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Results

Flowrate (Q) = 10L / 0.7665min = 2.175 x 104m/s


Cross
section
I

Using Bernoulli equation


h* = h8

hi

Vib =
2 x g x (h hi)

A
B
C
D
E
F

mm
217.0
215.0
213.0
210.0
208.0
206.0

mm
209.0
195.0
142.0
178.0
183.0
190.0

m/s
0.396
0.626
1.180
0.792
0.700
0.560

Using continuity
equation
Ai =
Vic=
Di/4
Q/Ai
mm2
530.93
366.44
201.06
314.16
380.13
530.93

m/s
0.409
0.594
1.081
0.692
0.572
0.409

Difference
(Vib - Vic)/
Vic
%
-0.032
0.052
0.093
0.145
0.224
0.369

Flowrate (Q) = 10L / 0.6107min = 2.729 x 10 4m/s


Cross
section
I

Using Bernoulli equation


h* = h8

hi

Vib =
2 x g x (h hi)

A
B
C
D
E
F

mm
246.0
242.0
240.0
233.0
232.0
230.0

mm
230.0
209.0
119.0
181.0
191.0
201.0

m/s
0.560
0.805
1.541
1.010
0.897
0.754

Using continuity
equation
Ai =
Vic=
Di/4
Q/Ai
mm2
530.93
366.44
201.06
314.16
380.13
530.93

m/s
0.514
0.745
1.357
0.869
0.718
0.514

Difference
(Vib - Vic)/
Vic
%
0.089
0.081
0.133
0.162
0.249
0.467

Flow rate (Q) = 10L/0.4628min = 3.601 x 10 4m/s


Cross
section
I

Using Bernoulli equation


h* = h8

hi

Vib =
2 x g x (h hi)

A
B
C
D
E
F

Mm
285.0
284.0
279.0
278.0
278.0
268.0

mm
260.0
229.0
85.0
184.0
203.0
222.0

m/s
0.700
1.039
1.950
1.358
1.213
0.950

Using continuity
equation
Ai =
Vic=
Di/4
Q/Ai
mm2
530.93
366.44
201.06
314.16
380.13
530.93

m/s
0.678
0.983
1.791
1.146
0.947
0.678

Where:
Cross section

Distance (mm)

A
B
C
D
E
F

60.0
83.0
105.0
148.6
166.4
215.0

Diameter of cross
section (mm)
26.0
21.6
16.0
20.0
22.0
26.0

*The distance is from the beginning tip to the respective tapings

Difference
(Vib - Vic)/
Vic
%
0.032
0.056
0.089
0.185
0.280
0.401

Discussion
Based on the experiment, the results achieve the objective. The objective of doing this
experiment is to determine the fluid velocity using the Bernoullis theorem and the continuity
equations. When the inlet flow control valve open from the small and repeated from step 1-12 for
another two different flowrate and it obtain the flowrate of the first trial is 10L / 0.7665min,
second trial 10L / 0.6107min and the last trial is 10L / 0.4628min.it was calculated below
Calculation for flowrate (Q)
Convert:

= 45.99sec 1min / 60sec

Flowrate

= 10L / 0.7665min

This experiment was repeated about three times to get accurate results. After get the
flowrate, the Bernoullis equation and Continuitys equation was used as a method to fine the
velocity that can give two different readings. As a results the velocity that shows the highest
velocity is the faster flowrate 10L / 0.7665min that velocity for Bernoulli equation are A=0.396,
B=0.626, C=1.180, D=0.792, E=0.700, F=0.560 and for continuity equation the velocity are
A=0.409, B=0.594, C=1.081, D=0.692, E=0.572 F= 0.409 while the slowest flowrate 10L /
0.4628min give the lowest velocity which for Bernoulli equation are A=0.700, B=1.039,
C=1.950, D=1.358, E=1.213, F=0.950 and for Continuity equation the velocity are A=0.678,
B=0.983, C=1.791, D=1.146, E=0.947 F= 0.678 . It calculated by below
Bernoullis equation:
ViB = 2 x g x (h hi)
Where:
Gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2
hi = the total head
h = pressure head
ViB = 2 x 9.81m/s2 x (21 20cm)
=0.396

Continuitys equation:
Vic= Q/Ai
Where:
Q = flow rate average
Ai = area of cross section
Vic= Q/Ai
= 2.175 10-4 m3 /s
(530.93 10-3)-2
= 2.175 10-4 m3 /s
(530.93 10-6)
= 0.409 m/s
Difference
(Vib-Vic)/ Viv
Where:
Vic = continuitys equation
Vib = Bernoullis equation
= (0.396 0.409) / 0.409
= -0.032
From the result of experiment, we know that we can calculate velocity by using
Bernoullis equation and continuity equation. We can see the velocity is relaying on the flowrate.
That mean, high flowrate can give high velocity. After we calculate the velocity using Bernoullis
equation and continuity equation there have a big difference of readings. So, the hypothesis was
correct proven that using Bernoullis equation is better than continuity equation because the
result given by Bernoullis equation is smaller than continuity equation.
There are several possibilities why the result does not perfect that must be avoided during
the experiment. Firstly, the air bubbles still in the manometers. It can disturb the result obtained,
as the result is inaccurate. Besides, the parallax error is the one of the fact why the result is
inaccurate. It happens when process of manometer reading that the reading was taken incorrect
way, when the meniscus of fluid was not stabilized yet or still moving.

Table 1: Manometer Reading Vs Velocity

MANOMETER READING
(H)
217
215
213
210
208
206

VELOCITY
(M/S)
0.36
0.626
1.18
0.792
0.7
0.56

Manometer reading (H) vs Velocity (m/s)


290
285
280
275
Manometer Reading (H) (mm)

Manometer Reading (H)


270
265
260
255
0.70000000000000018
Velocity (m/s)

Table 2: Manometer Reading Vs Velocity

MANOMETER READING
(H)
246
242
240
233
232
230

VELOCITY
(M/S)
0.56
0.85
1.541
1.01
0.897
0.754

MANOMETER READING (H) vs VELOCITY (M/S)


290
285
280
275
Manometer Reading (H) (mm)

MANOMETER READING (H)


270
265
260

255
0.70000000000000018
Velocity (m/s)

Table 3: Manometer Reading vs Velocity


MANOMETER READING
(H)
285
284
279
278
278
268

VELOCITY
(M/S)
0.7
1.039
1.95
1.299
1.213
0.95

MANOMETER READING (H)vs VELOCITY (M/S)


290

285

280

275
MANOMETER READING (H)

Manometer Reading (H) (mm)


270

265

260

255
0.70000000000000018
Velocity (m/s)