a target rate return on capital @ 10 percent and on this basic, you are required:
(a)Compare profitability of the machines and state which alternative you consider financially preferable
(b)Compute the pay back period for each project and,
(c)Compute annual rate of return for each project.
(38) An investment of Rs. 1,36,000 yields the following cash inflows(profits before depreciation but after tex).
Determine internal rate of return.
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Total

Rs.
30,000
40,000
60,000
30,000
20,000
1,80,000

(39) Using details given questions 6, calculate modified internal rate of return (MIRR) considering a 8% cost of
capital.
(40) X company is evaluating the rate of return on two of its Assets, I and II. The Asset was purchased a year ago
for Rs. 4,00,000 ans since then it has generated cash inflows of Rs.16,000. Presently, it can be sold for a price of
Rs.4,30,000 Asset II was purchased a few years ago and its market price in the beginning and at end of the year
was Rs.2,40,000 and Rs.2,36,000 respectively. The asset II has generated cash inflows of Rs.34,000. Find out the
rate of return on these Assets.

(41) S Ltd. Has Rs.10,00,000 allocated for capital budgeting purposes. The following proposals and associated
profitability indexes have been determined.
Project
Amount
Profitability index
1
3,00,000
1.22
2
1,50,000
0.95
3
3,50,000
1.20
4
4,50,000
1.18
5
2,00,000
1.20
6
4,00,000
1.05
Which of the above investments should be undertaken? Assume that projects are indivisible and there is no
alternative use of the money allocated for capital budgeting.
(42)Following are the data on a capital project being evaluated by the management of X Ltd.:
Annual cost saving
Useful life
I.R.R
Profitability index(PI)
NPV
Cost of capital
Cost of project
Payback
Salvage value

Project M
Rs. 40,000
4 years
15%
1,064
?
?
?
?
0

Find the missing values considering the following table of discount factor only:
Discount factor
15%
14%
13%
1 Year
0.869
0.877
0.885
2 Year
0.756
0.769
0.783
3 Year
0.658
0.675
0.693
4 Year
0.572
0.592
0.613
2.855
2.913
2.974

12%
0.893
0.797
0.712
0.636
3.038

(43)The management of p Limited is considering selecting a machine out of two mutually exclusive machines.
The companys cost of capital is 12 percent and corporate tax rate for the company is 30 percent. Details of the
machines are as follows:
Machine - I
Machine II
Cost of machine
Rs.10,00,000
Rs. 15,00,000
Expected life
5 years
6 year
Annual income before tax and depreciation
Rs. 3,45,000
Rs. 4,55,000
Depreciation is to be charged on straight line basis.
You are required to:
(i) Calculate the discounted pay-back period, net present value and internal rate of return for each machine.
(ii) Advise the management of P Limited as to which machine they should take up.
The present value factors of Re. 1 are as follows:
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
At 12%
.893
.797
.712
.636
.567
.507
At 13%
.885
.783
.693
.613
.543
.480
At 14%
.877
.769
.675
.592
.519
.456
At 15%
.870
.756
.658
.572
.497
.432
At 16%
.62
.743
.641
.552
.476
.410
(44) A Ltd. Is considering the purchase of a machine which will perform some operations which are at present
performed by workers. Machines X and Y are alternative models. The following details are available:
Machine X
Machine Y
(Rs.)
(Rs.)
Cost of machine
1,50,000
2,40,000
Estimated lie of machine
5 years
6 years
Estimated cost of maintenance p.a.
7,000
11,000

Estimated cost of indirect material, p.a.


