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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

B.E.S.E.-065
,p-vkbZ-oh- ,M~l f'k{kk
( HIV and AIDS Education )
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa dk mkj nhft,


(i) jDr osQ }kjk ,p-vkbZ-oh- osQ lapj.k dh la{ksi esa O;k[;k dhft,A
mkjjDr }kjk lapj.k dh ek=kk ;kSu f;k dh rqyuk esa gksus okys lae.k ls de gksrh gSA jDr }kjk lapj.k osQ fo"k; esa ;g
rF; vR;ar vko';d gS fd ;fn oqQN lkokkfu;ka cjrh tk,a rks lapj.k dk [krjk iwjh rjg lekIr gks tkrk gSA jDr }kjk lapj.k osQ
vusd izdkj fuEufyf[kr gSa
1- jDr lapj.klh-Mh-&4 yfldkvksa esa ,p-vkbZ-oh- viuh iqu% mRifk djrs gSaA ;g jDr ,oa nwljs 'kkjhfjd nzO;ksa esa lapfjr
gksrs gSaA lafer O;fDr dk jDr tc vlafer O;fDr dks p<+k;k tkrk gS rks mlosQ jDr osQ fo"kk.kq tks dksf'kdkvksa ,oa dksf'kdk
nzO; esa fo|eku gksrs gSa] vlafer O;fDr osQ 'kjhj esa izos'k dj tkrs gSaA ,p-vkbZ-oh- lapj.k osQ vusd dkjdksa esa jDr lapj.k }kjk
lafer ,d O;fDr ls nwljs O;fDr esa lae.k gksus dk vR;ar egoiw.kZ dkjd gSA
2- jDr mRiknksa osQ }kjk ,p-vkbZ-oh- lae.k lapj.k jDrnku djus okys dk jDr ,df=kr djus osQ ckn lSy lSijsVj }kjk
vyx fd;k tkrk gSA jDr dh ,d ;wfuV yky jDr df.kdkvksa] IysVysV ,oa Iyktek esa vyx dh tkrh gS] budk mi;ksx
vko';drkuqlkj fd;k tkrk gSA bu ijEijkxr mi;ksxksa osQ vykok jDr esa mRi ,aVhckWMh ls bD;qukXykscqfyu dk fuekZ.k fd;k tkrk
gS] ftudk mi;ksx vusd izdkj dh fpfdRlk osQ nkSjku fd;k tkrk gSA bu mRiknksa }kjk Hkh ,p-vkbZ-oh- dk lapj.k gks ldrk gSA
bu mRiknksa dks mipkjdkjh iz;klksa }kjk lapj.kjfgr cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
3- vax izR;iZ.k }kjk lapj.k,p-vkbZ-oh- dk lapj.k lafer vaxksa }kjk Hkh gks ldrk gSA izR;sd lafer vax osQ jDr ,oa
mQkdksa esa ,p-vkbZ-oh- ik;k tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh vax izR;iZ.k ls iwoZ vax nsus okys dh ,p-vkbZ-oh- tkap gksuh pkfg,A lafer
O;fDr osQ nzO;ksa esa ,p-vkbZ-oh- fo|eku gksrk gS blfy, xqnsZ] vfLFkeTtk] vk[ksa] Ropk] oh;Z vkfn dh izR;kjksi.k izf;k ls iwoZ ,pvkbZ-oh- dh tkap gksuk vfuok;Z gSA
4- va r %f'kjku'kk ls o u (,p-vkbZ - oh-) }kjk ,p-vkbZ - oh- la p j.kva r %f'kjk }kjk u'khys inkFkks os Q iz ; ks x ls
,p-vkbZ-oh- dk lapj.k gksrk gS] D;ksafd u'kk djus okys izk;% ijLij lafer lqb;ksa dk lsou djrs gSaA 1980 osQ var esa ,oa 1990
osQ n'kd osQ izkjaHk esa laiw.kZ fo'o osQ izeq[k {ks=kksa esa u'kk djus okyksa esa ,p-vkbZ-oh- lae.k osQ lapj.k dh nj esa o`f ns[kh xbZ
gSA
5- lkaLfrd vkked pyuoqQN ,sls ikjaifjd pyu gS]a ftuesa midj.kksa osQ mi;ksx ls iznfw "kr jDr }kjk ,p-vkbZ-oh- dk lapj.k
gksrk gSA Hkkjr esa bl izdkj osQ pyu fuEufyf[kr gS
a
(d) xksnuk] dku vFkok ukd NsnukHkkjr esa xksnuk] dku] ukd Nsnuk 'krkfCn;ksa iqjkuh ijEijk gSA ;g izFkk vkfnoklh
leqnk;ksa esa vkerkSj ij ns[kh tkrh gSA bu lHkh f;kvksa dks lkiQ&lqFkjs midj.kksa osQ lkFk djuk pkfg,A

