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Circuiti Logici Combinatori

Parte 2
Corso di Architettura degli Elaboratori (laboratorio)

Dott. Francesco De Angelis

francesco.deangelis@unicam.it

Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie - Sezione di Informatica

Architettura degli Elaboratori e Laboratorio - AA 2011/12

Overview
! Part 1 Gate Circuits and Boolean Equations
Binary Logic and Gates
Boolean Algebra
Standard Forms

! Part 2 Circuit Optimization

Two-Level Optimization
Map Manipulation
Practical Optimization (Espresso)
Multi-Level Circuit Optimization

! Part 3 Additional Gates and Circuits

Other Gate Types
Exclusive-OR Operator and Gates
High-Impedance Outputs

Chapter 2 - Part 2

Circuit Optimization
! Goal: To obtain the simplest
implementation for a given function
! Optimization is a more formal approach
to simplification that is performed using
a specific procedure or algorithm
! Optimization requires a cost criterion to
measure the simplicity of a circuit
! Distinct cost criteria we will use:
Literal cost (L)
Gate input cost (G)
Gate input cost with NOTs (GN)
Chapter 2 - Part 2

Literal Cost
! Literal a variable or it complement
! Literal cost the number of literal
appearances in a Boolean expression
corresponding to the logic circuit
diagram
! Examples:

F = BD + A B C + A C D
L=8
F = BD + A BC + A B D + AB C
L=?
F = (A + B)(A + D)(B + C + D)(B + C + D) L = ?
Which solution is best?
Chapter 2 - Part 2

Gate Input Cost

! Gate input costs - the number of inputs to the gates in the
implementation corresponding exactly to the given equation
or equations. (G - inverters not counted, GN - inverters counted)
! For SOP and POS equations, it can be found from the
equation(s) by finding the sum of:
all literal appearances
the number of terms excluding single literal terms,(G) and
optionally, the number of distinct complemented single literals (GN).

! Example:
F = BD + A B C + AC D
G = 11, GN = 14
F = BD + A B C + A B D + AB C
G = , GN =
F = (A + B)(A + D)(B + C + D)( B + C + D) G = , GN =
Which solution is best?
Chapter 2 - Part 2

Cost Criteria (continued)

GN = G + 2 = 9
L=5
! F = A + B C + B C
G=L+2= 7
! Example 1:

B
C
A

! L (literal count) counts the AND inputs and the single

literal OR input.
! G (gate input count) adds the remaining OR gate inputs
! GN(gate input count with NOTs) adds the inverter inputs
Chapter 2 - Part 2

Cost Criteria (continued)

! Example 2:

!
!
!
!

A
B
C

F = A B C + AB C
L = 6 G = 8 GN = 11
F = (A + C)( B + C)( A + B)
L = 6 G = 9 GN = 12

! Same function and same

A
literal cost
B
! But first circuit has better C
gate input count and better
gate input count with NOTs
! Select it!

Chapter 2 - Part 2

Boolean Function Optimization

! Minimizing the gate input (or literal) cost of a (a
set of) Boolean equation(s) reduces circuit cost.
! We choose gate input cost.
! Boolean Algebra and graphical techniques are
tools to minimize cost criteria values.
! Some important questions:
When do we stop trying to reduce the cost?
Do we know when we have a minimum cost?

! Treat optimum or near-optimum cost functions

for two-level (SOP and POS) circuits first.
! Introduce a graphical technique using Karnaugh
maps (K-maps, for short)
Chapter 2 - Part 2

Karnaugh Maps (K-map)

! A K-map is a collection of squares

Each square represents a minterm

The collection of squares is a graphical representation

of a Boolean function
Adjacent squares differ in the value of one variable
Alternative algebraic expressions for the same function
are derived by recognizing patterns of squares

! The K-map can be viewed as

A reorganized version of the truth table
A topologically-warped Venn diagram as used to
visualize sets in algebra of sets

Chapter 2 - Part 2

Some Uses of K-Maps

! Provide a means for:
Finding optimum or near optimum
! SOP and POS standard forms, and
! two-level AND/OR and OR/AND circuit
implementations

for functions with small numbers of

variables
Visualizing concepts related to manipulating
Boolean expressions, and
Demonstrating concepts used by computeraided design programs to simplify large
circuits
Chapter 2 - Part 2