6,000
8,000
Estimated saving in scrap p.a.
10,000
15,000
Estimated cost of supervision p.a.
12,000
16,000
Estimated saving in wages p.a.
90,000
1,20,000
Depreciation will be charged on straight line basis. The tax rate is 30%. Evaluate the alternative according to:
(i) Average value of return method, and
(ii) Present value index method assuming cost of capital being 10%.
(The present value of Rs. 1.00 @ 10% p.a. for 5 years is 3.79 and for 6 years is 4.354)
(45) Compute the net present value for a project with a net investment of Rs.1,00,000 and the following cash
flows if the companys cost of capital is 10%? Net cash flows for year one is Rs. 55,000; for year two is Rs.
80,000 and for year three Rs. 15,000.
[PVIF @ 10% for three years are 0.909 and 0.751]
(46) ABC Ltd is a small company that is currently analysing capital expenditure proposals for the purchase of
equipment; the company uses the net present value technique to evaluate project. The capital budget is limited
500,000 which ABC Ltd believes is the maximum capital it can raise. The initial investment and projected net
cash flows for each project are shown below. The cost of capital of ABC Ltd. is 12%. You are required to compute
the NPV of the different projects.
Initial investment
Project A
Project B
Project C
Project D
Project cash inflows 200,000
190,000
250,000
210,000
Year 1
50,000
40,000
75,000
75,000
2
50,000
50,000
75,000
75,000
3
50,000
70,000
60,000
60,000
4
50,000
75,000
80,000
40,000
5
50,000
75,000
100,000
20,000
(47) Shiva Limited is planning its capital investment programme for next year. It has five project all of which give
a positive NPV at the company cut-off rate of 15 present, the investment outflows present values being as follows:
Project
Investment
NPV @ 15%
Rs. 000
Rs. 000
A
(50)
15.4
B
(40)
18.7
C
(25)
10.1
D
(30)
11.2
E
(35)
19.3
The company is limited to a capital spending of Rs. 1,20,000.
You are required to optimise the returns from a package of product within the capital spending limit. The project
are independent of each other and are divisible (i.e., part-project is possible).
(48) Suppose we have three project involving discounted cash outflow of Rs. 5,50,000, Rs.75,000 and
Rs.1,00,20,000 respectively. Suppose further that the sum of discounted cash inflows for these projects are Rs.
6,50,000, Rs. 95,000, and Rs. 1,00,30,000 respectively. Calculate the desirability factors for the three projects.
(49) Happy singh Taxiwala is a long established tour operator providing high quality transport to their clients. It
currently owns and runs 250 cars and has turnover of Rs.100 lakhs p.a.
The current system for allocating jobs to drivers is very inefficient. Happy singh is considering the
implementation of a new computerized tracking system called Banta. This will make the allocation of jobs far
more efficient.
You are as accounting technician, for an accounting firm, has been appointed to advice Happy Singh to decide
whether Banta should be implemented. The project is being appraised over five years.
The costs and benefits of the new system are as follows:
(i) The Central Tracking System costs Rs. 21,00,000 to implement. This amount will be payable in three equal
investments-one immediately, the second in one years time, and the third in two years time.
(ii) Depreciation on the new system will be provided at Rs. 4,20,000 p.a.
(iii) Staff will need to be trained how to use new system. This will cost Happy Singh Rs. 4,25,000 in the first
year.
(iv) If Banta is implemented, revenues will rise to an estimated Rs. 110 lakhs this year, thereafter increasing by
5% per annum(Compounded). Even if Banta is not implemented revenue will increase by an estimated
Rs.
2,00,000 per annum, from their current level of Rs. 100 lakhs per annum.

