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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

E.S.-334
f'k{kk rFkk lekt
(Education and Society)
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

iz'u 1- f'k{kk 'kCn dh O;k[;k dhft,A


mkjf'k{kk D;k gS\
ckSfd ,oa lkaLfrd ;ksX;rk osQ i{k ekuo dks vU; kf.k;ksa ls vyx djrs gSa] D;ksafd ckSfd {kerk osQ dkj.k gh og lh[k
ldrk gS rFkk f'kf{kr gks ldrk gSA f'k{kk osQ ek;e ls gh ekuo us viuh lkaLfrd ijaijkvksa dks thfor j[kk gS rFkk viuk vfLrRo
Hkh dk;e j[kk gSA ,d cq lH;rk osQ fodkl esa f'k{kk gh lgk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gS] tks dkykarj esa ,sfrgkfld ifjs{; esa
n`f"Vxkspj gksrh gSA
lkekU; vFkZ esa ge ns[ksa rks f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS i<+us rFkk fy[kus dh le>] ijarq f'k{kk dk vFkZ blls dgha vf/d O;kid gS] vkSj
bls fdlh dkj dh lhekvksa esa ck/dj ifjHkkf"kr djuk ,d tfVy dk;Z gSA kphu dky ls orZeku dky rd vusd fpardksa ,oa
nk'kZfudksa us f'k{kk osQ vFkZ osQ 'u ij fopkj fd;k] ijUrq dksbZ Li"V o lgh mkj ugha fudky ik,A bldk ,d dkj.k vkaf'kd :i
ls fofHkUu lektksa esa muosQ n'kZu ls f'k{kk dk Hkkfor gksuk Hkh jgk gSA
f'k{kk osQ lgh vFkZ dks tkuus osQ fy, vko';d gS fd ge f'k{kk ij thou dh vko';drk] lkekftd dk;Z rFkk fn'kk&funsZ'ku
o vfHko`f osQ lanHkZ esa fopkj djsaA
thou dh ,d vko';drk osQ :i esa f'k{kkbl l`f"V esa 'kkjhfjd o tSfod :i ls vusd tho ekuo ls Js"B gSa] ijarq fiQj
Hkh bu lceas ekuo dk O;fDrRo gh lokZf/d lqjf{kr jgk gSA bldk eq[; dkj.k gS fd ekuo us viuh nSfgd dfe;ksa dh {kfriwr vius
ckSfd rFkk lkekftd&lkaLfrd i{kksa }kjk dhA frowQy i;kZoj.kh; fLFkfr;ksa ls la?k"kZ djrs gq, mlus ifjokj o tkfr osQ :i esa vius
lg&vfLrRo dks cuk, j[kk rFkk fujarj Kku o vuqHko xzg.k dj mUufr dh vksj vxzlj gksrk x;kA mlus tkuus dh fof/;k lh[kha] viuh
bPNkvksa o vkdka{kkvksa dh vfHkO;fDr djuk lh[kk rFkk ckSfd {kerkvksa dks ifjHkkf"kr dj mUgsa ,d uohu :i esa <kykA
ekuo tkfr esa f'k{kk dk kjaHk bUgha ;klksa ls ekuk tkrk gSA ekuo dh xfr esa f'k{kk gh fu.kkZ;d dkjd gSA ekuo f'k'kq tUe osQ
le; vlgk; o vcks/ gksrk gSA cM+s lnL; mldk ikyu&iks"k.k djrs gSaA bl ikyu&iks"k.k esa cPps osQ Hkkoh thou osQ fy, vfuok;Z
dkS'kyksa dh f'k{kk Hkh 'kkfey gSA buesa nSfgd i{k osQ lkFk&lkFk thou osQ ckSfd] lkekftd rFkk lkaLfrd i{kksa dk f'k{k.k Hkh 'kkfey
gSA fdlh lewg dk ,d Lohr o Hkkoh lnL; cuus osQ fy, O;fDr osQ fy, lkewfgd thou osQ ewY; o ekunaM lh[kuk o mUgsa viukuk
Hkh vko';d gSA thou osQ lHkh i{kksa o dkS'kyksa esa ikjaxr O;fDr u osQoy vius thou dh] vfirq lekt dh xfr esa Hkh ;ksxnku djrk
gS] blfy, f'k{kk ekuo thou dh ,d vko';drk gSA
vk/qfud ;qx esa f'k{kk dk ego kphu dky dh vis{kk vf/d gks x;k gS] D;ksafd kphu dky esa thou dh vko';drk,
vf/dka'kr% 'kkjhfjd Je ij vk/kfjr Fkha] ysfdu lH;rk osQ fodkl osQ lkFk&lkFk ;s vko';drk, ckSfd gks xbA euq"; dk Kku]
ftKklk dk {ks=k rFkk vko';drkvksa dh ifjf/ O;kid gksrh xbZA