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([k) tuukaxksa dk [kruk@lqr@tuukax HkaxuxqIrkaxksa osQ [kruk djus dh izFkk Hkkjr esa vusd lewgksa esa fo|eku gSA bl
izf;k dks ;fn lkiQ&lqFkjs vkStkjksa ,oa lqizf'kf{kr O;fDr }kjk fd;k tk, rks lae.k dk [krjk cgqr de gksrk gSA
jDr }kjk ,p-vkbZ-oh- lapj.k osQ izfr laonsu'khy oxZ
(d) jDr O;kfk (xM+cM+) ls ihfM+r jksxh,sls jksxh tks vusd izdkj dh jDr xM+cfM+;ksa] tSls,uhfe;k] FkSyslhfe;k]
Y;wosQfe;k ls ihfM+r gSa] budks jDr dh t:jr gksrh gSA ;fn budks fcuk tkap fd;k gqvk jDr ns fn;k tkrk gS rks buesa lae.k dk
[krjk c<+ tkrk gSA gseksfiQfy;sDl tUe ls gh jDr O;kfk ls xzflr gksrs gSaA ;g O;kfk osQoy iq#"kksa esa gh gksrh gS ,oa oa'kkuqxr
ik;h tkrh gSA blosQ iQyLo:i jDr dk FkDdk cuus esa ijs'kkuh gksrh gSA
([k) var%f'kjk u'kk[kksjeknd inkFkks dk lqb;ksa }kjk iz;ksx djus okys ,p-vkbZ-oh- lae.k osQ lapj.k dk ,d izeq[k
ek;e gSA Hkkjr esa mkj&iwoZ osQ jkT;ksa esa ;g vfkd ik;k tkrk gSA
(x) O;kolkf;d jDrnkrk;s yksx os jDrnkrk gksrs gSa] tks ckj&ckj viuk jDr] jDr cSad dks csprs gSaA ;s yksx izk;% xjhc
,oa vLoLFk gksrs gSa] lkFk gh buesa ls vusd yksx ,p-vkbZ-oh- laokgd gksrs gSaA Hkkjr osQ loksZPp U;k;ky; us ns'k esa O;kolkf;d
jDrnku ij izfrcak yxk fn;k gS] fiQj Hkh ,sls yksx viuk O;olk; tkjh j[ks gq, gSa] D;ksafd ns'k esa jDr dk vHkko gSA
(?k) LokLF; j{kd dk;ZdrkZLokLF; j{kd dk;ZdrkZ izk;% lqbZ pqHku ls ,oa vU; vkStkjksa osQ iz;ksx djrs le; pksVxzLr gks
tkrs gSAa ,sls lSdM+kas ekeys lkeus vk, gS]a ftuls ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd LokLF; j{kkdehZ bl dkj.k ls fdl izdkj lafer gks tkrs gSAa
(ii) ,p-vkbZ-oh- osQ jksdFkke ls tqM+s uSfrd vkSj lnkpkfjrk lacafkr eqksa dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkjlexz n`f"Vdks.kloZizFke ge ,p-vkbZ-oh- fuokj.k osQ vusd mik;ksa dk fo'ks"k uSfrd fo'ys"k.k djsaxsA gesa ;g ekuuk gksxk
fd fuokj.k fdlh Hkh rduhd vFkok j.kuhfr ftls vusd dk;Zeksa rd lhfer dj fn;k tk,] ls dgha vfkd gSA ,d euksjt
a d ewY;kadu
esa lh-,-,iQ-vks-Mh- us ,p-vkbZ-oh- egkekjh esa lfEefyr dkj.kksa dks tkapus osQ fy, ^leL;kewyd o`{k* dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA bl o`{k dk
kM+ {ks=kh; egkekjh dks crkrk gS tcfd vkerkSj ij yksxksa] leqnk;ksa vkSj lekt ij blosQ vlj dks ikksa vkSj 'kk[kkvksa }kjk n'kkZ;k x;k
gSA leL;k dh tM+ dks ^tksf[ke dkjd* vkSj xgjh tM+kas dks ^uktqd dkjd* lkekftd vkSj fyax vlekurk] ;q] varjkZ"Vh; O;kikj
lajpuk,a] jktuhfrd] kked vkSj lkaLfrd dkj.k tks bl egkekjh osQ Hk;adj izHkko osQ ewy esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj
jksdFkke dh okLrfod j.kuhfr;ksa dks LFkkuh; egkekjh osQ rhuksa Lrjksa ij ;ku nsuk gksxkA bu j.kuhfr;ksa osQ izHkko vkSj [krjs dks ?kVkuk
gksxk vkSj futh lkekftd xfr'khyrk dks de djuk gksxkA
,p-vkbZ-oh- dh fLFkfr esa dksbZ Hkh cnyko ykus osQ fy, ,d lkFk dk;Z djus okys cgq{ks=kh; n`f"Vdks.k }kjk 'kfDr dks 'kkfey
djuk gksxk] ftlesa Lo;a dh fof'k"V 'kfDr;ksa dh fn'kk esa dk;Z dj jgs vusd yksx bl egkekjh osQ f[kykiQ