(v) Despite increased revenues, Banta will still make overall saving in terms of vehicle running costs. These are
estimated at 1% of the post Banta revenues each year(i.e., The Rs. 110 lakhs revenue rising by 5% thereafter,
as referred to in (iv) above.
(vi) Six new staff operatives will be recruited to manage the Banta system. Their wages will cost the company
Rs. 1,20,000 per annum in the first year, Rs. 2,00,000 in the second year, thereafter increasing by 5% per
annum(i.e., compounded).
(vii) Happy singh will have to take out an annual maintenance contract for Banta system. This will cost Rs.
75,000 per annum.
(viii) Interest on money borrowed to finance the project will cost Rs. 1,50,000 per annum.
(ix) Happy Singh Taxiwalas cost of capital is 10% per annum.
Required:
(a)Calculate the net present value (NPV) of the new Banta system nearest to Rs. 000.
(b) Calculate the simple pay back period of the project and interpret the result.
(c) Calculate the discounted payback period for the project and interpret the result.
(50) Calculate the internal rate of return of an investment of Rs. 1,36,000 which yields the following cash inflows:
Year
Cash Inflows (in Rs.)
1
30,000
2
40,000
3
60,000
4
30,000
5
20,000
(51) A company proposes to install machine involving a capital cost of Rs. 3,60,000. The life of the machine is 5
years and its salvage value at the end of the life us nil. The machine will produce the net operating income after
depreciation of Rs. 68,000 per annum. The companys tax rate is 45%.
The net present values factors fpr 5 years are as under:
Discounting rate
14
15
16
17
Cumulative factor 3.43
3.35
3.27
3.27
You are required to calculate the internal rate return of the proposal.

18
3.20

19
3.13

(52) An investment of Rs. 1,36,000 yields the followings cash inflows(profits before depreciation but tex after
tax). Determine MIRR considering 8%cost of capital.
Year
Rs.
1
30,000
2
40,000
3
60,000
4
30,000
5
20,000
Total
1,80,000
(53) The following table gives dividend and share price data for Bharat Limited
Year
Dividend Per Share
Closing Share Price
1998
2.50
12.25
1999
2.50
14.20
2000
2.50
17.50
2001
3.00
16.75
2002
3.00
18.45
2003
3.25
22.25
2004
3.50
23.50
2005
3.50
27.75
2006
3.50
25.50
2007
3.75
27.95
2008
3.75
31.30
You are required to calculate: (i) the annual rates of return, (ii) the expected (average) rate of return, (iii) the
variance, and (iv) the standard deviation of returns.
(54) Alpha company is considering the following investment projects:
Cash Flows (Rs.)
Projects
C0
C1
C2
A
-10,000
+10,000

C3

B
-10,000
+7,500
+7,500
C
-10,000
+2,000
+4,000
+12,000
D
-10,000
-10,000
+3,000
+3,000
(a) Rank the project according to each of the following methods: (i) Payback, (ii) ARR, (iii) IRR and (iv) NPV,
assuming discount rates of 10 and 30 percent.
(b) Assuming the projects are independent, which one should be accepted? If the projects are mutually exclusive,
which project is the best?
(55) The expected cash flows of three projects are given below. The cost of capital is 10 percent.
(a) Calculate the payback period, net present value, internal rate of return and accounting rate of return of
each project.
(b) Show the ranking of the projects by each of the four methods.
Period
Project A (Rs.)
Project B (Rs.)
Project C (Rs.)
0
(5,000)
(5,000)
(5,000)
1
900
700
2,000
2
900
800
2,000
3
900
900
2,000
4
900
1,000
1,000
5
900
1,100
6
900
1,200
7
900
1,300
8
900
1,400
9
900
1,500
10
900
1,600
(56) Lockwood Limited wants to replace its old machine with a new automatic machine. Two models A and B are
available at the same cost Rs. 5 lakhs each. Salvage value of the old machine is Rs. 1 lakh The utilities of the
existing machine can be used if the company purchases A. Additional cost of utilities to be purchased in that case
are Rs. 1 lakh. If the company purchases B then all the existing utilities will have to be replaced with new utilities
costing Rs. 2 lakhs. The salvage value of the old utilities will be Rs. 0.20 lakhs. The earning after taxation are
expected to be:
Year
(Cash in-flows of)
A
B
C
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
1
1,00,000
2,00,000
0.87
2
1,50,000
2,10,000
0.76
3
1,80,000
1,80,000
0.66
4
2,00,000
1,70,000
0.57
5
1,70,000
40,000
0.50
Salvage value at the end of year 5
50,000
60,000
The targeted return on capital is 15%. You are required to (i) Compute, for the two machines separately, net
present value, discounted pay back period and desirability factor and (ii) Advice which of the machines is to be
selected?
(57) Elite Cooker company is evaluating three investment situations: (1) produce a new line of aluminium skillets,
(2) expand its existing cooker line to include several new sizes, and (3) develop a new, higher-quality line of
cookers. If only the project in question is undertaken, the expected values and the amount of investment are:
Project

