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Volume 5 – Irrigation and
Agricultural Drainage

Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin


Every effort and care has been taken in selecting methods and recommendations that are
appropriate to Malaysian conditions. Notwithstanding these efforts, no warranty or guarantee,
express, implied or statutory is made as to the accuracy, reliability, suitability or results of the
methods or recommendations.
The use of this Manual requires professional interpretation and judgment. Appropriate design
procedures and assessment must be applied, to suit the particular circumstances under consideration.
The government shall have no liability or responsibility to the user or any other person or entity with
respect to any liability, loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly, by the
adoption and use of the methods and recommendations of this Manual, including but not limited to,
any interruption of service, loss of business or anticipatory profits, or consequential damages
resulting from the use of this Manual.

March 2009



The first edition of the Manual was published in 1960 and was actually based on the experiences and
knowledge of DID engineers in planning, design, construction, operations and maintenance of large
volume water management systems for irrigation, drainage, floods and river conservancy. The
manual became invaluable references for both practicing as well as officers newly posted to an
unfamiliar engineering environment.
Over these years the role and experience of the DID has expanded beyond an agriculture-based
environment to cover urbanisation needs but the principle role of being the country’s leading expert
in large volume water management remains. The challenges are also wider covering issues of
environment and its sustainability. Recognising this, the Department decided that it is timely for the
DID Manual be reviewed and updated. Continuing the spirit of our predecessors, this Manual is not
only about the fundamentals of related engineering knowledge but also based on the concept of
sharing experience and knowledge of practicing engineers. This new version now includes the latest
standards and practices, technologies, best engineering practices that are applicable and useful for
the country.
This Manual consists of eleven separate volumes covering Flood Management; River Management;
Coastal Management; Hydrology and Water Resources; Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage;
Geotechnical, Site Investigation and Engineering Survey; Engineering Modelling; Mechanical and
Electrical Services; Dam Safety, Inspections and Monitoring; Contract Administration; and
Construction Management. Within each Volume is a wide range of related topics including topics on
future concerns that should put on record our care for the future generations.
This DID Manual is developed through contributions from nearly 200 professionals from the
Government as well as private sectors who are very experienced and experts in their respective
fields. It has not been an easy exercise and the success in publishing this is the results of hard work
and tenacity of all those involved. The Manual has been written to serve as a source of information
and to provide guidance and reference pertaining to the latest information, knowledge and best
practices for DID engineers and personnel. The Manual would enable new DID engineers and
personnel to have a jump-start in carrying out their duties. This is one of the many initiatives
undertaken by DID to improve its delivery system and to achieve the mission of the Department in
providing an efficient and effective service. This Manual will also be useful reference for non-DID
Engineers, other non-engineering professionals, Contractors, Consultants, the Academia, Developers
and students involved and interested in water-related development and management. Just as it was
before, this DID Manual is, in a way, a record of the history of engineering knowledge and
development in the water and water resources engineering applications in Malaysia.
There are just too many to name and congratulate individually, all those involved in preparing this
Manual. Most of them are my fellow professionals and well-respected within the profession. I wish
to record my sincere thanks and appreciation to all of them and I am confident that their
contributions will be truly appreciated by the readers for many years to come.

Dato’ Ir. Hj. Ahmad Hussaini bin Sulaiman,
Director General,
Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia


March 2009


Steering Committee:
Dato’ Ir. Hj. Ahmad Husaini bin Sulaiman, Dato’ Nordin bin Hamdan, Dato’ Ir. K. J. Abraham, Dato’
Ong Siew Heng, Dato’ Ir. Lim Chow Hock, Ir. Lee Loke Chong, Tuan Hj. Abu Bakar bin Mohd Yusof,
Ir. Zainor Rahim bin Ibrahim, En. Leong Tak Meng, En. Ziauddin bin Abdul Latiff, Pn. Hjh. Wardiah
bte Abd. Muttalib, En. Wahid Anuar bin Ahmad, Tn. Hj. Zulkefli bin Hassan, Ir. Dr. Hj. Mohd. Nor bin
Hj. Mohd. Desa, En. Low Koon Seng, En. Wan Marhafidz Shah bin Wan Mohd. Omar, Sr. Md Fauzi
bin Md Rejab, En. Khairuddin bin Mat Yunus, Cik Khairiah bt Ahmad.
Coordination Committee:
Dato’ Nordin bin Hamdan, Dato’ Ir. Hj. Ahmad Fuad bin Embi, Dato’ Ong Siew Heng, Ir. Lee Loke
Chong, Tn. Hj. Abu Bakar bin Mohd Yusof, Ir. Zainor Rahim bin Ibrahim, Ir. Cho Weng Keong, En.
Leong Tak Meng, Dr. Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin, En. Zainal Akamar bin Harun, Pn. Norazia
Ibrahim, Ir. Mohd. Zaki, En. Sazali Osman, Pn. Rosnelawati Hj. Ismail, En. Ng Kim Hoy, Ir. Lim See
Tian, Sr. Mohd. Fauzi bin Rejab, Ir. Hj. Daud Mohd Lep, Tn. Hj. Muhamad Khosim Ikhsan, En. Roslan
Ahmad, En. Tan Teow Soon, Tn. Hj. Ahmad Darus, En. Adnan Othman, Ir. Hapida Ghazali, En.
Sukemi Hj. Sidek, Pn. Hjh. Fadzilah Abdul Samad, Pn. Hjh. Salmah Mohd. Som, Ir. Sahak Che
Abdullah, Pn. Sofiah Mat, En. Mohd. Shafawi Alwi, En. Ooi Soon Lee, En. Muhammad Khairudin Khalil,
Tn. Hj. Azmi Md Jafri, Ir. Nor Hisham Ghazali, En. Gunasegaran M., En. Rajaselvam G., Cik Nur
Hareza Redzuan, Ir. Chia Chong Wing, Pn. Norlida Mohd. Dom, Ir. Lee Bea Leang, Dr. Hj. Md. Nasir
Md. Noh, Pn. Paridah Anum Tahir, Pn. Nurazlina Mohd Zaid, PWM Associates Sdn. Bhd., Institut
Penyelidikan Hidraulik Kebangsaan Malaysia (NAHRIM), RPM Engineers Sdn. Bhd., J.U.B.M. Sdn. Bhd.
Working Group:
Dato’ Ir. Mohd. Azhari Ghazalli, Tn. Hj. Abdul Halim Abdul Jalil, Ir. Loh Kim Mon, Dr. Mohammud
Husain, Ir. Hj. Daud b. Mohd Lep, Tn. Hj. Mohd Yazid b. Abdullah, Ir. Hj. Zainol Abidin b. Mahmud,
Tn. Hj. Jamil b. Shaari, Tn. Hj. Raja Roslan b. Raja Baharom Shah, Pn. Azizah bt. Mohamad, Tn. Hj.
Raja Abdul Aziz Bin Raja Ismail, Pn. Marenawati bt. Abd Malek, Tn. Hj. Hussien b. Harun, En.
Kamaruddin b. Saleh, Ir. Hj. Mohd Radzuan b. Mohamad, En. Tee Sing Tiat, En. Tan Woon Yang, Tn.
Hj. Ismail b. Ahmad, En. Mohamad Razali b. Jusoh, En. Tang Soo Yugh, Mazolizam b. Mohamad, En.
Terrence Eddy Wong, En. Salahuddin b. Ali, En. YoulHydell b. Abdul Rahman, Ir. Mohamad Suaimi b.
Ramli, Abdul Aziz b. Mohd Yusof, En. Lee Liang Wang, En. Thian Kim Tai, Kalaisaravelem, Ir. Wan
Mokhtar Nawang, Prof. Dr. Mohd Amin Mohd Soom, Dr. Abdullah Al Mamun, Dr. Md. Rowshon Kamal,
En. Mohamad Amir Mat, Cik Ernie Munyati Ulwi, Pn. Suriani Mamat.

March 2009



Registration of Amendments



Date of Amendment



Date of Amendment

March 2009


Table of Contents






Registration of Amendments …………………………………………………………………………………………..


Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……


List of Volumes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..




How to Use the Manual……………………………………………………………………………………….............


List of Symbols………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


List of Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………………………………………….


SI and English Units and Conversion Factor………………………………………………………………………


Part A

Part B

Part C

Part D

Part E

March 2009

Introduction and Administration
Chapter 1

Malaysian Perspective

Chapter 2


Chapter 3

System and Technology

Chapter 4

Planning Process

Chapter 5

Water Demand Estimation

Chapter 6

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Chapter 7

Computer Applications

Irrigation Design
Chapter 8

Water Intake Facilities

Chapter 9

Irrigation Conveyance

Chapter 10

Surface Irrigation

Chapter 11


Chapter 12

Sprinkler Irrigation

Drainage Design
Chapter 13

Surface Drainage

Chapter 14

Subsurface Drainage

Chapter 15

Drainage Water Control and Treatment

Farm Infrastructure
Chapter 16

Hydraulic Structures

Chapter 17

Roads and Bridges



List of Volumes
Volume 1


Volume 2


Volume 3


Volume 4


Volume 5


Volume 6


Volume 7


Volume 8


Volume 9


Volume 10


Volume 11



March 2009





Average annual daily traffic (AADT) is the total volume of vehicle traffic in
both directions of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT
is a useful and simple measurement of design standard and road
category. AADT is also used in pavement design and also useful in road
network management tool.


A process by which substances in gaseous, or solid form dissolve or mix
with other substances.

Acid Soil

Soil that is free of lime with a pH of more than 7.


Adherence of gas molecules, ions or molecules to solid surfaces.

Advance time

Time required for a given surface irrigation stream of water to move from
the upper end of a field to the lower end. Time required for a given
surface irrigation stream to move from one point in the field to another.


A process where a substance becomes permeated with air or another gas.
The term is usually applied to aqueous liquids being brought into close
contact with air by spraying, bubbling or agitating.


The aspects of water that are perceivable by the senses (such as vision,
smell, etc.).


Comparatively simple chlorophyll-bearing plants, most of which are
aquatic and microscopic in size.


Any substance that will kill or control algae growth.

Alkaline soil

Soils with a pH of below 7 (opposite of acid soils).


The quantitative capacity of aqueous media to react with hydroxyl ions.
It can also be referred to the equivalent sum of the bases that are
titratable with strong acid. Alkalinity can also be defined as the capacity
factor, which represents the acid-neutralising capacity of an aqueous

Allowable depletion

That part of soil moisture stored in the plant root zone managed for use
by plants, usually expressed as equivalent depth of water in acre inches
per acre, or inches.

Allowable velocity

Flow velocity of water in an open channel, just below the velocity that
would cause

Alluvial plain

A plain bordering a river, formed by the deposition of alluvium eroded
from areas of higher

Alternate set

A method of managing irrigation whereby, at every other irrigation,
alternate furrows are irrigated or sprinklers are placed midway between
their locations during the previous irrigation.


The natural conditions that would be expected to occur in waters not
influenced by man. For stream sampling purposes, those periods of
streamflow are not influenced by recent storm events.

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Annual exceedance
probability (AEP)

Refers to the probability or risk of a natural event with a given size
occurring or being exceeded in any given year. A 90% AEP event
represents a high probability of flood occurring or being exceeded;
meaning it would occur quite often and would be relatively small. On the
other hand, a 1% AEP event has a low probability of occurrence or being
exceeded; therefore it would be fairly rare but it would be relatively large.

Antecedent moisture
condition (AMC)

A qualitative indication of the moisture content of surficial soils at the
beginning of a storm event.


Human derived or man-made.

Anti-seep collar

A device installed around a culvert, pipe or conduit through an
embankment, which lengthens the path of seepage along the exterior of
the conduit.

Application efficiency

The ratio of the average depth of irrigation water infiltrated and stored in
the root zone to the average depth of irrigation water applied, expressed
as a percentage. Also referred to as AE.

Application efficiency

The ratio of the average of the lowest one-fourth of measurements of
quarter (Eq) irrigation water infiltrated to the average depth of irrigation
water applied, expressed as a percentage. Also called AELQ. Used as an
indication for uniformity of application.

Application efficiency
low half

The ratio of the average of the low one-half of measurements of irrigation
(Eh) water infiltrated and stored in the root zone to the average depth of
irrigation water applied, expressed as a percentage. Also called AELH.
Used as an indication for uniformity of application.

Application rate

Usually expressed in inches per hour.

Application rate,

The rate at which water is applied to a given area by a sprinkler system.

Application time, set

The amount of time that water is applied to an irrigation set.


Plants that grow either partly or completely submerged in water.


A water-bearing formation that provides a groundwater reservoir. It can
be made up of a single, part of or group of formation/s, which contain/s
sufficient permeable material capable of yielding significant quantities of
water to wells and springs.

Arid climate

Climate characterized by low rainfall and high evaporation potential. A
region is usually considered as arid when precipitation averages less than
10 inches (250 mm) per year.

Available soil water

The difference between actual water content of a soil and the water held
by that soil at the permanent wilting point.

Available water
capacity (AWC)

The portion of water in a soil that can be readily absorbed by plant roots
of most crops, expressed in inches per inch, inches per foot, or total
inches for a specific soil depth. It is the amount of water stored in the soil
between field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (WP). It is
typically adjusted for salinity (electrical conductivity) and rock fragment
content. Also called available water holding capacity (AWHC).


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Average annual

The long-term or historic (generally 30 years or more) arithmetic mean of
precipitation (rain, snow, dew) received by an area.

Average daily peak
use rate

Calculated or measured water used by plants in 1 day through
evapotranspiration, expressed as inches per day.

Average recurrence
interval (ARI)

The average elapsed time in years between floods of a given size
occurring. For example a 1 year flood occurs on average once every year,
therefore the ARI value would be relatively small. Contrast to that, a 100
year ARI flood (i.e. occurs on average once every one hundred years and
fairly rare) would have a relatively large ARI value.

Backflow prevention

Safety device that prevents the flow of water from the water distribution
system back to the water source.


A closed conduit used to convey water under or through an embankment,
which is a part of the principal spillway.


The portion of a stream flow that is not due to storm runoff, and is
supported by groundwater seepage into a channel.

Basic intake rate

Rate at which water percolates into soil after infiltration has decreased to
a nearly constant value.

Basin irrigation

Surface irrigation by flooding areas of level land surrounded by dikes.
Generally used interchangeably with level border irrigation. In some areas
level borders have tailwater runoff. If used in high rainfall areas, storm
runoff facilities are necessary.


A shelf that breaks the continuity of a slope; a linear embankment or dike.

Best management
practice (BMP)

A structure or practice designed in runoff management to prevent the
discharge of one or more pollutants to the land surface thus minimising
the chance of wash-off by runoff. It can also be referred to a structure or
practice to temporarily store or treat runoff to reduce flooding, remove
pollutants, and provide other amenities (such as recreational, fishing
spots, etc.).


A fraction of the chemicals in the surrounding environment that can be
taken up by organisms. The environment may include water, sediments,
suspended particles and food items.

Biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD)

The quantity of oxygen consumed during the biochemical oxidation of
matter over a specified period of time (See also COD). It is measured in
the dark as the decrease in the oxygen content (in terms of mm/L) of a
water sample with a certain temperature over a certain period of time.
The decrease in oxygen content is brought about by the bacterial
breakdown of organic matter. The decomposition usually proceeds as far
as after 20 days until no further change occurs. The oxygen demand is
measured after 5 days (and is termed BOD5), where 70% of the final
value is expected to be reached.


Restoration and stabilisation techniques that use plants, often from native
species, to mimic the natural functions and benefits.


The use of a series of vegetated swales to provide filtering treatment for
runoff as it is conveyed through a channel. These swales can either be
grassed, contain emergent wetlands or high marsh plants.

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Biofiltration swale

A sloped, vegetated channel or ditch that provides both conveyance and
water quality treatment to runoff runoff. It does not provide runoff
quantity control but may convey runoff to BMPs, which are designed for
that purpose.


A water quality practice that utilises landscaping and soils to treat runoff
runoff by collecting it in shallow depressions before filtering through a
fabricated planting-soil media.


A method to calculate grass reference crop evapotranspiration (ETc)
based on long-term air temperature data, estimates for humidity, wind
movement and sunshine duration, and a correction to ETc downward for
elevations above 1,000 meters above sea level.


An unusually large number of organisms in a unit of water, usually made
up of one or more algae species.

Border irrigation

Surface irrigation by flooding strips of land, rectangular in shape, usually
level perpendicular to the irrigation slope, surrounded by dikes. Water is
applied at a rate sufficient to move it down the strip in a uniform sheet.
Border strips having no down field slope are referred to as level border
systems. Border systems constructed on terraced lands are commonly
referred to as benched borders.

Broad-crested weir

Any of a group of thick-crested overspill weirs used for flow
measurements in open channels. Some broad-crested weirs may have
flow transitions, roundings, or plane surface ramps on the upstream side.
Thin versions without transitions approach the behavior of sharp-crested
weirs. Thick versions with transitions approach the behavior of longthroated flumes. Broad-crested weirs typically operate with very little
head loss.

Bubbler irrigation

Micro irrigation application of water to flood the soil surface using a small
stream or fountain. The discharge rates for point-source bubbler emitters
are greater than for drip or subsurface emitters, but generally less than 1
gallon per minute (225 L/h). A small basin is usually required to contain or
control the water.


The zone contiguous with a sensitive area that requires continual
maintenance, function, and structural stability. The critical functions of a
riparian buffer (those associated with an aquatic system) include shading,
input of organic debris and coarse sediments, uptake of nutrients,
stabilisation of banks, interception of fine sediments, overflow during high
water events, protection from disturbance by human and domestic
animals and maintenance due to hydrologic or climatic effects. The
critical functions of terrestrial buffers include protection of slope stability,
attenuation of surface water flows from storm water runoff plus
precipitation and erosion control.

Bulk density

Mass of dry soil per unit volume, determined by drying to constant weight
at 105 oC, usually expressed as gm/cc or lb/ft3. Rock fragments 2 mm or
larger are usually excluded or corrected for after measurement.

Bypass flow

Flow which eludes an inlet on grade and is carried to the next inlet
downgrade in the street or channel.


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A semiautomatic furrow irrigation system where a gated pipe is used to
deliver water to each furrow. A continuous moving plug is attached to a
speed control device with a small cable. The moving plug allows flow out
of newly passed gates. As the plug moves downstream, the water level
drops in upstream gates thereby shutting off flows.

Capillary rise

The upward movement of water from a free watertable due to adhesion
of water to the tubular soil pores (capillaries) and the cohesion of water

Capillary water

Water held in the capillary, or small pores of the soil, usually with soil
water pressure (tension) greater than 1/3 bar. Capillary water can move
in any direction.

Carryover soil

Moisture stored in the soil within the root zone during the winter, at times
when the crop is dormant, or before the crop is planted. This moisture is
available to help meet water needs of the next crop to be grown.


A tubular retaining structure installed in a well bore in order to maintain
the opening of the well.


A chamber or well usually built at the kerb line of a street for the
admission of surface water to a sewer or subdrain. At the base of the
chamber or well, a sediment sump is designed to retain any grit and
detritus located below the point of the overflow.


An area draining flow to a particular location or site. It may frequently
include an area of tributary streams and flow paths as well as the main

Cation exchange
capacity (CEC)

The sum of exchangeable cations (usually Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, H) that the
soil constituent or other material can adsorb at a specific pH, usually
expressed in centimoles of charge per Kg of exchanger (cmol/Kg), or milli
equivalents per 100 grams of soil at neutrality (pH = 7.0), meq/100g.


The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is an empirical test first developed
in California, USA, for estimating the bearing value of sub-bases and
subgrades of roads. It is a simple strength test that compares the bearing
capacity of a material with that of a well-graded crushed stone (thus, a
high quality crushed stone material should have a CBR @ 100%).

Check dam

An earthen or gabion structure placed perpendicular across a stream to
enhance aquatic habitats. This structure when used in grass swales
reduces water velocities, promotes sediment deposition and enhances

Check, check

Structure to control water depth in a canal, lateral, ditch, or irrigated field.

Chemical oxygen
demand (COD)

A monitoring test that measures all the oxidisable matter found in a runoff
sample in which a portion of these matters deplete dissolved oxygen in
receiving waters.


Application of chemicals to crops through an irrigation system by mixing
them with irrigation water.


Unconsolidated sediments composed of inorganic (i.e. dead and decaying)
and organic material.

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A measure of the uniformity of irrigation water application. The average
coefficient (CU) depth of irrigation water infiltrated minus the average
absolute deviation from this depth, all divided by the average depth
infiltrated. Also called coefficient of uniformity. Typically used with
sprinkle irrigation systems.

Cipolletti weir

A sharp-crested trapezoidal weir with sides inclining outwardly at a slope
of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical.

Combination Inlets

The use of both a curb opening inlet and a grade inlet.


Micro irrigation system emitters designed to discharge water at a near
constant rate over a wide range of lateral line pressures.


The quantifiable amount of chemicals in the surrounding water, food or

Cone of depression

A depression in the water table or potentiometric surface of a
groundwater body that is in the shape of an inverted cone developed
around a pumped well. It also defines the area of influence of the
particular pumped well.

Confined aquifer

An aquifer bounded above and below by beds that have distinctly lower
permeability than that of the aquifer.


The protection, improvement and use of natural resources according to
principles resulting in greater economic and social benefits.

Constructed wetland

The creation of a wetland on a site, which is designed specifically to
remove pollutants from runoff runoff.

