INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO

)

FOUNDATION OF THE ORGANIZATION (ICAO)

INTERNATIONAL

CIVIL

AVIATION

The consequence of the studies initiated by the US and subsequent consultations between the Major Allies was that the US government extended an invitation to 55 States or authorities to attend, in November 1944, an International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago. Fifty-four States attended this Conference end of which a Convention on International Civil Aviation was signed by 52 States set up the permanent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as a means to secure international co-operation an highest possible degree of uniformity in regulations and standards, procedures and organisation regarding civil aviation matters. At the same time the International Services Transit Agreement and the International Air Transport Agreement were signed. The most important work accomplished by the Chicago Conference was in the technical field because the Conference laid the foundation for a set of rules and regulations regarding air navigation as a whole which brought safety in flying a great step forward and paved the way for the application of a common air navigation system throughout the world.

PICAO - North Atlantic Route Service Conference (Dublin, March 1946) Because of the inevitable delays in the ratification of the Convention, the Conference had signed an Interim Agreement, which foresaw the creation of a Provisional International Organization of a technical and advisory nature with the purpose of collaboration in the field of international civil aviation (PICAO). This Organization was in operation from August 1945 to April 1947 when the permanent ICAO came into being. Its seat was in Montreal, Canada and in 1947 the change from PICAO to ICAO was little more than a formality. However, it also brought about the end of ICAN because, now that ICAO was firmly established, the ICAN member States agreed to dissolve ICAN by naming ICAO specifically as its successor Organization. From the very assumption of activities of PICAO/ICAO, it was realised that the work of the Secretariat, especially in the technical field, would have to cover two major activities: 1. Those which covered generally applicable rules and regulations concerning training and licensing of aeronautical personnel both in the air and on the ground, communication systems and procedures, rules for the air and air traffic control systems and practices, airworthiness requirements for aircraft engaged in international air navigation as well as their registration and identification, aeronautical meteorology and maps and charts. For obvious reasons, these aspects required uniformity on a world-wide scale if truly international air navigation was to become a possibility. Activities in these fields had therefore to be handled by a central agency, i.e. ICAO headquarters, if local deviations or separate developments were to be avoided; 2. Those concerning the practical application of air navigation services and facilities by States and their co-co-ordinated implementation in specific areas where operating conditions and other relevant parameters were comparable.

To meet the latter objective it was agreed to sub-divide the surface of the earth into a number of "regions" within which distinct and specific air navigation problems of a similar nature existed. A typical example of this process is illustrated by a comparison of the so-called "North Atlantic Region (NAT)", where the primary problems concern long-range overseas navigation, with the "European-Mediterranean region (EUR)" where the co-ordination of transEuropean operations with domestic and short-range international traffic constitutes the major problem. Once the regions created, it was necessary to provide bodies which were able to assist States in the resolution of their specific "regional" problems and it was agreed that this could best be achieved by the creation of a number of Regional Offices which were to be located either in the Region they served or, if more than one Region was to be served by such an Office, as close as possible to the Region concerned. As a consequence of the above ICAO adopted the concept of Regions and Regional Offices on the understanding that Mr. E. Warner, First President of any regional activities could only be the Council of ICAO From 1947 undertaken provided they did not conflict to 1957 with the world-wide activities of the Organization. However, it was also recognised that such activities could vary from Region to Region taking into account the general economic, technical or social environment of the Region concerned.

➢ CHICAGO CONVENTION

Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established. It functioned from 6 June 1945 until 4 April 1947. By 5 March 1947 the 26th ratification was received. ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention on International Civil Aviation set forth the purpose of ICAO: "WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends; THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically; Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end." In response to the invitation of the United States Government, representatives of 54 nations met at Chicago from November 1 to December 7, 1944, to "make arrangements for the immediate establishment of provisional world air routes and services" and "to set up an interim council to collect, record and study data concerning international aviation and to make recommendations for its improvement." The Conference was also invited to "discuss the principles and methods to be followed in the adoption of a new aviation convention." Exploratory conversations with a number of governments had already been conducted bilaterally by the United States Government, and the conference met with the texts of four draft proposals already prepared for its consideration by the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Canada, and by Australia and New Zealand jointly. The Conference immediately set up, in addition to the normal working committees (Executive, Nominations, Steering, Credentials, and Rules and Regulations Committees), four technical committees with appropriate subcommittees. These were as follows: Committee I. Multilateral Aviation Convention and International Aeronautical Body