Investment Required
Present value of Future Cash-Flows
Rs.
Rs.
1
2,00,000
2,90,000
2
1,15,000
1,85,000
3
2,70,000
4,00,000
If project 1 and 2 are jointly undertaken, there will be no economies; the investments required and present values
will simply be the sum of the parts. With projects 1 and 3, economies are possible in investment because one of
the machine acquired can be used in both production process. The total investment required for project 1 and 3
combined is Rs. 4,40,000. If projects 2 and 3 undertaken, there are economies to be achieved in marketing and
producing the products not in investment. The expected present value of future cash flows for project 2 and 3 is
Rs. 6,20,000. If all three projects are undertaken simultaneously, the economies noted will still hold. However, a
Rs. 1,25,000 extension on the plant will be necessary, as space is now available for all three project. Which project
or projects should be chosen?

(58) A company is considering two mutually exclusive projects X and Y. Project X costs Rs. 30,000 and project Y
Rs. 36,000. You have been given below the net present value probability distribution for each project:
Project X
Project Y
NPV Estimate(Rs.)
Probability
NPV Estimate(Rs.)
Probability
3,000
0.1
3,000
0.2
6,000
0.4
6,000
0.3
12,000
0.4
12,000
0.3
15,000
0.1
15,000
0.2
(i) Compute the expected net present value of products X and Y.
(ii) Compute the risk attached to each project i.e., Standard Deviation of each probability distribution.
(iii) Which project do you consider more risky and why?
(iv) Compute the probability index of each project.
(59) A Ltd. Is an all equity financed company. The current market price of share is Rs. 80, it has just paid a
dividend of Rs.15 per share and expected future growth in dividend is 12%. Currently, it is evaluating a proposal
requiring funds of Rs. 20 lakhs, with annual inflows of Rs.10 lakhs for 3 years. Find out the Net Present value of
the proposal, if (i) It is financed from retained earnings; and (ii) It is financed by issuing fresh equity at market
price with a flotation cost of 5% of issue price.
(60)PQR Limited has decided to go for new model of Mercedes Car. The cost of the vehicle is Rs. 40 lakhs. The
company has two alternatives:
(i) Taking the car on finance lease; or
(ii) Borrowing and purchasing the car.
LML limited is willing to provide the car on finance lease of PQR Limited for five years at an annual rental of Rs.
8.75 lakhs, payable at the end of the year.
The vehicle is expected to have useful life of 5 years, and it will fetch a net salvage value of Rs. 10 lakhs at the
end year five. The depreciation rate for tax purpose is 40% on written-down value basis. The applicable tax rate
for the company is 13.8462%.
What is the net advantage of leasing for the PQR Limited?
The values of present value interest factor at different rates of discount are under:
Rate of Discount t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
0.138462
0.8784
0.7715
0.6777
0.5953
0.5229
0.09
0.9174
0.8417
0.7722
0.7084
00.6499
(61) PQR Ltd. Is evaluating a proposal to acquire new equipment. The new equipment would cost Rs. 3.5 million
and was expected to generated cash inflows of Rs. 4,70,000 a year for nine years. After that point, the equipment
would be obsolete and have no significant salvage value. The companys weighted average cost of capital is 16%.
The management of the PQR Ltd. Seemed to be convinced with the merits of the investments but was not sure
about the best way to finance it. PQR Ltd. could raise the money by issuing a secured eight year note at an interest
rate of 12%. However PQR Ltd. Had huge tax-loss carry forwards from a disastrous foray into foreign exchange
option. As a result, the company was unlikely to be in a position of tax-paying for many years. The CEO of PQR
Ltd. Thought it better to lease the equipment then to buy it. The proposals for lease have been obtained from
MGM Leasing Ltd. And Zeta Leasing Ltd. The terms of the lease are as under:
MGM Leasing Ltd.
Zeta Leasing Ltd.
Lease period offered
9 years
7 years
Number of lease rental payments
10
8
With initial lease payment due on
Entering the lease contract
Annual lease rental
Rs. 5,44,300
Rs. 6,19,400
Lease terms equipment to
11.5% p.a.
11.41% p.a.
Borrowing cost(Claim of lessor)
Leasing proposal coverage
Entire
Entire
Rs. 3.5 million
Rs. 3.5 million
Cost of equipment
Cost of equipment
Tax rate
35%
35%
Both the Leasing companies were in a tax-paying position and write off their investment in new equipment using
following rate:
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
Depreciation Rate 20%
32%
19.20%
11.52%
11.52%
5.76%
Required:
(i)Calculate the NPV to PQR Ltd. Of the two lease proposals.
(ii) Does the new equipment have a positive NPV with (i) ordinary financing (ii) lease financing?