Consumptive use

See Evapotranspiration and Crop evapotranspiration.

Contaminated site

A site where hazardous substances with concentrations above approved
levels exist and through assessment it indicates the probability of
immediate or long-term hazards to the human health or environment.

Continuous flushing

Micro irrigation system emitters designed to continuously permit passage
of large solid particles while operating at a trickle or drip flow, thus
reducing filtration requirements.

Contracted weir

A measuring weir that is shorter than the width of the channel and is
therefore said to have side or end contractions. Sometimes called a
sharpcrested weir.

watershed area

A portion of the watershed contributing to its runoff at the point of

Control structure

Water regulating structure, usually for open channel flow conditions.


Contaminants other than nutrients (such as sediments, oil, and vehicle


A mechanism for transporting water from one point to another (which
includes pipes, ditches and channels).

efficiency (Ec)

The ratio of the water delivered to the total water diverted or pumped
into an open channel or pipeline at the upstream end, expressed as a


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Conveyance loss

Loss of water from a channel or pipe during transport, including losses
resulting from seepage, leakage, evaporation, and transpiration by plants
growing in or near the channel.

Conveyance system

It refers to drainage facilities of both natural and man-made that collect,
contain and provide for the flow of surface and runoff from the highest
points of the land right down to receiving waters. The natural elements
of the conveyance system include swales and small drainage courses,
streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands. The human-made elements of the
conveyance system include gutters, ditches, pipes, channels and most
retention/detention facilities.

Corrugation irrigation

A surface irrigation system where small ditches, channels, or furrows are
used to guide water downslope. Can be used in combination with graded
border systems to provide more uniform flow down the border strip.

Critical depth

The depth of flow during critical flow events.

Critical flow

The flow in an open channel that is at a minimum specific energy and has
a Froude Number equal to 1.0.

Crop coefficient (Kc)

A factor used to modify potential evapotranspiration: (1) Ratio between
crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and the reference crop (ETo) when crop is
grown in large fields under optimum growing conditions, or ETc = Kc
times ETo. (2) The ratio of the actual crop evapotranspiration to its
potential evapotranspiration


The amount of water used by the crop in transpiration and building of
plant tissue, and that evaporated from adjacent soil or intercepted by
plant foliage. It is expressed as depth in inches or as volume in acre
inches per acre. It can be daily, peak, design, monthly, or seasonal.
Sometimes referred to as consumptive use (CU).

Crop growth stages

Periods of like plant function during the growing season. Usually four or
more periods are identified: Initial—Between planting or when growth
begins and approximately 10 percent ground cover. Crop development—
Between about 10 percent ground cover and 70 or 80 percent ground
cover. Mid season—From 70 or 80 percent ground cover to beginning of
maturity. Late—From beginning of maturity to harvest.

Crop rooting depth

Crop rooting depth is typically taken as the soil depth containing 80
percent of plant roots, measured in feet or inches.

Crop water stress
index (CWSI)

An index of moisture in a plant compared to a fully watered plant,
measured and calculated by a CWSI instrument. Relative humidity, solar
radiation, ambient air temperature, and plant canopy temperature are
measured. Improperly called an infrared thermometer (plant canopy
temperature is measured by infrared aerial photography).

Crop water use

Calculated or measured water used by plants, expressed in inches per
day. Same as ETc except it is expressed as daily use only.

Cross slope

The rate of change of roadway elevation with respect to the distance
perpendicular to the direction of travel. It is also known as transverse


The aerial expanse of a tree excluding the trunk.

March 2009






Brought about or the increased in strength, by successive additions at
different times or in different ways.

Cumulative intake

The depth of water absorbed by soil from the time of initial water
application to the specified elapsed time.

Cutback irrigation

The reduction of the furrow or border inflow stream after water has
advanced partly or completely through the field to reduce runoff and
improve uniformity of application.

Cutback stream

Reducing surface irrigation inflow stream size (usually a half or a third)
when a specified time period has elapsed or when water has advanced a
designated distance down the furrow, corrugation, or border.

Cutthroat flume

Open-channel waterflow measuring device that is part of a group of
shortthroated flumes that control discharge by achieving critical flow with
curving streamlines through contraction. The flume is rectangular in cross
section, has two main parts resembling a Parshall Flume with the
contracted throat removed or cut out (hence its name), and has a flat
floor throughout. Calibrations depend on laboratory ratings.

Cycle time

The length of water application periods, typically used with surge

Darcy’s law

An empirical law based on experimental evidence for the flow of fluids
assuming the flow is laminar and inertia can be neglected. It states that
the velocity of the flow through a formation is directly proportional to the
hydraulic gradient.

Dead storage

A permanent pool volume located below the outlet structure of a storage
device. Dead storage provides water quality treatment but not water
quantity treatment.

Deep percolation

Water that moves downward through the soil profile below the plant root
zone and is not available for plant use. A major source of ground water
pollution in some areas.

Deficit irrigation

An irrigation water management alternative where the soil in the plant
root zone is not refilled to field capacity in all or part of the field. Delivery
box Water control structure for diverting water from a canal to a farm unit
often including a measuring device. Also called delivery site, delivery
facility, and turnout.

Demand irrigation

Irrigation water delivery procedure where each irrigator may request
irrigation water in the amount needed and at the time desired.

Depth of irrigation

(1) Depth of water applied, measured in acre inches per acre. (2) Depth
of soil affected by an irrigation event.

Design storm

A selected rainfall event of specified amount, intensity, duration and
frequency used as the basis of design.


A temporary storage of storm runoff in a BMP, which is used to control
the peak discharge rates by controlled release rate(s).

Detention facility

A drainage facility designed to hold runoff for a short period of time and
then releasing it to the surface and subsurface runoff management

Detention time

The amount of time a volume of water is detained in a BMP.


March 2009




Direct runoff

The streamflow produced in response to a rainfall event and is equal to
the total stream flow minus its baseflow.


The volume of water that passes a given location within a given period of
time (e.g. outfall; the flow of water from a well, a pump, a pipe, a
drainage basin or an aquifer in m3/s).

Discharge area

An area in which water is lost from the saturated zone.

Discharge structure

The outlet structure of a structural BMP (such as a pond) designed to
release water at a designed flow rate.

Dissolved constituent

Constituents in a water sample that will pass through a 0.45 µm
membrane filter.

Distribution system

A network of open canals or pipelines to distribute irrigation water at a
specific design rate to multiple outlets on a farm or in a community.

uniformity (DU)

The measure of the uniformity of irrigation water distribution over a field.
NRCS typically uses DU of low one-quarter. DU of low one-quarter is the
ratio of the average of the lowest one-fourth of measurements of
irrigation water infiltrated to the average depth of irrigation water
infiltrated, expressed as a decimal. Each value measured represents an
equal area.

Diurnal cycling

Having a period of variation of one day.

Drainage area

The area of a watershed within which all surface runoff drains by gravity
into a stream channel or lake upstream of a given location.

Drainage inlets

The receptors for surface water collected in ditches and gutters, which
serve as a mechanism whereby surface water enters storm drains and this
refers to all types of inlets (such as grate inlets, curb inlets, slotted inlets,

Drainage system

(1) A natural system of streams and/or water bodies by which an area is
drained. (2) An artificial system of land forming, surface and subsurface
drains, related structures, and pumps (if any), by which excess water is
removed from an area.

Drainage techniques

The various physical methods that have been devised to improve the
drainage of an area


The vertical distance where the free water elevation is lowered, or the
reduction of the pressure head due to the removal of free water.

Drip irrigation

A micro irrigation application system wherein water is applied to the soil
surface as drops or small streams through emitters. Discharge rates are
generally less than 2 gallons per hour (8 L/h) for single outlet emitters
and 3 gallons per hour (12 L/h) per meter for line source emitters.

Dry pond

A facility that provides runoff quantity control by containing excess runoff
in a detention basin and then releasing it at allowable levels.

Dry-pit stations

Pump stations that use both wet and dry wells. Runoff is stored in the
wet well, which is connected to the dry well by horizontal suction piping.

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The study of the habits and modes of life-living organisms (such as plants
and animals), and their relationships to each other and their environment.
The runoff pumps are located on the floor of the dry well.

Effective precipitation

The portion of precipitation that is available to meet crop
evapotranspiration. It does not include precipitation that is lost to runoff,
deep percolation, or evaporation before the crop can use it.

Effective rooting

The depth from which roots extract water. The effective rooting depth is
generally the depth from which the crop is currently capable of extracting
soil water. However, it may also be expressed as the depth from which
the crop can extract water when mature or the depth from which a future
crop can extract soil water. Maximum effective root depth depends on the
rooting capability of the plant, soil profile characteristics, and moisture
levels in the soil profile.


Waste material (e.g. liquid industrial discharge or sewage) that may be
discharged into the environment.

Electrical conductivity

A measure of the ability of the soil water to transfer an electrical charge.
Used as an indicator for the estimation of salt concentration, measured in
mmhos/cm (dS/m), at 77 oF (25 oC). ECe = Electrical conductivity of soil
water extract. ECi = Electrical conductivity of irrigation water. ECaw =
Electrical conductivity of applied water.

Electrical resistance

A block made up of various material containing electrical contact wires
that is placed in the soils at selected depths to measure soil moisture
content. Electrical resistance, as affected by moisture in the block, is read
with a meter.

Emergency spillway

The channel of a pond-type BMP, designed to pass a storm event that
exceeds the design capacity of the primary discharge structure.

Emergent plants

Aquatic plants that are rooted in the sediment but whose leaves are at or
above the water surface. These wetland plants often have high habitat
values for wildlife and waterfowl, and can aid in pollutant uptake.


A small micro irrigation dispensing device designed to dissipate pressure
and discharge a small uniform flow or trickle of water at a constant
discharge. Also called a dripper or trickler.

Energy dissipater

Any means by which the total energy of flowing water is reduced. In
runoff design, they are usually mechanisms that reduce velocity prior to,
or at, discharge from an outfall in order to prevent erosion. They include
rock splash pads, drop manholes, concrete stilling basins or baffles, and
check dams.

Energy gradient

A plotted line relating total energy elevations along an open channel or
energy grade line conduit, typically a pressure pipeline. (See Hydraulic
grade line).


To raise ecological value, desirability or attractiveness of an environment
associated with the surface water.


Abundant in nutrients and having high rates of productivity frequently
resulting in oxygen depletion below the surface layer of a waterbody.


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Controlling air temperature and humidity or soil moisture conditions to
minimize effects of low and high air temperatures on crop quality and

Environmental values

Particular values or uses of the environment that are conducive to public
benefit, welfare, safety or health and that require protection from the
effects of pollution, waste discharges and deposits.
environmental values may be designated for a specific waterbody.

Ephemeral stream

A stream which does not flow continuously or flows only for short period
of time.


The wearing of the land surface by water or wind and the subsequent
detachment and transportation of soil particles.

Erosion and sediment

Temporary or permanent measures taken to reduce erosion, control
siltation and sedimentation, ensuring that sediment-laden water does not
leave a site.

Erosive velocities

Velocities of water that are high enough to wear away land surface.
Exposed soil will generally erode faster than stabilised soils. Erosive
velocities will vary according to the soil type, slope, structural or
vegetative stabilisation used to protect the soil.


Enrichment of water with nutrients, primarily phosphorus, causing
abundant aquatic plant growth (mainly algae blooms).


The physical process by which a liquid is transformed to the gaseous
state, which in irrigation generally is restricted to the change of water
from liquid to vapor. Occurs from plant leaf surface, ground surface,
water surface, and sprinkler spray.


The physical process by which a liquid (such as water) in a stream, lake
or moist soil is transformed into a gaseous state. It may be expressed as
the total (or the mean) rate in units of mass (or volume) per unit area or
as an equivalent depth of water for the period concerned.

Evaporation pan

(1) A standard U.S. Weather Bureau Class A pan (48-inch diameter by 10inch deep) used to estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration rate.
Water levels are measured daily in the pan to determine the amount of
evaporation. (2) A pan or container placed at or about crop canopy height
containing water. Water evaporated from the device is measured and
adjusted by a coefficient to represent estimated crop water use during the


The total water vapour loss from an area by evaporation and transpiration
from plants over a given time period. It includes the evaporation of water
from soils, dew and intercepted precipitation, as well as transpiration from
plants. Sometimes called consumptive use (CU).

Event mean
concentration (EMC)

The average concentration of an pollutant measured during a storm
runoff event. The EMC is calculated by flow-weighing each pollutant
sample measured during a storm event.

Excess rainfall

An amount of rainfall greater than what the soil can absorb, resulting in

March 2009





Exchange capacity

The total ionic charge of the absorption complex active in the adsorption
of ions. See Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC).

Exchangeable cation

A positively charged ion held on or near the surface of a solid particle by a
negative surface charge of a colloid and which may be replaced by other
positively charged ions in the soil solution.

Exchangeable sodium

The fraction of cation exchange capacity of a soil occupied by sodium
ions, percentage (ESP) expressed as a percentage. Exchangeable sodium
(meq/100 gram soil) divided by CEC (meq/100 gram soil) times 100. It is
unreliable in soil containing soluble sodium silicate minerals or large
amounts of sodium chloride.


The downward movement of runoff through the bottom of an infiltration
BMP into the soil layer.

Extended detention

A runoff management BMP that provides for the gradual release of a
volume of water over a time interval designed to increase settling of
pollutants and protect downstream channels from frequent flooding.

Faecal coliform

Minute living organisms associated with human or animal faeces that are
used as an indirect indicator of the presence of other disease-causing


Field density test (FDT) is performed to confirm that the fill has been
compacted to a density that meets or exceeds a specified level. If this
level has not been reached, further compaction or other adjustments such
as grain size, change of source of materials, compaction, (static, dynamic,
vibrating) etc will be required in the field. If the compaction criterion has
been reached or exceeded, the fill is acceptable and engineering
performance characteristics such as strength and compressibility are

Feel and appearance

A method to estimate soil moisture by observing and feeling a soil sample
with the hand and fingers. With experience, this method can be accurate.

Field application

The elapsed time from the beginning of water application to the first
(irrigation period) irrigation set to the time at which water application is
terminated on the last irrigation set of a field.

Field capacity

The amount of water retained by a soil after it has been saturated and
has drained freely by gravity. Can be expressed as inches, inches per
inch, bars suction, or percent of total available water.

Field slope, grade

The terms field slope and grade are interchangeable. Surface irrigation
designers typically refer to elevation differences in the direction of water
movement as the irrigation grade. Cross slope refers to the land grade
perpendicular to the direction of irrigation.

Filtration media

The sand, soil or other organic material in a filtration device used to
provide a permeable surface for pollutant and sediment removal.

Final infiltration rate

See Basic intake rate.

Float valve

A valve, actuated by a float that automatically controls the flow of water.


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Relatively high streamflow which overtops the natural or artificial banks in
any part of a stream or river.

Flood irrigation, wild

A surface irrigation system where water is applied to the soil surface
without flow controls, such as furrows, borders (including dikes), or

Flood routing

Determining the rise and fall of floodwater as it progresses downstream.

Flood standard (or
designated flood)

The flood selected for planning purposes. The choice should be based on
an understanding of flood behaviour and the associated flood risk. It
should also take into account social, economic and ecological

Flood storages

Parts of the floodplain that are important for the temporary storage of
floodwaters during the passage of a flood.


The low land adjacent to a waterbody, which is subjected to flooding.


Areas where a significant volume of water flows during floods. They are
often aligned with obvious naturally defined channels. Floodways are
areas, which even if only partially blocked would cause a significant
redistribution of flood flow that may in turn adversely affect other areas.
They are often, but not necessarily the areas of deeper flow or the areas
where higher velocities occur.

Flow divider

An engineered, hydraulic structure designed to divert a percentage of
canal or drainage flow to a field or BMP located out of the primary


(1) Open conduit for conveying water across obstructions. (2) An entire
canal or lateral elevated above natural ground, or an aqueduct. (3) A
specially calibrated structure for measuring open channel flows.

Flushing emitter

A micro irrigation application device designed to have a flushing flow of
water to clear the discharge opening each time the system is turned on.

Foot valve

(1) A check valve used on the bottom of the suction pipe to retain the
water in the pump when it is not in operation. (2) A valve used to prevent


An extra storage area provided near an inlet of a pond BMP to trap
incoming sediment before it accumulates in a pond BMP.


The land between a water body and the dominant ridge line facing the
water body.

Free drainage

Movement of water by gravitational forces through and below the plant
root zone. This water is unavailable for plant use except while passing
through the soil. (See Deep percolation.)


The space from the top of an embankment to the highest water elevation
expected for the largest design storm stored. This space is required as a
safety margin in a pond or basin.

Frost protection

Applying irrigation water to affect air temperature, humidity, and dew
point to protect plant tissue from freezing. The primary source of heat
(called heat of fusion) occurs when water turns to ice, thus protecting
sensitive plant tissue. Wind machines and heating devices are also used.

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Full irrigation

Management of water applications to fully replace water used by plants
over an entire field.


Chemical pesticide that kills fungi or prevents them from causing diseases
on plants.


(1) A trench or channel in the soil made by a tillage tool. (2) Small
channel for conveying irrigation water downslope across the field.
Sometimes referred to as a rill or corrugation.

Furrow dike

Small earth dike formed in a furrow to prevent water translocation.
Typically used with LEPA and LPIC systems. Also used in nonirrigated
fields to capture and infiltrate precipitation. Sometimes called reservoir

Furrow irrigation

A surface irrigation system where water is supplied to small channels or
furrows to guide water downslope and prevent cross flow. Called rill or
corrugation irrigation in some areas.

Furrow stream

The streamflow in a furrow, corrugation, or rill.


A device used to control the flow of water to, from, or in a pipeline or
open channel. It may be opened and closed by screw or slide action
either manually or by electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic actuators. In open
channels, gates slide on rails and are used to control drainage or irrigation

Gated pipe

Portable pipe that has small gates installed at regular intervals along one
side for distributing irrigation water to corrugations, furrows, or borders.


The slope of a land surface, road or channel bottom.

Grass channel

An open vegetated channel used to convey runoff and to provide
treatment by filtering pollutants and sediments.

Grate inlets

Parallel and/or transverse bars arranged to form an inlet structure.

Gravel pack

An artificially-graded filter placed immediately around a well screen so as
to increase the local permeability, to prevent soil particles from entering
the well, and to allow a somewhat larger slot size in the well screen

Gravimetric (oven
dry) method

A method of measuring total soil water content by sampling, weighing,
and drying in a oven at 105oC. Percent water, usually on a dry weight
basis, is calculated.

Gravitational water

Soil water that moves into, through, or out of the soil under the influence
of gravity.

Gross irrigation

Water actually applied, which may or may not be total irrigation water
requirement; i.e., leaving storage in the soil for anticipated rainfall,

Gross irrigation
requirement (Fg)

The total irrigation requirement including net crop requirement plus any
losses incurred in distributing and applying water and in operating the
system. It is generally expressed as depth of water in acre inches per acre
or inches


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Gross irrigation
system capacity

Ability of an irrigation system to deliver the net required rate and volume
of water necessary to meet crop water needs plus any losses during the
application process. Crop water needs can include soil moisture storage
for later plant use, leaching of toxic elements from the soil, air
temperature modification, crop quality, and other plant needs.

Gross pollutant trap

A device used to intercept gross pollutants being transported in runoff.

Gross pollutants

Runoff laden debris typically larger than 3 mm (includes litter and organic


Water in land beneath the soil surface, under conditions where the
pressure in the water is greater than or equal to atmospheric pressure,
and where all the voids are filled with water

Groundwater mound

A round, mound-shaped surface in a water table or other potentiometric
surface that builds up as a result of the downward percolation of water.

Groundwater table

The free surface of the underground water that is frequently subjected to
conditions such as fluctuating atmospheric pressure with the season,
withdrawal rates and restoration rates. Therefore, the groundwater table
is seldom static.

Growing season

The period, often the frost-free period, during which the climate is such
that crops can be produced.

Gypsum block

An electrical resistance block in which the material used to absorb water is
gypsum. It is used to measure soil water content in non-saline soils.


The kind of locality in which animal breeds or plants normally grow. It is
also the geographic distribution or native home of plant or animals.

Head ditch

Ditch across the upper end of a field used for distributing water in surface

Head gate

Water control structure at the entrance to a conduit or canal.


A chemical substance designed to kill or inhibit the growth of plants,
especially weeds. Types include: Contact—A herbicide designed to kill
foliage on contact. Non-selective—A herbicide that destroys or prevents all
plant growth. Post-emergence—A herbicide designed to be applied after a
crop is above the ground. Pre-emergence—A herbicide designed to be
applied before the crop emerges through the soil surface. Selective—A
herbicide that targets specific plants.

Humid climates

Climate characterized by high rainfall and low evaporation potential. A
region generally is considered as humid when precipitation averages more
than 40 inches (1,000 mm) per year.


Rich black or brown material formed from decayed organic matter.


Cross between two different species.


An outlet, usually portable, used for connecting surface irrigation pipe to
an alfalfa valve outlet.

March 2009






The ability of a soil to transmit water flow through it by a unit hydraulic
gradient. It is the coefficient k in Darcy’s Law. Darcy’s Law is used to
express flux density (volume of water flowing through a unit crosssectional area per unit of time). It is usually expressed in length per time
(velocity) units, i.e., cm/s, ft/d. In Darcy’s Law, where V = ki, k is
established for a gradient of one. Sometimes called permeability.