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ekuoh; thou dh {kerkvksa rFkk dkS'ky ls ifjiw.kZ O;fDr viuh #fp o {kerk osQ vk/kj ij fdlku] v;kid ;k dfo oqQN Hkh
cu ldrk gSA ysfdu bu {kerkvksa (lkekftd] lkaosfxd] ekufld) osQ fodkl osQ fy, vko';d o vuqowQy okrkoj.k f'k{kk gh nku
djrh gSA okLrfod f'k{kk ekuoh; ;ksX;rkvksa dk laiw.kZ] pgqeq[kh rFkk larqfyr fodkl djrh gSA
f'k{kk ,d thoui;r pyus okyh f;k gS rFkk ekuo dks liQy o leFkZ cukrh gSA f'k{kk }kjk O;fDr gj vuqHko osQ lkFk vius
^Lo* rFkk okrkoj.k dk cks/ djrk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] ^f'k{kk dks thou osQ fy, ek=k rS;kjh u ekudj thou dk i;kZ;okph ekuk tk
ldrk gSA*
ekuo thou esa f'k{kk ,d f;k osQ :i esa fuEufyf[kr esa fufgr gS
1- cPps dh 'kkjhfjd] ekufld] laosxkRed] lkekftd] vk;kfRed vkfn tUetkr {kerkvksa dk fodklA
2- cPps dk lekthdj.kA
3- vfLrRo osQ fy, vko';d dkS'kyksa dk fodklA
4- O;fDr dks mlosQ okrkoj.k osQ vuqowQy cukukA
f'k{kk ,d lkekftd dk;Z osQ :i esaf'k{kk dks lekt osQ ,d mifudk; dh laKk Hkh nh tk ldrh gSA lekt esa gh f'k{kk
dh f;k ?kfVr gksrh gS vkSj blhfy, blesa lekt fo'ks"k osQ y{;] ewY;] vko';drk, rFkk vkdka{kk, frfcafcr gksrh gSaA f'k{kk R;sd
lekt osQ fgrksa osQ laoZu rFkk laj{k.k dk lk/u Hkh gSA
f'k{kk ls lekt osQ ;s;ksa dh kfIr osQ dkj.k lekt ij bldk O;kid Hkko iM+rk gSA f'k{kk O;fDr dk ckSfd fodkl dj mls
Lo;a lekt dh fr] mldh lajpuk rFkk dk;ks osQ iqujh{k.k ;k leh{kk osQ ;ksX; cukrh gSA lkekftd ewY;ksa] vkn'kks] vkLFkkvksa osQ
vuqj{k.k] lapkj.k rFkk l`tu osQ }kjk f'k{kk frgjs lkekftd dk;Z laiUu djrh gSA fdlh lekt fo'ks"k osQ ewY;] vkn'kZ] laLfr vkfn
Hkkoh ih<+h esa f'k{kk }kjk gh lapfjr gksrs gSaA
f'k{kk dk lcls egoiw.kZ dk;Z cPps dk lekthdj.k gS] D;ksafd mls lekt dk Hkkoh lnL; cukus osQ fy, mlesa lekt dh
ijaijk,] ewY;] vkn'kZ] y{;] yksdkpkj (Mores) vkfn osQ fodkl dk lk/u f'k{kk gh gSA
lkekftd dk;Z osQ :i esa f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk laj{kh rFkk lkjh gS vkSj bUgha osQ }kjk og lkekftd fu;a=k.k osQ ifjj{k.k] vuqj{k.k
rFkk LFkkf;Ro esa lgk;rk djrh gSA D;ksafd ;g l`tukRed cy osQ :i esa dk;Z djrh gS] blfy, bldh lekt esa xfr'khy Hkwfedk gksrh
gSA czksge gSujh (Brougham Henry) osQ dFkukuqlkj] f'k{kk ls O;fDr;ksa dks usr`Ro nsuk rks ljy gks tkrk gS] ijarq mUgsa gkduk dfBu]
mu ij 'kklu djuk rks ljy gS] ijarq mUgsa nkl cukuk vlaHkoA u, Kku rFkk rduhdh vkfn dk pkj&lkj Hkh f'k{kk osQ ek;e ls
gh laHko gS rFkk ;gh O;fDr osQ eu dks Hkkfor dj ldrh gS rFkk lkekftd leL;kvksa osQ fr ltx o lpsr Hkh dj ldrh gSA
f'k{kk osQ lkekftd dk;Z osQ lnaHkZ esa f'k{kk osQ fodkl ij varjkZ"Vh; vk;ksx us dgk gS fd f'k{kk osQ bfrgkl esa ftruk
vf/d&ls&vf/d nwj rd ge ns[k ldrs gSa] f'k{kk ekuo lektksa osQ lHkh pj.kksa esa ,d kfrd vkSj lgt vfHky{k.k osQ :i esa lkeus
vkbZ gSA bldk fodkl dHkh can ugha gqvk gS ;g ekuork osQ loksZR"V fopkjksa dh /kjd rFkk okgd jgh gSA
f'k{kk fn'kk&funsZ'ku osQ :i esa,d cPps dh tUetkr 'kfDr;ksa osQ fodkl osQ lapkyu dk ek;e f'k{kk gSA cPpk LoHkko ls
laosnu'khy gksrk gS] blhfy, mlosQ O;fDrRo dks dksbZ Hkh :i fn;k tk ldrk gSA cPps dh ewy o`fk;k] f;k, rFkk {kerk dPps eky
dh Hkkfr gksrh gSa] ftUgsa lekt esa Lohr rFkk vHkh"V xq.kksa esa cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fn'kk&funsZ'ku nku dj f'k{kk O;fDr osQ thou y{;ksa osQ fu/kZj.k rFkk mudh lakfIr esa lgk;rk djrh gSA 'kSf{kd f;k osQ }kjk
cPps vko';d Kku] dkS'ky ,oa vfHkfoU;kl dks kIr dj vius thou y{;ksa dks fuf'pr djrs gSaA f'k{kk }kjk cPps dks nk
fn'kk&funsZ'ku] fuxzgh] fo'okl mRiUu djus okyk rFkk vPNs vkpj.k esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA fuxzg esa cy dk vuq;ksx tSlk flkarkjksi.k
lfEefyr gks ldrk gS ,oa fo'okl esa fdlh ckr dks le>kus osQ fy, O;k[;k] roZQ] ppkZ vkfn lfEefyr gSaA lekt esa Lohr vkn'kZ
iq#"kksa osQ pfj=k dk lanHkZ vuqdj.kh; O;ogkj gSA
fujaoqQ'k lektksa esa fuxzg ;k cy dk ;ksx gksrk gS rks yksdra=kh; ,oa mnkjoknh lektksa esa fr:i.k dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vusd
'kks/ksa osQ vk/kj ij euksoSKkfudksa us ;g fl fd;k gS fd fo'oklksRiknd ,oa fr:i.k lcls mi;qDr fof/;k gSa] tks cPps osQ O;fDrRo
ij LFkk;h Hkko Mkyrh gSaA
f'k{kk O;fDr osQ fodkl osQ :i esaf'k{kk cPps dh 'kkjhfjd] ekufld] laosxkRed] lkekftd ,oa vk;kfRed ;ksX;rkvksa dks
fodflr dj ,d lefUor o larqfyr O;fDrRo dk fuekZ.k djrh gSA iSLVkykWV~lh osQ vuqlkj] f'k{kk O;fDr dh tUetkr vUrHkwZr 'kfDr;ksa