Committee II. Technical Standards and Procedures

Committee III. Provisional Air Routes Committee IV. Interim Council The work of the conference was divided into: 1. The establishment of a permanent multilateral convention and international aeronautic body. 2. The creation of international technical standards and procedures. 3. The perfecting of arrangements for provisional air routes. 4. The establishment of an interim council to function in international aviation pending ratification of a full convention, which might take as long as three years. Early in these discussions the Committee on Multilateral Aviation Convention and International Aeronautical Body rejected the joint proposal from the New Zealand and Australian Delegations for international ownership and operation of civil air services on world trunk routes. The rejection of that proposal indicated the tendency of the Conference away from extensive international control of air services. Of the three other plans which remained before the Committee, the United States plan called for an international aviation authority with powers limited to the technical and consultative fields; the Canadian plan aimed to set up international authority with power to allocate routes, review rates, and determine frequencies of operation, but with that power curbed by specific formulae under which the authority would operate; and the United Kingdom plan proposed more discretionary power to the international authority in allocating routes, fixing rates, and determining frequencies. It was soon obvious that none of the three plans would emerge intact from the discussions and that the final Conference proposal, if agreement were reached, would be a composite of all plans. When it was found that agreement was not going to be readily reached, open committee meetings were suspended, and from Sunday, November 12, until Monday, November 20, the Delegations from the United Kingdom, United States of America, and Canada were in almost continuous closed conference in an effort to reconcile their divergent proposals. At the end of that period they were able to place before the Conference "without committing themselves" pro- posals for a joint "partial draft of a section of an international air convention relating primarily to air transport", with certain articles and provisions left open as being still under discussion. Early Conference discussions on the functions of the proposed world air body had centered on the questions of whether it would have power to allocate routes,

determine rates, and fix frequencies of operation over specific routes. The joint plan answered the first two questions in the negative but left the third open. Thus it was indicated that the proposed body would have purely advisory and consultative functions so far as economic matters were concerned. As to the body's composition, the joint plan suggested an Assembly of representatives of member states, with each state having one vote in the election of a Board of seven which would represent the member states "of chief importance in air transport". The Board would carry out the Assembly's directions, establish the working personnel of the world air administration, and publish information relating to international air services, including costs of operation and data on subsidies paid to operators from public funds. Among other important provisions of the plan were these: 1. Each State would reserve to its own carriers traffic originating and terminating within its borders and territories. 2. The board would have power to appoint regional and subordinate commissions to conduct research into all fields of international air transport. 3. The board would receive complaints about inadequate landing facilities and recommend and help finance improvements. 4. Passenger and freight rates would be determined by regional operators' associations at reasonable levels. At the request of one or more member states, the Board could recommend changes in the rates fixed by operators conferences. If the operators failed to observe the recommendations, the Board could set its own rates, which would be effective unless a state concerned disapproved. This was the substance of the plan laid before the delegates. Subsequently when the United States and United Kingdom Delegations submitted to the Conference their separate proposals on freedoms of the air and frequency of operations, the hub of the problem became evident. It centered on differences in the concepts of the United States and United Kingdom of how pickup traffic on long hauls should be controlled. The problem revolved about the Fifth Freedom of the Air, the right of an airline to take on and discharge passengers at intermediate points along a through route traversing a number of countries. The United States and United Kingdom Delegations were both agreed that this right should be limited so that the airlines of nations comprising the links of a through route could have reasonable opportunity to compete with an airline traversing the whole route. They diverged, however, on the formula to achieve the limitation. Whether agreement on ultimate goals could be reached depended on the solution of that problem. Otherwise it would be necessary to revert to the Conference's original plan of arranging for world routes through bilateral negotiations between

nations rather than through a blanket grant of commercial transit privileges by each member nation to all others. Exhaustive discussions revealed that no one formula could be found to satisfy all points of view and all situations. The United States then proposed that separate agreements embodying the extent to which nations would grant each other reciprocal air rights, referred to as the "Freedoms of the Air", be prepared by the Conference and made available for signatures, by these states which wished to exchange the rights. These Five Freedoms of the Air are: 1. Freedom of peaceful transit. 2. Freedom of non-traffic stop (to refuel, repair, or refuge). 3. Freedom to take traffic from the homeland to any country. 4. Freedom to bring traffic from any country to the homeland. 5. Freedom to pick up and discharge traffic at intermediate points. It is clear that the unqualified granting of all of these Five Freedoms to any other nation involved such a multitude of factors, many of which had nothing to do with aeronautics, that it was impossible for agreement to be reached. It was in endeavoring to achieve this difficult task that protracted discussions on plan and counter plan took place and created the entirely false impression that the Conference had failed. On the contrary, the positive gains of the Chicago Conference were outstanding. They included: 1. A permanent international act of great importance, the Convention on International Civil Aviation, was concluded and opened for signature. Although lacking the controverted economic articles, this instrument provided a complete modernization of the basic public international law of the air. It was intended to replace the Paris Convention on Aerial Navigation of October 13, 1919, and did so when it came into effect on April 4, 1947. It also provided the constitution for a new permanent international organization, the International Civil Aviation Organization, which has now replaced the previous international organization of more limited scope, the International Commission for Air Navigation. 2. The International Air Services Transit Agreement, commonly known as the Two Freedoms agreement, was concluded and opened for signature. This agreement had been accepted by 36 states as of June 30, 1947. It has done much to strike the shackles previously limiting the development of worldwide air commerce. 3. The International Air Transport Agreement, commonly known as the Five Freedoms agreement, was also concluded and opened for signature.