For isotropic porous medium and homogenous fluids. The term refers
the volume of water at the existing kinematic viscosity that will move
unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area measured
right angle to the direction of flow. Replaces the term coefficient

Hydraulic grade line

A plotted line relating operational energy elevations along an open
channel or closed conduit. With open channel (non-pressure) flow, the
HGL is at the water surface. The HGL is the elevation water would rise in
an open stand at a given location along a pressure pipeline. (See Energy
grade line).

Hydraulic grade line

A line coinciding with the level of flowing water in an open channel. In a
closed conduit flowing under pressure, the HGL is the level to which water
would rise in a vertical tube at any point along the pipe. It is equal to the
energy gradeline elevation minus the velocity head, V2/2g.

Hydraulic gradient

Slope of the water or potentiometric surface. The change in static head
per unit of distance in a given direction. If not specified, the direction
generally is understood to be the maximum rate of decrease in head.

Hydraulic head

The height above a datum plane (such as sea level) of the column of
water that can be supported by the hydraulic pressure at a given point in
a groundwater system. For a well, the hydraulic head is equal to the
distance between the water level in the well and the datum plane.

Hydraulic jump

A flow discontinuity, which occurs at an abrupt transition from subcritical
to supercritical flow.

Hydraulic radius

This is the ratio of cross sectional area of the flow to the wetted
perimeter. For a circular pipe flowing full, the hydraulic radius is onefourth of the diameter. For a wide rectangular channel, the hydraulic
radius is approximately equal to the flow depth.

Hydraulic ram

Device that uses the energy of flowing water to lift a portion of the flow
to a higher elevation or greater pressure.


The study of water flow; in particular the evaluation of flow parameters
such as stage and velocity in a river or stream.


The science that deals with subsurface waters and related geologic
aspects of surface waters. Also used in the more restricted sense of
groundwater geology.


A graph showing stage, flow, velocity, or other characteristics of water
with respect to time. A stream hydrograph commonly shows rate of flow;
a groundwater hydrograph shows the water level or head.



March 2009

Infiltration rate The rate at which a soil under specified conditions absorbs falling rain. It is also expressed as the relationship between evaporation. draughts and other water resources aspects.Volume 5 . Hydroplanning Separation of the vehicle tire from the roadway surface due to a film of water on the roadway surface. patios. aquifer. melting snow. walkways. Hydrology The study of the rainfall and runoff process and relates to the derivation of hydrographs for given floods. storage areas. Hydroperiod A seasonal occurrence of flooding and/or soil saturation. frequency. and/or causes water to run off the surface in greater quantities or at an increased rate of flow compared to the present flow under natural conditions. Hydrologic budget (Balance) An account of the inflow to. then percolating that runoff into the surrounding soil. Impervious surface A hard surface area. Infiltration capacity The maximum or limiting infiltration rate. duration and seasonal pattern of inundation. gravel roads. (endemic). inches per hour). Infiltration depends heavily on the vegetative cover of the soil surface. concrete or asphalt paving. Water infiltrates into the soil profile and percolates through it. or surface water expressed in depth of water per unit time (centimetres per second. dam or dike. The infiltration capacity is expressed in terms of mm/hr. packed earthen materials and oiled macadam. Infiltration The downward movement of water from the soil surface at ground level into the underlying subsoil. which either prevents or retards the entry of water into the soil mantle under natural conditions. Impoundment The body of water retained by a berm. It encompasses depth. country etc. while permeability depends on the soil texture and compaction. evaporation and infiltration. These losses include water retained in surface depressions. Impermeable A condition where a material is incapable of transmitting significant quantities of water under pressure differences. outflow from and storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin. soil zone. precipitation. Common impervious areas include (but are not limited to) rooftops. driveways.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Hydrologic abstractions Losses of rainfall that do not contribute to direct runoff. parking lots. Indigenous Native to. belonging naturally to a particular area. Imperviousness The percentage of impervious cover within a defined area. March 2009 xxiii . water intercepted by vegetation. lake. Hydrologic equation The equation that balances the hydrologic budget. Infiltration basin A facility that provides runoff quantity control by containing excess runoff in a detention facility. runoff and the change in water storage by the hydrologic equation. or reservoir. prior to development.

Irrigating stream (1) Flow for irrigation of a particular tract of land. used for crossing under a depression. Invert The lowest point on the inside of a culvert or pipe. normally expressed as a rate or volume. Sometimes called sag pipe. The rate of water infiltrated versus time is observed and plotted. decayed-root holes. Intake rate The rate at which irrigation water enters the soil at the surface. The infiltration process in borders differs from that in furrows. Invasive exotic plants Non-native plants having the capacity to compete and proliferate in introduced environments. Irrecoverable water loss Water loss that becomes unavailable for reuse through evaporation. Expressed in inches per hour. Intake family A grouping of intake characteristics into families based on field infiltrometer tests on many soils. The rate at which water enters soil is called intake rate or infiltration rate. Sometimes called irrigating head. or ground-water recharge that is not economically recoverable. Infiltrometer A device for determining the intake rate of soil. (See infiltration. suitable soils. Water infiltrated by the soil in the test section (typically 10 meters) is replaced with water from a reservoir to keep the flow rate constant. usually localized.Volume 5 . An equation (typically for a curvilinear line) then represents the intake characteristics for that particular soil condition. principally based on availability of water. Irrigable area Area capable of being irrigated. Used to analyze and design border and furrow irrigation systems. xxiv March 2009 . Water enters the soil through pores.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Infiltration. cracks. Instantaneous application rates of over 30 inches per hour have been measured near the ends of low pressure center pivot irrigation laterals. Instantaneous application rate The maximum rate. Expressed as inches per hour. Intake family curves are unitless and do not represent the average infiltration rate. that a sprinkler application device applies water to the soil. Initial intake Depth of water absorbed by a soil during the period of rapid or comparatively rapid intake following initial application. (2) Flow of water distributed at a single irrigation. and topography of land. expressed in inches per hour. Accumulated infiltration versus time is also plotted. Intake family curve A set of accumulated intake versus time curves grouped into families intake characteristic curve having similar border or furrow intake characteristics. Inlet A form of connection between the surface of a ground and a drain or sewer for the admission of surface and runoff runoff. and cavities introduced by tillage. infiltration rate The downward flow of water into the soil at the air-soil interface. thus each irrigation system has a different set of intake family curves.) Interception That part of precipitation or sprinkler irrigation system applied water caught on the vegetation and prevented from reaching the soil surface. wormholes. phreatophyte transpiration. Inverted siphon A closed conduit with end sections above the middle section. under a highway or other obstruction.

and meeting other plant needs. company A cooperative. Irrigation frequency. interval The time. Sometimes called irrigation grade. plus other needs. turnout structures) and management used to apply irrigation water by an irrigation method. improving crop quality. self-governing semipublic organization set up as a subdivision of a state or local government to deliver irrigation water. after considerations are made for effective precipitation. private group. ditches. micro. and subirrigation. pipelines. generally in days. typically refilling the plant root zone to field capacity minus expected rainfall. siphon tubes. gates. (2) A plastic or canvas tarp dam placed in a field ditch to raise the water level in the ditch for diversion onto a field. March 2009 xxv . expressed as a percentage. or other such uses.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Irrigation Applying water to the land for growing crops. Irrigation method One of four irrigation methods used to apply irrigation water: surface. (IWM) humidity) to optimize water use by the plant. Irrigation water requirement The calculated amount of water needed to replace soil water used by the crop (soil water deficit). temperature modification. leaching requirement for salinity control. Irrigation scheduling Determining when to irrigate and how much water to apply. All properly designed and managed irrigation systems have the potential to uniformly apply water across a field. Irrigation efficiency The ratio of the average depth of irrigation water beneficially used to the average depth applied. Irrigation slope Elevation difference along the direction of irrigation expressed as. sprinkle. for leaching undesirable elements through and below the plant root zone.Volume 5 . or commercial enterprise set up to deliver irrigation water. valves. Beneficial uses include satisfying the soil water deficit. Irrigation district. Irrigation check (1) Small dike or dam used in the furrow or alongside an irrigation border to make the water spread evenly across the border. between irrigation events. nozzles. or seasonal irrigation efficiency. Generally used to express overall field or farm efficiency. Usually considered the maximum allowable time between irrigation’s during the peak ET period. based upon measurements or estimates of soil moisture or crop water used by the plant. a percentage. Irrigation set The area irrigated at one time within a field. Irrigation system Physical components (pumps. reclaiming soils. Soil and plant resources must also be considered. One or more irrigation systems can be used to apply water by each irrigation method. applied irrigation water. Irrigation water management Managing water resources (precipitation. Irrigation set time The amount of time required to apply a specific amount of water during irrigation period one irrigation to a given area. Irrigation company A semi-public.

(See Leaching requirement. when rain dissolve the nutrients and are carried away). typically the edge of the field. gravels.1. The soil strength of four days socked CBR is generally varies from 4. Leaching The loss of nutrients from the existing ground (i. The purpose of level spreaders is to prevent concentrated and erosive flows from occurring. A proper borrow pit with higher CBR value can be selected for laterite road. as day 365 (leap year day 366). corrugation.845 (as seen in Jalan Pintas Rawang. good soil condition. Furrow dikes. and plant management regime where precision down-in-crop application (LEPA) applications of water are made on the soil surface at the point of use. Level Spreader A device used to spread out runoff runoff uniformly over the ground surface as sheet flows (not through channels).Volume 5 . Generally limited to circular plantings on less than 1 percent slopes and no translocation of applied water. Land levelling.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Julian day. Kuala Lumpur). Low energy precision A water. Sometimes called deficit or stress irrigation. Laterite Laterite is the suitable material for earth roads. as it can be used in all seasons of the year.e. There are possibilities that chemical fertilisers leached from the ground are able to pollute streams and other water sources. It is a mixture of soil particles. Application devices are located in the crop canopy on drop tubes mounted on low pressure center pivot and linear move sprinkler irrigation systems. Limited irrigation Management of irrigation applications to apply less water than needed to satisfy the soil water deficit in the entire root zone. Kinematic wave A method of mathematical analysis of unsteady open channel flow in which the dynamic terms are omitted because they are small and assumed to be negligible. (2) The fraction of water from irrigation or rainfall required to pass through the soil to prevent salt accumulation in the plant root zone and sustain production. thus enhancing infiltration.) Length of run The distance down the furrow.738 with a standard deviation of 17. precision land levelling Laser controlled levelling Land levelling or grading in which a stationary laser transmitter and a laser or grading receiving unit mounted on each earthmoving machine are used for automated grade control. and crop residue are usually required to control water translocation. or a porous wall along a micro irrigation lateral. emitters.) Leaching requirement (1) The amount of irrigation water required to pass through the plant root zone to reduce the salt concentration in the soil for reclamation purposes. or border to the planned end of irrigation. soil. day of year Sequential numbering of days starting January 1 as day one and continuing until the end of the year. (See Leaching fraction. xxvi March 2009 . Leaching fraction The ratio of the depth of subsurface drainage water (deep percolation) to the depth of infiltrated irrigation water. the average is 17. and other hard particles.0 to 62. land grading Shaping the surface of the soil to planned elevations and grades. Line-source emitter Water is discharged from closely spaced perforations. Laterite covered road surface can be classified as all weathered roads.

Application devices are located in the crop canopy with drop tubes mounted on low pressure center pivot and linear move sprinkler irrigation systems. for measuring the quantity. pressure regulators and sprinkler nozzles. Their operation is based on critical flow occurring in a contracted throat. the specific management measures which are to apply and the means and timing by which the plan will be implemented. Flumes with bottom-only contractions are traditionally referred to as a type of broad-crested weir. Mathematical (Computer) models The mathematical representation of physical processes (e. problems. both written and diagrammatic information describing how a particular area of land is to be used and managed to achieve defined objectives. It is equal to the ratio of the standard deviation of the discharge to the mean discharge of the emitters. March 2009 xxvii . This allows accurate calibration by computational methods. usually undisturbed and in situ. and size) of micro irrigation emitters. Lysimeter An isolated block of soil. Long-path emitter Employs a long capillary sized tube or channel to dissipate pressure and discharge water in discrete droplets or seeps. The name usually refers to devices with contractions from the channel sides or from both the sides and bottom. Manufacturer’s coefficient A measure of the variability of discharge of a random sample (of a given of variation make. as produced by the manufacturer and before any field operation or aging has taken place. Major storm A precipitation event that is higher than the typical largest rainfall for a year. rainfall and runoff. Management allowed The planned soil moisture deficit at the time of irrigation.Volume 5 . Limited water translocation within the field and some minor nonuniformity of water application usually exists. as appropriate.g. especially of a waterbody. having three to five main sections.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Long throated flume Open-channel flow measuring devices of various cross-sections. which is designed to carry low runoff flows and/or baseflow directly to the outlet without detention. It may also include description and discussion of various issues. model. or rate of water movement through or from the soil. but are hydraulically the same as longthroated flumes. quality. Management plan A document including. that is long enough to produce nearly parallel flow streamlines. It can be depletion (MAD) expressed as the percentage of available soil water capacity or as the depth of water that has been depleted from the root zone. with parallel walls and level floor. and plant management regime as required in LEPA. or mobilisation and transport of pollutants by runoff). Low pressure in canopy (LPIC) A low pressure in-canopy system that may or may not include a complete water. soil. These models usually run on computers due to the complexity of the mathematical relationships. Lowflow channel An incised or paved channel from the inlet to the outlet in a dry basin. Sometimes called allowable soil depletion. special features and values of the area. Macrophyte A member of the macroscopic plant life.

whereas consolidation is the reduction of total voids (mostly driving out water from the pore spaces). The optimum moisture content is the water content at which the highest dry density was achieved with a specified amount of compaction. Matric potential results from capillary and adsorption forces. xxviii March 2009 . or miniature spray through emitters or applicators placed along a water delivery line. Maximum application rate The maximum discharge. with the peak indicating the OMC and MDD. Multi-outlet emitter Supplies water to two or more points through small diameter auxiliary tubing. Moisture stake See Tensiometer. The compaction study of a soil typically forms a bell shaped graph. the voids within the soil matrix with water.Volume 5 . Nappe Sheet or curtain of unsubmerged water flowing from a structure. such as a weir or dam. The micro irrigation method encompasses a number of systems or concepts. line source. trickle. and not solids. It also provides nutrients and helps to open soil texture. thus reducing the dry density of the soil. or spray. in inches per hour.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Matric potential Matric potential is a dynamic soil property and will be near zero for a saturated soil. This potential was formerly called capillary potential or capillary water. Multi-stage pump A pump having more than one impeller mounted on a single shaft. Moisture deficit The difference between actual soil moisture and soil moisture held in the soil moisture depletion soil at the field capacity. Mixed-flow pump A centrifugal pump in which the pressure is developed partly by centrifugal force and partly by the lifting action of the impellers in the water. such as bubbler. Mean depth The average depth described as the cross-sectional area of the inundated channel divided by its surface width. Micro irrigation The frequent application of small quantities of water as drops. MDD and OMC Maximum dry density (MDD) and Optimum moisture content (OMC) are good references for earthwork operations. by adding more water. Naturalise The establishment of plants in a manner as though they are of wild species. Microclimate Atmospheric conditions within or near a crop canopy. The water within a soil aids in the lubrication of the particles to enable closer packing and helps fill the air voids. Adding water to a dry soil helps to pack the solids closer together but at some point. mist. drip. Mulch Organic material spread on soil to aid moisture retention and prevent weed growth. tiny streams. at which sprinklers can apply water without causing significant translocation. Compaction is the reduction of air voids.

cooling. Net positive suction head The head that causes liquid to flow through the suction piping and enter (NPSH) the eye of the pump impeller. The available NPSH must equal or exceed the required NPSH or cavitation occurs. Net irrigation water requirement The depth of water. It must be supplied by the manufacturer. Electronic count of the returning slow speed neutrons (or reflected). training and licensing for personnel using the gauge and for storage are required. A flow splitter is used to divert runoff from the channel and into the BMP for treatment. March 2009 xxix . cooling plant foliage and fruit. Required NPSH is a function of the pump design and varies with the capacity and speed of the pump. which are carried to surface waterbodies by runoff. to measure in situ neutron scattering device soil moisture.Volume 5 . Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution Pollution caused by sediment.0 mmhos/cm and an exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) greater than 15. that is required for meeting crop evapotranspiration for crop production and other related uses. stored soil moisture. and deep percolation. frost protection. such as evaporation. Commonly called black alkali or slick spots. Such uses may include water required for leaching. Non-saline sodic soil A soil containing soluble salts that provide an electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe) less than 4.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Net irrigation The actual amount of applied irrigation water stored in the soil for plant use or moved through the soil for leaching salts. Off-site Any area lying upstream of the site that drains onto the site and any area lying downstream of the site. data collection is time consuming. Available NPSH is a function of the system in which the pump operates and represents the energy level in the water over vapor pressure at the pump inlet. frost control. the neutron moisture gauge is probably the most accurate and repeatable method to measure soil moisture. primarily affected by hydrogen atoms in the soil. Neutron gauge. Off-line BMP A BMP system that is located outside of the stream channel or drainage path. Application losses. i. used primarily by researchers.. exclusive of effective precipitation.e. and chemigation. When properly calibrated and used. organic and toxic substances originating from land-use activities and/or from the atmosphere. runoff. neutron probe A nondestructive method. Also includes water applied for crop quality and temperature modification. are not included. The equipment is expensive. Nutrient management Managing the application rate and timing of fertilizers to optimize crop use and reduce potential pollution of ground and surface water. or ground water. High speed neutrons are emitted from the radioactive source. Observation well A test well installed in an infiltration BMP to monitor draining times and sediment accumulation after installation. Generally measured in inches of water depth applied. Nutrient A substance necessary for the growth of organisms. is calibrated to represent total soil-water content. Off-line A runoff management system designed to manage a storm event by diverting a percentage of runoff events from a stream or storm drainage system. nutrients. NPS pollution occurs when the rate at which these materials entering waterbodies exceeds natural levels.

river. and relief gates to discharge irrigation water in case of ditch or structure failure. Pathogen An organism capable of eliciting disease symptoms in another. The flume is used for measuring water flow rates with very small total head loss (also see venturi flume). lake. Parameter A measurable (or quantifiable) characteristic (or feature). or more generally. Overflow rate Detention basin release rate divided by the surface area of the basin. Orifice emitter A micro irrigation system application device employing a series of orifices to dissipate pressure. tidewater or artificial drain.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description On-line A runoff management system designed to manage runoff in its original stream or drainage channel. anything capable of carrying on life processes. Outlet Point of water disposal of a stream. Overtopping To flow over the limits of a containment or conveyance element. Pan coefficient A factor to relate actual evapotranspiration of a crop to the rate water evaporates from a free water surface in a shallow pan. Parshall flume Open-channel water flow measuring devices which are a part of a group of short-throated flumes that control discharge by achieving critical flow with curving streamlines in a contracted throat section. Oxidation The combination of oxygen with a substance.Volume 5 . Operational spills Planned or emergency spills made along or at the end of an open ditch (lateral) in a community irrigation water delivery system. to allow turnouts to be opened and closed without precision management of lateral flow rates. xxx March 2009 . but the floor slopes downward in the direction of flow then rises again in a diverging side wall section. Calibrations are based on laboratory ratings. any reaction in which an atom loses electrons. Oxygenation The process of adding dissolved oxygen to a solution. wall. The sidewallls of the throat section are parallel. or partition through which water may flow. or the removal of hydrogen from it. Generally used for the purpose of measurement or flow control. Typically planned and emergency spill structures discharge water into a natural watercourse or protected channel. Outfall The point or structure of a conduit discharging to a waterbody. Organism Any living animal or plant. Emergency spill structures include overflow structures to discharge precipitation runoff water that has entered an irrigation water delivery system. It can be thought of as an average flow rate through the basin. Orifice An opening with closed perimeter usually sharp-edged and of regular form in a plate. The coefficient usually changes by crop growth stage. Ten critical edges and surfaces must be met for construction of an accurate Parshall flume. Opportunity time The time that water inundates the soil surface with opportunity to infiltrate. Overhead irrigation See Sprinkler irrigation. Planned spills include the discharge of administrative or carry through water carried in laterals.

and fungicides. The degree of permeability depends upon the size and shape of the openings and the extent of the interconnections of the material. Phreatophyte transpiration Transpiration from water loving vegetation along streams and water bodies. liquids. on a dry weight basis. soil moisture tension is used to estimate PWP. Perennial Plant that grow for more than two years. Pest management Management to control undesirable plants. the specific soil property designating the rate at which gases and liquids can flow through the soil or porous media. relative humidity. except for the movement through large openings such as caves. The percolation rate is governed by the permeability or hydraulic conductivity of the soil. or degrading to crop quantity and quality. Peak use rate The maximum rate at which a crop uses water. March 2009 xxxi . i.Volume 5 . or plant roots penetrate or pass through a layer of soil (2) Quantitatively. pH Value taken to represent the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Phreatophyte vegetation may be a highly valuable food source and habitat for fish and wildlife.. inches per day. annoying. Permanent wilting point (PWP) The moisture percentage. herbicides. Percolation Movement of the water through the soil profile. or bacteria that are troublesome. inches per week. Pesticide A substance or mixture of substances used to eliminate unwanted species of plants or animals. Classically. Percolation rate The rate expressed as either velocity or volume per unit of time at which water percolates through a porous medium. Includes insecticides. Sometimes commonly called peak period CU (consumptive use). generally considered a loss for irrigation purposes. 15 atmosphere (15 bars) or 1. It is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion acidity of the solution. Permeability (1) Qualitatively. Penman-Monteith Method A (radiation and advection) method used to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) using current climatic data including air temperature.e. and solar radiation. the ease with which gases. Percolation The movement under hydrostatic pressure of water through the interstices of rock or soil. fungi. wind speed. Plants will not fully recover when water is added to the crop root zone once permanent wilting point has been experienced. measured in inches (acre inches per acre) per unit time.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Peak discharge The maximum flow for a given hydrologic event at a specified location. Peak period ET The average daily evapotranspiration rate for a crop during the peak water use period. Point source A distinct. animals. identifiable source of pollutants. at which plants can no longer obtain sufficient moisture from the soil to satisfy water requirements. inches per month.5 mPa. Pervious Allowing for the passage of water. Both terms are used to describe the ease with which soil transmits water.