(iii)Calculate the NPVs of the leases from the lessorss view points. Is there a chance that they could offer more
attractive terms?
(iv)Evaluate the terms presented by each of the lessors.
1) The Management of a Company has two alternative proposals under consideration. Project A requires a capital
outlay of Rs. 12,00,000 and project B required Rs. 18,00,000. Both are estimated to provide a cash flow for file
years as Project A Rs. 4,00,000 per year and Project B Rs. 5,80,000 per year. Cost of capital is 10%. Show which
of the two projects is preferable from the viewpoint of i) Net Present Value Method, ii) Present Value Index
Method, and iii) Internal Rate of Return Method.
2) A Company has to make a choice between 2 projects namely A and B. The initial outlay of A and B are Rs.
1,35,000 and Rs. 2,40,000 respectively for A and B. with no scrap Value. The Cost of the Company is 16%. The
Annual Incomes are
Year
1
2
3
4
5
Project A
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
30,000
1,32,000
84,000
84,000
Project B
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
60,000
84,000
96,000
1,02,000
90,000
Disc. Factor at
0.862
0.743
0.641
0.552
0.476
16%
Calculate the following, for each project i) Discount Payback Period, ii) PI and iii) Net Present Value.
3) PR Engineering Ltd is considering the purchase of a new machine which will carry out some operations
which are at present performed by manual labour. The following information related to the two alternative
models- MX and MY are available:
Particulars
Machine MX
Machine
Estimated
Net Income
MX
before
Depreciation
Cost of Machine
Rs. 8,00,000
Rs. 10,20,000
and Tax are
as under
ExpectedYear
Life1
6
years
6
years
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Rs.
30,000
MachineScrap Value
2,50,00
2,30,00Rs. 20,000
1,80,00
2,00,00
1,80,00
1,60,00
MX
0
0
0
0
0
0
Machine
2,70,00
3,60,00
3,80,00
2,80,00
2,60,00
1,85,00
MY
0
0
0
0
0
0
Corporate Tax Rate for this Company is 30% and the Companys required rate of return on investment proposals
is 10%. Depreciation will be changed on Straight Line basic. You are required to
i) Calculate the Payback Period of each proposal.
ii) Calculate the Net Present Value of each proposal, if the PV Factor at 10% is 0.909, 0.826, 0.751, 0.683, 0.621
and 0.564.
iii) Which proposal you would recommend and why?
4) Consider the following mutually exclusive projects: Cash Flows (Rs.)
Projects
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
A
(10,000)
6,000
2,000
2,000
12,000
B
(10,000)
2,500
2,500
5,000
7,500
C
(3,500)
1,500
2,500
500
5,000
D
(3,500)
0
0
3,000
6,000
Required:
1. Calculate the Payback Period for each project.
2. If the standard Payback Period is 2 years, which project wills you select? Will your answer differ, if standard
Payback Period is 3 years?
3. If the cost of Capital is 10%, compute the Discounted Payback Periods for each project. Which Project will you
recommend, if standard Discounted Payback Periods is i) 2 years, ii) 3 years?
4. Compute NPV of the each Project. Which project will you recommend on the NPV criterion? The Cost of
Capital is 10%. What will be the appropriate choice criteria in this case?
5) The Director of Damon Electronics Co. has asked you analyse two proposed investments Project X ad Y. Each
project has an initial investment of Rs. 10,000 at a cost of 12%. The Cash Flows are expected as under
Year
1
2
3
4
Rs.
Cash Flows of X
Rs. 3,000
Rs. 3,000
Rs. 1,000
6,500
Rs.
Cash Flows of Y
Rs. 3,500
Rs. 3,500
Rs. 3,500
3,500