Although it was known at the time that this agreement would not be acceptable to a number of states, it served a temporary useful purpose for the states that did accept it. The number of accepting states reached a maximum of 17, but it is now declining, 4 having denounced the agreement. The United States gave notice of denunciation of its acceptance on July 25, 1946, and ceased to be a party to this agreement on July 25, 1947. 4. A standard form of bilateral agreement for the exchange of air routes was prepared and recommended by the Conference as part of its final act. This standard form has subsequently been widely used and has done much to bring a measure of consistency into the many new bilateral agreements which have been necessary. 5. An Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation was completed and opened for signature. It came into effect on June 6, 1945, thereby providing an interim basis for many phases of international civil aviation and a constitution for the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization. The interim agreement was replaced when the convention came into effect on April 4, 1947. 6. Finally, a world-wide common basis was established for the technical and operational aspects of international civil aviation. The technical contributions of the Conference, as printed in the present volume under the title "Drafts of Technical Annexes", run to some 188 pages of recommendations on such matters as airworthiness of aircraft, air traffic control, and the like. This comprehensive body of technical material undoubtedly represents the most striking advance ever achieved at a single conference in the field of international technical collaboration. The technical recommendations prepared at Chicago and the later revisions prepared by the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization have served as a guide to practice throughout the world and have been of basic importance in the extraordinary expansion of international civil aviation which has occurred since 1945. In the light of this record of achievement, it can safely be said that the International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago was one of the most successful, productive, and influential international conferences ever held. LIST OF DELEGATES The Governments of Afghanistan, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippine Commonwealth, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,

Turkey, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia; FUNCTIONS OF ICAO The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General. The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years. It also votes a triennial budget. The Council, the governing body which is elected by the Assembly for a three-year term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the governing body, the Council gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic matters), the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee. The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In order that the work of the Secretariat shall reflect a truly international approach, professional personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis. ICAO works in close co-operation with other members of the United Nations family such as the World Meteorological Organization, the International Telecommunication Union, the Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organization and the International Maritime Organization. Non-governmental organizations which also participate in ICAO's work include the International Air Transport Association, the Airports Council International, the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations, and the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations.

ICAO STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES - AN OVERVIEW ICAO Despite recently released safety statistics that, gratifyingly, indicate that the first six months of 2004 were among the safest ever for airlines, insufficient language proficiency, both in comprehension and expression, continues to feature in incident and accident reports throughout the world of civil aviation. Although there is a continuing downward trend in the fatal airline accident rate, the extent to which the problem of miscommunication occurs in day-by-day operations is well known to all controllers and pilots active in international operations. Miscommunication on account of poor language skills has, for decades, “gone with the territory”, but it should not and need not. The role of communication in safety, particularly between air traffic controllers and pilots, is critical. Just how critical has been well established through research: “The most vulnerable link in our ... airspace system is information transfer between air traffic controllers and pilots. Research conducted using the (safety reporting system) confirms the problem. A review of 28,000 reports revealed that over 70% of the problems cited were in information transfer; this issue continues to represent the largest category of problems reported.” 1 After a number of major accident investigations had indicated a lack of proficiency in the English language by flight crews and air traffic controllers as a causal factor, the 32 nd Assembly of ICAO (Montreal, 1998) adopted a Resolution (A32-16) that called for “strengthening relevant provisions with a view to obligating States to take steps to ensure that air traffic controllers and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required, are proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in the English language.” The Resolution sought that the matter be addressed with a high level of priority and that it be approached with a view to strengthening the language provisions of Annex 1 and Annex 10. In 1997, the Air Navigation Commission (ANC) agreed to the establishment of a study group to assist the Secretariat in progressing the task of developing language provisions. The study group was named the Proficiency Requirements in Common English Study Group (PRICESG) and comprised aviation and linguistic experts from Argentina, Canada, China, France, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Associations (IFATCA), the International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations (IFALPA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Early in its deliberations, the study group confirmed the relevance of some key statements made fifty years ago, firstly, that “the universal availability of at least one medium of radiotelephone communication is important both for safety and efficiency in international air navigation” and, secondly,

that “the lack of a language common to the aircrew and the ground station could lead to an accident” (Annex 10, Volume II, Attachment B). At the same time, it was recognized that there was a need to retain recourse to the language normally used by the station on the ground in the situation where both the aircrew and the air traffic controllers were proficient in its use. The PRICE study group recommended Standards for Annexes 1 and 10 including, importantly, that the provision for the use of the language of the station on the ground, and English, be elevated from a Recommended Practice to a Standard. Further, the group established a minimum level of proficiency for all pilots and controllers engaged in the conduct of international civil aviation operations. As a necessary adjunct to that, the group prescribed certain testing requirements. The minimum required level of proficiency is embedded in a scale of proficiencies described in terms of language “behaviours” that can serve the purposes MAKING AN ICAO STANDARD