10

Two Variable Maps

! A 2-variable Karnaugh Map:
y=0 y=1
Note that minterm m0 and
m0 = m1 =
minterm m1 are adjacent
x=0
and differ in the value of the
xy
xy
variable y
x = 1 m2 = m3 =
Similarly, minterm m0 and
xy xy
minterm m2 differ in the x variable.
Also, m1 and m3 differ in the x variable as well.
Finally, m2 and m3 differ in the value of the
variable y

Chapter 2 - Part 2

11

K-Map and Truth Tables

! The K-Map is just a different form of the truth table.
! Example Two variable function:
We choose a,b,c and d from the set {0,1} to
implement a particular function, F(x,y).

Function Table

Input
Values
(x,y)

Function
Value
F(x,y)

00
01
10
11

a
b
c
d

K-Map

y=0
x=0 a
x=1 c

y=1
b
d

Chapter 2 - Part 2

12

K-Map Function Representation

! Example: F(x,y) = x

x=0

x=1

! For function F(x,y), the two adjacent cells

containing 1 s can be combined using the
Minimization Theorem:

F( x , y ) = x y + x y = x

Chapter 2 - Part 2

13

K-Map Function Representation

! Example: G(x,y) = x + y

G = x+y y = 0 y = 1
x=0

x=1

! For G(x,y), two pairs of adjacent cells containing

1 s can be combined using the Minimization
Theorem: G (x,y) = xy + xy + xy

G( x , y ) = (x y + x y )+ (xy + x y )= x + y
Duplicate x y
Chapter 2 - Part 2

14

Three Variable Maps

! A three-variable K-map:

yz=00

yz=01

yz=11

yz=10

x=0

m0

m1

m3

m2

x=1

m4

m5

m7

m6

! Where each minterm corresponds to the product

terms:
yz=00 yz=01 yz=11
x=0 x y z

xyz

xyz

xyz

x=1

xyz
xyz

yz=10

xyz
xyz

! Note that if the binary value for an index differs in one

bit position, the minterms are adjacent on the K-Map
Chapter 2 - Part 2

15

Chapter 2 - Part 2

16

Alternative Map Labeling

! Map use largely involves:
Entering values into the map, and
Reading off product terms from the
map.

! Alternate labelings are useful:

y
y

x
x

yz

00 01 11 10

0 0

x 1

Chapter 2 - Part 2

17

Example Functions
! By convention, we represent the minterms of F by a "1"
in the map and leave the minterms of F blank
y
! Example:

F(x, y, z) = m(2,3,4,5)

x 41

! Example:

G(a, b, c) = m(3,4,6,7)
! Learn the locations of the 8
indices based on the variable x
order shown (x, most significant
and z, least significant) on the
map boundaries

0
4

1
7
1

2
6

z
Chapter 2 - Part 2

18

Combining Squares
! By combining squares, we reduce number of
literals in a product term, reducing the literal cost,
thereby reducing the other two cost criteria

On a 3-variable K-Map:
One square represents a minterm with three
variables
Two adjacent squares represent a product term with
two variables
Four adjacent terms represent a product term
with one variable
Eight adjacent terms is the function of all ones (no
variables) = 1.
Chapter 2 - Part 2

19

Example: Combining Squares

! Example: Let

F = m(2,3,6,7)

1
7
1

1
6
1

z
! Applying the Minimization Theorem three
times:

F( x, y , z ) = x y z + x y z + x y z + x y z
= yz + y z
=y

! Thus the four terms that form a 2 2 square

correspond to the term "y".

Chapter 2 - Part 2

20

Three-Variable Maps
! Reduced literal product terms for SOP standard
forms correspond to rectangles on K-maps
containing cell counts that are powers of 2.
! Rectangles of 2 cells represent 2 adjacent
minterms; of 4 cells represent 4 minterms that
form a pairwise adjacent ring.
! Rectangles can contain non-adjacent cells as
illustrated by the pairwise adjacent ring
above.