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dyad

c<+rk fyax foHksn

f'k{kk dh deh

O;kolkf;d@rduhdh
dkS'kyksa dk {k;

vukFk ,oa laons u'khy


cPps

vkFkd izHkko

vkSlr thou dky

LokLF; lalk/u
dk iyk;u

,p-vkbZ-oh
rFkk ,M~l

ekuo vf/dkj

jDr&;kSu lac/
a ekrk ls f'k'kq dks

jktuSfrd] dyad ;q

vkFkd iyk;u
lewg@lkekftd ncko fof/d
jktuSfrd /eZ laLfr

;kSfud fgalk
csjkstxkjh xjhch

chekjh] e`R;q]
xjhch] d"V

;kSu o cnyk O;olk;


fut fu/Zurk
(LFkkuh; ,oa mkj@nf{k.k)

vKkurk rRo nq#i;ksx


fyax foHksn

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la?k"kZ esa ,d&nwljs dks lg;ksx iznku djrs gq, ,dtqV gksdj dk;Z djrs gSaA lkFk gh ;g Hkh t:jh gks tkrk gS fd jksdFkke
j.kuhfr;ksa dks ftl HkkSxksfyd n`f"Vdks.k osQ fy, fuer fd;k tk,] mUgas mlh {ks=k osQ Hkhrj LFkkuh; vuqHkoh rFkk fo'ks"kK yksxksa
}kjk rS;kj fd;k tk,A mUgsa LFkkfir uSfrd ekudksa osQ lkFk csgrj oSKkfud vkSj fodklkRed O;ogkj dks tksM+dj muesa rkyesy
cSBkuk gSA tc ge ,p-vkbZ-oh- jksdFkke osQ lanHkZ esa vR;fkd fo'ks"k uSfrd fparkvksa ij okrkZyki djsa rks gesa foLr`r ms'; dks ugha
Hkwyuk pkfg,A bl n`f"Vdks.k ls fdlh O;fDr osQ izfr lPps lEeku dk fukkZj.k gksxk vkSj bl egkekjh dks egoiw.kZ rjhosQ ls jksdus
esa lgk;d gksxkA
izHkko U;wuhdj.k

lexz ,p-vkbZ-oh fojks/ dh j.kuhfr

[krjs dks de djuk


futh laons u'khyrk esa deh osQ dkj.k
lkekftd laosnu'khyrk esa deh osQ dkj.k

LFkkuh; egkekjh lacakh vkadM+s;g loZfofnr gh gS fd ,p-vkbZ-oh- ;kSu lacak] vkU=ksrj jDr laioZQ vkSj tUe osQ le;
ekrk ls cPps rd xHkZ] izlo vFkok Lruiku }kjk iSQy ldrk gSA o"kZ 2004 esa jk"Vh; ,M~l fu;a=k.k laxBu (ukdks) us Hkkjr esa
lafpr ,M~l osQlksa osQ lanHkZ esa ,d loZs{k.k izdkf'kr fd;k gSA bl losZ{k.k esa fn[kk;k x;k gS fd 85-69 izfr'kr ,p-vkbZ-ohlae.k ;kSu lacakksa osQ dkj.k] 2-71 izfr'kr cPps osQ tUe osQ le;] 2-24 izfr'kr lafer lwbZ;ksa ls rFkk 2-57 izfr'kr lafer
jDr vkSj jDr mRiknksa osQ ek;e ls iSQykA lkFk gh 6-78 izfr'kr osQlksa esa ukdks blosQ iSQyus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk ugha dj ldkA
,p-vkbZ-oh-@,M~l osQ ;kSu laioZQ }kjk lapj.k dh jksdFkke osQ lacak esa uSfrd eqsvfkdrj fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa ,pvkbZ-oh- osQ iSQyus dk ;g lcls lkekU; rjhdk gSA lkFk gh ;g ,d ,slk {ks=k gS] ftlesa T;knkrj uSfrd fofHkrk ik;h tkrh gSA
,p-vkbZ-oh- jksdFkke osQ fy, lcls vPNk izLrko ,-ch-lh- n`f"Vdks.k gSA ,-ch-lh- dk vFkZ gS la;e ls jguk] fu"Bkoku jguk vkSj
oaQMkse dk iz;ksx djukA ,-ch-lh- n`f"Vdks.k ;kSu la;e dks izksRlkfgr djrk gSA ;g ;kSu lacakksa osQ lanHkZ esa lf; iq#"kksa vkSj
efgykvksa osQ e; oaQMkse iz;ksx dks c<+krk gSA ;g vfookfgr] ;kSu lacak cukus esa lf; iq#"kksa vkSj efgykvksa ftuosQ lsDl
lg;ksxh Fks] muosQ vuqikr esa deh djrk gSA
la;ela;e dks lkkkj.k rkSj ij fdlh Hkh oLrq dks Vkyus osQ fy, tkucw>dj fy, x, iSQlys osQ :i esa tkuk tkrk gSA
vkerkSj ij dkeqdrk dks fd'kksjkoLFkk esa kked] uSfrd rFkk O;fDrxr ewY;ksa dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tkrk gSA bl izdkj ;kSurk dk lanHkZ
nk'kZfud] uSfrd] kked] jktuSfrd rFkk Lo;a ls lacafkr gSA ;kSu lacakh fo"k; ij dksbZ Hkh ;g ugha dg ldrk fd thou Hkj
blosQ izfr la;e cjrsaA ysfdu ;fn ckr cPpksa dh vkrh gS fd oSokfgd vk;q rd la;e cjrsaA vkerkSj ij ;kSu la;e 'kCn dk
iz;ksx ;g js[kkafdr djus osQ fy, fd;k tkrk gS fd izFke ;kSu lacak dh le;kofk c<+k;h tk,A bl lanHkZ esa vusd mnkgj.k ;g
fl djrs gSa fd ,-ch-lh- n`f"Vdks.k ;qok oxZ osQ fy, vR;fkd liQy gq, gSa] ftuosQ fy, ;kSu lacakh vk;q esa o`f ls [krjs dks
de djus dh dk;Z ;kstuk egoiw.kZ fl gqbZA ;kSu la;e dk;Ze vfookfgr yksxksa dks ;kSu lacakksa ls nwj jgus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr
djrs gSa] D;ksafd ,p-vkbZ-oh- o vU; ;kSu tfur lae.kksa ls cpko dk ;gh ,dek=k mik; gSA ;kSu la;e fookg ls iwoZ ;qok yksxksa
esa vR;ar egoiw.kZ gSA lekt esa ekrk&firk ,oa ;qokvksa dks f'k{kk iznku djus okyksa dks lgk;rk iznku fd, tkus dh t:jr gS]
ftlls os laHkkfor lekt vkSj lg;ksxh osQ ncko osQ ckotwn ;qokvksa dks fookg&iwoZ lacak esa la;e cjrus rFkk ve;kZfnr lacak ls
cpus osQ fy, ekxZn'kZu dj losaQA
oiQknkj cusa;g Hkh ,-ch-lh- ;kstuk dk gh ro gSA okLro esa ;g ,d ifr&iRuh osQ lacakksa dks viuk, tkus dh vksj b'kkjk
djrk gSA bldk thou dh oSokfgd fLFkfr esa fo'ks"k ;ksxnku gS] tc ;qok vius thou lg;ksxh dk p;u djosQ vkilh oSokfgd
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lacakksa dks viukrs gSaA oiQknkj fuEu izdkj ls cuk tk ldrk gS