Why are Standards Necessary? Civil aviation is a powerful force for progress in our modern global society. A healthy and growing air transport system creates and supports millions of jobs worldwide. It forms part of the economic lifeline of many countries. It is a catalyst for travel and tourism, the world's

largest industry. Beyond economics, air transport enriches the social and cultural fabric of society and contributes to the attainment of peace and prosperity throughout the world. Twenty four hours a day, 365 days of the year, an aeroplane takes off or lands every few seconds somewhere on the face of the earth. Every one of these flights is handled in the same, uniform manner, whether by air traffic control, airport authorities or pilots at the controls of their aircraft. Behind the scenes are millions of employees involved in manufacturing, maintenance and monitoring of the products and services required in the never-ending cycle of flights. In fact, modern aviation is one of the most complex systems of interaction between human beings and machines ever created. This clock-work precision in procedures and systems is made possible by the existence of universally accepted standards known as Standards and Recommended Practices, or SARPs. SARPs cover all technical and operational aspects of international civil aviation, such as safety, personnel licensing, operation of aircraft, aerodromes, air traffic services, accident investigation and the environment. Without SARPs, our aviation system would be at best chaotic and at worst unsafe. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Creating and modernizing SARPs is the responsibility of the International Civil Aviation Organization, or ICAO, the specialized agency of the United Nations whose mandate is to ensure the safe, efficient and orderly evolution of international civil aviation. ICAO has its headquarters in Montreal, Canada, with seven regional offices throughout the world. From its beginning in 1944 it has grown to an organization with over 180 Contracting States. ICAO's aim is the safe and orderly development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics. It provides the forum whereby requirements and procedures in need of standardization may be introduced, studied and resolved. The charter of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up in Chicago in December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. According to the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General. The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization, setting policy for the coming years and establishing a triennial budget. The Assembly elects the Council, the governing body for a three-year term. The Council is composed of members from 36 States who maintain their offices and conduct their business at the ICAO Headquarters. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes (PDF) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. With regard to the development of Standards, the Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission in technical matters, the Air Transport Committee in economic matters and the Committee on Unlawful Interference in aviation

security matters. The principal body concerned with the development of technical Standards and other provisions is the Air Navigation Commission. Its primary role is to advise the Council of ICAO on air navigation issues. It is composed of fifteen experts with appropriate qualifications and experience in various fields of aviation. Its members are nominated by Contracting States and are appointed by the Council. They are expected to function as independent experts and not as representatives of their States. The Air Navigation Commission is assisted in its work by the technical personnel of the Air Navigation Bureau, which is a part of the Secretariat. The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. The bureaux are divided into Sections, which - in the case of the Air Navigation Bureau - correspond each to an area of responsibility in one or more related fields. Forms of Standards and Recommended Practices Sixteen out of eighteen Annexes to the Convention are of a technical nature and therefore fall within the responsibilities of the Air Navigation Bureau and its sections. The remaining two Annexes, Facilitation and Security, are under the purview of the Air Transport Bureau. Since the majority of the Annexes concern technical issues, it is focused on them when the development process is described. ICAO standards and other provisions are developed in the following forms: • Standards and Recommended Practices - collectively referred to as SARPs;
• •

Procedures for Air Navigation Services - called PANS; Regional Supplementary Procedures - referred to as SUPPs; and

• Guidance Material in several formats. A Standard is defined as any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38 of the Convention. A Recommended Practice is any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air

