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fluid mechanics

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Cross

section

I

h* = h8

hi

Vib =

2 x g x (h hi)

A

B

C

D

E

F

mm

217.0

215.0

213.0

210.0

208.0

206.0

mm

209.0

195.0

142.0

178.0

183.0

190.0

m/s

0.396

0.626

1.180

0.792

0.700

0.560

Using continuity

equation

Ai =

Vic=

Di/4

Q/Ai

mm2

530.93

366.44

201.06

314.16

380.13

530.93

m/s

0.409

0.594

1.081

0.692

0.572

0.409

Difference

(Vib - Vic)/

Vic

%

-0.032

0.052

0.093

0.145

0.224

0.369

Cross

section

I

h* = h8

hi

Vib =

2 x g x (h hi)

A

B

C

D

E

F

mm

246.0

242.0

240.0

233.0

232.0

230.0

mm

230.0

209.0

119.0

181.0

191.0

201.0

m/s

0.560

0.805

1.541

1.010

0.897

0.754

Using continuity

equation

Ai =

Vic=

Di/4

Q/Ai

mm2

530.93

366.44

201.06

314.16

380.13

530.93

m/s

0.514

0.745

1.357

0.869

0.718

0.514

Difference

(Vib - Vic)/

Vic

%

0.089

0.081

0.133

0.162

0.249

0.467

Cross

section

I

h* = h8

hi

Vib =

2 x g x (h hi)

A

B

C

D

E

F

Mm

285.0

284.0

279.0

278.0

278.0

268.0

mm

260.0

229.0

85.0

184.0

203.0

222.0

m/s

0.700

1.039

1.950

1.358

1.213

0.950

Using continuity

equation

Ai =

Vic=

Di/4

Q/Ai

mm2

530.93

366.44

201.06

314.16

380.13

530.93

m/s

0.678

0.983

1.791

1.146

0.947

0.678

Where:

Cross section

Distance (mm)

A

B

C

D

E

F

60.0

83.0

105.0

148.6

166.4

215.0

Diameter of cross

section (mm)

26.0

21.6

16.0

20.0

22.0

26.0

Difference

(Vib - Vic)/

Vic

%

0.032

0.056

0.089

0.185

0.280

0.401

Discussion

Based on the experiment, the results achieve the objective. The objective of doing this

experiment is to determine the fluid velocity using the Bernoullis theorem and the continuity

equations. When the inlet flow control valve open from the small and repeated from step 1-12 for

another two different flowrate and it obtain the flowrate of the first trial is 10L / 0.7665min,

second trial 10L / 0.6107min and the last trial is 10L / 0.4628min.it was calculated below

Calculation for flowrate (Q)

Convert:

Flowrate

= 10L / 0.7665min

This experiment was repeated about three times to get accurate results. After get the

flowrate, the Bernoullis equation and Continuitys equation was used as a method to fine the

velocity that can give two different readings. As a results the velocity that shows the highest

velocity is the faster flowrate 10L / 0.7665min that velocity for Bernoulli equation are A=0.396,

B=0.626, C=1.180, D=0.792, E=0.700, F=0.560 and for continuity equation the velocity are

A=0.409, B=0.594, C=1.081, D=0.692, E=0.572 F= 0.409 while the slowest flowrate 10L /

0.4628min give the lowest velocity which for Bernoulli equation are A=0.700, B=1.039,

C=1.950, D=1.358, E=1.213, F=0.950 and for Continuity equation the velocity are A=0.678,

B=0.983, C=1.791, D=1.146, E=0.947 F= 0.678 . It calculated by below

Bernoullis equation:

ViB = 2 x g x (h hi)

Where:

Gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2

hi = the total head

h = pressure head

ViB = 2 x 9.81m/s2 x (21 20cm)

=0.396

Continuitys equation:

Vic= Q/Ai

Where:

Q = flow rate average

Ai = area of cross section

Vic= Q/Ai

= 2.175 10-4 m3 /s

(530.93 10-3)-2

= 2.175 10-4 m3 /s

(530.93 10-6)

= 0.409 m/s

Difference

(Vib-Vic)/ Viv

Where:

Vic = continuitys equation

Vib = Bernoullis equation

= (0.396 0.409) / 0.409

= -0.032

From the result of experiment, we know that we can calculate velocity by using

Bernoullis equation and continuity equation. We can see the velocity is relaying on the flowrate.

That mean, high flowrate can give high velocity. After we calculate the velocity using Bernoullis

equation and continuity equation there have a big difference of readings. So, the hypothesis was

correct proven that using Bernoullis equation is better than continuity equation because the

result given by Bernoullis equation is smaller than continuity equation.

There are several possibilities why the result does not perfect that must be avoided during

the experiment. Firstly, the air bubbles still in the manometers. It can disturb the result obtained,

as the result is inaccurate. Besides, the parallax error is the one of the fact why the result is

inaccurate. It happens when process of manometer reading that the reading was taken incorrect

way, when the meniscus of fluid was not stabilized yet or still moving.

MANOMETER READING

(H)

217

215

213

210

208

206

VELOCITY

(M/S)

0.36

0.626

1.18

0.792

0.7

0.56

290

285

280

275

Manometer Reading (H) (mm)

270

265

260

255

0.70000000000000018

Velocity (m/s)

MANOMETER READING

(H)

246

242

240

233

232

230

VELOCITY

(M/S)

0.56

0.85

1.541

1.01

0.897

0.754

290

285

280

275

Manometer Reading (H) (mm)

270

265

260

255

0.70000000000000018

Velocity (m/s)

MANOMETER READING

(H)

285

284

279

278

278

268

VELOCITY

(M/S)

0.7

1.039

1.95

1.299

1.213

0.95

290

285

280

275

MANOMETER READING (H)

270

265

260

255

0.70000000000000018

Velocity (m/s)

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