1- vkdfLed ;kSu lacakh ?kVukvksa dks de djus dh ;kstuk }kjkA
2- lkfFk;ksa dh la[;k esa ;kstukc rjhosQ ls deh ykukA
3- fed :i ls osQoy ifr&iRuh lacak gh viukukA
lkkkj.k rkSj ij ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd fo'o essa ,p-vkbZ-oh- egkekjh osQ iSQyus dk izeq[k dkj.k ,d ls vfkd ;kSu lkfFk;ksa dk
gksuk gSA ;qxkaMk o FkkbZySaM esa ;kSu lkfFk;ksa dh la[;k esa deh djus ls ,p-vkbZ-oh- osQlksa esa egoiw.kZ deh vk;h gSA ;qxkaMk esa
iq#"kksa ,oa fL=k;ksa nksuksa esa cgqr de lkef;d ;kSu lg;ksxh ns[ks x,A FkkbZySaM esa oaQMkse osQ iz;ksx osQ dkj.k iq#"kksa esa O;kolkf;d
;kSu lg;ksfx;ksa osQ lkFk lkef;d ;kSu lacakksa esa egoiw.kZ deh ik;h x;h gSA bl gsrq ehfM;k osQ izpkj&izlkj vfHk;ku rFkk fo'okl
ij vkkkfjr laxBuksa dh Hkwfedk mYys[kuh; gSA
oaQMkseoaQMkse rFkk vU; jksx fujkskd mik;ksa dks [krjs dks de djus okys mik;ksa osQ :i esa ns[kuk pkfg,A tkuifnd
losZ{k.kksa osQ vkdyu osQ vuqlkj ;fn oaQMkse dks Bhd izdkj ls fu;fer iz;ksx esa yk;k tk, rks ,p-vkbZ-oh- [krjs dks vR;fkd
lhek rd de dj ldrk gSA ;g ml le; izklafxd gS tc jksdFkke dh igy bZekunkjh o Bhd izdkj ls dh tk,A ,p-vkbZ-ohjksdFkke dh O;wg jpuk esa ^l* oSQls dke djrk gS] ;g le>us osQ fy, ;g tkuuk vko';d gS fd oaQMkse mi;ksx dk;Ze fdl
izdkj fuEufyf[kr dks c<+kok nsrk gS
1- ;g tkuuk fd ,p-vkbZ-oh- lae.k ls cpus dk ,dek=k mik; ;kSu f;kvksa dk fu"ksk gSA
2- [krjs dks de djus dk ego rFkk [krjs dks de djus okyh ,d fujarj O;wg jpuk] ml ifjfLFkfr esa tc [krjs dh
lekfIr okyk dk;Z u fd;k tk jgk gksA
3- oaQMkse lHkh ;kSutfur lae.kksa ls cpko ugha djrs gSa] ,slh tkudkjh dk gksukA
4- LoSfPNd ijke'kZ ijh{k.k dh ,d [krjk de djus okys O;wg jpuk esa izeq[k HkwfedkA
vkt rd oaQMkse dks izksRlkfgr djus okyk lcls liQy dk;Ze FkkbZySaM dk jgk gSA ogka ;g vuqHko fd;k x;k fd ns'k esa
,p-vkbZ-oh-@,M~l ,d Hk;adj leL;k gS] ftlls ;qok] fo'ks"k :i ls tks j{kk lsokvksa esa lfEefyr gks jgs gSa] izHkkfor gks jgs gSaA
blfy, FkkbZySaM esa 'kr&izfr'kr oaQMkse dk;Ze dks 'kq: fd;k x;k] ftlosQ rgr ns'k osQ lHkh os';ky;ksa esa leLr O;kolkf;d
;kSude;ksa gsrq oaQMkse osQ iz;ksx dks vfuok;Z cuk fn;k x;kA jk"Vh; Lrj ij bldk ize[q k ms'; ,p-vkbZ-oh- dh mifLFkfr o ?kVukvksa
dks djuk FkkA oaQMkse osQ iz;ksx }kjk ,p-vkbZ-oh- jksdFkke dh miyfCk dk nwljk mnkgj.k dksydkrk osQ lcls cM+s os';ko`fk osQUnz
lksukxkNh dk gSA
y{; okf.kfT;d ;kSude;ksa dks izk;% Bhd izdkj ls oaQMkse dk iz;ksx djus osQ fy, izsfjr djuk Fkk rFkk ;g dk;Z fo'ks"kr%
led{k f'k{kk dk;Ze pykdj fd;k x;kA bu miyfCk;ksa ls ;gh Kkr gksrk gS fd oaQMkse lkekftd foi.ku (lh-,l-,e-) ij
osaQnzh; fuokjd dk;Zeksa esa izFke iz;kl Fkkbl egkekjh dks iSQykus okys izeq[k ?kVdksa dk Bhd izdkj ls vuqeku yxkuk rFkk
{ks=kh; lkekftd&vkFkd fo'ks"krkvksa dh lgh tkudkjhA
iz'u ;g mBrk gS fd ,p-vkbZ-oh- lEizs"k.k jksdus esa oaQMkse dk iz;ksx fdruk fo'oluh; gS\ ,p-vkbZ-oh- cpko osQ fy,
oaQMkse dh fo'oluh;rk tkuus esa gesa budh 'kfDr vkSj izHkkodkfjrk osQ e; varj djuk gksxkA oaQMkse dh 'kfDr osQ lkFk le>kSrk
mlosQ iQV tkus] f[kld tkus vkSj ysVsDl osQ kl }kjk gks ldrk gSA blh izdkj ;g vko';d gS fd oaQMkse dk iz;ksx fu;fer ,oa
Bhd izdkj ls fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
jk"Vh; LokLF; laLFkku dh fjiksVZ esa crk;k x;k gS fd ,p-vkbZ-oh-@,M~l lEizs"k.k osQ tksf[ke dks de djus osQ fy, oaQMkse osQ
lanHkZ esa losZ{k.kksa dh foHkkftr 'kfDr vU; ;kSu lEizsf"kr jksxksa dh rqyuk esa dgha T;knk gSA oaQMkse osQ fu;fer vkSj lgh iz;ksx ls
,p-vkbZ-oh-@,M~l lEizs"k.k osQ [krjs dks yxHkx 85 izfr'kr rd de dj fn;k gSA bl lacak esa nks izeq[k eqs ftudk o.kZu fd;k
tkuk t:jh gS] ;s fuEufyf[kr gSa
1- laiw.kZ losZ{k.kksa ls vc ;g lkfcr gks pqdk gS fd oaQMkse o`f ls ;kSu f;k,a T;knk ugha c<+rhaA fl,l fy;ksu esa ,d
losZ{k.k ls Kkr gqvk gS fd fo|kFk;ksa osQ fy, oaQMkse forj.k dk;Ze ls ;kSu lf; ;qokvksa dh la[;k esa o`f ugha gqbZ]
ysfdu tks ;qok ;kSu lafyIr Fks] muesa vokafNr xHkZkkj.k esa deh vkbZ gSA
2- vR;ar izHkkodkfjrk osQ fy, lh-,l-,e- dh dk;Zuhfr;ksa dks Bhd izdkj ls yf{kr fd;k tkuk t:jh gSA bldk vU;
tula[;k dkjdksa ij Hkh ijks{k lacakh izHkko gks ldrk FkkA