navigation, and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention. States are invited to inform the Council of non-compliance. SARPs are formulated in broad terms and restricted to essential requirements. For complex systems such as communications equipment, SARPs material is constructed in two sections: core SARPs - material of a fundamental regulatory nature contained within the main body of the Annexes, and detailed technical specifications placed either in Appendices to Annexes or in manuals. The differences to SARPS notified by States are published in Supplements to Annexes. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (or PANS) comprise operating practices and material too detailed for Standards or Recommended Practices - they often amplify the basic principles in the corresponding Standards and Recommended Practices. To qualify for PANS status, the material should be suitable for application on a worldwide basis. The Council invites Contracting States to publish any differences in their Aeronautical Information Publications when knowledge of the differences is important to the safety of air navigation. The provisions for Annex 18, Dangerous Goods, are supplemented by Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. While these detailed instructions do not have the status of SARPs or PANS, they do have a special status by which the Contracting States are requested to achieve compliance. Regional Supplementary Procedures (or SUPPs) have application in the respective ICAO regions. Although the material in Regional Supplementary Procedures is similar to that in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services, SUPPs do not have the worldwide applicability of PANS. Guidance Material is produced to supplement the SARPs and PANS and to facilitate their implementation. Guidance material is issued as Attachments to Annexes or in separate documents such manuals, circulars and lists of designators/addresses. Usually it is approved at the same time as the related SARPS are adopted. Manuals provide information to supplement and/or amplify the Standards and Recommended Practices and Procedures for Air Navigation Services. They are specifically designed to facilitate implementation and are amended periodically to ensure their contents reflect current practices and procedures. Circulars make available specialized information of interest to Contracting States. Unlike manuals, circulars are not normally updated. Origin of Proposals for SARPs How are SARPs created? What makes them so effective today and how can they ensure the safe, efficient and orderly growth of international civil aviation in the years to come? The answer lies in the four "C's" of aviation: cooperation, consensus, compliance and

commitment. Cooperation in the formulation of SARPs, consensus in their approval, compliance in their application, and commitment of adherence to this on-going process. The formulation of new or revised SARPs begins with a proposal for action from ICAO itself or from its Contracting States. Proposals also may be submitted by international organizations. Development of SARPs For technical SARPs, proposals are analysed first by the Air Navigation Commission, or ANC. Depending on the nature of the proposal, the Commission may assign its review to a specialized working group. Meetings are, of course, the main vehicle for progress in the air navigation field, although much of the preparatory work is accomplished by correspondence. It is through a variety of meetings that most of the work is finalized and the necessary consensus reached. In the development, a number of consultative mechanisms are used: Air Navigation meetings are divisional-type meetings devoted to broad issues in the air navigation fields. They can be either divisional meetings dealing with issues in one or more related fields or air navigation conferences normally having a "theme" covering issues in more than one field. All Contracting States are invited to participate in these meetings with equal voice. Interested international organizations are invited to participate as observers. ANC panels are technical groups of qualified experts formed by the ANC to advance, within specified time frames, the solution of specialized problems which cannot be solved adequately or expeditiously by the established facilities of the ANC and the Secretariat. These experts act in their expert capacity and not as representatives of the nominators. Air Navigation study groups are small groups of experts made available by States and international organizations to assist the ICAO Secretariat, in a consultative capacity, in advancing progress on technical tasks. Council technical committees are established to deal with problems involving technical, economic, social and legal aspects, for the resolution or advancement of which expertise is required that is not available through the normal Council means, are also instrumental in developing ICAO SARPs. In summary, technical issues dealing with a specific subject and requiring detailed examination are normally referred by the ANC to a panel of experts. Less complex issues may be assigned to the Secretariat for further examination, perhaps with the assistance of an air navigation study group. Review of Draft SARPs These various groups report back to the Air Navigation Commission in the form of a technical proposal either for revisions to SARPs or for new SARPs, for preliminary review. This review is normally limited to consideration of controversial issues which, in the opinion

of the Secretariat or the Commission, require examination before the recommendations are circulated to States for comment. The original recommendations for core SARPs along with any alternative proposals developed by the Air Navigation Commission are submitted to Contracting States and selected international organizations for comment. Detailed technical specifications for complex systems are made available to States upon request and are submitted to a validation process. States are normally given three months to comment on the proposals. Standards developed by other recognized international organizations can also be referenced, provided they have been subject to adequate verification and validation. The comments of States and international organizations are analysed by the Secretariat and a working paper detailing the comments and the Secretariat proposals for action is prepared. The Commission undertakes the final review of the recommendations and establishes the final texts of the proposed amendments to SARPs, PANS and associated attachments. The amendments to Annexes recommended by the Commission are presented to the Council for adoption under cover of a "Report to Council by the President of the Air Navigation Commission". Adoption/Publication of Annex Amendments The Council reviews the proposals of the Air Navigation Commission and adopts the amendment to the Annex if two-thirds of the members are in favour. Within two weeks of the adoption of an Annex amendment by the Council, an interim edition of the amendment, referred to as the "Green Edition", is dispatched to States with a covering explanatory letter. This covering letter also gives the various dates associated with the introduction of the amendment. Policy prescribes that Contracting States be allowed three months to indicate disapproval of adopted amendments to SARPs. A further period of one month is provided for preparation and transit time, making the Effective Date approximately four months after adoption by Council. There should be a period of four months between an amendment's Effective Date and its Applicability Date. However, this can be longer or shorter as the situation requires. The Notification Date is normally one month prior to the Applicability Date. Provided a majority of States have not registered disapproval, the amendment will become effective on the Effective Date. On the Notification Date, which is one month prior to the Applicability Date, the States must notify the Secretariat of any differences that will exist between their national regulations and the provision of the Standard as amended. The reported differences are then published in supplements to Annexes. Immediately after the Effective Date, a letter is sent announcing that the amendment has become effective and the Secretariat takes action to issue the "Blue Edition" which is the form of the amendment suitable for incorporation in the Annex or PANS. On the Applicability Date, States must implement the amendments unless, of course, they