1. Calculate for each Project (a) Simple Payback Period, (b) NPV, and (c) IRR.
2. Which Project(s) should be accepted if the Projects were independent?
3. Which Project should be accepted if they were mutually exclusive?
6) The Management of P Limited is considering to select a machine out of the two mutually exclusive
machines. The Companys Cost of Capital is 12% and Corporate Tax Rate for the Company is 30%. Details of the
machines are as followsParticulars
Machine MX
Machine MX
Cost of Machine

Rs. 10,00,000

Rs. 15,00,000

Expected Life
5 years
6 years
Scrap Value
Rs.3,45,000
Rs. 4,550,000
Depreciation is to be charged on straight line basics.
You are required to:
Calculate the Discounted Payback Period, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for each Machine.
Advice the Management of P Limited which Machine they should take up.
NPV based Project Evaluation Accept Reject Decisions
7) XYZ Ltd is planning to introduce a new product with a project life of 8 years. The project is to be set up in
Special Economic Zone (SEZ), qualifies for one time (at starting) Tax free subsidy from the State Government of
Rs. 25,00,000 on capital investment. Initial Equipment cost will be Rs. 1.75 Corers. Additional Equipment costing
Rs. 12,50,000 will be purchased at the end of the third year from the Cash Inflow of this year. At the end of 8 year,
the Original Equipment will have no resale value, but the Additional Equipment can be sold for Rs. 1,25,000. A
Working Capital of Rs. 20,00,000 will be needed and it will be released at the end of eight year. The project will
be financed with sufficient amount of Equity Capital.
The Sales Volumes over eight years have been estimated as followsYear
1
2
3
4-5
6-8
Units
72,000
1,08,000
2,60,000
2,70,000
1,80,000
A Sales Price of Rs. 120 per unit is expected and Variable Expenses will amount to 60% of Sales Revenue. Fixed
Cash Operating Costs will amount Rs. 18,00,000 per year. The Loss of any year will be set off from the profits of
subsequent two years. The company is subject to 30% tax rate and considers 12% to be an appropriate after tax
cost of capital for this project. The company follows Straight Line Method of Depreciation.
Calculate the Net Present Value of the project and advice the Management to take appropriate design.
8) Fast Feet Ltd is a manufacture of high quality running shoes. Its CEO is considering computerising the
companys ordering, inventory and billing procedures. She estimates that the annual saving from computerisation
include a reduction of 10 clerical employee with annual salaries of Rs. 15,000 each, Rs. 8,000 from reduced
production delays caused by Raw Material Inventory problems, Rs.2,000 from lost sales due to inventory stock
outs and Rs. 3,000 associated with timely billing procedure.
The Purchase Price of the system is Rs. 2,00,000 and installation Costs are Rs. 50,000. These outlays will be
capitalised (depreciated) on SLM basic to zero book Salvage Value, which is also its Market Value at the end of
five years. Operation of the new system requires two Computer Specialists with annual salaries of Rs.40,000 per
person. Also Annual Maintenance and operating (cash) expenses of Rs. 2,000 are estimated to be required.
The Companys Tax Rate is 40% and its required Rate of Return (Cost of Capital) is 12%.
1. Find the projects Initial Net Cash Outlay.
2. Find the projects Operating Cash Flows and Terminal Value over its 5-Years life.
3. Evaluate the project using NPV Methods.
4. Evaluate the project using PI Methods.
5. Calculate the projects Payback Periods.
6. Find the projects Cash Flows and NPV [pars (1) through (3)] assuming that the system can be sold for Rs.
25,000 at the end of five years even though the book salvage value will be zero.
7. find the projects Cash Flows and NPV [pars (1) through (3)] assuming that the salvage value for depreciation
Purposes is Rs. 20,000 even though the machine is worthless in terms of its resale value.
9) Modern Enterprises Ltd is considering the purchase of a new Computer System for its Rs & D division, which
would cost Rs. 35 Lakhs. The Operation and Maintenance Costs (excluding Depreciation) are Rs. 7 Lakhs per
annum. It is estimated that the useful life of the system would be 6 years at the end of which the Scarp value will
be Rs. 1 Lakh. The tangible benefits expected from the system in the from of reduction in design and
draughtsmanship costs would be 12 Lakhs per annum. Besides, the disposal of used Drawing office Equipment
and Furniture initially is expected to net Rs. 9 Lakhs.