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lkekU; fLFkfr;ksa ls dgha brj tc ;kSu f;k ftldh fu;fr thou dk laoZu gS] e`R;q dk laHkkoh lzko cu tkrh gS rks thou
vkSj LokLF; osQ laj{k.k osQ fy, vlkkkj.k mik; vfuok;Z gks tkrs gSaA ,slh fLFkfr esa tc oaQMkse gh vafre mik; cp tkrk gS]
vius lkFkh osQ izfr oiQknkj jgus vkSj la;e cjrus osQ lw{e varj osQ lkFk ,-ch-lh n`f"Vdks.k gh bl dfBu vkSj pqukSrhiw.kZ le; esa
,d izdkj ls O;ogk;Z gy fl gksrk gSA
jDr laioZQ jksdus esa uSfrd eqslwbZ Mx iz;ksxdrkZ ,p-vkbZ-oh- ls lafer gksus dk ,d ek;e gSA jDr laioZQ vkSj mPp
[krjukd O;ogkjksa esa ls ,d ftl ij ;ku nsus dh t:jr gS] og gS lwbZ Mx iz;ksxdrkZvksa esa vkil esa lwb;ksa dk lkewfgd iz;ksxA
'kq#vkr esa tkuifnd jksxfoKkuh ;g le>rs Fks fd vkbZ-Mh-;w- o muls ;kSu&lacak j[kus okys O;fDr ,d ,slk lhfer oxZ gS] tks
vkerkSj ij bl chekjh dks c<+kus esa ;ksxnku ugha nsrk gSA laiw.kZ fo'o esa lHkh ,p-vkbZ-oh- lae.kksa dk yxHkx 5&10 izfr'kr Hkkx
vkbZ-Mh-;w- osQ dkj.k gh gksrk gSA vkbZ-Mh-;w- osQ fy, [krjs dks nwj djus dh dk;Zuhfr;ka lwbZ }kjk u'kk[kksjh osQ mUewyu rFkk u'kk[kksjksa
dks mudh yr dks NqM+okus dh enn gsrq eknd inkFkks osQ lsou osQ eqfDr osQ dk;Zeksa ij laosQfUnzr gSaA
oqQN lhfer lalkkuksa rFkk ckj&ckj fd, tkus okys jktuSfrd izfrjkskksa osQ lkFk o"kZ 1984 esa izFke ,u-bZ-ih- ,eLVMZe esa mRi
fd;k x;k FkkA fnlEcj] 2006 rd ,sls 46 {ks=k] ns'k rFkk jkT; {ks=k Fks] ftUgksaus de&ls&de ,d ,u-bZ-ih- gksus dh lwpuk nhA ,d
oLrq tks leLr ,u-bZ-ih- dks djuh gS] og gS iz;ksx fd, tk pqosQ miLdjksa osQ LFkku ij nokb;ksa osQ lajf{kr VhosQ osQ fy, LoPN
lwb;ksa ,oa fljtksa rFkk vU; lkexzh osQ lkFk vkbZ-Mh-;w- dks eqgS;k djkukA ,u-bZ-ih- bl ckr ij vfkd cy nsrk gS fd lwbZ dk
iz;ksx osQoy ,d gh ckj fd;kA
,u-bZ-ih- osQ lkFk vU; dk;Zuhfr tks iz;qDr dh tkrh gS] og gS vkbZ-Mh-;w- (batsD'ku vkS"kfk iz;ksDrk) dks O;ogkj osQ
vknku&iznku esa lq>ko nsukA bl ms'; dh izkfIr osQ fy, O;fDr fo'ks"k osQ lkFk fujarj laioZQ fd;k tkrk gS] ftlesa dk;Ze
leUo;d dks [krjs lekIr djus okys O;ogkjksa osQ fo"k; esa vkbZ-Mh-;w- dks crkus osQ fy, muls laioZQ djus] mUgsa lq>ko nsus o
mudh enn djus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA ,u-bZ-ih- dk izeq[k y{; O;fDr ,oa lekt dks Hk;adj LokLF; ifj.kkeksa osQ [krjs dks de
djuk gSA vuqlakku ls irk pyk gS fd ,u-bZ-ih-] vkbZ-Mh-;w- osQ e; ,p-vkbZ-oh- osQ [krjs esa deh ykrk gS] fiQj Hkh ;g izf;k
fooknkLin jgh gS fd ,u-bZ-ih- u'ks osQ iz;ksx dks c<+kok ns ldrk gS] D;ksafd ;g VhoQk lkexzh dks ljyrk ls eqgS;k djkrk gSA