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dk ,d kfrd] lqlaxr rFkk xkeh fodkl gSA thou osQ lHkh i{kksa esa xq.kksa dk lqlaxr fodkl larqfyr ,oa mi;qDr O;fDrRo cukrk
gS rFkk kfrd vkSj lkekftd okrkoj.k esa fgrdkjh ,oa lqfo/ktud :i esa Lo;a dks vuqowQfyr djus dh {kerk nku djrk gSA ;g
thou&y{;ksa dh kfIr esa lrr xfreku jgrk gS] f'k{kk blesa ,d Hkkoh ,oa eq[k lk/u gSA cPpk ifjokj] leqnk;] fo|ky; rFkk lekt
esa tks okrkoj.k ikrk gS] mlosQ }kjk leqnk; o lekt dks Hkkfor djrk gSA f'k{kk dh xq.kokk] mlosQ fodkl dh xq.kokk dk fu/kZjd
ro gSA cPps dh fr esa cnyko ykuk dfBu gS ijarq vPNh f'k{kk }kjk mldh fr dks lekt osQ fy, mi;ksxh ,oa vuqowQfyr vo';
fd;k tk ldrk gSA
f'k{kk 'kCn dh O;qRifk^f'k{kk* 'kCn vaxszth osQ ^,tqosQ'ku* dk fganh i;kZ; gS] tks ySfVu Hkk"kk osQ ^,MqosQvj* (Educare) vFkok
^,Mqfl;js* ls cuk gSA ^,MqosQvj* dk vFkZ gSikyu&iks"k.k rFkk ^,Mqfl;js* dk vFkZ gS&dVhdj.kA oqQN fpard bldh mRifk ySfVu Hkk"kk
osQ gh ^,MqosQje* ls ekurs gSaA ;g E rFkk Duco ls feydj cuk gS] ftlesa E dk vFkZ gSvanj dh vksj ls ckgj dh vksj xfr
rFkk Duco dk vFkZ gSxfr djukA mi;qZDr 'kCnksa osQ ifjs{; esa ^,tqosQ'ku* dk vFkZ gS,d iks"kd okrkoj.k nku djuk ftlls
cPps dh {kerkvksa dk fodkl vklkuh ls gks losQA
Hkkjr esa f'k{kk dh ijaijk vR;ar kphu gS rFkk osnksa osQ vuqlkj Kku bZ'oj dk gh ewrZ :i gSA laLr esa ^f'k{kk* 'kCn dh O;qRifk
^'kl~* /krq ls gqbZ gS ftldk vFkZ gS vuq'kkflr djuk vFkok fu;af=kr djukA laLr dk gh ^fo|k* 'kCn ^fon~* /krq ls fudyk gS ftldk
vFkZ gStkuukA Hkkjrh; f'k{kk&ijaijk esa ^f'k{kk* rFkk ^fo|k* dks ,d&nwljs dk i;kZ; ekuk x;k gSA bl dkj Hkkjr esa f'k{kk dks vuq'kklu
rFkk Kku ij vk/kfjr ekuoh; O;fDrRo dk egoiw.kZ i{k Lohdkj x;k gSA
f'k{kk dk ;ksx ,d f;k rFkk mRikn nksuksa osQ lanHkZ esa fd;k tkrk jgk gSA mRikn osQ :i esa ;g Kku] dkS'ky] fopkj] ewY; vkfn
dk ;ksx gS rFkk f;k osQ :i esa ;g og dk;Z gS tks O;fDrRo dk fodkl djrk gSA
f'k{kk dks ifjHkkf"kr djus osQ ;klkphu dky ls orZeku le; rd vusd fopkjdksa] nk'kZfudksa rFk f'k{kkfonksa us f'k{kk dks
ifjHkkf"kr djus dk ;kl fd;k gSA bu ifjHkkf"kr fopkjksa ij muosQ ewY;ksa o nk'kZfud fopkjksa dk Hkko jgk gSA D;ksafd bldk vFkZ R;sd
lekt osQ ms';ksa] ewY;ksa] vkn'kks rFkk vkdka{kkvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
f'k{kk dh vusd ifjHkk"kk, mlosQ vusd i{kksa dks n'kkZrh gSa ijarq vc rd dksbZ loZekU; rFkk larks"ktud ifjHkk"kk fodflr ugha gks
ikbZ gSA f'k{kk dh ,slh loZekU; ifjHkk"kk dk fuekZ.k djus osQ ;kl rc rd tkjh jgsaxs] tc rd ekuo&tkfr osQ lkekftd&lkaLfrd
ewY;ksa osQ vyx&vyx Lo:i n`f"Vxkspj gksrs jgsaxsA
f'k{kk dks vyx&vyx ewY;ksa rFkk ms';ksa osQ lanHkZ esa ifjHkkf"kr djus osQ iQyLo:i vusd oxZ lkeus vk,A bu oxks osQ vuqlkj
ge f'k{kk dh ifjHkk"kk dks fuEufyf[kr :iksa esa le>us dk ;kl djsaxs
1- f'k{kk dk vk;kfRed Lo:if'k{kk dh vk;kfRed vo/kj.kk dk ewy Hkkjrh; yksdkpkj dk /ked i{k gSA vkfn dfo
'kadjkpk;Z us lkfo|k ;k foeqDr; dgdj f'k{kk dks eqfDr dh vksj ys tkuk crk;k gSA
lokeh foosdkuan osQ vuqlkj] f'k{kk O;fDr esa iwoZ fo|eku nSoh iw.kZrk dk vkfoHkkZo ;k mldh vfHkO;fDr gSA
Lokeh n;kuan osQ 'kCnksa esa] f'k{kk osQ }kjk O;fDr esa mu Js"B rFkk nSoh xq.kksa dk fodkl gksuk pkfg,] ftuosQ }kjk og lR; dh
[kkst osQ dfBu ekxZ ij pyus ;ksX; gks tk,A f'k{kk og gS tks lnkpkj rFkk U;k; dh j{kk osQ fy, sfjr dj losQ rFkk vR;kpkjh 'kfDr;ksa
dks u"V djus dk ;kl dj losQA
,-,l- vYVsdj tSls vk/qfud fo}kuksa us Hkh f'k{kk dks vk;kfRed Lo:i esa ifjHkkf"kr djrs gq, dgk gS fd f'k{kk dks Hkkjr esa
lnSo ,sls dk'k o 'kfDr osQ ksr osQ :i esa le>k x;k gS tks gekjh fr] tks oLrqr% 'kqHk o nSoh gS] dks :ikarfjr djrs gSa rFkk
Js"B cukrs gSaA
f'k{kk dh mi;qZDr o.kr ifjHkk"kkvksa osQ vuqlkj ekuo bZ'oj dh jpuk gS rFkk mlesa ijekRek dk va'k gS vkSj f'k{kk ml va'k dk
fgr djus dk ekxZ 'kLr djrh gSA
2- f'k{kk dk fodklkRed Lo:if'k{kk dh nwljh vo/kj.kk osQ leFkZd f'k{kk dks O;fDr dh vUrHkwZr {kerkvksa dk fodkl]
lao/Zu rFkk mudh vuqHkwfr ekurs gSaA
isLVkykWV~lh osQ 'kCnksa esa] f'k{kk euq"; esa vUrHkwZr 'kfDr;ksa dk kfrd] lqlaxr vkSj xkeh fodkl gSA
izQkscy osQ vuqlkj] f'k{kk O;fDr osQ thou esa igys ls fo|eku {kerkvksa dk dVhdj.k gSA ;g og f;k gS ftlosQ }kjk cPpk
vn`'; dks n`'; esa ;k vewrZ dks ewrZ esa ;k vkH;arj dks ck esa ifjorr djrk gSA