have notified differences. To limit the frequency of Annex and PANS amendments, the Council has established one common applicability date for each year. This date is chosen from the schedule for the regulation of amendments to Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC) for the month of November. The result of this adoption procedure is that the new or amended Standards and Recommended Practices become part of the relevant Annex. It takes on average 2 years from the Preliminary Review by the ANC to the applicability date. Although this process may seem lengthy at first glance, it provides for repeated consultation and extensive participation of States and international organizations in producing a consensus based on logic and experience. Cooperation and consensus have thus provided international aviation with the vital infrastructure for safe and efficient air transport. The third "C", compliance, brings this comprehensive regulatory system to life. Approval/Publication of other Annex Material and Procedures Attachments to Annexes, although they are developed in the same manner as Standards and Recommended Practices, are approved by Council rather than adopted. Regional Supplementary Procedures, because of their regional application, do not have the same line of development as the previously mentioned amendments; they also must be approved by Council. The proposed amendments to PANS are approved by the Air Navigation Commission, under power delegated to it by the Council, subject to the approval by the President of the Council after their circulation to the Representatives of the Council for comment. Manuals and circulars are published under authority of the Secretary General in accordance with principles and policies approved by Council. Implementation of SARPs/Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme Under the Convention on International Civil Aviation, the implementation of SARPs lies with Contracting States. To help them in the area of safety, ICAO established in 1999 a Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme. The Programme consists of regular, mandatory, systematic and harmonized safety audits carried out by ICAO in all Contracting States. The objective is to promote global aviation safety by determining the status of implementation of relevant ICAO SARPs, associated procedures and safety-related practices. The audits are conducted within the context of critical elements of a State's safety oversight system. These include the appropriate legislative and regulatory framework; a sound organizational structure; technical guidance; qualified personnel; licensing and certification procedures; continued surveillance and the resolution of identified safety concerns. Since its inception, the Programme has proved effective in identifying safety concerns in the safety-related fields under its scope, while providing recommendations for their resolution.

The Programme is being gradually expanded to include aerodromes, air traffic services, aircraft accident and incident investigation and other safety-related fields. While providing additional assistance in the form of regional safety oversight seminars and workshops, the programme also provides ICAO with valuable feedback to improve existing SARPs and create new ones. The experience gained with the safety oversight programme was successfully adapted to aviation security. In 2002, the Universal Security Audit Programme was launched to similarly help States identify deficiencies in the implementation of security-related SARPs. The format may in the future be applied to other areas of civil aviation. Yes, cooperation, consensus, compliance and an unfailing commitment to the on-going implementation of SARPs have made it possible to create a global aviation system that has evolved into the safest mode of mass transportation ever conceived. The flight crew of today's commercial aircraft, as their predecessors and those that will follow, can count on a standardized aviation infrastructure wherever they fly in the world. ICAO is proud of this unique achievement, based on the singled-minded pursuit of working with its Contracting States and all other partners of the international civil aviation community in providing the citizens of the world with an aviation system that is safe and reliable, now and for years to come.

IACO LOCATION INDICATOR

Pilots who fly internationally (and anyone who plays Microsoft Flight Simulator) knows that the FAA identifier of an airport, for example – JFK, could be preceded by a K, i.e., KJFK, for Ê is the ICAO designator for the continental United States. The K, and, in fact, the three following letters, have little to do with airports but everything to do with seamless international aviation telecommunications. The code does not refer to an airport, but to a telecommunications facility. In 1957, the ICAO Panel of Teletypewriter Specialists devised the principles for the formulation and assignment of four-letter location indicators for geographic regions throughout the world, and the addresses of centers in charge of flight information regions (FIRs) and/or upper flight information regions (UIRs). Four components of this system were defined: - Aeronautical fixed service (AFS) - A telecommunication service between specified fixed points provided primarily for the safety of air navigation and for the regular, efficient and economic operation of air services. - Aeronautical fixed station - A station in the aeronautical fixed service. - Aeronautical fixed telecommunication network (AFTN) - A worldwide system of