Capital Expenditure in R & D is eligible for 100% write off for tax purpose. The gains arising from disposal of
used assets may be considered tax-free, The Companys Tax Rate is 50% and Cost of capital is 12%. After
appropriate analysis of cash flows, advise the Company of the financial viability of the proposal.
10) Nine Gems Ltd has just installed Machine R at a cost of Rs. 2 Lakhs. The Machine has a 5-years life with no
Residual Value. The annual volume of production is estimated at 1,50,000 units, which can be sold at Rs. 6 per
units. Annual Operating costs are estimate at Rs. 2 Lakhs (excluding depreciation) at this output level. Fixed Costs
are estimated at Rs. 3 per units for the same level of production.
The Company has just come across another mode Machine S, capable of giving the same output at an annual
operating cost of Rs. 1.80 Lakhs (excluding depreciation) . There will be no change in fixed Costs. Machine S
costs Rs. 2.50 Lakhs, its Residual Value will be Nil after a useful life of 5 years.
Nine Gems Ltd has an offer for sale of Machine R for Rs. 1,00,000. The cost of dismantling and removal will be
Rs. 30,000. As the Company has not yet commenced operations, it wants to dispose off Machine R and install
Machine S.
The Company will be a zero-tax Company for seven years in view of several incentives and allowances available.
The cost of capital is 14% and the PV factors are as underYear
1
2
3
4
5
PV Factor at
0.877
0.769
0.675
0.592
0.519
14%
Advise whether the company should opt for replacement. Will your answer be different if the Company has not
installed Machine R and is in the process of selecting either R or S?
11) Beta Electronics is considering a proposal to replace one of its machines. The following information is
available to you.The existing machine was bought 3 years ago for Rs. 10 Lakhs. It was depreciated at 25% p.a. on
reducing balance basic. It has remaining useful life of 5 years, but its annual maintenance cost is expected to
increase by Rs. 50,000 from the sixth year of its installation. Its present realisable value is Rs. 6 Lakhs. The
Company has several machines, having 25% depreciation.
The New Machine costs Rs. 15 Lakhs and is subject to the same rate of depreciation. On sale after 5 years, it is
expected to net Rs. 9 Lakhs. With the new machine, the annual operating costs (excluding depreciation) are
expected to decrease by Rs. 1 Lakh. In addition, the new machine would increase productivity on account of
which Net Revenues would increase by Rs. 1.5 Lakhs annually.
The Tax-Rate applicable to the Company is 35% and the cost of capital is 10%. Advise the Company, on the basic
of NPV of the proposal,, whether the proposal is financially viable.
12) SCL Limited is a highly profitable Company engaged in the manufacture of the power intensive products. As
part of its diversification plans, it proposes to put up a Windmill to generate electricity. The details of the scheme
are
1. Cost of Windmill- Rs. 300 Lakhs, cost of land Rs. 15 Lakhs, Subsidy from State Government to be received
at the end of first year of installation Rs. 15 Lakhs.
2. Estimated life is 10 years and Cost of capital is 15%. The Companys Tax Rate is 50%.
3. Residual Value of Windmill will be Nil. However land value will go up to Rs. 60 Lakhs at the end of year 10.
4. Cost of Electricity will be Rs. 2.25 per unit in year 1. This will increase by Rs. 0.25 Lakhs per unit every year
till year 7. After that it will increase by Rs. 0.50 per unit per annum.
5. Maintenance Cost will be Rs. 4 Lakhs in year 1 and the same will be increase by Rs. 2 Lakhs every year.
6. Depreciation will be 100% of the windmill in year 1 and the same will be allowed for tax purposes.
7. As Windmill are expected to work based on wind velocity, the average efficiency is expected to be 30%. Gross
Electricity generated at this level will be 25 Lakh units per annum. 4% of this Electricity generated will be
committed free to the State Electricity Board as per the agreement.
From the above, you are required to calculate the NPV of the Project. (Ignore Tax on capital Profits). Also list a
few nonfinancial factors that should be considered before talking a decision. Use the following table ye
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ar
P
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
V
87
76
66
57
50
43
38
33
28
25
F
13) A large profit-making Company is considering the installation of a machine to the produced by one of its
existing manufacturing process, to be converted into a marketable product. At present, the waste is removed by a
contractor for disposal on payment by the Company of Rs. 50 Lakhs per annum for the next four years. The
contract can be terminated upon installation of the aforesaid machine, on payment of a compensation of Rs. 30
Lakhs before the Processing operation starts. This compensation is not allowed as a deduction for tax purposes.
The Machine required for carrying out the processing will cost Rs. 200 Lakhs, to be financed by a loan repayable
in 4 equal instalments commencing from the end of year 1. The interest rate is 16% per annum. At the end of the