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xka/h th us dgk gS] f'k{kk ls esjk rkRi;Z gS cPps rFkk euq"; vFkkZr muosQ 'kjhj] eu rFkk vkRek dk loksZke] loksZUeq[kh fodkl
djukA
mi;qZDr lHkh ifjHkk"kk, ekuo O;fDrRo osQ oqQN leku roksa dks n'kkZrh gSa] tks bl dkj gSa
(i) 'kkjhfjd] ekufld] lkekftd rFkk vk;kfRed i{k ekuo O;fDrRo esa gksrs gSaA
(ii) bu lHkh i{kksa esa oqQN ;ksX;rk, rFkk 'kfDr;k cPps esa PNUu :i esa gksrh gSaA
(iii) f'k{kk bu uSlxd 'kfDr;ksa dk larqfyr o lqlaxr fodkl gSA
(iv) vPNh f'k{kk cPps dks thou&fodkl dh ck/kvksa dks nwj djus ;ksX; cukdj mls iks"kd vkSj le` okrkoj.k nku djrh gSA
bl fopkj/kjk osQ vuqlkj f'k{kk cPps dh kfrd ;ksX;rkvksa o 'kfDr;ksa osQ dVhdj.k rFkk O;fDrRo osQ lHkh i{kksa osQ fodkl
osQ fy, volj nku djrh gSA
3- f'k{kk dk lkekftd Lo:i,d oxZ us f'k{kk dks lkekftd vfHkfoU;kl nku djus okyh ifjHkk"kk, nh gSaA
dkSfVY; osQ vuqlkj] f'k{kk dk vFkZ ns'k osQ fy, f'k{k.k rFkk jk"V osQ fr se dk fodkl djuk gSA
tkWu fMfo osQ 'kCnksa esa] ,d tkfr dh lkekftd psruk esa ,d O;fDr dh Hkkxhnkjh osQ n~okjk f'k{kk vkxs c<+rh gSA
UNESCO }kjk LFkkfir f'k{kk osQ varjkZ"Vh; vk;ksx (1972) dh fjiksVZ Learning to Be esa f'k{kkfon~ ,Mxj iQkSjs us dgk gS] rFkkfi
lkekftd ifj?kVuk ;k n`'; osQ Lrj ij tks vf/d lqLi"V gS og ;g gS fd vkt rd lHkh dkj osQ lektksa osQ lanHkZ esa pkgs os lekt
fdrus gh le; osQ fy, jgs gksa] f'k{kk us ,d ,sls fof'k"V lk/u ;k midj.k osQ :i esa dk;Z fd;k gS] ftlosQ }kjk pfyr ewY; ,oa
'kfDr larqyu dks dk;e j[kk x;k rFkk bl f;k osQ ldkjkRed lHkh vFkks esa jk"Vksa osQ HkkX; o bfrgkl dh xfr vkSj fn'kk us Hkh
Hkkfor fd;kA
iz'u 2- f'k{kk osQ vfHkdj.k osQ :i esa lapkj ek;eksa dh Hkwfedk rFkk dk;ks dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkjlapkj ek;e % f'k{kk osQ ,d vfHkdj.k osQ :i esa
20oha lnh dks lapkj kafr dk ;qx dgk tk ldrk gSA fofHkUu lapkj ek;eksa o .kkfy;ksa ls vk/qfud lapkj dks le>us esa enn
feyh gSA tulapkj ek;eksa ls lekthdj.k osQ u, :i lkeus vk, gaS rFkk fo'o osQ fofHkUu Hkkx ,d&nwljs ls tqM+ x, gSaA f'k{kk osQ
{ks=k esa Hkh tulapkj ek;eksa us O;kid Hkko Mkyk gSA
ehfM;k osQ egoiw.kZ dk;Ztulapkj ek;e f'k{kk osQ fofHkUu vfHkdj.kksa dh rjg lekthdj.k] mRlaLdj.k ,oa lwpuk lkj.k
esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk dk fuokZg dj jgk gSA vkt vkSipkfjd o vukSipkfjd f'k{kk esa ehfM;k dks egoiw.kZ LFkku kIr gks pqdk gSA ehfM;k
dh lgk;rk ls Kku osQ fo'kky HkaMkj dks lalkf/r fd;k tk ldrk gSA Hkkjr esa SITE (lSVsykbV bUiQksesZ'ku Vsyhfotu ,DlisjhesaV)
dk;Ze cgqr liQy jgs gSaA blosQ ek;e ls i`Foh osQ fdlh Hkh Hkkx dh vFkok ekSle laca/h tkudkjh rqjar miyC/ gks tkrh gSA baVjusV]
bZ&esy] (CD) dEisDV fMLd vkfn us f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa ,d kafr yk nh gSA ETV (,tqosQ'kuy Vsyhfotu) vkt vkSipkfjd vkSj
vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dk Hkkoh o fo'oLr ek;e gSA
lwpuk kS|ksfxdh dh xfr mUufr osQ u, vk;ke LFkkfir dj ldrh gSA oSKkfud 'kks/] varjkZ"Vh; lwpuk vkadM+s] ubZ ;ksx'kkyk,
LFkkfir djosQ] fodkl'khy ns'k mUufr djosQ vius ns'k dh frHkk dk fodflr ns'kksa dh vksj iyk;u jksd ldrs gSa vkSj ehfM;k blesa
,d vfHkdj.k osQ :i Hkwfedk fuHkkus esa l{ke gSA
ehfM;k us fuEufyf[kr {ks=kksa esa yksxksa osQ thou dks Hkkfor fd;k gS
1- lekt ij Hkkotulapkj dk lkekftd igyw Hkh gSA vkt tulapkj osQ dkj.k gh lqnwj igkM+h o tutkrh; {ks=k Hkh lekt
dh eq[;/kjk ls tqM+ jgs gSa tks vHkh rd misf{kr FksA Hkkjr tSls fodkl'khy ns'k esa xzkeh.k {ks=kksa dh rLohj cnyus esa tulapkj ek;eksa
us vge Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ gSA ljdkj us iapk;rksa o xzkeh.k fo|ky;ksa dks Vh-oh- lsV o jsfM;ks nku fd, gSa rkfd os lekt osQ R;sd {ks=k
dh tkudkjh ls :&c&: gks losQA ljdkj lwpuk kS|ksfxdh dks vkSipkfjd f'k{kk .kkyh n~okjk vf/d&ls&vf/d yksxksa rd igqpkus
osQ fy, ;kljr gSaA xzkeh.k leqnk; dk ehfM;k ls ;g tqM+ko mudh lksp esa cnyko dks /hjs&/hsjs lkeus yk jgk gSA blls os fujarj
lkekftd ifjorZu ,oa lkaLfrd lao`f dh vksj c<+rs jgsaxsA
bu dk;ks dh kfIr osQ fy, INSAT-IB Hkkjr ljdkj dk ljkguh; ;kl jgk gSA bldk mi;ksx ns'k osQ lkekftd&vkFkd fodkl
osQ fy, fd;k tk jgk gSA INSAT-IB osQ lsok {ks=k fuEufyf[kr gSa
(i) f"k mRikndrk esa o`f]

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detksj oxks dh Hkkxhnkjh dks ksRlkgu nsuk]