Chapter 2 - Part 2

21

Three-Variable Maps
! Topological warps of 3-variable K-maps
that show all adjacencies:
! Venn Diagram
0

Cylinder

4 X
6 7 5
Y 3 1Z
2

Chapter 2 - Part 2

22

Three-Variable Maps
! Example Shapes of 2-cell Rectangles:

z
! Read off the product terms for the
rectangles shown
Chapter 2 - Part 2

23

Three-Variable Maps
! Example Shapes of 4-cell Rectangles:

z
! Read off the product terms for the
rectangles shown
Chapter 2 - Part 2

24

Three Variable Maps

! K-Maps can be used to simplify Boolean functions by
systematic methods. Terms are selected to cover the
1s in the map.

! Example:

Simplify F(x, y, z) = m(1,2,3,5,7)

xy

1 1 1
x

1 1
z

F(x, y, z) =

z+xy
Chapter 2 - Part 2

25

Three-Variable Map Simplification

! Use a K-map to find an optimum SOP
equation for F(X, Y, Z) = m(0,1,2,4,6,7)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

26

Four Variable Maps

! Map and location of minterms:
Y

Variable Order
W

12

13

15

14

11

10

Z
Chapter 2 - Part 2

27

Four Variable Terms

! Four variable maps can have rectangles

corresponding to:
A single 1 = 4 variables, (i.e. Minterm)
Two 1s = 3 variables,
Four 1s = 2 variables
Eight 1s = 1 variable,
Sixteen 1s = zero variables (i.e.
Constant "1")
Chapter 2 - Part 2

28

Four-Variable Maps
! Example Shapes of Rectangles:
Y

12

13

15

14

11

10

Z
Chapter 2 - Part 2

29

Four-Variable Maps

Chapter 2 - Part 2

30

Four-Variable Maps
! Example Shapes of Rectangles:
Y

12

13

15

14

11

10

Z
Chapter 2 - Part 2

31

Four-Variable Map Simplification

!F(W, X, Y, Z) = m(0, 2,4,5,6,7,8,10,13,15)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

32

Four-Variable Map Simplification

! F(W, X, Y, Z) = m(3,4,5,7,9,13,14,15)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

33

Systematic Simplification
!A Prime Implicant is a product term obtained by combining
the maximum possible number of adjacent squares in the map
into a rectangle with the number of squares a power of 2.

!A prime implicant is called an Essential Prime Implicant if it is

the only prime implicant that covers (includes) one or more
minterms.

!Prime Implicants and Essential Prime Implicants can be

determined by inspection of a K-Map.

!A set of prime implicants "covers all minterms" if, for each

minterm of the function, at least one prime implicant in the set
of prime implicants includes the minterm.
Chapter 2 - Part 2

34

Example of Prime Implicants

! Find ALL Prime Implicants
CD
C

BD

1
BD
A

AB

D

C

BD

1
B

BD

1
B

BC

Minterms covered by single prime implicant

Chapter 2 - Part 2

35

Prime Implicant Practice

! Find all prime implicants for:
F(A, B, C, D) = m(0,2,3,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

36

Another Example
! Find all prime implicants for:

G(A, B, C, D) = m(0,2,3,4,7,12,13,14,15)
Hint: There are seven prime implicants!

Chapter 2 - Part 2

37

Five Variable or More K-Maps

! For five variable problems, we use two adjacent K-maps.
It becomes harder to visualize adjacent minterms for
selecting PIs. You can extend the problem to six
variables by using four K-Maps.
V=0
V=1
Y
Y

X
W

W
Z

Z
Chapter 2 - Part 2

38

Don't Cares in K-Maps

! Sometimes a function table or map contains entries for
which it is known:
the input values for the minterm will never occur, or
The output value for the minterm is not used

! In these cases, the output value need not be defined

! Instead, the output value is defined as a don't care
! By placing don't cares ( an x entry) in the function table
or map, the cost of the logic circuit may be lowered.
! Example 1: A logic function having the binary codes for the
BCD digits as its inputs. Only the codes for 0 through 9 are
used. The six codes, 1010 through 1111 never occur, so the
output values for these codes are x to represent don t
cares.
Chapter 2 - Part 2

