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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF - COMPACTING CONCRETE

USING COIR FIBER


E.Sureshkumar 1, , Gobinath R, S.Jegadeesan2, K.Manimuthu2 K.Sivanesan2, S.Rathinamoorthy2
1

Assistant Professor, Civil Engg.., Jay Shriram Group of Institutions, Tamilnadu, India
2

UG student, Civil Engg.., Jay Shriram Group of Institutions, Tamilnadu, India


E-mail: hytechsuresh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Concrete is the construction material widely used throughout the world. Construction materials used in the
industry should be friendly with the environment during its usage. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an
innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own
weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested
reinforcement. The hardened concrete is dense, homogenous and has the same engineering properties and
durability as traditional vibrated concrete. In order to obtain the properties of hardened concrete for SCC,
proportion of mineral and chemical admixtures to be added. Since its first developed in Japan 1988, SCC has
gained wider acceptance in Japan, Europe and USA due to its inherent distinct advantages. The contributing
factors to this reluctance appear to be lack of any supportive evidence of its suitability with local aggregates and
the harsh environmental conditions. In this study a review presented based on the development of selfcompacting concrete with mineral admixture-coir fiber. On various percentages of coir fiber the SCC properties
were studied. Coir Fiber was added in concrete 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% by weight of cement and M-sand and Csand was replaced by 10%, 20% and 30% by weight of normal sand.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Development of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a desirable achievement in the construction industry in order to
overcome problems associated with cast-in-place concrete. Self-compacting concrete is not affected by the skills of
workers, the shape and amount of reinforcing bars or the arrangement of a structure and, due to its high-fluidity and
resistance to segregation it can be pumped longer distances. The concept of self-compacting concrete was proposed in
1986 by Professor Hajime Okamura, but the prototype was first developed in 1988 in Japan, by Professor Ozawa
(1989) at the University of Tokyo. Self-compacting concrete was developed at that time to improve the durability of
concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and SCC has been used in practical
structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies.
Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design Method and self-compact ability testing methods have been
carried out from the viewpoint of making it a standard concrete. Fine aggregate is an essential component of concrete.
The most commonly used fine aggregate is natural river sand. The global consumption of natural river sand is very
high due to the extensive use of concrete. In particular, the demand of natural river sand is quite high in developed
countries owning to infrastructural growth. The non-availability of sufficient quantity of ordinary river sand for
making cement concrete is affecting the growth of construction industry in many parts of the country. Recently,
Tamilnadu government has imposed restrictions on sand removal from the river beds due to unsafe impacts threatening
many parts of the state. On the other hand, the crusher and m-sand was generated by the mining industry has
accumulated over years. In the present work, it is aimed at developing a new building material from the crusher and msand, and mining industrial waste as a partial replacement material of fine aggregate in concrete.
By doing so, the objective of reduction of cost of construction can be met and it will help to overcome the problem
associated with its demand of natural river sand. With growing population, industrialization, urbanization and
globalization, there is corresponding growth in the demand for infrastructure. During the 20thcentury, concrete has
emerged as the material of choice for modern infrastructural needs. It has occupied a unique position among modern
construction materials. It gives considerable freedom to the architect to mould structural elements to any shape.
Almost all concretes rely critically on being fully compacted. Insufficient compaction dramatically lowers ultimate

performance of concrete in spite of good mix design. As concrete is produced and placed at construction sites, under
conditions far from ideal, it often ends up with unpleasant results. Concrete that is capable of compaction under its
own weight and can occupy all the spaces in the forms, which self-levels, does not segregate and does not entrap air is
termed self-compacting concrete (SCC).For concrete to be self-compacting it should have filling ability, passing
ability and resistance against segregation. Self compactability is obtained by limiting the coarse aggregate content and
using lower waterpowder ratio together with super plasticizers (SP).
1.1. OBJECTIVES;
1 Despite having numerous advantages, it does not reach the common man because of the high material cost.
2 SCC is used only in major projects and it does not serve the whole society due to its high cost.
3 To overcome this limitation, SCC should be made as a cost-effective material so that it could reach the
common man also and serve the whole society
4 Replacing the sand partially by M sand& C sand materials like would reduce the cost of SCC.
5 To prepare SCC with addition of coir fiber for grades of concrete such as M-30

1.1. ADVANTAGES OF THE SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE:

1.
2.

It reduces the cost of labours needed for curing and compacting the concrete
It holds well in the place of large buildings and in complicated areas where curing and compaction process is
difficult and costly.
3. Marked improvement in durability on account of better compaction
4. Extremely suitable for slim and complicated moulds.
5. Covers the reinforcement area effectively.
1.2 MATERIALS PROPERTIES:
1. Cement: Portland pozzlonic cement (Ultra tech cement) of 43 grade confirming to IS: 12269-1987 was used.
It was tested for its physical properties as per IS 4031 (part II)-1988.
Table1: Properties of cement
S.no
1
2
3
4

Descriptions
Fineness of cement
Consistency of cement
Initial setting time
Final setting time

Value
2%
33%
18 mins
465 ns

2. Fine Aggregate: The locally available river sand was used as fine aggregate in the present investigation. The
sand was free from clayey matter, salt and organic impurities. The sand was tested for various properties like specific
gravity, bulk density etc., and in accordance with IS 2386-1963.
Table2: Properties of Fine Aggregate
S.no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Descriptions
Value
Specific Gravity
2.6
Zone Of Sand
II
Fineness Modulus
3.923
D60
0.967
D10
0.236
Co efficient of uniformity
4.099
Bulk density
1600kg/m3
3. Coarse Aggregate: Machine crushed angular granite metal of 20mm nominal size from the local source was
used as coarse aggregate. It was free from impurities such as dust, clay particles and organic matter etc. The physical
properties of coarse aggregate were investigated in accordance with IS 2386 -1963.