operational spills. ditch and canal leakage. For a fuller explanation. runoff. see Annual Exceedance Probability. grit. Pre-treatment may include screening. such as crop ET. xxxii March 2009 . Preferred term is reference evapotranspiration. Reach The smallest portion of a drainage system consisting of a uniform shape. Care should be used in determining which factors are used. annual maintenance costs over an 80 year period). or as the ratio of the water power to the brake power Pumping test A field test to find the hydraulic characteristics of an aquifer. Porous pavement An alternative to conventional pavement whereby runoff is diverted through a porous asphalt layer or manufactured pavement grid into an underground stone reservoir. grease and scum from flows prior to physical. Pump efficiency The hydraulic efficiency of a pump. salinity control. runoff and oil separators. Rainfall management Managing soil. Present value The current worth of a regular series of payments over a defined period (e. phreatophyte use. and plant resources to optimize use of rainfall. Potential evapotranspiration The maximum evapotranspiration that will occur when water is not (ETo) limiting. it is for either well watered short grass or alfalfa. the stored runoff gradually infiltrates into the subsoil. In some methods of computing evapotranspiration. wetlands use. cross-section and slope. and open water evaporation. environmental control. grit removal. When used as reference crop evapotranspiration. Project efficiency (Ep) The overall efficiency of irrigation water use in a project setting that accounts for all water uses and losses. Thus. Post-development peak runoff Maximum instantaneous rate of flow during a storm after a land conversion or development is completed.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Pollinate To apply pollen to the stigma or receptive surface of the female organ (of plants). deep percolation. existing technology and logistics in light of the overall project purposes.g. it is measured as evaporation of water from a free surface. Pre-treatment The removal of material such as gross solids. biological or chemical treatment processes to improve treatability.Volume 5 . water. Practicable The availability and capability of performing a certain task or tasks after taking into the consideration of costs. based on the analysis of the drawdown of the watertable in the vicinity of a pumped well during pumping Rainfall intensity The rate at which precipitation occurs at a given instant. Receiving waters Bodies of water or surface water systems receiving water from man-made (or natural) upstream streams. expressed as the ratio of energy converted into useful work to the energy applied to the pump shaft. Probability A statistical measure of the expected frequency or occurrence of flooding.

activities or catastrophic events. which is level. A route that is lawful to use. the same surface can be oriented in any position parallel to the direction of flow. Natural recharge occurs without assistance or enhancement by man. March 2009 xxxiii . Reference crop The evapotranspiration from thick. Right-of-way Right of passage. Retention A drainage facility designed to hold water for a considerable length of time to be lost by evaporation. Sometimes called tailwater reuse facilities or pumpback facilities. plant transpiration and/or infiltration into the ground. Relative humidity The ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere to the amount required for saturation at the same dry bulb temperature. Very little head loss is required to accurately measure water flow rate. Release rate The rate of discharge in volume per unit time from a detention facility. infiltration or emergency bypass. Retention The holding of runoff in a basin without release except through means of evaporation. for measuring water flow rates. Rectangular weir Typically a sharp crested weir that is rectangular. or channel that slopes in the direction opposite to the prevalent or desired grade. Artificial recharge occurs when the natural recharge pattern is modified deliberately to increase recharge. Replogle flume. 2year-old alfalfa. A strip of land acquired for transport or utility construction. as over another’s property.Volume 5 . streams and other sources. Reverse grade A slope or grade on a field surface. Retrofitting The renovation of an existing structure or facility to meet changed conditions or to improve performance. ramp flume A modified broad crested weir located in a short flume. With closed pipeline flowing full. ETr is used for 8. well maintained grass (or evapotranspiration alfalfa) that does not suffer any water stress.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Recharge Replenishment of groundwater by downward infiltration of water from rainfall. healthy. 12-inch-high. The reference crop is used to represent the water use of a standard crop in that environment even though that crop may not be physically grown in the area. (2) Pertaining to the banks of a body of water. and reservoirs to collect and reuse facilities convey surface or subsurface runoff from an irrigated field for reuse. ETo is generally used when referring to clipped (2 to 5 inches high) grass as the reference crop. (3) A riparian water right is the right to use and control water by virtue of ownership of the banks. Riparian (1) Typically that area of flowing streams that lies between the normal water line and some defined high water line. there is one critical surface. a riparian owner is one who owns the banks. lined ditch or pipeline that causes a drop in the hydraulic grade line. With open channel flow. Restoration The reestablishment of wetland functional characteristics and processes to previously defined wetlands that have been lost through alterations. pump(s). Return-flow facilities A system of ditches. crop row.

and precipitation.e. Runoff loss Surface water leaving a field or farm. Estimates of risk may be expressed in absolute or relative terms. extending from the barrel to the water surface. i. Safety bench (berm) A flat area above the permanent pool and surrounding a pond designed to provide a separation to adjacent slopes. sensitive plants are affected at half this salinity. and highly tolerant ones at about twice this salinity. which often coincides with the maximum water surface elevation of the 100 year storm. and occasionally some nitrate. constructed pools that capture runoff and allow for the growth of characteristic wetland vegetation. lakes or tidewater. Riprap A facing layer or protective mound of stones placed to prevent erosion or sloughing of a structure or embankment due to the flow of surface and runoff runoff. to protect earth surfaces from the action of waves. Rotational delivery system A management technique used for community irrigation water delivery systems in which water deliveries are rotated among water users often at a frequency determined by water supply availability rather than crop water need. sulfate. Saline soil A non-sodic soil containing sufficient soluble salts to impair its productivity for growing most crops. This method of managing water deliveries results in some of the lowest on-farm irrigation water application efficiencies. Actually. Row grade The slope in the direction of crop rows. Root zone Depth of soil that plant roots readily penetrate and in which the predominant root activity occurs. Runoff A portion of rainfall which ends up as streamflow. or similar embankments.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Riparian Pertaining to the banks of streams. The principal ions are chloride. resulting from surface irrigation tailwater.. also known as rainfall excess. Risk A statistical concept defined as the expected frequency or probability of undesirable effects resulting from a specified exposure to known or potential environmental concentrations of a material. overirrigation. wetlands. xxxiv March 2009 . Rip-rap Broken stones or boulders placed compactly or irregularly on dams. Absolute risk is the excess risk due to exposure. applying water with sprinklers at a rate greater than soil infiltration and surface storage. Preferred term is plant root zone. The electrical conductivity (ECe) of the saturation extract is greater than 4 mmhos/cm. levees. current. A material is considered safe if the risks associated with its exposure are judged to be acceptable. small amounts of bicarbonate. and flowing water Riser The vertical portion of an inlet to a conduit. Relative risk is the ratio of the risk in an exposed population to the risk in an unexposed population. dikes. A relatively narrow strip of land that borders a stream or river. and at the downstream end of structures.Volume 5 . Runoff wetlands Shallow. non-sodic. and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) is less than 15.

but intermediate between the two conditions.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Saline water Water containing more than 10. Settleable solids Suspended solids in runoff that separate by settling when the runoff is held in a quiescent condition for a specified time. It is difficult to leach because the clay colloids are dispersed. Shrub Plant with many woody stems. which flows over the ground surface as a thin. Both ends must be under water. Salinity The concentration of dissolved mineral salt in water and soil on a unit volume or weight basis. Saturated zone Part of a water-bearing material in which all voids. A region is usually considered as semiarid when precipitation averages between 10 inches (250 mm) and 20 inches (500 mm) per year. Short circuiting The passage of runoff through a BMP in less than the theoretical or design treatment time. are ideally filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. even and unconcentrated layer in a channel. See chapter 16 for complete definitions and conversions for English to metric and metric to English units. Sheet flow Runoff. Saturation To fill all (100%) voids between soil particles with water. Semiarid climate Climate characterized as neither entirely arid nor humid. Water emerging from the ground along an extensive line or surface as contrasted with a spring where the water emerges from a localized spot. It generally has end sections below the middle section.000 mg/l of dissolved solids. leakage 1. canals. Units for all other mechanical quantities are derived from these basic units. Seepage. Water escaping below or out from water conveyance facilities. Sediment Mineral and organic soil material that is transported in suspension by wind or water flow from its origin to another location. Satiation To fill most voids between soil particles with water. or the lower end must be closed to prime siphon. The exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) is greater than or equal to 15. CGPM. Saline-sodic soil Soil containing both sufficient soluble salts and exchangeable sodium to interfere with the growth of most crops. A vacuum pump is commonly used to remove air and keep the siphon primed. The upstream end must be under the water surface. and waterways. both large and small.Volume 5 . Simulation The representation of a physical system by a device such as a computer or a model that imitates Siphon A closed conduit used to convey water across localized minor elevation raises in grade. March 2009 xxxv . SI units An international metric system developed by General Conference on International System of Units Weights and Measures. natural channels. This system provides for an established single unit that applies for each physical quantity. and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe) is greater than 4 mmhos/cm. May be harmful or nonharmful for the intended use of the water. seepage loss. 2. the main ones rising from near the base. such as open ditches.

Soil organic matter Organic fraction of the soil. Soil aeration Process by which air and other gases enter the soil or are exchanged.4 . increase in bulk density. Soil compaction Consolidation. The sodium adsorption ratio of a water adjusted for the precipitation or adjusted dissolution of Ca2+ and Mg2+ that is expected to occur where a water reacts with alkaline earth carbonates within a soil. Slope A ratio of run (horizontal) to rise (vertical). fertility. tillage. where pHc is the theoretical calculation of the pH of water in contact with lime and in equilibrium with soil CO2. Soil condition The physical condition of the soil related to farmability. xxxvi March 2009 . reduction in porosity. and biological properties or characteristics. it is obtained by multiplying the sodium adsorption ratio by the value (1 + 8. Soil groups The great soil group system is one system that can be used to classify soils. light-weight. Soil crusting Compaction of the soil surface by droplet impact from sprinkle irrigation and precipitation. low organic matter soils tend to crust more readily than other soils. The grouping depends on the presence and type of morphological features observed in the field. and collapse of the soil structure when subjected to surface loads or the downward and shearing action of tillage implement surfaces.Volume 5 . Slide gate See Gate. selection of these features and the weighting they receive based on the concepts of soil genesis. Slotted inlets A section of pipe cut along the longitudinal axis with transverse bars spaced drainage form slots. organic matter content.pHc*). Sodic soil A non-saline soil containing sufficient exchangeable sodium to affect crop production and soil structure (including soil intake) under most conditions of soil and plant growth. Soil moisture tension See soil water tension. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) A relation between soluble sodium and soluble divalent cations that can be used to predict the exchangeable sodium percentage of soil equilibrated with a given solution. The tube is typically between 1 and 4 inches in diameter 4 to 6 feet long. The lower limit of the saturation extract exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of such soils is conventionally set at 15. chemical. curved tube used to convey water over ditchbanks to irrigate furrows or borders. structure. Soil moisture Water or moisture contained in the soil mantle. including plant and animal residue in various stages of decomposition. water movement. and substances synthesized by the soil population. crop growth. cells and tissues of soil organisms. and biological activity. medium textured.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Siphon tube Relatively short. Soil density Same as Bulk density. water intake. Well graded. Soil horizon A layer of soil differing from adjacent genetically related layers in physical. root development. Numerically.

blocky. Principal types of soil structure are platy. tensiometers. March 2009 xxxvii . and clay present in the soil. Soil sealing The orientation and consolidation of soil particles in the intermediate surface layer of soil so that it becomes almost impermeable to water. constructing roofs over storage and working areas. Soil stabilisation The use of measures such as rock lining. It is the force per unit area that must be exerted to remove water from the soil and is usually measured in bars. and directing wash water and similar discharges to the sanitary sewer or a dead end sump. Soil texture Classification of soil by the relative proportions of sand. prismatic. including all pore space filled with air and water. The energy is generally in a waveband width of 0. Total soil-water potential consists of osmotic potential. See Soilwater tension and Matric potential. Net Rs is incoming minus reflected radiation from a surface. units. thermal dissipation blocks. USDA uses 12 textural classes. granular. or atmospheres. electrical resistance blocks. It is measured in inches of water.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Soil porosity The percentage of the soil (or rock) volume that is not occupied by solid particles. or peds that make up the soil mass. soil moisture All water stored in the soil. It is a measure of the effort required by plant roots to extract water from the soil. System of soil taxonomy. Soil profile Vertical section of the soil from the surface through all its horizons. Soil-water content The water content of a given volume of soil. Soil series The lowest category of U. vegetation or other engineering structures to prevent the movement of soil when loads are applied. Solar radiation (Rs) Radiation from the sun that passes through the atmosphere and reaches the combined crop and soil surface. Soil structure The combination or arrangement of primary soil particles into secondary particles. A few examples of source control BMPs are erosion control practices.Volume 5 . free water. Source control BMP BMP that is intended to prevent pollutants from entering the runoff. and matric potential. columnar.1 to 5 microns. It is determined by: gravimetric sampling and oven drying field samples (to a standard 105 o C). silt. time domain (TDR) and frequency domain reflectrometry (FDR) devices commonly called RF capacitance probes. Soil water. neutron moisture probes.S. See Water holding capacity. Soil-water deficit or depletion Amount of water required to raise the soil-water content of the crop root zone to field capacity. A conceptualized class of soil bodies having similar characteristics and arrangement in the soil profile. and massive. Soil-water potential Expresses the potential energy status of soil water relative to conditions associated with pure. These secondary units may be arranged in the soil profile in such a manner as to give a distinctive characteristic pattern. Measurements are made using a tensiometer in the field (limited to 1 atmos) and a pressure plate apparatus in the laboratory. gravitational potential. and feel and appearance methods. maintenance of runoff facilities. Soil-water tension A measure of the tenacity with which water is retained in the soil.

Sprinkler irrigation Facility used to distribute water by the sprinkle irrigation method. used to convey excess water from a reservoir. The high cost of replacement has caused an alternative solution. or hose placed through ditchbanks to transfer water from an irrigation ditch to a field.e. Spillway A passage (such as a paved apron or channel) for surplus water over or around a dam or similar obstruction. (See Head. (used with sprinkler and micro irrigation methods). Static head The potential energy resulting from elevation differences. It buffers waves or surges while permitting the water level within the well to rise and fall with major fluctuations of the main water body. An open or closed channel. a group of individual plants resembling each other by a combination of constant characteristics with inter-breeding possible within the species but generally not between species. for distributing water under pressure through the air. It may contain gates. Spreading.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Species The basic unit of biological classification. either manually or automatically controlled to regulate the discharge of excess water. artificial recharge and replenishment all refer to operations used to place water in a groundwater basin. Sprinkler head A nozzle or device. Used with water measuring devices to improve accuracy of measurement. See Sprinkler irrigation system. Storage coefficient The volume of water an aquifer releases from or takes into storage.) Steady flow Flow that remains constant with respect to time. Spreading water Discharging native or imported water to a permeable area for the purpose of encouraging it to percolate to the saturated zone. xxxviii March 2009 . Sprinkler systems are defined in the following general categories: Stabilizer The stabilization of soft soil of low bearing capacity is an economical. ecological way to strengthen the subgrade soil and helps to build a road in a farm in soft ground. Sprinkler distribution pattern Water depth-distance relationship measured from a single sprinkler head. or both. Spile A conduit made of lath. pipe. Stilling well Pipe. The usual approach to soft subgrade is to remove the soil replacing by stronger materials or crushed rocks. which may or may not rotate. Spray irrigation The application of water by a small spray or mist to the soil surface where travel through the air becomes instrumental in the distribution of water. per unit surface area of the aquifer in per unit change in head. Sprinkle irrigation Method of irrigation in which water is sprayed or sprinkled through the air to plant or ground surface. Water is delivered to sprinkler heads by a system of pressurized pipelines. stabilization of existing soil. chamber. i.Volume 5 . or compartment having closed sides and bottom except for a comparatively small inlet connected to a main body of water.

Subirrigation Applying irrigation water below the ground surface either by raising the water table or by using a buried perforated or porous pipe system that discharges water directly into the plant root zone. Surface drainage system A system for the collection and conveyance of runoff. and/or open drains. Primary source of water for plant growth is provided by capillary rise of soil water above the water table (up flux) or capillary water movement away from the line source. generally of rectangular shape. The type of filter must be specified. mild slopes and a Froude number less than 1. adaptation for arid climates. but less than 40 inches (1. Sump A collector of rainwater. A region is usually considered subhumid when precipitation averages more than 20 inches (500 mm) per year. site runoff drains or channels and appurtenances and pumped systems. Stress irrigation Management of irrigation water to apply less than enough water to satisfy the soil-water deficiency in the entire root zone. Structural BMPs Devices which are constructed to provide temporary storage and treatment of runoff runoff. Subhumid climate Climate characterized by moderate rainfall and moderate to high evaporation potential. mole drains.000 mm) per year. Surge irrigation A surface irrigation technique wherein flow is applied (typically to furrows or less commonly borders) intermittently during a single irrigation set. in the sole of a box gutter and connected to a downpipe within the building perimeter. from where it can be evacuated Succulent A plant with fleshy leaves containing juice or sap. Preferred term is limited irrigation or deficit irrigation. Subsurface drainage The removal of excess water and salts from soils via groundwater flow to the drains.0. pipe drains. Subcritical flow Flow characterised by high velocities. Surface irrigation Broad class of irrigation systems in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity flow (preferred term is surface irrigation method). Its function is to increase the head of water at the entry to the downpipe and thus increasing its capacity. large depths.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Storm drain A particular storm drainage system component that receives runoff from inlets and conveys the runoff to some point. the elements which includes kerbs and gutters. March 2009 xxxix .Volume 5 . Suspended constituent The constituents in a water sample (the residue) that are retained on a filter medium. They are either closed conduits or open channels connecting to two or more inlets. so that the watertable and root zone salinity are controlled Subsurface drainage system A man-made system that induces excess water and salts to flow via the soil to wells.

and friction losses in suction pipeline. entrance losses. beginning with absorption through the roots and ending with transpiration at the leaf surfaces. Toxicity The inherent potential or capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism. Can be used as a BMP to detain and filter runoff. If the particles are larger than colloidal dimensions they will tend to precipitate if heavier than the suspending medium.g. xl March 2009 . Swale A natural or human-made open depression or wide. where if above will produce some effect (or response) and vice versa. Transmissivity The rate at which water of the prevailing kinematic viscosity is transmitted through a unit width of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient. Time of concentration The time required for water to travel from the hydraulically most distant point to the outlet of a drainage area. unless tailwater reuse facilities are used. If the particles are small enough to pass through filter membranes. Threshold concentration A concentration. Measurement is based on the principle of critical flow at a critical section. It is used to measure the degree of response produced by exposure to a specific level of stimulus (or concentration of chemicals). or if lighter. Total suction head Head required to lift water from a water source to the centerline of the pump impeller plus velocity head. Trapezoidal flume A calibrated open-channel structure with sidewalls inclined to the horizontal.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Suspension A system in which very small particles (e. used for measuring the soil-water matric potential. shallow ditch that intermittently contains or conveys runoff. solid. semi-solid or liquid) are more or less uniformly dispersed in a liquid or gaseous medium. consisting of a porous cup filled with water and connected to a manometer or vacuum gauge. See Evapotranspiration. used to measure flow of water. to agglomerate and rise to the surface. corrugation. Equal to the static lift plus friction head losses in pipes and fittings plus velocity head. Tailwater runoff Surface irrigation system water leaving a field or farm from the downstream end of a graded furrow.Volume 5 . Toxicity test The means by which the toxicity of a chemical or other test material is determined. Transpiration The process of plant water uptake and use. Best surface irrigation distribution uniformity across the field is obtained with 30 to 50 percent tailwater runoff. Total dissolved solids (TDS) The total dissolved mineral constituents of water. border. Total dynamic head Head required to pump water from its source to the point of discharge. Translocation Movement of water to other area(s) than where it was applied. the system is termed a colloidal suspension. Tensiometer Instrument. equal to the hydraulic conductivity times the aquifer thickness.