39

Example: BCD 5 or More

! The map below gives a function F1(w,x,y,z) which
is defined as "5 or more" over BCD inputs. With
the don't cares used for the 6 non-BCD
combinations:
y
F1 (w,x,y,z) = w + x z + x y G = 7

00 01 03 02

! This is much lower in cost than F2 where

04 15 17 16
the don't cares were treated as "0s."
x
X12 X13 X15 X14 F2(w, x, y, z) = w x z + w x y + w x y G = 12
! For this particular function, cost G for the
1 8 1 9 X11 X10
POS solution for F1(w,x,y,z) is not changed
z
by using the don't cares.
Chapter 2 - Part 2

40

Product of Sums Example

! Find the optimum POS solution:

F(A, B, C, D) = m(3,9,11,12 ,13,14,15) +

d (1,4,6)
Hint: Use F and complement it to get the
result.

Chapter 2 - Part 2

41

Optimization Algorithm
! Find all prime implicants.
! Include all essential prime implicants in the
solution
! Select a minimum cost set of non-essential
prime implicants to cover all minterms not yet
covered:
Obtaining an optimum solution: See Reading
Supplement - More on Optimization
Obtaining a good simplified solution: Use the
Selection Rule

Chapter 2 - Part 2

42

Prime Implicant Selection Rule

! Minimize the overlap among prime
implicants as much as possible. In
particular, in the final solution, make
sure that each prime implicant selected
includes at least one minterm not
included in any other prime implicant
selected.

Chapter 2 - Part 2

43

Selection Rule Example

! Simplify F(A, B, C, D) given on the KSelected Essential
map.
C

1
1

A
1

1
D

1
D

Minterms covered by essential prime implicants

Chapter 2 - Part 2

44

Selection Rule Example with Don't Cares

! Simplify F(A, B, C, D) given on the K-map.
C

1
A

x
1

1
D

Essential

Selected

B
A

x
1

D
Minterms covered by essential prime implicants
Chapter 2 - Part 2

45

Practical Optimization
! Problem: Automated optimization
algorithms:
require minterms as starting point,
require determination of all prime
implicants, and/or
require a selection process with a potentially
very large number of candidate solutions to
be found.

! Solution: Suboptimum algorithms not

requiring any of the above in the general
case
Chapter 2 - Part 2

46

Example Algorithm: Espresso

Chapter 2 - Part 2

47

Example Algorithm: Espresso

Chapter 2 - Part 2

48

Example Algorithm: Espresso

Multiple-Level Optimization
! Multiple-level circuits - circuits that are
not two-level (with or without input and/
or output inverters)
! Multiple-level circuits can have reduced
gate input cost compared to two-level
(SOP and POS) circuits
! Multiple-level optimization is performed
by applying transformations to circuits
represented by equations while
evaluating cost
Chapter 2 - Part 2

50

Transformations
! Factoring - finding a factored form from
SOP or POS expression
Algebraic - No use of axioms specific to
Boolean algebra such as complements or
idempotence
Boolean - Uses axioms unique to Boolean
algebra

! Decomposition - expression of a function

as a set of new functions
Chapter 2 - Part 2

51

Transformations (continued)
! Substitution of G into F - expression
function F as a function of G and some or
all of its original variables
! Elimination - Inverse of substitution
! Extraction - decomposition applied to
multiple functions simultaneously

Chapter 2 - Part 2

52

Transformation Examples
! Algebraic Factoring
F = A C D + A B C + ABC + AC D
G = 16
Factoring:
F = A (C D + BC) + A (BC + C D ) G = 16
Factoring again:
F = A C ( B + D ) + AC (B + D )
G = 12
Factoring again:
F = (A C + AC) (B + D)
G = 10

Chapter 2 - Part 2

53

Transformation Examples
! Decomposition
The terms B + D and A C + AC can be defined
as new functions E and H respectively,
decomposing F:
F = E H, E = B + D , and H = A C + AC G = 10
! This series of transformations has reduced G from
16 to 10, a substantial savings. The resulting
circuit has three levels plus input inverters.