fourth year, the machine can be sold for Rs. 20 Lakhs and the cost of dismantling and removal will be Rs. 15
Lakhs. The Sales and direct costs of the product emerging from waste processing are estimated below- (in Lakhs)
Particulars
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Sales
322
322
418
418
Material Consumption
30
40
85
85
Wages
75
75
85
100
Other Expenses
40
45
54
70
Factory Overheads
55
60
110
145
Depreciation as per IT
50
38
28
21
Rules
Intial stock
14) ABC Ltd manufactures toys and other gift items. The R & D Division has come up with a product that would
make a good promotional gift for office equipment dealers. As a result of efforts by the sales personnel, the Firm
has commitments for this product.
To produce the quantity demanded, the Company will need to buy additional machinery and rent additional space.
It appears that about 25,000 square feet will be needed. 12,500 square feet of presently unused space, but leased at
the rate of Rs. 3 per square foot per year, is available. There is another 12,500 square feet available at an annual
rent Rs. 4 per square foot.
The machinery will be purchased for Rs. 9,00,000. It will require Rs. 30,000 for modifications, Rs. 60,000 for
installation and Rs. 90,000 for testing. The machinery will have a salvage value of about Rs. 1,80,000 at the end of
the third year. No additional General Overhead Costs are expected to be incurred.
The estimated revenues and costs for this product for the three years have been developed as follows (Rs.)
Particulars
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Less : Sales
10,00,000
20,00,000
8,00,000
Material and
4,00,000
7,50,000
3,50,000
Labour
40,000
75,000
35,000
Overheads
50,000
50,000
50,000
allocation
3,00,000
3,00,000
3,00,000
Rent
Depreciation
Less : Earning Before
2,10,000
8,25,000
65,000
Taxes
1,05,000
4,12,500
32,500
Taxes
Earnings After
1,05,000
4,12,500
32,500
Taxes
If the Company sets a required rate of return of 20% after taxes, should this produced be manufactured?