Treatment control BMPs These are methods of treatment to remove pollutants from the runoff. and drains to dispose of the excess water. Preferred term is Drip irrigation. but it can be any angle. Treatment train A series of BMPs or natural features. implemented together to maximise pollutant removal effectiveness. including provisions for running the pumps. each designated to treat a different constituent. Turbulence Unorganised movement in liquids and gases resulting from the eddy formation. Unsaturated zone The zone between the land surface and the water table. Most common is 90 degree V-notch.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Trapezoidal weir A sharp-crested weir of trapezoidal-shape. Unit hydrograph The direct runoff hydrograph produced by a storm of given duration such that the volume of excess rainfall and direct runoff is 1 cm. or of artesian groundwater through a group of adequately-spaced wells. Turbidity Cloudiness of water due to suspended solids. Unavailable soil water That portion of water in a soil held so tightly by adhesion and other soil forces that it cannot be absorbed by plants rapidly enough to sustain growth without permanent damage. Unsaturated flow Water flow in the unsaturated zone of the soil. The soil water remaining at the permanent wilting point of plants. Triangular weir A sharp-crested V-notch weir. It includes the capillary fringe and may contain water under pressure less than that of the atmosphere. Turnout See Delivery box. Tubewell drainage System A network of tubewells to lower the watertable. Unsteady flow Flow that changes with respect to time. March 2009 xli . Uniform flow A state of steady flow where the mean velocity and cross-sectional area remain constant. Uptake A process by which materials are absorbed and incorporated into a living organism. or aspect of runoff. Travel time The time interval required for water to travel from one point to another through a part (reach) of a watershed. Tubewell drainage The control of an existing or potential high watertable. These controls do require maintenance. Trash rack A protective structural device installed to protect outlet structures from inflowing debris.Volume 5 . component. Trickle irrigation A micro irrigation system (low pressure and low volume) wherein water is applied to the soil surface as drops or small streams through emitters. Treatment control BMPs are also known as “structural controls”.

expressed in inch per inch. and large particulates from paved area runoff before it reaches storm drainage systems or infiltration BMPs. or total inches for a specific soil depth. court decisions. oil and grease. Vegetated Filter Strip (VFS) A facility that is designed to provide runoff quality treatment of conventional pollutants but not nutrients through the process of biofiltration. Venturi flume Flow measuring device with a contracted throat that causes a drop in the hydraulic grade line as well as an increase in velocity. Water amendment (1) Fertilizer.81 m/s2 (acceleration of gravity). Velocity head The energy head (H) created by water movement. or other material added to water for the enhancement of crop production. Water conveyance efficiency Ratio of the volume of irrigation water delivered by a distribution system to the water introduced into the system. The difference in elevation between the hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy grade line (EGL). Vortex emitter A micro irrigation water application device that employs a vortex effect to dissipate pressure. Water quality inlets Pre-cast storm drain inlets (oil and grit separators) that remove sediment. Used for both openchannel and closed pipe flow measurement. Water logging The accumulation of excess water on the soil surface or in the root zone of the soil. (2) A chemical water treatment to reduce drip irrigation system emitter clogging. Water holding capacity Total amount of water held in the soil per increment of depth. Typically used with rice production. Soils that are not freely drained because they have impermeable layers can have temporary saturated conditions just above the impermeable layers. It is the amount of water held between field capacity (FC) and oven dry moisture level. where g = 9. Water rights State administered legal rights to use water supplies derived from common law. Varied Flow Flow in an open channel where the flow rate and depth change along the length of the channel. Described as H = V2/2g. This can temporarily increase water holding capacity. Water levelling A method of landgrading wherein fields are divided into segments and flooded. Water quality criteria Scientific data evaluated to derive the recommended limits for water uses. Variety A strain of plant produced by artificial breeding. herbicide. insecticide. and the highs are removed until all soil is beneath the water surface. See Available water capacity. or statutory enactments. Valve A device to control flow through a closed conveyance system. Sometimes called Total water holding capacity. inch per foot.Volume 5 . Water quality BMP A BMP specifically designed for pollutant removal.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Vadose zone See Unsaturated Zone. xlii March 2009 .

canals. mph times time in hr/d). or A specialized form of surface irrigation accomplished by diverting water runoff from natural channels or water courses and spreading the flow over relatively level areas for soil storage or plant use. usually expressed as wind speed wind run (average velocity. Typically does not supply full irrigation needs as they operate only when there is surface runoff from rainfall or snow melt events. Water table control Controlling the water table elevation by pumping water into or discharging water from a planned subsurface irrigation or drainage system. Wind movement Used to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration. This includes wetlands. Calibration is based on laboratory ratings. and if not checked. Weed Generally a plant which rapidly reproduces itself in large numbers. which are created. a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. or the surface where groundwater is encountered in a well in an unconfined aquifer. Well screen A perforated casing that provides mechanical stabilization to the inflow area of a well Wet pond A facility that treats runoff for water quality by utilising a permanent pool of water to remove conventional pollutants from runoff through sedimentation. trapezoidal (cipolletti). agricultural detention facilities. Flow opening may be rectangular. biological uptake and plant filtration. Weir flow Flow over a horizontal obstruction controlled by gravity. Wetlands Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support. Wetlands generally include swamps. supersedes or destroy cultivated crops or interferes with their cultivation. The water table is maintained at a nearly constant elevation for each stage of plant growth and maturity. Wet-pit stations Pump stations designed such that the pumps are submerged in a wet well or sump with the motors and the controls located overhead.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Glossary Term Description Water spreading Application of water to lands for the purpose of storing it as ground water for subsequent withdrawal. farm ponds and landscape amenities. Weirs can be either sharp-crested or broad-crested. triangular. or locus of points in soil water at which the pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. The water table is a particular potentiometric surface. at under normal circumstances. This does not include constructed wetlands or surface waters intentionally constructed from sites that are not wet-lands such as irrigation and drainage ditches. March 2009 xliii . restored or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure. marshes and bogs. grasslined swales. Weirs Any of a group of flow measuring devices for open-channel flow.Volume 5 . Water table The upper surface of a saturated zone except where that surface is formed by an impermeable body. Wilting point See Permanent wilting point. or specially shaped to make the discharge linear with flow depth (sutro weir).

as described in Section below. irrigation engineers. THE PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL Goal and Objectives This Manual has been documented to provide guidance for planning and design of cost-efficient irrigation and agricultural drainage systems for agricultural producers. The Manual will have multiple objectives. soil. increase reuse. drainage water from an irrigation system should be managed to control water table.Volume 5 . This necessity underpins the standard guidelines for designing irrigation and drainage systems which will be compatible for the country’s irrigated crops. This part is presented essentially to guide potential users of this Manual towards its efficient and beneficial use. However each Chapter is as complete as possible in the coverage of its own subject material. planners. Accordingly. Today's management of agricultural water requires using the best information and techniques that current technology can provide in the planning. The relationship between crops. Installed systems for new projects and/or rehabilitation and renovations should ensure that water is applied in amounts as intended by the design. Users seeking to overview the various systems and technologies should then study Part A. agriculturists. design. water and atmosphere is the foundation for planning and designing of any irrigation project as well as sound water and drainage management. New users are advised to firstly read the background material in this preface. They are therefore advised to read this part first before proceeding to read the rest of the Manual. following the principles and procedures set out in this Manual. the Manual does not contain site-specific guidelines on practices and requirements for particular locations. It is recommended that local Guidelines be developed. including to: • • • • • xliv develop a well-planned irrigation and drainage system in which all necessary water control structures need to be installed for efficient distribution of irrigation water and proper draining of excess water from agricultural lands practice efficient crop irrigation and drainage of agricultural lands achieve proper irrigation scheduling practices for various crops practice proper water table management system increase in crop production and quality of produce. In this direction. Irrigated agriculture requires a multi-skilled and multi-disciplinary approach and it should not be expected that each Chapter to be self-contained. It would be inappropriate to include such material in a Manual with national coverage. This has been done to avoid duplication of material. Those seeking information on specific subject may proceed to the relevant Chapter. The importance of good irrigation and drainage systems is vital to produce acceptable quality and maximum yield of crops.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE How to Use the Manual This Manual has been written to serve as a source of information and to provide guidance to all those involved in irrigation and agricultural drainage practices in Malaysia. consultants and others who have interests in the latest practices for agricultural development and redevelopment in Malaysia. Readers will find it necessary on occasion to refer to other Chapters for relevant information. government officials. Finally. and management of irrigation systems. irrigation and drainage systems should be designed and managed with appropriate technology and to meet local crop growing conditions. particularly Chapter 3. reduce erosion and help control adverse impacts. evaluation. March 2009 .

Each part will further March 2009 xlv . which can subsequently complement the Manual. Users are therefore advised to consult the authorities first about the application of the Manual for their project and determine the current institutional and legal framework including the administrative procedures pertaining to agricultural irrigation and drainage. construction and operation and maintenance (O&M). It is furnished with the technical information for designing the systems and appropriate worked examples in a systematic way. GENERAL GUIDELINE A thorough understanding of chapters 2. Users should explore maximum combinations of these components as are practicable to meet their design objectives. design. The concept of modern irrigation and agricultural drainage is relatively new to the country and a paradigm shift would be required to turn around traditional practices. which helps users to understand better the design process of different irrigation and drainage systems. It is divided into five (5) parts according to different main topics that form the Manual. MANUAL FORMAT This Manual has seventeen (17) Chapters. water resources. The Manual also covers special uses for irrigation and drainage systems. New users who are not familiar are advised to grasp this new concept first and have an appreciation of the need to enhance the irrigation and drainage system while meeting the level of protection from negative impacts of applying excess irrigation water and agricultural runoff through engineering planning. planners and others who are interested in applying the guidelines set out in this Manual should have undertaken an appropriate course of study at tertiary level.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE These objectives will be seen as being achieved when the planning and design of a new irrigation and drainage system facilities is adequate to service the requirements of new and future agricultural developments for crop production. Users should not limit themselves only to the material available within this Manual but also to have initiatives in further research to enhance their design and to help build up knowledge in this aspect. hydraulics and various engineering applications. • Necessary adjustments to suit administrative requirements of each Relevant Authority. The Manual explains the design of each irrigation and drainage system. 3 and 4 is highly recommended for a good start. Engineers. hydrology. Scope The Manual covers all aspects and requirements to develop irrigation and drainage systems efficiently for all types of irrigated crops in the country. Therefore. Required Knowledge This Manual is not a training document. Irrigated agriculture is a complex system that requires a multi-disciplinary knowledge such as agronomy. Attendance to courses pertaining to this Manual would be helpful wherever such opportunity is available. and • Site conditions. • Reforms and changes in institutional and legal matters pertaining to irrigation and drainage that may take place in the country. It is also imperative that users of this Manual understand that it is a guideline and the applicability of which depends on many factors such as: • Adoption of the Manual and the extent of its adoption by the Authorities. It is published as Volume 5 of DID Manual Series.Volume 5 . as well as supporting components in separate chapters. a good background with some relevant technical knowledge is necessary to design and develop the proper irrigation and drainage systems.

This part provides information and guidelines for important hydraulic structures. The first two (2) chapters describe planning and design procedures for water intake facilities and conveyance systems for different types of irrigation systems. The part describes about surface drainage. Part C contains five (5) chapters. symbols and abbreviations are presented (see Table of Contents). irrigated agriculture. design examples and general maintenance considerations are provided to assist the users. In brief. The last part of this Manual contains a list of more commonly used irrigation and drainage terms. crop production infrastructures and farm access facilities. Part A contains three (3) chapters that describe overall background information on irrigation and drainage systems. bridges and crossings for access of farm machineries and equipment a brief operation and maintenance is also provided for each chapter of the system design. glossary. In each design chapter. administration aspects and system and technology. background information. This part also contains a chapter on drainage water control and disposal techniques. The remaining three (3) chapters contain detailed planning and design of various irrigations systems compatible for irrigated crops in Malaysia. irrigated crops and their agro-ecological conditions encountered for agriculture. socio-economic. water demand estimation for an agricultural development project. subsurface drainage. hydraulic fundamentals and computer application in irrigation and agricultural drainage. current issues and development of irrigation and agricultural drainage practices. water. The first chapter of this part describes guidelines for different irrigation and drainage structures commonly used in irrigation schemes.Volume 5 . site conditions and irrigation concerns design procedures for different types of agricultural drainage systems and their suitability design criteria and procedures for important irrigation and drainage structures and conveyance systems design guideline for the proper management of excess water from agricultural activities design guideline of roads. abbreviations and symbols used. the chapters of this Manual describe: • • • • • • • • • • • • crop characteristics pertaining to irrigation soil-plant relationships and irrigation water demand system and technology used in irrigated agriculture planning farm irrigation and drainage systems design guidelines for irrigation water intake facilities design of conveyance systems for irrigation water and on-farm distribution system design criteria and design procedures for surface. drainage and sub-irrigation. It also discusses about the opportunities and challenges. Part E contains only two (2) chapters. At the end of the Manual. Part D contains three (3) chapters. Diagrams and photographs have been used wherever appropriate to illustrate the system in design processes. Part B furnishes information on planning processes. agro-hydro climatologic. This part provides technical information on planning and designs for different agricultural drainage systems. xlvi March 2009 . At the end.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE be divided into subsequent chapters. The last chapter covers the design guidelines for roads and bridges. sprinkler and micro irrigation methods and the variety of systems for each method that can be adaptable to meet local crop. this Chapter indicates new directions for quality crop production in Malaysia. Part A Introduction and Administration Chapter 1 outlines the geographic. design criteria. design procedure.

soil types. It described soil-water-plant relationship and the relation of soil characteristics to different irrigation methods and systems.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Chapter 2 describes the design requirements. institutional and legal framework under which irrigation and drainage are practiced in Malaysia. Part B Planning Chapter 4 addresses planning strategies towards the development of the sustainable irrigation and drainage systems. Types of surface irrigation include basin irrigation. etc. reservoirs. problems. principles and equations that are inherent in the planning. engineers. management practices. rehabilitation and new developments are described in this Chapter. current and future practices. management and operation of an irrigation system. agriculturists and stakeholders to familiarize with the appropriate systems and to choose the suitable system and technology for modern farming practices and improvements in quality crop production. field investigations and determination of design criteria. This Chapter includes systematic design of intake facilities required for on-farm irrigation systems. design process and design procedures of different surface irrigation methods are covered. Part C Irrigation Design Chapter 8 contains water intake facilities for farm irrigation systems. Various computer models and software for planning and design purposes currently being used worldwide are discussed. principles for surface irrigation design. diverse hydrological conditions. Several soil properties directly influence the design. Chapter 5 provides procedures for determining total water requirements for an irrigation project. This chapter is necessary to consider the variety of crops. State and Federal Authorities. crop response to drainage facilities. Surface irrigation involves transporting water across the soil surface. Before designing any irrigation and drainage system. Most suitable models and software on the perspective of irrigated agriculture in Malaysia are described. hydraulic. Open channels may be lined or unlined and pipelines partially open to the atmosphere or pressurized. the costs of different systems and the fact that all irrigation systems are not adaptable to all types of crops and environments. thus using the soil to convey water along the field length. Hydraulic principles related to the particular irrigation and drainage systems are provided in the respective design Chapters. Basic considerations for choosing the irrigation method. which are widely used for modern crop production. irrigation professionals. Chapter 7 provides guidelines on computer application for planning and designing irrigation and drainage systems. March 2009 xlvii . modelling and design of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems and hydraulic structures. Chapter 3 briefly introduces different types of irrigation and drainage systems used for modern crop production and highlights their suitability for Malaysian Agriculture.Volume 5 . strategic planning. Chapter 6 briefly discusses fundamental hydraulic concepts. ponds. The challenge is to ensure that the administration of the planning. the relative availability of water. this Chapter will provide useful information for planners. lakes and groundwater. Water is conveyed from the source to the target fields of the farm in networks of open channels and/or pipelines. This Chapter also covers drainage development considerations. Irrigation water is supplied to the farm either by gravity and/or pumped system from rivers. Chapter 10 describes the planning and design of various surface irrigation systems. A worked example for paddy is illustrated for new irrigation systems. design and maintenance of irrigation and drainage systems is consistent across relevant Local. The essential requirements for the planning and design of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems for existing farming areas. Comprehensive irrigation and drainage management plans must be developed for different areas on a scientific basis to be backed up by adequate legal provisions. Chapter 9 describes the design of various conveyance systems and the on-farm water distribution system. border and furrow.

The detailed step-by-step planning and design procedures are addressed considering potential crops under micro irrigation. These are essentials to interlink among farms. Chapter 12 provides systematic planning and design guidelines of applying water directly to each plant and only the soil immediately surrounding each plant is wetted. which are separated by hydraulic boundaries such as canals. Chapter 17 provides design guidelines about farm roads and bridges to allow farm machineries and equipment access to the farm. systems components. This includes layout selection. The basic hydraulics of the systems are included in useful way. design criteria and different subsurface drainage systems design. selection criteria. Chapter 15 discusses about the ways to control. The design procedure of controlled drainage and sub irrigation is also addressed in this Chapter. 2000). This Chapter shows ways to manage excess water in agriculture. With sprinkler irrigation. treat and dispose the excess irrigation water and agricultural runoff safely into the receiving water bodies. This chapter covers guidelines on farm roads and bridges. It covers drainage planning requirements. This Chapter also discusses about the nature of agricultural pollution and provides the guidelines to calculate and estimate pollutant concentration and loading from an agricultural plot. The basic hydraulics of sprinklers. Part E Farm Infrastructure Chapter 16 describes various types of hydraulic structures used in irrigation and drainage systems.Volume 5 . Good transport networks are important for movement of agricultural machineries and transporting the harvest from fields. concepts. drainage and rivers in the irrigation schemes. pump selection and system maintenance which are presented. operation and maintenance of subsurface agricultural drainage systems. Detailed information on a few commonly used hydraulic structures. Part D Drainage Design Chapter 13 discusses modern land drainage as a key element for continued agricultural and rural development worldwide. step-by-step worked examples are provided for the better understanding of design process of various components of a system. benefits of drainage identifying drainage problems. design criteria and design approach for various components of the sprinkler irrigation systems are described in systematic way. pipes and pumps are included in a way that can be easily understood by those with a limited technical or mathematical background. laterals and submains design. emitter selection and placement. identify drainage problems and their appropriate solutions and provide technical information on proper drainage practices. This Manual covers a valuable technical information and guidance for planning and design of micro irrigation system suitable for local fruits. reuse. Their functions. This Chapter will assist the users to design and analyse common hydraulic structures used in the agricultural fields. Worked examples are provided for users to understand better the design process. methodologies and technologies. chemigation and fertigation systems. At the end of this Chapter. peat soils and low-lying farms are discussed in this Chapter. Major irrigation schemes are designed with proper farm roads to cater for farm mechanisation especially for land preparation and harvesting. application in greenhouse. design and analysis procedures are available in this Chapter. planning requirements and solutions for surface drainage system. Chapter 14 provides a systematic approach for the planning. design. xlviii March 2009 . such as culverts and energy dissipation structures are not discussed in detail as those hydraulic structures are adequately addressed in the MSMA (DID. water is jetted or sprayed in the air to spread it from the pipe network under pressure across the soil surface. vegetables and horticulture. The Chapter is developed to improve drainage from agricultural land through better soil and water management. filtration system. Brief description of sprinkler irrigation method. Design examples for various types of surface drainage components are also given at the end of this Chapter. Due attention was paid on the runoff quantity control from the agricultural areas. The Chapter is useful for the conservation of water resources and for the protection of aquatic environment.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE Chapter 11 provides a systematic approach for planning and design of applying water by means of perforated pipes or nozzles operated under pressure to adapt with the local crop environments. Special drainage considerations for hilly areas. Better perspectives for planning and design of agricultural drainage systems involve new theories.

k Total seasonal evapotranspiration for crop j during season k (mm) θfc Field capacity in percent by volume (%) ΔHc Pressure head difference between downstream end and minimum pressure heads (m) ΔHc Difference between the closed end and minimum pressure head along a multiple outlet pipeline (m) ΔHe Static pressure head difference. m(ft) [Positive (+) for uphill and negative (-) for downhill (hf)a Original pipe friction loss (m) (hf)b New pipe friction loss (m) ΔHs Allowable variation in subunit pressure head (L)a Original pipe length (m) (L)b New pipe length (m) ΔP Pressure drop (bars) θpwp Permanent wilting point in percent by volume (%).cm3) ρ Density (kg/m3 and for specific weight is N/m3) γ Weight of the liquid per unit volume ν Is defined as the dynamic viscosity γ The specific weight Δ El Difference in elevation between the closed and inlet ends (m) Δd Change in elevations between points 1 and 2 (m) (ets)j. m (ft) Allowable manifold pressure head variation to satisfy the desired emission uniformity (m) A Area (ha) A Cross-sectional area (m2) A Wetted area of sprinkler (m2) A Catchment area (km2 or ha) March 2009 xlix .IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description C EMC of pollutant (mg/l) μ Viscosity of fluid (N-s/m2) γ Psychometric constant [k Pa oc-1] θ Arc setting (degrees) Δ Slope of saturation vapour pressure curve [k Pa oc-1] ρ Density of water (g. θpwp Field capacity at a particular time in percent by volume (%) (SI∀f)j.k ΔZ (δhm)a Seasonal irrigation volume required for farm (m3) Elevation difference between up and downstream positions.Volume 5 .