Chapter 2 - Part 2

54

Transformation Examples
! Substitution of E into F
Returning to F just before the final factoring step:
F = A C ( B + D ) + AC (B + D)
G = 12
Defining E = B + D, and substituting in F:
F = A C E + ACE
G = 10
This substitution has resulted in the same cost as the
decomposition

Chapter 2 - Part 2

55

Transformation Examples
! Elimination
Beginning with a new set of functions:
X=B+C
Y=A+B
Z = AX + C Y
G = 10
Eliminating X and Y from Z:
Z = A (B + C) + C (A + B)
G = 10
Flattening (Converting to SOP expression):
Z = A B + A C + AC + BC
G = 12
This has increased the cost, but has provided an new
SOP expression for two-level optimization.
Chapter 2 - Part 2

56

Transformation Examples
! Two-level Optimization
The result of 2-level optimization is:
Z=AB+ C
G=4
! This example illustrates that:
Optimization can begin with any set of equations,
not just with minterms or a truth table
Increasing gate input count G temporarily during a
series of transformations can result in a final
solution with a smaller G

Chapter 2 - Part 2

57

Transformation Examples
! Extraction
Beginning with two functions:
E = A B D + A BD
H = B C D + BCD
G = 16
Finding a common factor and defining it as a
function:

F = B D + BD
We perform extraction by expressing E and H as
the three functions:

F = B D + BD, E = A F, H = CF
G = 10
The reduced cost G results from the sharing of logic
between the two output functions
Chapter 2 - Part 2

58

Another example (pag.79)

G=ACE + ACF + ADE + ADF + BCDEF (figure (a))
H= ABCD + ABE + ABF + BCE + BCF
G=A(CE+CF+DE+DF) + BCDEF
G=A(C+D)(E+F)+BCDEF
G=A(C+D)X2 + BX1EF
X1=CD, X1=C+D, X2=(E+F), X2=EF
G=AX1X2 + BX1X2
H=B(ACD+AE+AF+CE+CF)
H=B(A(CD) + (A+C)(E+F)) X3=A+C
G=AX1X2 + BX1X2
H=B(AX1+X3X2) = BAX1 + BX3X2 (figure (b) and (c))
Chapter 2 - Part 2

59

Another example (pag.79)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

60

Another example (pag.79)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

61

Other Gate Types

! Why?
Implementation feasibility and low cost
Power in implementing Boolean functions
Convenient conceptual representation

! Gate classifications
Primitive gate - a gate that can be described using a
single primitive operation type (AND or OR) plus an
optional inversion(s).
Complex gate - a gate that requires more than one
primitive operation type for its description

! Primitive gates will be covered first

Chapter 2 - Part 3

62

Buffer
! A buffer is a gate with the function F = X:
X

! In terms of Boolean function, a buffer is the

same as a connection!
! So why use it?
A buffer is an electronic amplifier used to
improve circuit voltage levels and increase the
speed of circuit operation.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

63

NAND Gate
! The basic NAND gate has the following symbol,
illustrated for three inputs:

AND-Invert (NAND)
X
Y
Z

F( X , Y , Z ) = X Y Z

! NAND represents NOT AND, i. e., the AND

function with a NOT applied. The symbol shown
is an AND-Invert. The small circle ( bubble )
represents the invert function.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

64

NAND Gates (continued)

! Applying DeMorgan's Law gives Invert-OR (NAND)
X
Y
Z

F( X , Y , Z ) = X + Y + Z

! This NAND symbol is called Invert-OR, since inputs are

inverted and then ORed together.
! AND-Invert and Invert-OR both represent the NAND
gate. Having both makes visualization of circuit function
easier.
! A NAND gate with one input degenerates to an inverter.

Chapter 2 - Part 3

65

NAND Gates (continued)

! The NAND gate is the natural implementation for
CMOS technology in terms of chip area and speed.
! Universal gate - a gate type that can implement any
Boolean function.
! The NAND gate is a universal gate as shown in Figure
2-24 of the text.
! NAND usually does not have a operation symbol defined
since
the NAND operation is not associative, and
we have difficulty dealing with non-associative mathematics!