Table: 3 Properties on coarse Aggregate


S.no
1
2
3
4
5

Descriptions
Impact value
Specific gravity
Bulk density
Water absorption
Grade of Aggregate

value
21.97%
2.62
1652kg /m3
3%
C

Table: 4 Trials II MATERIAL QUANTITY


AS PER ACI: 211.4R

504.21kg/m3
683.24 kg/m3
1108.13 kg/m3
141.61ml
4.67 lit/m3
6.81it/m3

Cement
Fine aggregate
Coarse aggregate
Water
Super plasticizer
Viscosity Modifying Agent
Table-: 5 Mix Ratio
Trails
Mix-1
Mix-2
Mix-3
Mix-4
Mix-5
Mix-6

Coir %
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.50
0.50
0.50

M-Sand %
10
20
30
10
20
30

C-Sand %
10
20
30
10
20
30

R-Sand %
80
60
40
80
60
40

1.3. Workability:
Table: 6 Workability test result
Trials
CS
Mix-1
Mix-2
Mix-3
Mix-4
Mix-5
Mix-6

L-Box (h2/h1)
(mm)
0.89
0.92
086
0.90
0.80
0.85
0.95

V-Funnel
(Sec)
8
7
9
8
7
8
7

Slump flow
(mm)
720
740
760
740
770
760
740

U-Box (h2 - h1)


(mm)
18
23
21
20
19
22
21

J-ring
(mm)
4
8
6.8
7
6
6.2
7.5

1.4 Specimens Casting and Testing:


1.The cubes of size 150mm, cylinder of size 150mm diameter and 300mm height and prism of size 150mm length,
50mm depth, 50mm breadth of both conventional and self-compacting concrete were cast. The strength related tests
were carried out for hardened conventional concrete and self-compacted concrete at the age of 7 days and 28 days to
ascertain the strength related properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength.

Figure

1:

Adding

of

coir

fiber

Figure 2:.Adding of VMA and Super plasticizer

Figure 3: Testing of concrete


in J-Ring

Figure 4: Testing of concrete flow in L-box

Results and Discussion:


Table: 7

The compressive strength of cube, split tensile strength of cylinder and flexural strength of prism are given
below.

Compressive
strength N/mm2
Split tensile
strength N/mm2

Flexural strength
N/mm2

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3

MIX-4

MIX-5

MIX-6

7days

36.38

23.8

27.21

31.87

31.24

29.02

28.99

28days

46.98

33.96

38

38.88

43.12

40.58

36.94

7days

7.3

5.43

6.40

7.41

7.9

9.11

9.11

28days

13.07

9.85

14.71

9.45

10.87

10.98

12.25

7days

0.16

0.15

0.14

0.16

0.16

0.17

0.17

28days

0.24

0.18

0.19

0.24

0.26

0.26

0.20

36.38
31.87

31.24

MIX-3

MIX-4

27.21

29.02

28.99

MIX-5

MIX-6

23.8
Compressive strength N/mm2

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

7 Days

Fig.5: Compressive strength of all mix proportion for 7 days

46.98
33.96

38

38.88

43.12

40.58

36.94

Compressive strength N/mm2

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3

MIX-4

MIX-5

MIX-6

28 Days

Fig.6: Compressive strength of all mix proportion for 28 days


9.11
7.41

7.3

9.11

7.9

6.4
5.43
Split tensile strength

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3

MIX-4

MIX-5

MIX-6

7 Days

Fig.7: Split tensile strength of all mix proportion for 7 days


14.71
13.07
9.85

10.87

10.98

MIX-4

MIX-5

12.25

9.45

Split tensile strength

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3
28 days

MIX-6

Fig.8: Split tensile strength of all mix proportion for 28 days


0.16

0.15

0.16

0.16

0.17

0.17

0.14

Flexural strength

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3

MIX-4

MIX-5

MIX-6

7 Days

Fig.9: Flexural strength of all mix proportion for 7 days

0.24

0.24
0.18

0.26

0.26
0.2

0.19

Flexural strength

CS

MIX-1

MIX-2

MIX-3

MIX-4

MIX-5

MIX-6

28 Days

Fig.10: Flexural strength of all mix proportion for 28 days

Conclusion:
In curing process the comparison of a compressive strength in control standard and mix-proportion is tabulated and it
shows that in mix-3 proportion is increases in 7-days of curing and in 28-days of curing mix-4 proportion is increases,
thus over all result shows that the compressive strength gradually decreases to steadily increases. In curing process the
comparison of a split strength in control standard and mix-proportion is tabulated and it shows that in mix-5 proportion
is increases in 7-days of curing and in 28-days of curing mix-2 proportion is increases, thus over all result shows that
the compressive strength gradually decreases to steadily increases. In curing process the comparison of a flexural
strength in control standard and mix-proportion is tabulated and it shows that in mix-5 proportion is increases in 7days of curing and in 28-days of curing mix-5 proportion is increases, thus over all result shows that the compressive
strength gradually decreases to steadily increases. From our investigation we find that mix-5 proportion achieve the
required strength and thus helpful to reduce construction cost. We strongly recommend the mix grade M30 with mix-5
is most suitable for SCC to locally available condition.

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