losZ{k.kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd ,u-bZ-ih- vusd lf; LokLF; urhtksa ls lg;ksftr gSa] tSls ,p-vkbZ-oh-] ,p-ch-oh- ,oa ,p-lh-ohdh ?kVuk esa deh] lwb;ksa osQ vknku&iznku esa deh] fljtksa osQ iqu% iz;ksx esa deh rFkk u'kk mipkj dk;Zeksa esa ukekadu dh la[;k
esa o`fA
izkFkfed u'kk[kksjh jksdFkke osQ vPNs urhtksa osQ lkFk] izeq[k ms'; ;g gksuk pkfg, fd u'kk[kksjksa dks fukkZfjr u'kk mUeqfDr
dk;Zeksa }kjk u'ks ij fuHkZj jgus osQ leLr izdkjksa ls cpus esa enn dh tk,A bl dk;Zuhfr dk ,d Hkkx batsD'ku vkS"kfk
iz;ksxdrkZ dks oh-lh-Vh- osQ fy, tkus rFkk mUgsa viuh fufgr fLFkfr dks igpkuus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr djrk gSA
(iii) e| O;olu rFkk ,p-vkbZ-oh- dh jksdFkke osQ fy;s ,d fo|ky; esa f'k{kd osQ :i esa vkidh Hkwfedk ,d
ijke'kZnkrk osQ :i esa fdl izdkj dh gksxh\
mkj,M~l osQ izlkj }kjk mRi ?kkrd leL;k dk lkeuk djus esa f'k{kk egoiw.kZ lg;ksx dj ldrh gSA v;kid dks lekt osQ
izfrfufk osQ :i esa tkuk tkrk gS rFkk og lkekftd nkf;Roksa ls tqM+k gqvk gS] vr% ogh lekt dks bl vk'kafdr foHkhf"kdk ls cpk
ldrk gSA orZeku esa ,M~l u osQoy futh ftUnfx;ksa dks lekIr dj jgk gS] cfYd laiw.kZ lekt dks Hkkjh uqdlku igqapkrs gq, ,d
egkekjh dk :i kkj.k dj pqdk gSA v;kid dks ;g fukkZfjr djus esa izeq[k Hkwfedk fuHkkuh gksxh fd Hkkoh ukxfjd vius vkidks bl
?kkrd chekjh ls cpk losaQ] ftlls lekt bl vfHk'kki ls eqDr gks losQA lkFk gh ;g Hkh t:jh gS fd tks blls izHkkfor gSa muosQ izfr
ekuoh; n`f"Vdks.k j[kk tk,A bl izdkj dh Hkkouk dks fodflr djus dh fn'kk esa Hkh v;kid dh egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gksrh gSA
vkkqfud ;qx esa Hkkjr esa vfkd yksx ,p-vkbZ-oh- lafer gSa vkSj vc rd bldks de djus dk dksbZ leqfpr mik; ugha gSA ;qokvksa
dks f'kf{kr djuk gh bldk ,dek=k mik; gSA f'k{kk bl izdkj dh gks] tks bl chekjh dks jksdus esa lgk;d gksA bl gsrq gesa oqQN 'kSf{kd
vuqHkoksa dks iznku djuk gksxkA ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk bls ,d vyx fo"k; u cukdj vU; fo"k;ksa osQ lkFk 'kkfey dj ;kSu f'k{kk iznku
djuh gksxhA ekuoh; lajpuk ls tqM+s fo"k;kas_ tSlstuu] xHkZkkj.k] LokLF; o lqj{kk dh tkudkjh Hkh iznku djuh pkfg,A v;kid dks
fuf'pr y{;ksa dks lkeus j[kdj ,M~l f'k{kk uhfr fuer djuh gksxhA ms'; ,slk gksuk pkfg, fd izf'k{kq u osQoy iw.kZ tkudkjh izkIr
djs cfYd vius n`f"Vdks.k dks Hkh cny ik, rHkh izf'k{kq osQ O;fDrRo dk iw.kZ fodkl laHko gSA