(iii) fofHkUu lac O;olk;ksa }kjk xzkeh.k turk dks vk; o`f osQ fy, sfjr djuk]
(iv) lkekftd U;k; dks c<+kok]
(v) LokLF; lsokvksa esa lq/kj]
(vi) oSKkfud eukso`fk dk fodkl]
(vii) [ksyowQn] lekpkjksa vkfn esa #fp fodflr djukA
2- leqnk; lao/Zu osQ fy, psruk cuke lapkj ek;elwpuk kS|ksfxdh dks fodflr djus osQ fy, xzkeh.k {ks=kksa osQ yksxksa dks
lwpuk, miyC/ djokuk ,d eq[; mi;ksx gSA blosQ fuEufyf[kr ykHk gksaxs
1- mudh lkekftd rFkk lkekftd thou dh xq.kokk esa lq/kj gksxkA
2- 'kSf{kd dk;Zeksa dk lkj.k muosQ thou Lrj rFkk le> dks fodflr djsxkA
3- os HkkSfrd] tSfod] lkekftd] 'kSf{kd o lkaLfrd dkjdksa rFkk vius thou ij muosQ Hkko dks le>us esa l{ke gksaxsA
tulapkj ek;e osQ 'kSf{kd dk;Zvk/qfud kS|ksfxdh ij vk/kfjr tulapkj .kkyh 'kSf{kd fodkl dk ,d l{ke midj.k
gSA lwpuk kS|ksfxdh osQ vufxur vuq;ksxksa dk yksxksa dks f'kf{kr djus] dkS'kyksa o cks/ dk fodkl ,oa mudh vfHko`fk;ksa esa ifjorZu
ykus dk Hkko muosQ lkekftd rFkk O;fDrxr thou ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA tulapkj ek;eksa dh Hkwfedk vkt vkSipkfjd ,oa vukSipkfjd
rFkk O;fDrxr o lewgxr 'kSf{kd f;kvksa esa egoiw.kZ gks xbZ gSA nwj f'k{kk .kkyh eas rks ;g fo'ks"k ykHkdkjh gSA Hkkjr esa bXuw
(IGNOU) rFkk osaQnzh; 'kSf{kd kS|ksfxdh laLFkku (CIET) ns'k Hkj esa nwj f'k{kk dk;Ze lapkfyr dj jgs gSaA i=kkpkj ikB~;e] jsfM;ks]
Vh-oh-] Vsyh dkaiszQflax] n`';&JO; lkexzh vkfn nwj f'k{kk osQ lk/u gSaA
daI;wVj] baVjusV] osQcy rFkk lsVsykbV Vh-oh- vkfn Hkh vkSipkfjd f'k{kk esa 'kkfey fd, x, gSaA bu midj.kksa osQ ;ksx ls v;kid
o v;srk nksuksa 'kks/dkkZ osQ :i esa dk;Z dj ldrs gSaA nwjn'kZu rFkk 'kSf{kd kS|ksfxdh us f'k{kk dks fo|ky;ksa o fo'ofo|ky;ksa dh lhek
ls ckgj fudkydj lHkh rd mldh igqp dks laHko cuk;k gSA ubZ f'k{kk uhfr (1986) esa ehfM;k dks f'k{kk osQ midj.k osQ :i esa
i;kZIr LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
kS|ksfxdh fodkl dh f'k{kk esa c<+rh Hkwfedk dk ;g vFkZ ugha gS fd ;s kS|ksfxfd;k v;kid o iqLrdksa dk LFkku ys ysaxh] cfYd
;s buosQ lapkyu esa lgk;d cudj f'k{kk dks ljyre rFkk lHkh rd igqp osQ ekxZ dk fu/kZj.k djus esa lg;ksxh dh Hkwfedk dk fuokZg
djasxhA
?kj] leqnk;] fo|ky; ,oa tulapkj ek;e osQ chp laca/?kj] leqnk; ,oa ehfM;k lHkh cPps dh f'k{kk osQ vfHkdj.k gSaA
;s lHkh cPps dks vyx&vyx Hkkfor u dj ,d&nwljs osQ iwjd osQ :i esa dk;Z djrs gSaA ;s lHkh cPps osQ Kku] dkS'ky] vfHko`fk;ksa
vkfn dks lekdfyr :i ls Hkkfor djrs gSaA cPps }kjk ,d vfHkdj.k ls kIr vuqHko dks nwljs vfHkdj.k cfyr o 'kksf/r djrs
gSa rFkk mlosQ Kku dks n`<+ cukdj mlosQ O;fDrRo o thou&'kSyh dks ubZ fn'kk nsrs gSaA
f'k{kk osQ ;s lHkh vfHkdj.k ,d loZfu"B ;kstu esa viuh lk>snkjh djrs gSaA bldk ms'; gS fd cPpk ,d Lora=k] Lok;k ijarq
ftEesnkj O;fDr osQ :i eas fodflr gks] tks vius fu.kZ; Lo;a ys losQ] viuh leL;kvksa dk Lo;a gy fudky losQ] nwljksa dk [;ky
j[k losQ rFkk vius lkfFk;ksa dh t:jrksa osQ fr laosnu'khy gksA
iz'u 3- ,d f'k{kd osQ :i esa vkius vius fo|ky; esa viO;; vkSj vojks/u vo'; vuqHko fd;k gksxkA bldks
izHkkfor djus okys dkjdksa rFkk bldks de djus osQ rjhdksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A
mkjviO;; dh vo/kj.kkkFkfed f'k{kk dk ms'; gS laiw.kZ f'k{kk dh kfIrA ;fn dksbZ fo|kFkhZ kFkfed Lrj ij viuh
f'k{kk iwjh fd, fcuk fo|ky; chp esa NksM+ nsrk gS rks bls viO;; dgk tkrk gSA gkVksZx desVh osQ 'kCnksa esa] kFkfed f'k{kk dh lekfIr
ls igys gh fdlh Hkh le; ckyd dks LowQy ls fcuk f'k{kk iwjh fd, gh gVk ysuk] viO;; gSA viO;; osQ laca/ esa ,d nwljk er
^^o/Zeku ykHk* dk gS] ftlosQ vuqlkj LowQy esa fcrk, x, o"kks dh vis{kk kIr f'k{kk osQ Lrj dks egoiw.kZ ekuk tkrk gSA
lafo/ku esa lHkh cPpksa dks 14 o"kZ rd dh vk;q rd 7&8 o"kks dh vfuok;Z vkSj fu%'kqYd f'k{kk dh ckr dgh xbZ gSA bl lanHkZ
esa ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd ;fn cPpk bu o"kks dh f'k{kk iwjh ugha djrk rks mls fuj{kj dh dksfV esa ekuk tk,xkA bl xyr /kj.kk dks nwj
djus osQ fy, ^o/Zeku ykHk* dk er egoiw.kZ gS ;kuh dksbZ cPpk ;fn lkr&vkB o"kZ dh f'k{kk ls iwoZ gh vius vf/xe&ifj.kkeksa dks
kIr dj ysrk gS vkSj chp esa gh fo|ky; NksM+ nsrk gSa rks bls ^viO;;* ugha ekuk tk,xkA
(ii)

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xfrjks/ dh vo/kj.kkf'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa xfrjks/ ml fLFkfr dks ekuk tkrk gS ftlesa dksbZ cPpk viuk ikB~;e iwjk djus esa
fu;r le; ls vf/d le; yxkrk gS vFkkZr og ,d o"kZ dk ikB~;e ,d o"kZ esa iwjk ugha dj ikrk rks blls xfrjks/ dgk tk,xkA
cPpk vius lgikfB;ksa dh vis{kk fdruh ckj vyx&vyx o"kks esa vliQy gqvk] blh dh rqyuk dks xfrjks/ dh eki ekuk tkrk gSA
xfrjks/ dk lwpdkad