aeronautical fixed circuits provided, as part of the aeronautical fixed service, for the exchange of messages and/or digital data between aeronautical fixed stations having the same or compatible communications characteristics. - Location indicator - A four-letter code group formulated in accordance with rules prescribed by ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed station. (There are currently more than 12,000 of these location indicators around the world and not all apply to airport locations. KRTL, for instance, is the FAA's Southern Regional Office Message Center in Atlanta; LGGG is the Athenia Center and FIR in Greece. Military units, weather offices and others also have four-letter identifiers.) The world is divided into non-overlapping AFS routing areas that are assigned a separate identifying letter. The United States was assigned Ê - although we were unable to confirm this - apparendy because the main telecommunications switching center was in Kansas City. Canada got Ñ for obvious reasons and the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics got U for reasons that are just as obvious. P for Pacific makes sense, too, and that's why Alaska and Hawaii locator prefixes are P (PANC for Anchorage and PHNL for Honolulu, for example). The accompanying map shows the prefixes for various parts of the world. Other

than the examples above, there does not appear to have been any reason why a specific letter was assigned to a specific region. The letters I, J, Q and X were not assigned for reasons unknown. A look at the map shows A was assigned to a region of Antarctica south of Australia, but also to an area of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific. Australia was also included in the A group until about eight years ago, when it was assigned its own Y.

You will note that the boundaries of these areas do not necessarily coincide with the boundaries of any state, territory or FIR but were decided only in consider¬ation of the requirements of the AFS to assist message traffic-routing processes to the maximum possible extent. The first letter is assigned by ICAO to the AFS routing area within which the location is situated. The second letter is assigned by ICAO to the state or territory in which the communication center is situated. The third and fourth letters are assigned by the state or territory supervised by ICAO by checking their conformity with the principles for assignment in the ICAO Location Indicators document and registering the indicator. Incidentally, some four-letter location indicators have an asterisk attached, which indicates that the site cannot be addressed over the AFTN. Interestingly, NNN should not be used as the second, third and fourth letters of a location indicator, nor should ZCZC, because these sequences are used as switching signals in the AFS automated relay stations, and their presence in these parts of the message would cause malfunctioning. The E for parts of Europe covers several countries and/or territories. Therefore, the location identifier starts with two letters, EG for England, ES for Sweden, ED for Germany, and EH for the Netherlands. In the L area, there is LF for France, LO for Austria and LI for Italy, and so on. Canada has a two-letter introduction, too: CY. This was all worked out in conjunction with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Like ICAO, the ITU is a specialized agency of the United Nations, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Among its many other functions, the ITU manages the worldwide radio-frequency spectrum, so the ITU had a role to play in establishing the basis for the location indicators, which, after all, identify primarily telecommunication stations. (While ICAO and the ITU work closely on telecommunications matters, ICAO has to sometimes fight hard to maintain, or expand, the number of radio frequencies assigned to aviation.) While in some cases, the four-letter ICAO location identifier closely matches the three-letter identifier assigned by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), there are no requirements to do so. The ICAO identifier is designed to send a message to a station of the AFS; the IATA identifier is designed to send your baggage to an airport. Hence the destination on your baggage tag reads LHR for London Heathrow and the flight plan in the cockpit reads EGLL. (The Heathrow VOR isn't identified by LHR, either; it's LON, although the NDB is HRW for Heathrow.) If you're flying internationally, you have to use the ICAO four-letter codes in flight planning. One wrong first letter can indicate a completely different destination, although the mistake would be picked up by flight plan checking. If, for instance, you're heading for New Orleans Naval Air Station on an international flight, you would file KNBG. But if you file FNBG, you'll be expected at the 17th of November Airport in Benguela, Angola, Africa.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF ICAO FOR 2005-2010 The International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States. To implement this vision, the Organization has established the following Strategic Objectives for the period 2005-2010: CONSOLIDATED VISION AND MISSION STATEMENT The International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States. To implement this vision, the Organization has established the following Strategic Objectives for the period 2005-2010: A: Safety - Enhance global civil aviation safety B: Security - Enhance global civil aviation security C: Environmental Protection - Minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment D: Efficiency - Enhance the efficiency of aviation operations

E: Continuity - Maintain the continuity of aviation operations F: Rule of Law - Strengthen law governing international civil aviation Strategic Objective A: Safety — Enhance global civil aviation safety Enhance global civil aviation safety through the following measures: 1. Identify and monitor existing types of safety risks to civil aviation and develop and implement an effective and relevant global response to emerging risks. 2. Ensure the timely implementation of ICAO provisions by continuously monitoring the progress toward compliance by States. 3. Conduct aviation safety oversight audits to identify deficiencies and encourage their resolution by States. 4. Develop global remedial plans that target the root causes of deficiencies. 5. Assist States to resolve deficiencies through regional remedial plans and the establishment of safety oversight organizations at the regional or sub-regional level. 6. Encourage the exchange of information between States to promote mutual confidence in the level of aviation safety between States and accelerate the improvement of safety oversight. 7. Promote the timely resolution of safety-critical items identified by regional Planning and Implementation Groups (PIRGs). 8. Support the implementation of safety management systems across all safetyrelated disciplines in all States. 9. Assist States to improve safety through technical cooperation programmes and by making critical needs known to donors and financial organizations. Strategic Objective B: security Security — Enhance global civil aviation