Volume 5 . which depends on the relative humidity. decimal) C Drainage coefficient C Coefficient. generally 0.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol A Catchment area (ha) A0 Effective open area per metre screen length (m2/m) A1 Surface area at elevation 1 (m2) A2 Surface area at elevation 2 (m2) Aetc Total annual crop water demand (mm/year) Ai Area irrigated by the emission device (m2) Ai Area irrigated (m2) Ap Peak application rate (mm/hr) As Wetted soil surface area by sprayer (m2) At Total drainage area (ha) Aw Drainage area per well (ha) AW Available water (cm) B Nozzle diameter (mm) B Distance between lines of wells (m) B Depth from the drawdown curve to barrier stratum at midpoint between the drains (m) BD l Description Bulk density (g/ml) C Correction factor.5 for subcritical flow Cd Desired concentration of chemical in the solution to be injected (%) CI Coarseness Index of Sprinkler Ci Concentration of chemical in the solution to be injected (%) CL Connection loss CU Christiansen Uniformity Cv The manufacturers coefficient of variation for point or line source emitters Cvm Manufacturing coefficient of variation Cvm Emitter coefficient of manufacturing variation D Depth D Inside pipe diameter (mm) D Average size of soil particle (mm) D The diameter of the pressurised conduit Da Depth of water applied (mm/day) March 2009 . light hours and wind C Concentration of fertilizer source (N-P-K.

Ecw Salinity of the applied irrigation water in ds/m Ed Distribution efficiency (%) EH Heat energy Ei Irrigation application efficiency (%) Ei Irrigation efficiency (%) EM The mechanical energy Epa Design application efficiency based on adequately irrigating percentage of field.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description Db Bulk density DDIR Design daily irrigation requirements for D mm (mm/day) Depa Distribution efficiency for the desired percentage adequacy.k Seasonal effective rainfall for crop j during year k (mm) Es Es – ea ET Seasonal irrigation efficiency (%) Saturation vapour pressure deficit [kpa] Evapotranspiration (mm/day) Etadj Adjusted crop water requirement (mm/day) Etc Crop evapotranspiration (mm) March 2009 li . leaching and unavoidable losses (mm) Dg Gross depth of water application per irrigation (mm) Dm Amount that can be applied without runoff (mm) Dn Net depth to be applied per irrigation to meet consumptive use requirements (mm) DP Deep percolation Dp Particle density (specific gravity) Drj Drainage requirement from the paddy field during j-th week (cm) Drz Depth of root zone (cm) DU Distribution uniformity DU Application Uniformity Dx Maximum net depth of water to be applied per irrigation (mm) E Annual erosivity (units of J/m2) Ea Application efficiency (%) Ec Conveyance efficiency (%) Ece Average soil salinity tolerated by the crop as measured on a soil saturation extract.Volume 5 . % Epan Evaporation from the pan (mm/d) Eps Evaporation loss from saturated soil surface (mm/day) ER Effective rainfall (mm/day) Erj Effective rainfall during the period (cm) Erj. % Dg Gross depth of water application per irrigation to satisfy uniformity.

IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol lii Description Etc Crop evapotranspiration (consumptive water use). 58.81 m/s2) H Sprinkler operating pressure head. cm Hd Dike height of the paddy field in cm Hf Friction head loss with lateral with length L (m) Hf Manifold pipe friction head loss (m) Hf Head loss due to pipe friction. or 92. m(ft) Hf Energy loss in pipeline between up and downstream positions.5 when area is in ha Fr Froude number Fx Maximum irrigation interval (days) G Soil heat flux density [MJ m-2day-1] G Daily gross volume of water required per plant during peak use period (L/day) G Acceleration due to gravity 9. m (ft) H Pressure head (m) H Height of capillary rise (mm) Ha Average sprinkler operating pressure head (m) Ha Average emitter pressure head (m) Hc Capillary rise. mm/day Etcj Evapotranspiration from the paddy field during the period (cm) Etd Average daily evapotranspiration during peak-use period (mm) Etj Crop evapotranspiration during j-th day/week (cm) Eto The evapotranspiration for a clipped grass reference crop (mm/day) EU The design emission uniformity (%) F Irrigation interval or frequency (days) F Constant for the number of outlets (sprinklers or laterals) F Reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge along the pipe F Multiple outlet friction reduction coefficient F Friction factor from the Moody diagram F Irrigation interval or frequency (days) F The total force on any shape of flat surface FC Field capacity (%) w/w Fc A conversion factor.81 (m/s2) G The gravitational acceleration G Acceleration of gravity (9.5 when area A is in km2. m (ft) Hf Pipe friction head loss (m) Hf Manifold pipe friction head loss (m) March 2009 .Volume 5 .

Volume 5 .6 when Ll and L are in ft and Af is in acre.) K Friction factor for pipe materials March 2009 liii .IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description Hfa Average friction head loss (m) Hfp Head loss due to friction for a single lateral with a total length and flow equal to that of the pair of laterals (m) Hfx Friction head loss from x to the closed end (m) Hfx Friction head loss from x on a multiple outlet pipeline to the closed end (m) HL Average lateral inlet pressure head (m) HL Inlet pressure head for the pair of laterals (m) Hl Lateral inlet pressure head. K = 45354 for SDC in gpm and DDIR in in/day and A in acre) K 10 unit constant when sivf is in m3 K Conversion constant. m (ft) Hl The head loss Hm Manifold inlet pressure head after Hm Manifold inlet pressure (m) Hn Minimum pressure head along the lateral (m) Hp The head loss due to friction for the same flow rate in a non-distributing pipe of the same diameter and length HPD Actual system operation time (hrs/day) to cover the entire area Hr Height of riser. 60 for metric units (96. IR Irrigation water requirement (mm/day) Irj Amount of irrigation water supplied during j-th day/week (cm) IRLS Presaturation water requirement (mm/day) Iw The density of water (1 gm/cc) J Head loss gradient (m/100m) Ja Lateral head loss gradient K Unit constant (K = 16667 for SDC in l/min and DDIR in mm/day and A in ha. K = 435. m (ft) Hv Velocity Head Hx Hydraulic gradient at point x along a pipe friction curve that is tangent to the HGL (m) I Application rate (mm/hr) I The hydraulic gradient (m/m) I Second moment of area IE Irrigation efficiency (%) Ief Irrigation efficiency (%) Ief Overall irrigation efficiency which is usually 80-90%.3 for English units) K Unit constant (K = 100.0 when Ll and L are in m and Af is in ha.

ft) Lmin Minimum screen length (m) Lp Length of a pair of manifolds (m) LR Leaching requirement expressed as a fraction LR The minimum leaching requirement needed to control salts within the tolerance (ece) of the crop with ordinary surface methods of irrigation Lrt Leaching requirement LS Irrigation requirements for land shocking (mm/day) MAD Management allowed deficit (%) MAD Management allowed deficit (%) Mg liv Description Magnesium March 2009 .Volume 5 .58 x 107 for pipe diameter > 125 mm) K Conversion constant (K = 1273) K Hydraulic conductivity (in/hr or m/s) Kc Crop coefficient Kc Crop coefficient for rice Kd Discharge coefficient for the sprinkler nozzle Kd Emitter discharge coefficient (depends on units) Kd Emitter discharge coefficient Km Scale factor for adjusting manifold pressure head values taken from a standard unit friction curve Kp Pan coefficient US Weather Service Class-A Pan Kr Resistance coefficient for fitting or valve Ks Factor for several pipe materials Kv Flow factor (m3/hr) flow rate with head loss of 1 bar L Distance L Length L Manifold length (m) L Spacing (m) L Pipe length (m) L Annual load of pollutant (kg) L Event load in kg/km2/ day.89 x 107 for pipe diameter < 125 mm and K = 9.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol K Unit conversion (K = 7. Lc Centroid of the area from the liquid surface Lf Point of action of the total force Ll Length of lateral (m.

of emission points in the field NIS Normal irrigation duty during the crop growth stages (mm/day) Nl Number of laterals operating simultaneously NO2 Nitrite NO3 Nitrate Np Number of emitters per plant NR Reynolds number Nr Number of rows served from a common main line outlet Ns Number of operating sprinklers Ns Number of operating stations P Percentage daily sunshine hours P Percent of area irrigated (%) P Rainfall P Pumping rate at maximum inflow rate (m3/s) P Wetted perimeter (ft) P Percent of crop area being irrigated (P = 30 to 100%) P Pressure P Annual rainfall (mm) P1. or at least one Nep No. kpa (psi) Pf Percent of total field irrigated when the system is operating Pf Pressure loss due to pipe friction. m (ft) Ms Residual stored soil moisture from off-season precipitation (mm) N Number N Manning roughness coefficient N Completed presaturation periods in days Na Sodium Ne Number of emitters along the lateral Nemin Minimum number of emitters per plant. m (ft) Ml Friction head loss due to pipe fitting.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description Ml Minor losses for fittings pipeline. kpa (psi) March 2009 lv . p2 Pa Pressures Atmospheric (datum) pressure Pabs Absolute pressure Pav Average pressure (kpa) Pd Percentage of soil surface area shaded by crop canopies at midday (%) Pds Pressure at downstream position.Volume 5 .

kpa (psi) Pmax Maximum pressure (kpa) Pmin Minimum pressure (kpa) Pr Pressure required to lift water up the rises. 9.43 psi/ft) PS Perimeter of the area directly wetted by the sprayers (m) Ps Percent area shaded-the average horizontal area shaded at midday by the crop canopy as a percentage of the total crop area Pus Pressure at upstream position.81 kpa/m (0.Volume 5 . kpa (psi) Pw The percentage wetted area (%) Pw Percent area wetted-the average horizontal area wetted in the top part of the crop root zone as a percentage of the total crop area Q Flow rate Q Sprinkler discharge Q Drainage coefficient (in/hr or cm/hr) Qa Average emitter discharge (L/hr) Qi Inflow hydrograph peak flow rate (m3/s) Qideal Qm Ideal flow assuming no energy loss Manifold discharge (L/s) Qmax Maximum flow rate (m3/s) Qmin The minimum emitter discharge rate in the system (l/h) Qo Allowable peak outflow rate (m3/s) Qrs Recommended irrigation supply for a tertiary canal.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Pf Percent of total field irrigated when the system is operating Pg Gauge pressure Pl Lateral inlet pressure. m3s-1 Qs Total system capacity ((L/s) Qt Average pump operating time per season (hr) Qvar lvi Description Average flow rate (m3/s) R Affecting surface runoff water R Hydraulic radius (ft) R Rate of application (lbs/ac) R Channel centreline radius (m) R Average annual runoff depth (mm) Re Effective portion of water applied Re Fraction of the water emitted by the nozzle that reaches to the soil which takes into account the evaporative or wind loss March 2009 .

k Seasonal irrigation requirement for crop j during season k (mm) Sl Lateral spacing along the main line.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description Re Reynolds number Rfj Rainfall during j-th week (cm) Ri Rate at which the chemical solution is to be added to the supply water (l/h. m (ft) Se Emitter spacing-the spacing between emitters or emission points along a lateral m (ft) Se Spacing between emission points (m) Se Spacing between emitters on a lateral (m) Sirj. m (ft) Sl Lateral discharge (L/s) Sp Spacing between plant (m) SP Seepage and Percolation SP Seepage-percolation loss (mm/day) Spj Water lost through seepage and deep percolation loss during j-th day/week (cm) Sr Spacing between rows (m) Sr Spacing between plant adjacent rows (m) ST Required traveller speed (m/min) Sw Width of the strip to be wetted by emitters on a lateral (m) SW Additional supply to maintain the required standing water depth (mm/day) Swj Ponding water depth in the field during j-th day/week (cm) Swmax Desired or maximum Standing water depth the period (cm) T Air temperature T Time March 2009 lvii .Volume 5 . gpm) RIC Rate of irrigation coverage. ha/hr (acres/hr) Rj Radius of wetted area (m) Rn Net radiation at the crop surface [MJ m-2 day1] Rn Effective rain during the growing season (mm) S Spacing between emission points (m) S Slope of the manifold (m) S Absolute slope of the HGL to which the pipe friction curve is tangent (%) S Changes in soil water storage Sa Angular segment wetted by a stationary sprinkler jet in degrees SAT Supplementary irrigation duty (mm/day) Sd Desired wetting depth Sdm Standard deviation Se Spacing between emitters on the lateral.

IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol T Width of water surface in channel (m) Tc The time of concentration (minute) Td Average daily transpiration rate during the peak-use month (mm/day) TDH Total dynamic head (m. ft) Wgr Gross water requirement (mm/day) WHP lviii Description Water horsepower (KW. hp) WP Wilting point (%) w/w Ws Weight of soil solids (oven dry) March 2009 .Volume 5 . ft) TI The irrigation interval Ti Time base of the inflow hydrograph (minutes) Tp Time to peak of the inflow hydrograph (minutes) TR Seasonal transmission ratio TR Peak use period transmission ratio Tw Tubewell operating factor U Velocity U2 Wind speed at 2 m height [m sec-1] Ud Estimated average daily consumptive use rate during the peak-use month (mm/day) V Velocity of the water (m) V Volume V Pump storage between two levels (m3) V Mean velocity V Mean channel velocity (m/s) Ve Screen entrance velocity (m/s) Vi Inflow hydrograph runoff volume (m3/s) Vp Volume of pores (both air and water) VR Annual runoff depth (MM) Vs Volume of solids Vs System coefficient of manufacturing variation Vs Estimated storage volume (m3/s) Vt Travel speed (m/min) Vw Volume of water Wa Available water holding capacity of the soil (mm/m) Wad Allowed water deficit (mm or m3/ha) Waf Allowed depletion fraction of the available water WD Wetted diameter or radius of nozzle (mm.

IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Symbols Symbol Description WS Wind speed.50 for full turbulent flow in the small tube X Distance from the closed end of the manifold (m) Xi Absolute deviation of the individual observations from the mean (mm) XLQ Amount of low-quarter average depth or volume caught or infiltrated Xm Mean flow rate Y Manifold position ration (x/Lp) Β Inlet to minimum pressure head adjustment factor for pairs of laterals ΔEL Elevation difference between the closed and inlet ends of a manifold (m) Δep Absolute difference in elevation between the outlet ends of the pair of laterals (m) ΔHL Pressure head variation along the average lateral (m) Δhm Pressure head variation along the manifold (m) Δhs Allowable subunit pressure head variation that gives the desired design uniformity (m) Swj-1 Ponding water depth in the field during (j-1) th day/week (cm) V1.2 Storage volume between elevations 1 and 2 (m3) March 2009 lix .57 for turbulent flow in the smooth pipe and x = 0. x = 0.0 for laminar flow.Volume 5 . km/hr Ww Weight of soil water X Exponent for nozzle i X Distance from the closed end of a lateral (m) X Emitter pressure-discharge exponent in which x = 1.

water table management systems DRAINSAL Drainage salinity lx March 2009 .IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description AADT Average annual daily traffic ACT Australian capital territory ADT Annual daily traffic AHW Allowable high water ARR Australian rainfall and runoff ARI Average recurrence interval ASCE American society of civil engineers ASR Aquifer storage recovery ASTM American standard and testing methods BMPs Best management practices BOD Biochemical oxygen demand BORDEV Border irrigation development BSI British Standard Institute CAD Computer aided design CADD Computer aided design and drafting CBR California bearing ratio CDS Continuous deflective separation CLIMWAT Climate water CMP Catchment management plan or corrugated metal pipe CMPA Corrugated metal pipe arch COD Chemical oxygen demand CR Community retention CRCCH Cooperative research centre for catchment hydrology CRCFE Cooperative research centre for fresh water CROPWAT Crop water CSSRI Central Soil Salinity Research Institute CSUID Colorado state university irrigation and drainage model Cumec Cubic metre per second (unit of water flow) CUP Consumptive use program DCP Discharge control pit DID Department of Irrigation and Drainage DIAD Division of Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage DOE Department of Environment DRAINMOD Drainage.Volume 5 .

Volume 5 .IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description DRIPD Drip irrigation design DSS Decision support system DTM Digital terrain model EAP Emergency action plan ED Extended detention EGL Energy grade line EIA Environmental impact assessment EMC Event mean concentration EMP Environmental management plan EnDrain Drainage equations EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPU Economic Planning Unit ESCP Erosion and sediment control plan ESD Ecologically sustainable development FAO Food and agricultural organization FDT Field density test FERGON For designing fertigation system FIDO Furrow irrigation design optimizer FO Farmers organization FRC Fibre reinforced cement FURDEV Furrow irrigation development GIS Geographical information system GL General limitations GPT Gross pollutant trap GUI Graphical user interface HAT Highest astronomical tide HEC Hydrological engineering centre HGL Hydraulic grade line ICP Integrated catchment planning ICT Information and communication technologies IDF Intensity duration frequency IKRAM Institut Kerja Raya Malaysia ILLUDAS Illinois urban drainage area simulator ILRI International Land Resources Institute INWQS Interim national water quality standard March 2009 lxi .

Operation and Maintenance MPN Most probable number MSLE Modified soil loss equation MSMA Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia) MUSLE Modified universal soil loss equation NGO Non-government organisations NLC National land code NOI Notice of intent NPS Non-point source NTU Nephelometric turbidity unit NWRC The national water resources council OMC Optimum moisture content PCU Passenger car unit PDE Partial differential equation PE Polyethylene PFDC Precision farming development centre PHL Piezometric head line PMF Probable maximum flood PMP Probable maximum precipitation ppb Parts per billion (μg/l) ppm Parts per million (mg/l) PSD Permissible site discharge PSE Preliminary site evaluation QA Quality assurance lxii March 2009 .Volume 5 .IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description IrriCAD Pro Irrigation design software JKR Jabatan Kerja Raya (Public Works Department) kW Kilo watt LAT Lowest astronomical tide LCD Litter collection devices LGA Local government act LSD Land survey datum MAR Mean annual rainfall MDD Maximum dry density MHHW Mean higher high water MICROS For designing micro sprinkler system MLHW Mean lower high water MOM Management.

Sungai (river) SIC Simulation of irrigation canals SIMETAW Simulation of evapotranspiration of applied water SIRMOD III Surface irrigation models package SP Soluble phosphorus SPCSP Standard plate corrugated steel pipe SPCSPA Structural plate corrugated steel pipe arch SPRINKMOD Sprinkler simulation model SPT Standard penetration test SRC Steel reinforced cement SS Suspended solids SSR Site storage requirement STM Stormwater treatment measure SURDEV Surface irrigation development SWAP Soil water atmosphere plant SWM Stormwater management SWMA Selangor waters management authority SWMAE Selangor waters management enactment SWMM Stormwater management model TCM Total catchment management TCPD Town and Country Planning Department TDH Total dynamic head March 2009 lxiii . Drainage and Building Act SEH Sewer extra heavy Sg.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description QC Quality control QUDM Queensland Urban Drainage Manual RatHGL Rational method hydrology with HGL calculation RIMIS Rice irrigation management information system RRPM Reflectorised raised pavement marker RS Remote sensing RTC Real-time control SALTMOD Salinity model SBTR Sedimentation basin trash rack SCS Soil conservation services SD Standard drawing SDBA Street.Volume 5 .

IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description TKN Total kjedahl nitrogen TN Total nitrogen TP Total phosphorus TRRL Transport and road research laboratory TSS Total suspended solids UO Users association UPVC Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride USC Unified soil classification USDA United States Department of Agriculture USLE Universal soil loss equation VFS Vegetated filter strips WADISO Water distribution system analysis and optimization WQV Water quality volume WSE Water surface elevation WUA Water users association lxiv March 2009 .Volume 5 .

Units and conversion factors within and between the two systems of measures are presented here for each dimension in a separate box. hour (3. multiply by the number provided) March 2009 lxv . Quantity Name of Unit Symbol 1 length meter m 2 mass kilogram kg 3 time second s 4 electric current ampere A 5 temperature kelvin K 6 luminous intensity candela cd 7 amount of substance mole mol Multiples of units are designated by the following names: Amount Prefix 1 Symbol Amount -1 Prefix Symbol 10 deca da 10 deci d 102 hecto h 10-2 senti c k -3 milli m -6 micro µ -9 nano n 3 kilo 10 6 mega 10 9 giga 10 M G 10 10 10 This appendix presents the SI and English (imperial) units. which are used in various areas of transportation engineering. Some metric units and factors that are not listed in the SI but are commonly used and remain internationally recognized are also included. 102. They are: No. and their conversion factors.6 X 103 s) and kilowatt-hour (3.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE SI and English Units and Conversion Factor The International System of Units recognizes seven basic units from which all others are derived. The format followed for each dimension is shown in the first box: DIMENSION SI unit (symbol) English unit (symbol) Conversion factors (for conversion in the direction of the arrow.Volume 5 . and 10–2. l0-1. Examples are the units of centimeter (10-2 m).6 MJ) and multiples of 10.

0394 0.0929 10.9144 1.609 in.094 l .471 ft2 yd2 acre in.097.2 = 9 ft2 = 1 yd2 3.4047 2.40 0.3048 3.2 inch (in.2) foot (ft2) yard (yd2) mile (mi2) 0. ft yd mi 0.3861 mi2 March 2009 .600 yd2 = 640 acres = 1 mi2 mm2 6.1550 m2 m2 ha 0.452 in. ') yard (yd) mile (mi) 103 mm = 102 cm = 1 m 103 m = 1 km 36 in.Volume 5 . '') foot (ft.6214 AREA square millimeter (mm2) square centimeter (cm2) square meter (m2) hectare (ha) square kilometer (km2) square square square acre square 106 mm2 = 104 cm2 = 1 m2 106 m2 = 102 ha = 1 km2 1296 in.281 0.8361 1.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE LENGTH millimeter (mm) centimeter (cm) meter (m) kilometer (km) inch (in.76 0. = 3 ft = 1 yd 5280 ft = 1760 yd = 1 mi mm m m km 25.590 0. km2 lxvi 2.196 0.