oqQy visf{kr o"kZ

= 100 1 okLro esa yxs oqQy o"kZ

mnkgj.k osQ fy, fdlh vk;q oxZ osQ Nk=kksa dh vyx&vyx la[;k vyx&vyx o"kks esa viuh f'k{kk iwjh djrh gS rks mu lHkh cPpksa
dh la[;k rFkk muosQ }kjk oqqQy yxs o"kks dks vkil esa xq.kk dj lHkh vkadM+ksa dks tksM+dj mi;qZDr lw=k dh lgk;rk ls fudkys ifj.kke
osQ o"kks dks fu;r o"kks ls ?kVk nsrs gSa rFkk oqQy 100 fr'kr esa ls vk, ifj.kke dks ?kVkus ij tks ifj.kke vkrk gS rks mls ^fo|ky;
fo'ks"k dh n{krk* dgk tkrk gSA ;fn lwpdkad 17-5 vkrk gS] rks 100 esa ls bls ?kVkus ij 82-5 fr'kr kIr gksrk gS] rks ;g ekuk tk,xk
fd fo|ky; fo'ks"k dh n{krk 82-5 fr'kr gSA
viO;; vkSj xfrjks/ osQ dkj.k
vusd vuqla/ku dk;ks ls xfrjks/ vkSj viO;; osQ vusd lkekftd&vkFkd] 'kSf{kd ,oa vU; dkj.k lkeus vk, gSaA
1- lkekftd&vkFkd dkj.k
(i) ifjokj dk vkFkd fiNM+kiuifjokj dh vkFkd fLFkfr dk cPpksa dh f'k{kk ij cgqr vf/d Hkko iM+rk gS D;ksafd f'k{kk
osQ fy, vko';d lkexzh] f'k{k.k 'kqYd vkfn osQ fy, /u dh vko';drk gksrh gSA xjhc ifjokjksa osQ cPps blh dkj.k f'k{kk ls oafpr
jg tkrs gSa ;k mUgsa viuh i<+kbZ chp esa gh NksM+uh iM+rh gS rFkk ?kj dh vko';drkvksa dh iwr osQ fy, mUgsa dke djuk iM+rk gSA
(ii) cPpksa ij ?kj osQ dke dk T;knk cks>ftu cPpksa dks LowQy ls ykSVus osQ ckn ?kj osQ dke djus iM+rs gksa vkSj ;g cks>
T;knk gks tk, rks os viuh i<+kbZ chp esa gh NksM+ nsrs gSaA xzkeh.k {ks=kksa rFkk 'kgjh fuEu vk; oxZ esa ;g fLFkfr T;knk ns[kus dks feyrh
gSA
(iii) O;olk;ekrk&firk dk O;olk; Hkh cPpksa dh f'k{kk ij Hkko Mkyrk gSA viuk O;olk; pykus okys ;k ukSdjh djus okys
cPpksa dh i<+kbZ dkiQh O;ofLFkr o fu;fer jgrh gS tcfd [ksrh&ckM+h] nLrdkjh ;k etnwjh djus okys yksxksa osQ cPpksa dh i<+kbZ vDlj
fu;fer ugha jg ikrhA
(iv) ifjokj dk 'kSf{kd Lrjfuj{kj ;k de&i<+s fy[ks yksxksa dh vis{kk f'kf{kr ekrk&firk vius cPpksa dh i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ ij T;knk
;ku nsrs gSaA bl dkj ekrk&firk o ifjokj osQ vU; lnL;ksa dk 'kSf{kd Lrj cPpksa dh f'k{kk dks Hkkfor djrk gSA
(v) cky&fookgHkkjr esa vusd {ks=kksa esa vkt Hkh cky&fookg dk pyu gS] ftl dkj.k cPpksa dh f'k{kk Hkkfor gksrh gS]
fo'ks"kdj yM+fd;ksa dhA NksVh mez esa fookg gksus osQ dkj.k mUgsa viuh f'k{kk chp esa gh NksM+uh iM+rh gSA viO;; dk ;g dkj.k ek;fed
f'k{kk ij vf/d ykxw gksrk gSA
(vi) vfHkHkkodksa dh mnklhurkvkt dk ;qx vkS|ksfxdhdj.k dk ;qx gS blfy, f'k{kk dk ego vkt vkSj Hkh c<+ x;k gSA ijarq
vkFkd foo'krk rFkk vf'k{kk osQ dkj.k vkt Hkh ekrk&firk f'k{kk osQ fr mnklhu gSaA lkaLfrd oapu Hkh f'k{kk osQ fr mnklhurk
dk ,d eq[k dkj.k gSA
(vii) vfHkHkkodksa dk fojks/h Lojlkekftd fu"ks/] yM+fd;ksa dks ?kj osQ dkeksa esa yxk, j[kuk rFkk yM+fd;ksa dh vis{kk yM+dksa
dks vf/d ego nsuk Hkh yM+fd;ksa dh f'k{kk osQ viO;; dk dkj.k curk gSA NksVh mez esa yM+dksa dks dke ij yxkdj vf/d vk;
dh bPNk Hkh vfHkHkkodksa dks vius cPpksa dh f'k{kk osQ fr mnklhurk dk cM+k dkj.k gSA
2- 'kSf{kd dkj.k
(i) ?kj vkSj LowQy esa f'k{kk dk vuqowQy okrkoj.k u feyukfo|ky; esa v;kidksa dk fuEu 'kSf{kd Lrj] udkjkRed vfHko`fk
rFkk Nk=ko`fk] ikB~;iqLrdksa] ;wuhiQkWeZ vkfn lgk;d lsokvksa dh deh] LowQy dk le;] nks"kiw.kZ ijh{kk .kkyh] Nk=kksa dh i<+kbZ esa v#fp]
?kj esa f'k{kk dk okrkoj.k u gksuk] iks"kkgkj dh deh vkfn viO;; osQ dkj.k gSaA
(ii) f'k{kk&O;oLFkk vkSj leqnk; dh vkFkd vko';drkvksa osQ chp ijLij laca/ dk vHkkovkt dh f'k{kk&.kkyh vkSj
leqnk; dh vkFkd vko';drkvksa osQ chp rkyesy u gksus dkj.k cPps dh f'k{kk mlosQ Hkkoh thou esa lgk;d ugha gks ikrhA ftldh
otg ls vusd vfHkHkkod f'k{kk dks ego ugha nsrsA os ;k rks vius cPpksa dks LowQy gh ugha Hkstrs ;k mudh i<+kbZ chp esa gh NqM+k
nsrs gSaA