Enhance the security of global civil aviation through the following measures: 1. Identify and monitor existing types of security threats to civil aviation and develop and implement an effective global and relevant response to emerging threats. 2. Ensure the timely implementation of ICAO provisions by continuously monitoring the progress toward compliance by States. 3. Conduct aviation security audits to identify deficiencies and encourage their resolution by States. 4. Develop, adopt and promote new or amended measures to improve security for air travelers worldwide while promoting efficient border crossing procedures.

5. Develop and maintain aviation security training packages and e-learning. 6. Encourage the exchange of information between States to promote mutual confidence in the level of aviation security between States. 7. Assist States in the training of all categories of personnel involved in implementing aviation security measures and strategies and, where appropriate, the certification of such personnel. 8. Assist States in addressing security related deficiencies through the aviation security mechanism and technical cooperation programmes. Strategic Objective C: Environmental Protection — Minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment Minimize the adverse environmental effects of global civil aviation activity, notably aircraft noise and aircraft engine emissions, through the following measures: 1. Develop, adopt and promote new or amended measures to: S limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise; S limit or reduce the impact of aircraft engine emissions on local air quality; and S limit or reduce the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. 2. Cooperate with other international bodies and in particular the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in addressing aviation’s contribution to global climate change. Strategic Objective D: operations Efficiency — Enhance the efficiency of aviation

Enhance the efficiency of aviation operations by addressing issues that limit the efficient development of global civil aviation through the following measures: 1. Develop, coordinate and implement air navigation plans that reduce operational unit costs, facilitate increased traffic (including persons and goods), and optimize the use of existing and emerging technologies.

2. Study trends, coordinate planning and develop guidance for States that supports the sustainable development of international civil aviation. 3. Develop guidance, facilitate and assist States in the process of liberalizing the economic regulation of international air transport, with appropriate safeguards. 4. Assist States to improve efficiency of aviation operations through technical cooperation programmes.

Strategic Objective E: Continuity — operations

Maintain the continuity of aviation

Identify and manage threats to the continuity of air navigation through the following measures: 1. Assist States to resolve disagreements that create impediments to air navigation. 2. Respond quickly and positively to mitigate the effect of natural or human events that may disrupt air navigation. 3. Cooperate with other international organizations to prevent the spread of disease by air travellers. Strategic Objective F: Rule of Law — Strengthen law governing international civil aviation Maintain, develop and update international air law in light of evolving needs of the international civil aviation community by the following measures: 1. Prepare international air law instruments that support ICAO’s Strategic Objectives and provide a forum to States to negotiate such instruments. 2. Encourage States to ratify international air law instruments. 3. Provide services for registration of aeronautical agreements and depositary functions for international air law instruments. 4. Provide mechanisms for the settlement of civil aviation disputes. 5. Provide model legislation for States.

SUPPORTING IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES To implement its Strategic Objectives, the Organization will take the necessary steps to: 1. operate in a transparent manner and communicate effectively both externally and internally; 2. maintain the effectiveness and relevance of all documents and materials; 3. identify risk management and risk mitigation strategies as required; 4. continuously improve the effective use of its resources; 5. enhance the use of information and communication technology integrating it into its work processes at the earliest possible opportunity; 6. take into account the potential impacts on the environment of its practices and operations; 7. improve its use of diverse human resources in line with the best practices in the UN system; and 8. operate effectively with the highest standard of legal propriety.

ICAO CONTRACTING STATES Afghanistan Albania Côte d'Ivoire Kyrgyzstan Qatar of

Democratic Lao People's Republic People's Republic Democratic Korea of Korea Republic Democratic Latvia Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti and Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Republic Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda

Algeria

of

Andorra Angola Antigua Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium

Libyan Arab Saint Kitts and Jamahiriya Nevis Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone and

Belize Benin Bhutan

Gambia Georgia Germany

Mauritius Mexico

Singapore Slovakia

Micronesia Slovenia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Republic Tajikistan Thailand The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Arab

Bolivia

Ghana

Bosnia and Greece Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Grenada Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India

Central African Indonesia Republic Chad

Iran (Islamic Niger Republic of)

Chile China Colombia

Iraq Ireland Israel

Norway Oman Pakistan

Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic

Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait

Palau Panama Papua Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Uruguay Viet Nam

Trinidad Tobago Tunisia New Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Emirates

and

Arab

United Kingdom Uzbekistan Yemen

United Republic United States of Tanzania Vanuatu Zambia Total: 190 Venezuela Zimbabwe

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.