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izf'k{kq dks ,M~l osQ lae.k osQ izdkj] O;fDr] lekt o ns'k ij bldk izHkko] chekjh osQ y{k.k] cpko osQ mik;] chekjh dk mipkj
vkSj blls lacafkr fo"k; ij iw.kZ tkudkjh gksuk t:jh gSA izf'k{kq Lo;a ,oa ifjokj osQ LokLF; dh t:jr dks le>saxs vkSj fookg ls iwoZ
vkSj fookg osQ ckn ;kSu O;ogkj osQ izfr ftEesnkj gksaxsA muesa vk'kkokfnrk dk y{; chekjksa osQ izfr muosQ n`f"Vdks.k dks cnysxk blfy,
vuqns'kkRed uhfr;ksa dks le; dh t:jr osQ vuqlkj cukuk ,d y{; gksuk pkfg,A
f'k{k.k vuqHkoksa dk pqukof'k{k.k vuqHko u osQoy fo'ks"k rjhosQ ls fn;k tkuk pkfg, cfYd vU; ikB~;srj dk;Zeksa }kjk Hkh
fn;k tkuk pkfg,A v;kid dks ;g Hkh tkuuk pkfg, fd Hkwe.Myhdj.k osQ ;qx esa izpkj ek;e vusd laLfr;ksa] vkkqfudrk tSls nkSj
ls izHkkfor gSa rFkk foijhr fyax osQ yksxksa dks vkil esa feyus dh Lora=krk ns jgs gSa] ftlls ,d ubZ ih<+h lkeus vk jgh gS] ftuosQ thou
ewY; vkSj vkn'kZ loZFkk vyx gSaA izf'k{kq dks ,sls O;fDRo dks mRi djuk gksxk] tks ubZ ih<+h osQ >qdko osQ vk'kkoknh #[k dks c<+kok
nsa rFkk uSfrd o uhfr ij vfMx jgsaA thou dkS'ky dh ;ksX;rk orZeku ;qx esa egoiw.kZ gS rFkk i<+kbZ osQ vfrfjDr vU; ikB~;srj izf;k,a
Hkh vko';d gSa] tks i;kZIr ek=kk esa iw.kZ f'k{k.k vuqHko iznku djrh gSaA
f'k{k.k dh ifrf'k{k.k dk rjhdk Hkh vyx gks ldrk gS] ftlesa vusd f;kdyki lfEefyr gSa] tSlsO;k[;ku] fu;r dk;Z]
izkstsDV] lykg vkfnA v;kidksa dks izpkj ek;eksa dk lkokkuhiwoZd p;u dj ikB~;e esa lfEefyr djuk gksxk] ftlls n`f"Vdks.k osQ
fodkl ij mfpr izHkko iM+sA
fu"kskksa dk fxjuk (bZ-Vh-,p-);g loZfofnr gS fd u, v;;u osQ vuqlkj T;knkrj v;kidksa dks ;kSu f'k{kk nsrs le; vlqfokk
dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk gSA v;kidksa osQ fy, fd'kksjkoLFkk esa ;kSu f'k{kk ls lacafkr fo"k;ksa dks i<+kuk izkjaHk dfBu gks ldrk gSA
v;kidksa dks 'keZ dks R;kxus dh t:jr gS vkSj ,d fpfdRldh; n`f"Vdks.k dks Hkh R;kxuk gksxkA v;kid dks ljyrk ls bu fo"k;ksa
dks laizsf"kr djuk gksxkA lkFk gh fo"k;&oLrq osQ 'kCnksa osQ p;u osQ fy, lkokkuh cjruh gksxhA