308 MASS gram (g) kilogram (kg) (metric) tone or tonne (t) 103 g = 1 kg 103 kg = 1 t g oz 0.12 tn = 1 ltn tn ltn lxvii .3 0.785 l m3 m3 gal 0.7646 yd3 1.9072 1.016 0.3 1 qt = 57.656 in. pounds mass (lbm) (short) ton (tn+ or stn)long ton (ltn) 16 oz = 1 lb 2000 lb = 1 tn 2240 lb = 1.2642 0.35 0.9842 lb ounce (oz) pound (lb).3 cm3 16.32 0.205 0.39 in.75 in.102 1.0353 kg t t March 2009 28.3 = 27 ft3 = 1 yd3 4 qt = 1 gal = 231 in.0283 ft3 35.Volume 5 .4536 2.3) quart (qt) gallon* (g) cubic foot (ft3) cubic yard (yd3) 106 mm3 = 103 cm3 = 1 l 106 cm3 = 103 l = 1 m3 46.0610 3.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE VOLUME square millimeter (mm3) square centimeter (cm3 or cc) liter (l) cubic meter (m3) cubic inch (in.

02 g/L 0.5933 1.3) pounds/cubic foot (lb/ft3) 103 kg/m3 = 103 g/L = 1 g/cm3 16 oz/in.5737 16.3048 ft/s2 3.3 lb/ft3 SPEED meters/second (m/s) kilometers/hour (km/h) 10 m/s = 3.3 0.1467 ft/s = 1 mph) mph ACCELERATION meters per second squared (m/s2) (km/h/s is not used) g = 3.609 km/h feet/second (ft/s) miles/hour (mph) 0.6214 88 ft/s = 60 mph (exact) (1.18 ft/s2 1 mphps = 1.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DENSITY grams/cubic centimeter (g/cm3) grams/liter (g/L) kilograms/cubic meter (kg/m3) ounces/cubic inch (oz/in.0624 kg/m3 0.3 = 1728 lb/ft3 g/cm3 1.686 lb/in.281 0.3048 ft/s 3.4470 2.237 g = 32.281 1.467 ft/s2 mph JERK meters per second cubed (m/s3) feet per second cubed (ft/s3) Factors are the same as the corresponding ones for acceleration.3) pounds/cubic inch (lb/in.6 km/h m/s 0.3 = 1 lb/in.743 oz/in.Volume 5 . lxviii March 2009 .6 km/h m/s feet per second squared (ft/s2) miles per hour per second (mphps) 2 m/s2 0.

01 kN Force = mass x acceleration 3200 oz = 2000 lbf = 1 tnf 4.6557 x 103 mph km/h 1.4960 kg/m 2.00425 mph 0.2 km/h 0.ft lbf .016 *Common use in transportation: mass of rails.525 x 103 March 2009 lxix . (gc) gc = 32.2) (psi) pounds force per square foot (lbf/ft 2) pascal (Pa) kilogram force per square meter (kgf/m2) 6.352 235.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FORCE.s2 LINEAL MASS* kilograms per meter (kg/m) pounds per yard (lb/yd) lb/yd 0.4251 ft/s 2.1124 Force = mass x acceleration gravity const. PRESSURE* pounds force per square inch (lbf/in.88 Pa 0.894.76 1 kgf/m2 = 9.tnf) 106 dynes = 10 N = 0. mi/gal) 0.896 kN tnf 0. gal/mi) (C) British thermal units per mile (Btu/mi) (E) miles per gallon (mpg. WEIGHT dyne (dyn) newton (N) kilonewton (kN) (metric) ton or tonne (t) (not in SI) ounce (oz) (ft/s2) pound force (lbf) 103 pounds (kip) (short) ton force (tnf or s.45 x 10 47.2248 8.Volume 5 .02089 lbf/ft 2 FUEL CONSUMPTION (C) AND EFFICIENCY (E)* (C) liters per 100 kilometers (l /100km) (C) joules per kilometer (J/km) (E) kilometers per liter (km/ l) m/s (C) gallons per mile (gpm.448 N lbf 0.807 Pa psi Pa -4 1.18 lbm .

7457 1.IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE ENERGY erg joule (J) British thermal unit (Btu) foot-pound force (ft-lbf) 107 ergs = 1 J J J 1055 9.Volume 5 .7376 Joint units: watt-hours (Wh) kilowatt-hours (kWh) 103 Wh = 1 kWh 1 Btu = 779.7376 ft-lbf 12 in.6 x 106 J Btu ft-lbf kWh 0.7355 TORQUE dyne-centimeter (dyn-cm) newton-meter (N-m) 107 dyn-cm = 1 N-m lxx inch-pounds force (in.2 ft-lbf = 118.356 0.482 x 10-4 1.3667 x 10-6 3.lbf = 1 ft-lbf March 2009 .98 hp-h ft-lbf 0.-lbf) foot-pounds force (ft-lbf) N-m 1.360 hp (British) kW 1.2778 x 10-6 2.665 x 106 POWER ergs per second horsepower (metric) (HP) 1 HP (metric) = 75 kg-m/s HP (metric) foot-pounds force per second (ft-lbf/s) horsepower (British) (hp) 1 hp (British) = 550 ft-lbf/s Joint units: watt (W) [1 W = 1 J/s = 107 ergs/s] kilowatt (kW) 0.356 0.341 0.

IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE (This page is deliberately left blank) March 2009 lxxi .Volume 5 .

Malaysian Perspective .Part A Introduction & Administration Chapter 1 .

..4 Urban Agriculture.....................................................................................................MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE Table of Contents Table of Contents ....... 1-15 March 2009 1-i ..........................3 Floriculture and Other Crops ............................................................ 1-12 THE WAY FORWARD ....................4....................................................................................................2 Climate .................................................... 1-13 REFERENCES ....................4 Modernization and Need for Research and Development Application......................................... 1-9 1.....3...........................Chapter 1.............. 1-9 1. 1-1 1.............................................................. 1-3 1......................5 1......................... 1-8 1..........1 Competition for Water Use........................... 1-9 1...............4 1...... 1-5 MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURE.................................................3............................................ 1-5 1................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1-4 1..........................4....... 1-i List of Tables .......................4...... 1-ii List of Figures .......2 Future Scenarios and Aims for Food Production ....................................................2......................................1 Physiographic Features and Water Resources ....................................................................3 Socio Economics ............ 1-1 1..........1 Oil Palm and Other Plantation Crops ...........................................................1 GENERAL .................3 1......... 1-1 1............2 GEOGRAPHY.4.......... 1-11 1.............................. 1-5 1.................................2......................................................... 1-8 IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE ISSUES ........3.................................................................................3...................4 New Agriculture ........................................................ 1-7 1...........................................2........................ 1-ii 1.2 Paddy and Other Food Crops ..............2..................................3 Challenges for the Future .........................

2000-2010 (%) .5 Agroecological Zones of Peninsular Malaysia 1-6 1.1 Physiographic Map of Malaysia 1-2 1.6 The Annual Water Demand Projection 1-10 1-ii March 2009 .NAP3 1-9 List of Figures Figure Description Page 1.1 Acreage of Agricultural Land Usage.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE List of Tables Table Description Page 1.Chapter 1 .3 Monsoon Influences 1-4 1.2 Average Monthly Rainfall Variations For Selected Cities and Towns 1-3 1.2 Self-sufficiency levels in food commodities.4 Typical View of Urban Agriculture 1-5 1. 1995 – 2010 (’000 ha) 1-6 1.

The states of Sabah and Sarawak are traversed by relatively dissected highlands. These hazards have generally posed little effects to Malaysia. especially along the West Coast. flood control. Open water bodies comprise of man-made lakes such as dam reservoirs and ex-tin mining ponds (mostly found in the Klang and Kinta River Basins) and natural lakes such as Tasik Bera and Tasik Chini in Pahang.400 m above mean sea level • Coastal plains and gently undulating alluvia of unconsolidated quaternary sediments • Rolling to undulating land on consolidated pre-quaternary formations. Sungai Pahang (330 km) is the longest in the Peninsula. The particular issues being focused upon are best water management practices through irrigation and drainage systems to provide a more conducive environment for agricultural production. The food issues are rising in importance now considering the extent of urbanisation. the generated tsunamis had resulted in some havocs and damages in the north of the west coast of the Peninsula. land and oceanic. 1. Nevertheless. Like many other developing tropical countries.Chapter 1 . with peaks generally less than 1800 m in height except Gunung Kinabalu (4095 m). exist around it but away in neighbouring countries. have significant negative consequences to the environment. Malaysia is striving to upgrade the social well being of its population. industrialisation and the impacts of global warming on water resources. The country is moving towards achieving a developed nation status by the year 2020. in the east. Urban and industrial growth has spread over many parts of the country. with a maximum of 2100 m. running in the North-West to South-East direction. especially in the west coast of the Peninsula.2. km with the Peninsula. The physiographic features of Peninsular Malaysia (Figure 1. higher harvests and productivity. sea transport and communication routes within Australasia continents. separated about 1000 km apart by South China Sea. in between the above two regions • Riverine flood plains along major river systems. Two thirds of the highlands lie above an altitude of 200 m. Malaysia is influenced by the equatorial climate with relatively frequent floods and infrequent droughts. transportation.2 GEOGRAPHY 1. Location of Malaysia is strategic in respect to various international air transport.1 Physiographic Features and Water Resources Malaysia stretches from latitudes 0o 60' N to 6o 40' N and from longitudes 99o 35' E to 119o 25' E. Modern tools and techniques will lessen the drudgery of agricultural production while improved yields and productivity will ensure profitability of the agricultural enterprises. heavily forested terrain rising from flat coastal and riverine midland. however. Much of the interior. the primary target is to alleviate rural poverty through land development for agriculture. Since the majority of the poor are living in rural areas. Alluvial plains run from the northeast to the southeast along the west coast of these two states. Rajang in Sarawak (563 km) is the longest in Malaysia. The pressures from urbanization.000 sq. reaching a height of 2. Earthquake and volcanic risk belts. while Sg.1 MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE GENERAL Malaysia occupies a total area of approximately 330.1) can be categorized as follows: • Steep mountain ranges in the central region. recreation. irrigation and domestic water supply. These water sources are used for power generation. Most rivers in the Peninsula are short and steep. This is evidenced by its rapid socio-economic development in the last three decades. rearing of livestock and aquaculture. in the west and Sabah and Sarawak. March 2009 1-1 .MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 1 1. increased profitability of agricultural enterprises and sustainability of the environment. enhanced crop diversification. Its mountainous areas have steep. aquaculture and tourism. especially water and ecology. Interspersed amongst the mountain ranges are the lowlands. particularly in Sarawak is densely forested.

Johor Bahru and Alor Setar are resting on coastal alluvium. (a) Peninsular Malaysia (b) East Malaysia Figure 1. Kota Bharu. Ipoh and Penang. Sibu. in Sarawak and Sabah. Kota Bharu is known to have the largest groundwater aquifers in Malaysia. Seremban. Kuala Terengganu. Miri and Kota Kinabalu are situated on coastal alluvium. Kuantan. Limestone and granite rock. most primary urban towns such as Kuching.Chapter 1 . dominate the inland area of the Peninsula while the majority of the Sarawak and Sabah lands are geologically underlined by limestone.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE Most cities and large towns in the Peninsula are located over limestone and granite with a thin surface alluvium.1 Physiographic Map of Malaysia 1-2 March 2009 . associated with the Banjaran Titiwangsa and Tanah Tinggi Terengganu. Similarly. These include Kuala Lumpur.

North Sabah and inland Sarawak (Figure 1. carries longer and heavier rains to the East Coast of the Peninsula. from November to March.2 Average Monthly Rainfall Variations for Selected Cities and Towns (DID.3). It has an average annual rainfall of more than 2500 mm with monthly variations for selected cities and towns as shown in Figure 1. as characterized by the equatorial climate.2. Daytime cloudy hours are also high while haze in recent years is a frequent occurrence and contributes to acid rains. The West Coast of the Peninsula is subject to localized and convective storms generated by the inter monsoon seasons. Pengkalan Chepa 300 15 200 10 100 200 10 5 100 5 0 0 0 Rainfall (mm) 15 Temperature (oC) 300 Month Month Kuala Pilah Mersing 600 30 500 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 100 0 300 15 200 10 100 5 J F MAM J J A S O ND 0 600 30 500 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 5 100 5 0 0 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 5 100 0 0 0 J F MAMJ J A SOND J F MAM J J A S O ND Month Month 500 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 100 5 o 0 Rainfall (mm) 30 Temperature (OC) Kota Kinabalu 600 Month 20 Cameron Highland 500 Kuching J F MAM J J A SO ND 400 Month 30 Month 0 25 0 600 J F M AM J J A S ON D Rainfall (mm) J F MAM J J A S O ND 500 600 30 500 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 100 5 0 Temperature (oC) J F MA M J J A S O N D 20 Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (mm) 0 400 30 Temperature (oC) 20 25 600 Temperature (OC) 400 500 Rainfall (mm) 25 30 Rainfall (mm) 500 600 Temperature (oC) 30 Taiping Temperature (OC) 600 Temperature (oC) Rainfall (mm) Kuala Lumpur Rainfall Temperature 0 J F MAM J J A S O N D Month Figure 1. Relative humidity is high.Chapter 1 . Sumatra wind system in the month of April-May and October-November. sometimes exceeding 80%.2. produces less rain in the West Coast of the Peninsula whilst the North-East Monsoon.2 Climate Malaysia is hot and humid throughout the year. normally from May to September. Average daily temperatures range from a minimum of 25oC to a maximum of 33oC.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 1. 2000) March 2009 1-3 . In the Peninsula. the wettest area is Taiping in Perak whilst the driest is Kuala Pilah in Negeri Sembilan. The South-West Monsoon.

Migration takes place from rural areas to established urban centres and industrial zones where good infrastructure facilities exist. cities and towns may reach 55-60% of the total population. The increase in the total population is not only from births within the country but also from immigrants. From the viewpoint of irrigation.3 Socio Economics Malaysia is formed by 13 states and Federal Territory comprising of Kuala Lumpur.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE (a) South west monsoon (b) North east monsoon (c) Peninsular Malaysia (d) Sabah and Sarawak Figure 1. Urban citizens. including for foods. 2000) 1. In the year 2020. this situation means that planning for the future in Malaysia must envisage a continued increase in population growth in urban areas. with the highest figure in Kuala Lumpur at 2 million. drainage and water resources engineers. Most urban areas are normally found on alluvium plains and coastal/estuarine zones. The government is now promoting new breed of farmers to venture into farming and treat agriculture as a business. will be subject to increased cost of livings. while making their daily life more prosperous. The migration of rural youth has resulted in abandoned farmlands and subsequently non-profitability of the farming enterprises. the Malaysian population is expected to escalate to 30 million and with further urban and industrial growth.2. 1-4 March 2009 .3 Monsoon Influences and Spatial Distribution of Rainfall (DID. With the present estimated total of 28 million people. Putrajaya and Labuan. towns and industrial zones (over 50%).Chapter 1 . the Malaysian population is becoming more concentrated into cities. These new breed of farmers are generally better educated and are ready to use modern technologies and good agricultural practices in their agricultural enterprises.

rearing of livestock and aquaculture. coconut. In descending order of magnitude. tea and floriculture. with the start of the rubber industry. The plantation sector dates back to 1896. Table 1. In Malaysia.3.5 for Peninsula Malaysia. 1. paddy.4 Urban Agriculture Urban agriculture especially growing of vegetables is expected to increase due to its shorter growth duration and proximity to the market in big towns and cities. rubber.1 Oil Palm and Other Plantation Crops Malaysia is currently the world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Flooding will affect crop growth and yield and under prolonged conditions it could lead to total crop failure. coconuts. cocoa and to some extent.2. large tracks of land for urban agriculture are typically found along river reserves. fruits. the acreage planted is as follows: oil palm. Due to the favourable rainfall distribution.Chapter 1 . including highways are observed at numerous locations affecting agriculture. Detrimental effects of construction activities. Figure 1. However.4 Typical View of Urban Agriculture. It was only during the last 50 years that plantation development was accelerated through large-scale investments in the cultivation of the oil palm as one of the approved crops for diversifying the country’s agricultural development (Yusof.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 1. Oil palm cultivation began in 1917. Others include sugarcane. Malaysia is also known as a major producer of rubber. Preference for oil palm has led to a rapid expansion of its planted March 2009 1-5 . oil palm estates and fruit orchards are common sights along the highways as there is a lack of drainage infrastructure available.4 shows a typical view of scattered lands which can be brought under urban agriculture.1 shows the acreage of some major crops grown in the country. cocoa and vegetables. but growth was initially very slow. 2007). 1. criss-crossing the country through major towns and cities. most crops can be grown even under rain-fed condition depending on the agroclimatic zones as shown in Fig 1. Flooding and sedimentation of paddy fields. Figure 1. shallow-rooted crops generally will require frequent irrigation. In terms of crop area. vacant state land and underneath the high voltage transmission grid. coffee. sago.3 MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURE Malaysian agriculture covers growing of crops. Most of these plantation crops are rain-fed. This is a common economic activity of the urban population in many countries.

Regions with a clear and regular dry season Regions with a short.5 329. but also the tremendous contribution that Malaysian palm oil has made to the world food sources.5 0.2 2.2 8.4 190.0 -1.4 -3.5 42.0 1.7 291.0 -1.20 1.3 2.5 -2.0 3.461.l.3 7.4 130. but fairly regular dry season Regions without a regular dry season Areas where histosols predominate 0 100 200 km Figure 1.5 -4. tea and floriculture LEGEND Highland 300-900 m a.1 -2.000 tonnes in 1960 to 15 million tonnes in 2005.2 2.7 163.2 -2.3 10.0 160.5 0.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE areas at the expense of rubber and other crops over the last four decades. Table 1.5 2.3 63.1 -2.5 -3.2 475.l.8 193.0 0.000 hectares in 1960 to 4.9 213.7 6. 1995-2010 (‘000ha).8 6. or by almost 160 times within 45 years – this represents a compound annual growth of 11.0 1.0 1.4 6211.4 111.0 -5.6 -1.0%.2 4. vegetables and tobacco are based on planted area Others include sugarcane.8 -1.0 0.8 Total 5751.5 2.0 1.0 4. Production increased from 94.5 -3.s. Only few countries have that similar ideal temperatures and rainfall patterns despite they are located 1-6 March 2009 .5 Cocoa 1 Pepper Vegetables 1 Fruits Tobacco 1 10. Oil palm areas have increased from 54.5 2 99.2 -2.9 -2.5 6205.8 373.0 6054.1 1.2 175.9 3. which is marked by all-year-round temperatures ranging from 25o to 33o C and evenly distributed rainfall of 2000 mm per year.1 Acreage of Agricultural Land Usage.2 Paddy 672.9 257.6 Coconut 248. Highlands over 900 m a.7 5.5 9.539.395.8 160.0 -1. coffee.0 -3.05 million hectares in 2005.0 -2.0 -1.2 9.5 Agroclimatic Zones of Peninsular Malaysia The oil palm thrives under Malaysia’s tropical climate. reflecting a compounded annual growth of 10.637.93% per year.Chapter 1 .s.5 8.560.2 48.185.7 86.679.2 -3.0 2.4 0.5 Other Note: 1 2 Paddy.1 106.9 3.8 521. These figures show not only the industry’s success.0 450. Crops 1995 2000 2005 2010 Average Annual Growth Rate (%) 19952000200519952000 2005 2010 2010 Rubber 1.5 2. sago.0 -1.131.0 1.0 -0.0 3.0 -1.3 Oil Palm 2.

The main factors that contribute to the gap between actual FFB yield and potential FFB yield are the environment and agro-management practices. This is moisture available between soils “field capacity” up to moisture contents above “permanent wilting point”.000 hectares are found in Peninsular Malaysia. However. development and eventual yield of oil palm are affected by moisture availability. planting with high yielding materials and good agro management practices. The potential Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) yield at prime stage could yield between 46-59 tonnes FFB/ha/yr. The gap between potential and actual FFB yield and oil production is still big.000 hectares or 48 percent of the total paddy areas in the country are provided with extensive irrigation and drainage facilities while the remaining are rain-fed areas (see Table 1. The main objectives of water management and soil moisture conservation in oil palm plantations are to: (a) minimize the impact of drought and flood (b) optimize utilization of rain water and fresh water from stream (c) minimize the impact of saline water intrusion and soil acidity.000 ha by the year 2010 as a result of conversion of paddy land for other land use including urbanization (Table 1. Malaysia and Indonesia consequently emerged as major producers of palm oil.000 hectares distributed all over the country are classified as mini-granary areas. Given a suitable environment. the potential oil palm yield per hectare is 8 times more compared to soybean. such high yields are not sustained and are usually limited to one or two years. Drainage should be carried out if excess water is present beyond the “field capacity”.9 tonnes oil/ha/yr. the average actual FFB yield achieved is between 17 to 26 tonnes/ha/yr and 3. The paddy growing area is expected to decline to about 450.800 ha in 2005. more research and adoption of research findings are needed.Chapter 1 .6 to 8. About 322.000 hectares in Sabah and 15.2 Paddy and Other Food Crops The total physical paddy area (covering irrigated and non-irrigated) in Malaysia is about 672. The ideal soil condition is one that is well aerated with adequate moisture throughout the growth period. 290. Oil palm production in Malaysia is strongly limited by the continued drought of two to three months long that sometime occur in most parts of the country. and soil and water management from provision of irrigation and drainage March 2009 1-7 . 3 times more than rapeseed and 6 times more than sunflower. it is the most productive edible oil crops in the world. The key practices that should be given emphasis in managing oil palm plantations for high yield are: (a) water management and soil moisture conservation (b) fertilizer input (c) harvesting practices (d) pruning practices (e) pests and diseases control and (f) weed control. The targeted goal should be more realistic. Therefore. In other words. which drastically reduces yield.3. In Malaysia. (Kasmuri and Kamarudzaman.000 hectares in Sarawak. Severe drought will result in inflorescence abortion and unfavourable sex differentiation. Thus. oil palm is also grown in coastal lowlands and peat soils which require extensive drainage and even in drought prone areas or undulating land that require soil conservation and irrigation. Oil palm grows well in areas that received minimum of 1200 mm rainfall but distributed evenly throughout the year.1). Some of them experience several months of drought. the harder for roots of the crop to extract water and nutrients for evapotranspiration and growth. 1. 2005).2 tonnes oil/ha/yr. However.1). The drier the soil in the crop root zone. Growth. The objective of irrigation is to fill the soil moisture reservoir in the active root zone up to the field capacity of the soil.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE within 10 degrees latitude of the equator. Producers from about twenty (20) other countries command a production share of less than 3% each. The highest yields achieved in Peninsular Malaysia ranged from 35 to 40 tonnes FFB/ha/yr and 7. Of the irrigated areas. increase of rice production will rely on improved crop care. sustaining at 30 to 35 tonnes FFB/ha/yr for many years before it finally declines with advanced palm age. The most conducive soil-water regime is a condition where soil moisture is readily available.000 hectares of the irrigated paddy areas in Peninsular Malaysia have been designated as main granary areas while another 28.5 to 5. About 217. 17.