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LowQy dk detksj vko';d cqfu;knh <kpkjk"Vh; Lrj ij vusd losZ{k.kksa ls ;g ckr lkeus vkbZ gS fd fo|ky; Hkou]
CySd cksMZ] pkVZ] uD'ks] iQuhZpj] cSBus dh O;oLFkk] is;ty] 'kkSpky; rFkk vU; f'k{k.k lkexzh dk vf/drj fo|ky;ksa esa vHkko gS]
fo'ks"kdj xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esaA fo|ky;ksa esa v;kidksa dh deh Hkh f'k{kk osQ fr v#fp vkSj viO;; dh cM+h otg gSA
3- fofo/ dkjd
(i) dfBu HkkSxksfyd ,oa kfrd ifjfLFkfr;kgekjs ns'k dh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr esa Hkkjh fo"kerk gS] dgha ?kus ou gSa] rks dgha
nqxZe igkM+h {ks=kA lkFk gh ck<+ rFkk Hkkjh o"kkZ tSlh kfrd vkink, Hkh cPpksa osQ fo|ky; rd igqpus esa #dkoV iSnk djrh gSaA nwljk
dkj.k] ,sls fo|ky;ksa dk nwj gksuk Hkh Nk=kksa dh i<+kbZ esa leL;k curk gSA T;knk nwjh rd vkus&tkus ls cPps 'kkjhfjd o ekufld :i
ls cgqr Fkd tkrs gSa vkSj muesa i<+kbZ osQ fr v#fp iSnk gks tkrh gSA
(ii) chekfj;koqQiks"k.k rFkk vkokl dh vLokLF;dj fLFkfr;ksa] tSls>ksaiM+&iV~fV;ksa] xanh cfLr;ksa vkfn esa jgus okys cPpksa dks
vusd dkj dh chekfj;k yx tkrh gSa ftl dkj.k os fu;fer :i ls LowQy ugha tk ikrs] tks mudh f'k{kk esa xfrjks/ dk ,d eq[k
dkj.k gSA
(iii) Nk=kksa dh mez esa fo"kerkvDlj ;g ns[kus esa vkrk gS fd ,d gh d{kk esa vyx&vyx vk;q&oxZ osQ Nk=k gksrs gSaA oqQN
ckyd vkSlr vk;q ls vf/d gksrs gSa vkSj oqQN vkSlr vk;q ls de gksrs gSaA bldk dkj.k oqQN cPpksa dk kFkfed Lrj ij nsj ls nkf[kyk
djokuk gSA vf/d vk;q osQ cPps viuh NksVh vk;q osQ cPpksa ls rkyesy ugha fcBk ikrsA blls mudh f'k{kk esa viO;; o xfrjks/ mRiUu
gksrk gSA
viO;; vkSj xfrjks/ dks de djus osQ mik;
viO;; vkSj xfrjks/ dks de djus okyh dk;Zuhfr;k
(i) LowQyksa esa miyC/ lqfo/kvksa esa lq/kjkFkfed Lrj ij fo|ky; Hkouksa dk fuekZ.k ,oa j[kj[kko] is;ty] 'kkSpky;]
ikB~;iqLrdksa] iqLrdky; ,oa lgk;d f'k{k.k lkexzh dh miyC/rk osQ lkFk&lkFk ?kj ls fo|ky; dh nwjh de djus ls vf/d fo|ky;
viO;; ,oa xfrjks/ esa deh vk ldrh gSA
(ii) LowQy ca/ufo|ky;ksa dh O;oLFkk f;k dks cgqeq[kh cuk;k tkuk t:jh gS D;ksafd ,d laLFkk gksus osQ dkj.k fo|ky; osQ
vusd ?kVd gksrs gSaA viO;; o xfrjks/ dks de djus osQ fy, fo|ky;h O;oLFkk osQ fuEufyf[kr i{kksa ij ;ku nsuk t:jh gS
1- v;kidksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dks fo|ky; O;oLFkk esa c<+kukA
2- vko';d fofo/ lkexzzh LFkkuh; :i ls tqVkukA
3- lk/uksa dk roZQlaxr fodkl o foosdiw.kZ mi;ksxA
4- leL;kxzLr Nk=kksa osQ fy, mipkjkRed d{kkvksa dh O;oLFkkA
5- fo|ky;h vfHkys[kksa dk O;ofLFkr j[kj[kkoA
6- O;kid ,oa lrr ewY;kadu }kjk Nk=kksa dh vf/xe&miyfC/ dk ifjoh{k.kA
7- xzke f'k{kk lfefr] [kaM f'k{kk dk;kZy; rFkk fo|ky; ifjlj ifj;kstuk osQ lg;ksx ls leqnk; dk lg;ksx kIr djukA
8- /kuk;kid dh dk;Z{kerk ,oa Hkwfedk esa 'kSf{kd ,oa ca/u laca/h f'k{k.k }kjk o`f djukA
(iii) v;kid dh fu"iknu {kerk esa lq/kjv;kidksa dh fu"iknu {kerk esa lq/kj gsrq fuEufyf[kr mik; dkjxj lkfcr gksaxs
1- lsokdkyhu f'k{k.kA
2- ikB~;p;kZ fuekZ.k ,oa dk;kZUo;u esa mudk lg;ksxA
3- f'k{kk'kkL=k ls lacaf/r lkfgR; dh miyC/rkA
4- efgyk ,oa nfyr oxZ osQ f'k{kdksa dh la[;k esa o`fA
5- f;kRed 'kks/ dh O;oLFkk rkfd v;kiu&f;k esa lq/kj yk;k tk losQA
(iv) d{kk&vf/xe laca/h dk;Zuhfr;kv;kidksa dks vfHksfjr dj Nk=kksa dh vf/xe miyfC/ esa lq/kj yk;k tk ldrk gSA
blosQ fy, fuEufyf[kr mik; fd, tk ldrs gSa
1- ckydksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dks vf/xe&f;k vkSj dk;Zdykiksa esa c<+kukA
2- Hkyh dkj okpu djukA
3- Nk=kksa esa Jqrys[k dh vknr fodflr djukA
(iii)

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4- lrr ,oa O;kid ewY;kadu ifr;k viukukA