v;kid ,d ijke'kZnkrk osQ :i esa

v;kiu osQ vykok v;kid dks ,d ijke'kZnkrk dh Hkwfedk Hkh fuHkkuh pkfg,A i<+kus ls vfkd t:jh gS fd izf'k{kq dh ckr
lquuk vkSj mudh Hkzkafr;ksa] nqfokkvksa] leL;kvksa dks ijke'kZ }kjk nwj djukA v;kid dks v;kiu ls vfkd lykg nsuk dfBu gks ldrk
gS] D;ksafd lykg izf'k{kq ls vkilh rkyesy osQ fcuk ugha gks ldrhA mls izf'k{kq dh leL;k ls rkyesy fcBkuk gksxkA
fd'kksjksa dh lkekU; leL;kvksa ls lacafkr lykgfd'kksjksa dh vusd leL;k,a gksrh gSa] tks muosQ 'kkjhfjd fodkl] ifjorZu]
HkkoukRed o lg;ksfx;ksa] ekrk&firk dh c<+rh vk'kk,a] fo|ky; o lekt ls lacafkr gksrh gSaA vusd dkj.k tSls ehfM;k dk izHkko]
lkfFk;ksa dk ncko] vius O;fDrRo dh [kkst] mRlqdrk vkSj ;kSu ls lacafkr tkudkjh o vKkurk mUgsa u'kk] 'kjkc o ;kSu esa iz;ksx osQ
fy, izksRlkfgr djrh gSA ,d v;kid dh n`f"V ls vkidks bl izdkj osQ xSj&ftEesnkjkuk O;ogkj osQ nq"ifj.kkeksa ls voxr djuk gksxkA
feFkd o xyr vokkj.kk dks nwj djus osQ fy, ijke'kZ,l-Vh-Mh- vkSj ,M~l osQ lanHkZ esa lekt esa feFkd o xyr vokkj.kk,a
izpfyr gSaA xyr Hkzkafr;ka chekjh osQ lae.k o mipkj ls lacafkr gks ldrh gSaA blfy, ;kSu fo"k;ksa ls xHkkZkku dks gVkus osQ fo"k; esa
vKkurk gks ldrh gSaA ;g vKkurk gkfudkjd gSA vr% ;g vfuok;Z gS fd izf'k{kq dks muls eqDr dj lgh tkudkjh nh tk, ,oa muosQ
Hkze dks nwj fd;k tk,A
,p-vkbZ-oh- lafer dks ijke'kZorZeku esa lafer O;fDr vkSj mlosQ ifjokj osQ izfr lkekftd HksnHkko dh ?kVuk,a vke gSaA
bl n`f"V ls izf'k{kq dks chekjh osQ lae.k osQ lanHkZ esa lykg t:jh gSA lafer cPpksa o muosQ ifjokjksa dks bl chekjh ls yM+us osQ
fy, mfpr lykg nsdj lykgdkj muosQ thou esa lqkkj yk ldrk gSA mudh ihM+k dks de dj thou dh xq.kokk c<+k ldrk gSA orZeku
esa bl chekjh ls vfkd yksx izHkkfor gks jgs gSaA vr% v;kid dks vfkd&ls&vfkd izf'k{kqvksa osQ fy, rS;kj jguk gksxk tks bl chekjh
ls izHkkfor gSaA ekuokfkdkj fjiksVZ osQ vuqlkj vkt ,p-vkbZ-oh-@,M~l ls izHkkfor cPps fujarj HksnHkko o 'kks"k.k osQ f'kdkj gks jgs gSa]
blfy, ijke'kZnkrk dks muosQ izfr T;knk ekuoh; n`f"Vdks.k viuk gksxkA
v;kid ,d lykgdkj osQ :i esa izf'k{kq osQ fopkjksa o Hkkoksa dks Bhd izdkj ls lquus okyk] la;eh] U;kf;d] xfr'khy vkSj oiQknkj
gksuk pkfg,A muosQ lkFk leUo; LFkkfir djus ls izf'k{kq vkjkenk;d vuqHko djsaxsA lwpuk ,d=k djus esa fouezrkiwoZd O;ogkj djuk
pkfg,A loZizFke v;kid dks lwpuk dh xksiuh;rk vkSj futrk dk lEeku djuk gksxkA v;kid vko';drkuqlkj muosQ cM+ksa ls o ;ksX;
O;fDr;ksa ls lg;ksx ys ldrk gSA izf'k{kq dks viuh leL;k dks Lo;a gy djus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr dj ldrk gSA

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