Chapter 2 - Part 3

66

NOR Gate
! The basic NOR gate has the following symbol,
illustrated for three inputs:

OR-Invert (NOR)
X
Y
Z

F(X, Y, Z) = X +Y+ Z

! NOR represents NOT - OR, i. e., the OR function

with a NOT applied. The symbol shown is an
OR-Invert. The small circle ( bubble )
represents the invert function.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

67

NOR Gate (continued)

! Applying DeMorgan's Law gives Invert-AND
(NOR)
X
Y
Z

! This NOR symbol is called Invert-AND, since

inputs are inverted and then ANDed together.
! OR-Invert and Invert-AND both represent the
NOR gate. Having both makes visualization of
circuit function easier.
! A NOR gate with one input degenerates to an
inverter.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

68

NOR Gate (continued)

! The NOR gate is a natural implementation for some
technologies other than CMOS in terms of chip area
and speed.
! The NOR gate is a universal gate
! NOR usually does not have a defined operation
symbol since
the NOR operation is not associative, and
we have difficulty dealing with non-associative
mathematics!

Chapter 2 - Part 3

69

Exclusive OR/ Exclusive NOR

! The eXclusive OR (XOR) function is an important
Boolean function used extensively in logic circuits.
! The XOR function may be;
implemented directly as an electronic circuit (truly a gate) or
implemented by interconnecting other gate types (used as a
convenient representation)

! The eXclusive NOR function is the complement of the

XOR function
! By our definition, XOR and XNOR gates are complex
gates.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

70

!

Uses for the XOR and XNORs gate include:

Counters/incrementers/decrementers
Parity generators/checkers

! Definitions
The XOR function is: X Y = X Y + X Y
The eXclusive NOR (XNOR) function, otherwise
known as equivalence is: X Y = X Y + X Y

! Strictly speaking, XOR and XNOR gates do no

exist for more that two inputs. Instead, they are
replaced by odd and even functions.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

71

Truth Tables for XOR/XNOR

! Operator Rules: XOR

XNOR

Y XY

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
0

Y (XY)
or X Y
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1

! The XOR function means:

X OR Y, but NOT BOTH
! Why is the XNOR function also known as the
equivalence function, denoted by the operator ?
Chapter 2 - Part 3

72

XOR/XNOR (Continued)
! The XOR function can be extended to 3 or more variables.
For more than 2 variables, it is called an odd function or
modulo 2 sum (Mod 2 sum), not an XOR:

X Y Z = XYZ+ XYZ+ XYZ+ XYZ

! The complement of the odd function is the even function.
! The XOR identities:

X0 = X
X 1 = X
XX =0
XX =1
XY = YX
( X Y) Z = X ( Y Z ) = X Y Z
Chapter 2 - Part 3

73

! XOR symbol:

! XNOR symbol:

! Shaped symbols exist only for two inputs

Chapter 2 - Part 3

74

XOR Implementations
! The simple SOP implementation uses the
following structure: X
X Y

! A NAND only implementation is:

X

X Y

Y
Chapter 2 - Part 3

75

Chapter 2 - Part 2

76

Odd and Even Functions

! The odd and even functions on a K-map form
checkerboard patterns.
! The 1s of an odd function correspond to minterms
having an index with an odd number of 1s.
! The 1s of an even function correspond to minterms
having an index with an even number of 1s.
! Implementation of odd and even functions for greater
than four variables as a two-level circuit is difficult, so
we use trees made up of :
2-input XOR or XNORs
3- or 4-input odd or even functions
Chapter 2 - Part 3

77

Example: Odd Function Implementation

! Design a 3-input odd function F = X + Y + Z
with 2-input XOR gates
! Factoring, F = (X + Y) + Z
! The circuit:
X
Y
Z

Chapter 2 - Part 3

78

Example: Even Function Implementation

! Design a 4-input odd function F = W + X + Y + Z
with 2-input XOR and XNOR gates
! Factoring, F = (W + X) + (Y + Z)
! The circuit:
W
X

Y
Z
Chapter 2 - Part 3

79

Parity Generators and Checkers

! In Chapter 1, a parity bit added to n-bit code to produce an n
+ 1 bit code:

Add odd parity bit to generate code words with even parity
Add even parity bit to generate code words with odd parity
Use odd parity circuit to check code words with even parity
Use even parity circuit to check code words with odd parity

! Example: n = 3. Generate even

X
parity code words of length four
Y
with odd parity generator:
Z
! Check even parity code words of
X
length four with odd parity checker: Y
! Operation: (X,Y,Z) = (0,0,1) gives
Z
(X,Y,Z,P) = (0,0,1,1) and E = 0.
P
If Y changes from 0 to 1 between
generator and checker, then E = 1 indicates an error.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

80

Hi-Impedance Outputs
! Logic gates introduced thus far
have 1 and 0 output values,
cannot have their outputs connected together, and
transmit signals on connections in only one direction.

! Three-state logic adds a third logic value, HiImpedance (Hi-Z), giving three states: 0, 1, and Hi-Z
on the outputs.
! The presence of a Hi-Z state makes a gate output as
described above behave quite differently:
1 and 0 become 1, 0, and Hi-Z
cannot becomes can, and
only one becomes two
Chapter 2 - Part 3

81

Hi-Impedance Outputs (continued)

! What is a Hi-Z value?

The Hi-Z value behaves as an open circuit

This means that, looking back into the circuit, the output
appears to be disconnected.
It is as if a switch between the internal circuitry and the
output has been opened.

! Hi-Z may appear on the output of any gate, but we

restrict gates to a 3-state buffer
each of which has one data input and one control
input.

Chapter 2 - Part 3

82

The 3-State Buffer

! For the symbol and truth table, IN
Symbol
is the data input, and EN, the
control input.
IN
OUT
! For EN = 0, regardless of the
value on IN (denoted by X), the
EN
output value is Hi-Z.
Truth Table
! For EN = 1, the output value
follows the input value.
EN IN OUT
! Variations:
0
X
Hi-Z
Data input, IN, can be inverted
Control input, EN, can be inverted
1
0
0
by addition of bubbles to signals.
1
1
1

Chapter 2 - Part 3

83

Resolving 3-State Values on a Connection

! Connection of two 3-state buffer
outputs, B1 and B0, to a wire, OUT
! Assumption: Buffer data inputs can
take on any combination of values 0
and 1
! Resulting Rule: At least one buffer
output value must be Hi-Z. Why?
! How many valid buffer output
combinations exist?
! What is the rule for n 3-state buffers
connected to wire, OUT?
! How many valid buffer output
combinations exist?

Resolution Table
B1

B0

OUT

Hi-Z

Hi-Z

Hi-Z

Hi-Z

Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z

Chapter 2 - Part 3

84

3-State Logic Circuit

! Data Selection Function: If s = 0, OL = IN0, else OL = IN1
! Performing data selection with 3-state buffers:
EN0

IN0

EN1

IN1

OL

0
0
1

X
X
0

1
1
0

0
1
X

0
1
0

1
0

1
X

0
0

X
X

1
X

IN0
S

EN0

OL

IN1
EN1

! Since EN0 = S and EN1 = S, one of the two buffer outputs is

always Hi-Z plus the last row of the table never occurs.
Chapter 2 - Part 3

85

3-State Logic Circuit

Chapter 2 - Part 2

86

More Complex Gates

! The remaining complex gates are SOP or
POS structures with and without an output
inverter.
! The names are derived using:

A - AND
O - OR
I - Inverter
Numbers of inputs on first-level gates or
directly to second-level gates
Chapter 2 - Part 3

87

More Complex Gates (continued)

! Example: AOI - AND-OR-Invert consists of a
single gate with AND functions driving an OR
function which is inverted.
! Example: 2-2-1 AO has two 2-input ANDS
driving an OR with one additional OR input
! These gate types are used because:
the number of transistors needed is fewer than required
by connecting together primitive gates
potentially, the circuit delay is smaller, increasing the
circuit operating speed

Chapter 2 - Part 3

88

More Complex Gates (continued)

Chapter 2 - Part 2

89

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Chapter 2 - Part 2

90