5- v;kiu dh mipkjkRed O;oLFkkA
6- lewg v;kiu ,oa vf/xe dh lg;ksxkRed ifr dks ksRlkfgr djukA
7- vfHkHkkodksa osQ lkFk ehVx djuk rkfd Nk=kksa dh fu"iknu {kerk dh tkudkjh kIr gks losQA
8- Nk=kksa dks laor ikB~; lkexzh ,oa lanHkZ lkfgR; i<+us osQ fy, ksRlkfgr djukA
ftyk kFkfed f'k{kk dk;Ze (Mh-ih-bZ-ih-)kFkfed f'k{kk dk lkodhdj.k vkSj f'k{kk dks tu&tu rd igqpkus osQ ms';
ls 1993 esa Mh-ih-bZ-ih- dh 'kq#vkr dh xbZA oqQN pqus gq, ftyksa esa ,dhr rjhdksa esa f'k{kk dk iw.kZr% iquuekZ.k bl ;kstuk dk y{;
gSA bl ;kstuk dh 'kq#vkr vle] dukZVd] osQjy] e; ns'k] egkjk"V] mM+hlk rFkk rfeyukMq] lkr jkT;ksa osQ 42 ftyksa esa dh xbZA bl
;kstuk dks 110 ftyksa rd igqpkus osQ fy, 1993&98 dh vof/ r; dh xbZ gSA
jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku (,u-,y-,e-)15&35 vk;q oxZ osQ 8 djksM+ yksxksa rd ;kstuewyd f'k{kk 1990&95 rd igqpkus osQ
ms'; ls 1988 esa jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku dh 'kq#vkr gqbZA lu 1994 dh vof/ rd ns'k osQ 258 ftys laiw.kZ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku rFkk
80 ftys lk{kjrk ijorhZ vfHk;ku osQ varxZr lfEefyr fd, x,A f'k{kk osQ lohZdj.k esa kS<+ f'k{kk dh egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gSA lk{kjrk
ijorhZ vfHk;ku osQ varxZr ^tu f'k{kk fu;ye~* uke ls 22000 osaQnz dk;Z dj jgs gSaA
xSj&vkSipkfjd f'k{kk (,u-,iQ-bZ-)xSj&vkSipkfjd f'k{kk dh ;kstuk lkod kjafHkd f'k{kk dk;Zuhfr osQ vax osQ :i eas
iqujhf{kr dk;Z ;kstuk osQ varxZr 1992 esa 'kq: dh xbZA bl dk;Ze esa mu yM+osQ&yM+fd;ksa dks f'kf{kr fd;k tkrk gS tks dkedkth
gksus osQ dkj.k rFkk vU; dkj.kksa ls f'k{kk ls oafpr jg x, gSaA bleas Nk=k viuh xfr rFkk viuh lqfo/k osQ vuqlkj f'k{kk kIr dj ldrs
gSaA f'k{k.k dk;Ze dh vof/ 2 o"kZ gS rFkk blesa Nk=kksa osQ NksVs&NksVs lewg cuk, tkrs gSaA
xSj&vkSipkfjd f'k{kk dh ikB~;p;kZ esa Nk=kksa dh vko';drkvksa] #fp;ksa o LFkkuh; okrkoj.k dk ;ku j[kus dk ;kl fd;k x;k
gSA bl ;kstuk osQ rgr LFkkuh; va'kdkfyd f'k{kdksa dks xSj&vkSipkfjd f'k{kk dh vko';drkvksa osQ vuqlkj f'kf{kr fd;k tkrk gSA
1993 eas bl ;kstuk dk iqujh{k.k fd;k x;kA
U;wure vf/xe Lrj (,e-,y-,y-)bl dk;Ze dk y{; cPpksa dks kFkfed Lrj ij f'k{kk osQ ml Lrj rd igqpkuk gS ftlls
os mPp d{kkvksa dh vksj c<+ losaQA ;g dk;Ze vf/xe osQ okLrfod] laxr ,oa ;kstuewyd igyqvksa dks oasQnz esa j[krk gSA
fo|ky;ksa esa U;wure vf/xe Lrj ykxw djus esa fuEufyf[kr dne egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk ldrs gSa
1- orZeku le; esa Nk=kksa osQ vf/xe miyfC/ Lrjksa dk ewY;kaduA
2- ml {ks=k rFkk le;kof/ dks Li"V djuk ftlesa U;wure vf/xe Lrj kIr fd;k tkuk gSA
3- {kerk vk/kfjr v;kiuA
4- Nk=kksa osQ vf/xe ls lac lrr ,oa O;kid ewY;kaduA
5- ikB~;eksa dh leh{kk dj muesa vko';drkuqlkj cnyko djukA
6- v;kiu@vf/xe esa lq/kj ykus gsrq f'k{k.k] i;Zos{k.k rFkk ewY;kadu tSlh lqfo/kvksa dks ksUur djukA
kFkfed fo|ky;ksa osQ v;kidksa osQ fy, lsokiw.kZ vkSj lsokdkyhu f'k{k.k dk;Zeksa dh xq.kokk eas lq/kj ykukv;kidksa
dh xq.kokk esa lq/kj ykus gsrq muosQ lsokdkyhu f'k{k.k laca/h lHkh mik;ksa ij iqujhf{kr f'k{kk&uhfr fuekZ.k ;kstuk (1992) esa ppkZ
dh xbZ gSA blh osQ dkj.k DIET dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA orZeku le; esa ns'k esa v;kidksa osQ f'k{k.k laca/h dk;Zeksa esa lHkh ftyksa
esa yxHkx 400 ls T;knk laLFkku dk;Z dj jgs gSaA ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- us f'k{kdksa osQ lsokdkyhu f'k{k.k gsrq vusd dk;Ze vk;ksftr fd,
gSaA eq[k dk;Ze fuEufyf[kr gSa
1- LowQyh v;kidksa osQ fy, fo'kky iSekus ij vk;ksftr vfHkeq[khdj.k dk;Ze1986&87 ls 1988&89 rd pys bl
dk;Ze dk ms'; Fkk LowQyh v;kidksa dks v;kiu&vf/xe laca/h dk;Zuhfr;ksa ,oa uojfpr ikB~;p;kZvksa esa cy fn, tkus okys u,
fo"k;&{ks=kksa ,oa lq/kjksa osQ fr laosnu'khy o lw{exzkgh cukukA blesa f'k{kk f;k dks cky&osaQfnzr o f;kdyki vk/kfjr cukus ij
cy fn;k x;kA
2- vkWijs'ku CySdcksMZ ;kstuk (O.B. Scheme) 1989&90 ls 1991&92 osQ nkSjku kFkfed fo|ky;ksa dks foKku fo"k;ksa ,oa
dk;kZuqHko laca/h f'k{k.k f'kfojksa }kjk v;kidksa dks bu midj.kksa osQ ;ksx o vkWijs'ku CySdcksMZ ;kstuk dh tkudkjh nh xbZA bl ;kstuk
dk ms'; cky&osaQfnzr dk;Ze rFkk LFkkuh; Lrj ij rS;kj bu midj.kksa osQ mi;ksx }kjk v;kidksa osQ v;kiu&dk;Z dk Lrj pk
djuk FkkA

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3- izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa osQ v;kidksa osQ fy, fo'ks"k vfHkeq[khdj.k dk;Ze (SOPT)ftyk f'k{kk vkSj f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa us
PMOST dk;Ze osQ vuqHkoksa dks vPNk crk;kA DIET osQ laLFkkuksa }kjk lhfer la[;k esa gh v;kidksa dks lsokdkyhu f'k{k.k fn;k
tk ldrk gS tcfd vHkh yk[kksa&djksM+ksa f'k{kd ,sls gSa ftUgsa f'k{k.k dh vko';drk gS] blhfy, vU; DIET laLFkkuksa dh LFkkiuk gksus
rd kFkfed fo|ky;ksa osQ fy, fo'ks"k vfHkeq[khdj.k dk;Ze vk;ksftr fd;k tk,A 1993&94 esa ;g fo'ks"k dk;Ze SOPT uke ls
kjaHk fd;k x;kA
foosaQfnzr ;kstuk vkSj f'k{kk&ca/u;g lR; gS fd i;kZIr is'ksoj vkSj rduhdh lgk;rk dk vk/kj fuEurj Lrj okyh f'k{kk
osQ fy, Hkh vfuok;Z gSA blosQ fy, ftyk@[kaM Lrj osQ dk;ZdkkZ dh lkaLFkkfud {kerk dk fodkl djuk ;kstukvksa osQ liQy f;kUo;u
osQ fy, vko';d gSA f'k{kk eas viO;; o xfrjks/ dh leL;k vf/drj xzkeh.k {ks=kksa dh gSA vr% kFkfed fo|ky;ksa dh O;oLFkk dks
xzkeh.k Lrj ij lq/kjuk t:jh gSA bl dk;Z osQ fy, ftyk cksMZ] [kaM vkSj iapk;r tSlh LFkkuh; laLFkkvksa dks vf/d vf/dkj fn, tkus
pkfg,A osaQnzh; f'k{kk lykgdkj cksMZ dks jk"Vh; Lrj ij 'kSf{kd uhfr osQ fuekZ.k esa lq>ko nsus dk nkf;Ro lkSaik x;k gSA
u, iapk;rh jkt vf/fu;e (1992) esa ko/ku gS fd gj xko vFkok oqQN xkoksa dks feykdj iapk;r cukbZ tk, vkSj iapk;r esa
,d xzke f'k{kk lfefr dk xBu fd;k tk,A ;g lfefr kFkfed fo|ky;h lqfo/kvksa ls dksbZ cPpk oafpr u jg tk, bldh ns[k&js[k
djsxh rFkk viO;; o xfrjks/ dks de djus gsrq leqnk; dk lg;ksx kIr djus esa lgk;rk djsxhA vius bl dk;Z dks iw.kZ djus osQ
fy, os fuEufyf[kr dk;Z dj ldrh gSa
1- vfHkHkkodksa dks vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstus dh lykg nsukA
2- vfHkHkkod&v;kid lfefr;ksa esa lf;rk ykukA
3- fo|ky; vkSj xzkeh.k leqnk; dks utnhd ykus esa lg;ksx djukA
4- ckfydk f'k{kk osQ fr leqnk; dks ksRlkfgr djukA
5- fo|ky; dh mipkjkRed d{kk, pykus esa enn djukA
6- cPpksa dh 'kSf{kd t:jrksa dh iwr osQ fy, fu/Zu ekrk&firk dh lgk;rk djukA

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