Some areas may practice five croppings in two years. The Green Book Programme to promote cultivation of food crops at the community level will be reactivated. Productivity will also be increased through wider application of the latest 1-8 March 2009 . cocoa. the slow transformation of smallholdings into modern farming and agricultural land constraints will be addressed. The productivity. Double cropping of rice will definitely need better irrigation facilities.2 percent. landscape or turf irrigation is gaining popularity with increasing effluence in society. irrigation is required for shallow-rooted crops such as sugarcane. growing rice is now becoming important again such that suitable new lands will need to be developed as paddy fields. With the inclusion of the agro-based industry. Sprinkler and micro irrigation systems are widely used. Floriculture is normally practiced in nurseries and greenhouses or rain shelters.3 Floriculture and Other Crops Malaysia exports a lot of cut flowers to overseas markets. The production of fruits will be undertaken on a large-scale in the fruit production zones using the cluster development approach and concentrating on nine fruit species which have export potential. 1. Future expansion of agriculture will be to land areas at higher elevations with undulating topography. The production of vegetables will focus on high value varieties for local consumption and selected export markets. During the Ninth Plan period.3.3. 2008). However. the Government has adopted the concept of “New Agriculture”. The agriculture sector is expected to grow at a high average annual rate of 5. Even though crops such as coconut.Chapter 1 . In this regard. Provision of irrigation and drainage systems will be required not only for rice cultivation but also for any crop where the soil and water environments are not readily conducive for the optimum growth and productivity of the crops being grown. enhancing incomes of smallholders. This will entail further expansion of large-scale commercial farming and venturing into high quality and value added primary and processing activities as well as unlocking the potential in biotechnology. farmers and fishermen.4 New Agriculture In the Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006-2010).6 per cent per annum through improvements in efficiency and productivity as well as expansion in acreage. improving marketing capability and promoting increased participation of the private sector including entrepreneurial farmers and skilled workers. where pressurized irrigation systems are provided. the overall policy thrusts of the agriculture sector will focus on its reorientation towards greater commercialization and the creation of high-income farmers as well as promotion of greater private sector investment including foreign investment. The food commodities sub-sector is expected to grow at an average rate of 7. efficiency and the income and wealth generating potential of the sector will be enhanced through the wider application of modern farming methods and ICT. tea. strengthening marketing and global networking. tobacco and most vegetables. and improving the service delivery system. coffee. strengthening R&D and innovation. Optimization of land use as well as land consolidation and rehabilitation will be given priority.0 percent. the policy thrusts will be as follows: • • • • • increasing agricultural production including by venturing into new sources of growth with greater private sector participation. 1. sago and some fruits may be grown under rain-fed condition. Apart from agricultural irrigation. The production of rice will be increased to meet the country target of self-sufficiency level of 100 per cent. The issues related to the prevalence of poverty among small-scale farmers. the growth rate is expected to be 5. expanding agro-based processing activities and product diversification.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE facilities. (MOA.

with the Government’s continued emphasis on industrialization programs to boost economic growth. In fact. guava.3 billion m3 in 1980 reached 4.4. mandarin orange. Fruits include papaya. Similarly. haricot bean.NAP3 Commodity Rice Fruits Vegetables 2000 70 94 95 2005 72 117 74 1. Figure 1. 5. The present annual total consumptive use of water is estimated to be 10. Water is used for a variety of purposes.1 kg in 2010 representing an annual increase of 1. Balance of trade. The per capita fruit consumption is expected to increase from 49.2 Self-sufficiency Levels in Food Commodities. 54% in Sarawak and the remaining 20% in Sabah. From the year 2000. 2000-2010 (%) .4 billion m3 by the year 2000. the local production of rice is expected to meet about 90 % of the domestic demand by 2010. yardlong bean.500 million m3 per year in Sarawak and 3. for vegetables.2. Irrigation water demand increased from 7. ginger. planned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry is a plan to reduce the nation’s agro food trade deficit through increasing commodity production which could be produced in Malaysia to decrease imports and increase exports.400 million m3 for irrigation and 4.4 IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE ISSUES 1. Water resources development and on-farm irrigation and drainage infrastructure are essential to achieve the above output target for fruit production which is expected to reach 2. star fruit.4 million tonnes in 2000 to about 3. The production of coconut.55 million tonnes by the year 2010 as compared to the 2005 output of 1. banana. industrial and domestic water usage continued to increase.Chapter 1 . Consumptive water use is largely for irrigation. durian. 1.9 kg in 1995 to 65.6 shows the rapid increase in the water demand ratio in the industrial and domestic sectors compared with irrigation needs in the agriculture sector.8 billion m3 by the year 2000.900 million m3 for domestic and industrial water supply. Table 1. the granary areas have experienced a loss of irrigated area due to conversion to urban land use during the past 20 years and are projected to lose more in future. The estimated domestic and industrial water demand of 1. brassica and tapioca. industrial and domestic water supply and to a minor extent for mining and fisheries. lady’s finger. corn.4 billion m3 in 1980 to 10. The commodities include chilli. Greater emphasis will be given to increasing productivity of existing irrigation schemes through the adoption of the latest technologies and promotion of local research and development efforts.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE technology and knowledge-based production systems.1 Competition for Water Use 2010 90 138 108 The total annual surface water resource is estimated to be 566. cucumber. jackfruit and cempedak. The demand in these sectors is expected to constitute about 48% of the total 20 billion m3 by the year 2020 (NAP3).2 million tonnes in 2010 as a result of population increase despite the declining per capita consumption of rice. the annual per capita consumption is March 2009 1-9 .4. mango and rambutan.700 million m3 per year in Peninsular Malaysia. sweet potato. The prospect for fruit and vegetable production is bright due to the expected increase in the demand for domestic food products. tomato. pineapple.51 million tonnes. Under the National Agricultural Policy.2 Future Scenarios and Aims for Food Production The domestic consumption of rice is projected to increase from 2.300 million m3 per year in Sabah. rice and feed for animal and fish also need to be increased. The self-sufficiency level of food commodities target for 2000-2010 is as shown in Table 1.000 million m3 per year and of this 26% is in Peninsular Malaysia. cabbage. Groundwater resource is estimated to have a safe yield of 14.8%. watermelon. The increase in production is targeted to come from higher productivity in the granary areas.

such low efficiencies can no longer be tolerated.Chapter 1 . On the former. The importance of stakeholder participation is also recognized and a major concerted effort is currently in progress to promote the establishment of Water Users Groups (WUG) in all the granary areas. In this respect.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE expected to increase at a rate of 1. Where the conditions are favourable. the vegetable production is expected to increase from 771. there are plans to provide more efficient on-farm facilities and to introduce water-recycling systems where they are technically and economically viable. 1-10 March 2009 . The improvement of irrigation water efficiency would involve a sustained programme of works and activities involving a combination of structural and nonstructural measures. with the latter playing a dominant role. many of the water allocation conflicts between agriculture and non-agriculture sectors may have to be resolved through a policy of reconciliation. groundwater resources could be developed to supplement surface water resources for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes.6 Annual Water Demand Projection (EPU.9 5 0 1980 2000 2020 Figure 1.8 % per annum to reach 63. Every effort should be made to improve water use efficiency or to cut down undue losses as compared to the construction of massive new capital works. In water stressed areas.6 kg in 2010. the irrigation efficiency is about 50% for the larger schemes while some of the smaller schemes may be operating at an efficiency of less than 40%. To meet this demand. There had been considerable investment by the government in the development of water resources for all the eight granary areas in the country during the period 1960-1990. irrigation efficiency is expected to increase to a higher level of about 60-65 %. there are already signs of water stress in some of the irrigation schemes which are even more apparent during the drought years such as the 1998 drought associated with the El-Nino phenomena affecting the Asia Pacific region. On the latter. 2000) The increase in food production as described above can only be achieved if there are adequate measures to develop and manage water resources to meet the present and future need of the sector. Through these efforts. It is expected that in the near future. 25 20. There is a pressing need to improve the water use efficiency of all irrigation projects in the country.3 thousands tonnes in 2005 to a projected output of 1.8 15 10 Industrial and Domestic Irrigation 8. At present.0 Billion m3 20 14. Hence in the near future. The irrigation sector is expected to face mounting pressures from the domestic and industrial water supply sector over its share of the water resources in a river basin wide context. real-time monitoring system will be installed to operate the source and control facilities in these irrigation projects to cut down losses and to maximize the use of effective rainfall. these tertiary canal based WUG will be fully operational in all the granary areas of the country. there is a need to develop inter-basin or even interstate transfer of water subject to technical and economic feasibility.6 million tonnes in 2010. Further capital investment will be required in order to improve the reliability of the irrigation water supply in a number of the granary areas. In water-stressed basin.

flowers and fruits where feasible. Rice production in Malaysia has been set at 90% self sufficiency level for the year of 2010. and also the increase in water demand from non-agricultural sectors. dynamic. prudent equipment maintenance and proper irrigation water management. The promotion of new irrigation practices. in view of the anticipated increase in cropping intensity. A critical review of the existing agricultural policies led to the formulation in 1998 the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3). There is a need to develop new water resources through rainwater harvesting. a detailed guideline compatible with local agric-environment for the design. The use of micro-irrigation with fertigation technology generally results in a significant yield improvement over traditional irrigation practices. It is envisaged that in line with advancement in farming technology. there is still substantial scope for improvement. The effective and sustainable use of water for agriculture has become a global priority of vital importance. Cameron Highlands in Pahang. So far. operation and management of various irrigation systems is very limited. administrators and crop growers. March 2009 1-11 . The NAP3 contains policies and strategies aimed at strengthening the sector’s robustness to changes in external factors and enhance its global competitiveness as well as ensure the sustainable growth of Malaysian agriculture. economic and environmental sustainability in the irrigation sector. Irrigation technologies are needed to produce cash crops. requiring urgent and immediate solutions in view of intensifying competition. which covers the planning period of 1998 to year 2010.2 kg of rice per cubic metre of water) of their existing and planned future irrigation schemes. Good irrigation system performance is the result of a carefully considered system design. The impact of drainage so far can thus best be characterized as ‘mitigating’. which would alter the image of the agricultural sector towards a modern. The demand for water will be under increasing pressure in agriculture and food sector from the other competing water users. cropping intensity as well as improvement in efficiency and productivity. technologies and improved management systems can ensure the social. Food policy directed towards production to meet rising demand as well as reducing import. recycling of water and groundwater resources for agriculture to overcome water shortages. This issue underpins the necessity of a new manual for irrigation engineers. Malaysia has suitable environments for the cultivation of major crops. Irrigation and water managers must implement the necessary measures to improve the water use efficiency (currently at a rather low level of about 50%) and the production efficiency of water (currently at less than 0. This can be achieved through new acreage.3 Challenges for the Future The great challenge for the coming decades will be to increase food production with less water and land resources. On the other hand.4. professionals. vegetables. automation of some irrigation structures with real time data will be greatly needed. agriculture was designated to be the third engine of growth. The main agenda on food production in the country over the coming decade is to focus on the transformation process. They need guidelines for designing their irrigation and drainage systems to suit their local environments. Drainage helps to protect agricultural investment.5 to 8 tonnes of paddy per hectare per planting season in the designated granary areas of the country where the soil and water conditions are fairly similar.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 1.g. commercial and world competitive entity. However. Under the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005). The highland areas e. large-scale. There is a big variation in the average crop yields of irrigated schemes in Malaysia ranging from 3. crop production in many cultivable lands may be hampered as a result of water logging. Lojing in Kelantan and areas surrounding rice granaries are suitable for vegetables and horticulture (flowers and fruits). Strategies to reduce water input under water saving technologies can play a significant role to increase the water productivity in rice irrigation systems. The major problems of crop growers are the lack of knowledge in good irrigation practices and adaptation of the appropriate technologies for their local conditions.Chapter 1 . The future challenge for higher water use efficiency is felt even more.

water. social problems are aided or solved. new jobs become available. reduced certainty of supply and increased price of irrigation water. to its conveyance and the final distribution at the farm level. Agricultural drainage is an integral component of irrigation. In addition to improving productivity and global competitiveness. The more that remains in nature. Since the early 70’s local researchers have tried to solve problems associated with adoption of the technology that is appropriate to local conditions. it demonstrates a successful transfer of university-based knowledge and the realization of a dream. For upland irrigation. Thus. This "integrated" definition is a major step forward and a departure from previous modernization approaches executed along disciplinary lines of actions. it is possible to produce more food while securing water resources sustainability if we introduce new technologies and approaches to both water and irrigation management. new patents and products emerge and the economy is stimulated. Modern techniques are needed for high value crops. To remain economically and environmentally sustainable. social and environmental costs. unless irrigation modernization is perceived and executed under such a multi-disciplinary umbrella approach it is bound to fail. a large portion of the available scientific knowledge as well as the practical experiences to date is derived from the arid areas. on Bris soils for tobacco cultivation and also extensively used in nurseries. 1999).4 Modernization and Need for Research and Development Application Modernization of irrigation system is a process of technical and managerial upgrading (as opposed to mere rehabilitation) of irrigation schemes combined with institutional reforms. if required. a more efficient water reuse. among others. Malaysian rice growers need to increase productivity. research findings and breakthroughs in R&D are expected to contribute immensely to knowledge-based technologies and the K-economy. with disregard of other and much needed complementary players. it is widely recognized that its Research and Development facilities must progress in tandem with the massive investments made to generate research output." Clearly. internationally and locally. supplementary irrigation costs reductions and development of new water sources at lower economical. The scope of irrigation research is very wide. Cosgrove and Rijsberman (2000) summarized the role that irrigated agriculture play as: "The more food we produce with the same amount of water. Competition from increasing industrial and urban water demand causes reduced availability. whenever a university graduate leaves the university and secures a place in industry. greenhouses and by vegetable farmers in the Cameron Highlands.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 1. Micro irrigation trials were conducted on sandy tin-tailings for orchards trees. human lives are enriched – new knowledge is shared. economics and environment) and water delivery service to farms (FAO.4.Chapter 1 . at both the national and local levels. The practice of precision farming will ensure high water productivity. the greater the local food security and the more water remains for household and industrial uses. Through research programmes and efforts in technology transfer and outreach. Knowledge comes from research and experience. with the objective to improve resource utilization (labour. the less the competition for water. Malaysian researchers have studied various problems related to irrigation 1-12 March 2009 . A pressing issue is the big share of the nation’s fresh water withdrawal. improved water delivery in quantity. coherent programs on research and development in irrigation and drainage. quality and timing. In order for Malaysia to become an industrialized nation by the year 2020. Efficient organizational structure could serve as a vehicle to convey well-articulated. Irrigation in Malaysia is mainly for growing rice and drainage is mostly in the coastal areas and peat agricultural land. A lack of inventions and innovations will sooner or later hinder its progress. To be of real benefit it should be aimed at gathering the fundamental understanding of a given phenomenon and should be approached in a multidisciplinary and integrated manner. This includes. Current R&D and extension programmes aim to improve water use efficiency by increasing yield and reducing water use. the less the need for infrastructure development. Modernization implies changes that may occur at all operational levels of irrigation schemes from harvesting and capturing of water supply. profitability and water use efficiency. Technology transfer occurs in many ways.

TAPIOCA AND HORTICULTURE. MALAYSIA IS TURNING TO MODERNIZED AGRICULTURE. VEGETABLES. HIGHLY MECHANIZED AND OPTIMUM USE OF LAND AND WATER THROUGH CROPPING INTENSIFICATION AND DIVERSIFICATION. in particular) should therefore keep up with the current development in irrigation and drainage technologies. 1. FOR MANY CASH CROPS AND INCREASINGLY POPULAR IN SCARCE WATER AREAS. If successful. fibre.Chapter 1 . TEA. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND. there is a further limitation in water resources availability against competing uses. planners. abandoned farm lands. VEGETABLES. IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER IRRIGATED CROPS. We need to manage water better and better if societies are to survive. enhance and utilize the skills and capabilities of people and institutions at all levels . SOY BEANS.5 THE WAY FORWARD The main target in the agricultural development under the Ninth Malaysia Plan and beyond is to increase the commercial and modern farming and for agro entrepreneurs to boost their productivity and income. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM IS SUITABLE FOR ALMOST ALL UPLAND CROPS. The adoption and practice of modern irrigation and drainage technologies will support this policy through optimum utilization of the limited natural resources while conserving the environment. the result is more effective with people and for institutions better able to provide products and services on a sustainable basis. Apparently the choice of irrigation systems is based on suitability and affordability. Global climate change will bring major. THE MAIN CROPS CURRENTLY ENVISAGED UNDER IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE ARE RICE. the right techniques for managing and operating and acceptable cost will be in the forefront. Kay and Terwisscha (2004) and Shahrizaila (2003) quoted UNDP’s general definition of capacity development as the sum of efforts needed to nurture. TOBACCO. the way water is managed. Every professional currently engaged in agricultural development (engineers. The level of technical know-how of our practicing engineers and the quality of land use and hydrologic data. low return crops. need to be upgraded in readiness to develop and achieve sound design practice and operational procedures to deal effectively with the existing and future agricultural water management systems. March 2009 1-13 . There are a number of constraints to be overcome in order to realize the full potential of the agriculture sector. nationally. Some of the work are published in refereed journals and presented in international and national conferences (Amin. Building capacity involves empowering people and organizations to solve their own problems through education and training. New ways and higher efficiencies of water use in agriculture will be needed to meet the needs for food. These include uneconomic-sized holdings. shortage of farm labour. 2005). regionally and internationally – so that they can better progress towards sustainable development.locally. crop response to water and micro irrigation systems. This calls for adoption of modern technologies in agricultural production. efficiency and productivity of water use at every step. BECAUSE OF THE NEED FOR STANDING WATER FOR WEED CONTROL. traditional methods of production. For irrigated agriculture. COFFEE AND OTHER FODDER CROPS. AS WELL AS. fundamental changes in the way agriculture is run.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE and drainage for crop production. MICROIRRIGATION SYSTEM IS WELL SUITED FOR PERENNIAL TREES AND CROPS. environmentalists and agriculturists. in terms of sufficiency and reliability. WHICH MEANS COMMERCIALLY ORIENTED AND PROFIT MOTIVATED FARMING. scarcity of suitable new lands and inadequate access to appropriate technology. processing and marketing of the agricultural produce. in particular. SOYA BEAN. PADDY IRRIGATION SYSTEM. FRUITS ORCHARDS. They should accept new and challenging roles of not only designing satisfactory water supply facilities but also of controlling and reducing pollution in rural catchments and receiving waters. Issues on the suitable irrigation method. SURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN PADDY CULTIVATION IS WIDELY PRACTICED IN MALAYSIA. markets and supports. We need to examine losses. feed and fuels in the next few decades. soil conservation measures. MAIZE.


GRID-newsletter. Developing capacity for irrigation and drainage. UPM Inaugural Lecture Series No. Department of Irrigation and Drainage. Making water everybody's business. EPU. Ninth Malaysia Plan. MSM (2005). 1-15 . W. Palm Oil Production through Sustainable Plantations. Ministry of Agriculture. (2004). (2000). series 58. Cosgrove. Role of Action Research in Oil Palm Plantations. Shahrizaila (2003). M. Prime Ministers Department. Kasmuri Sukardi and Kamarudzaman Aribi. Engineering Agricultural Water Management towards Precision Farming. Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia. (2005). ICID-CIID Newsletter 2003/3. IPTRID Workshop. Lipid Sci. Managing Water for Sustainable Agriculture.Chapter 1 . Irrigation and Drainage Paper. DID. Technol. Malaysia. 109 (2007) 289-295. (2000). Malaysia. F. UK. London . and Terwisscha van Scheltinga.MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE REFERENCES Amin. March 2009 Eur. MANCID Kuala Lumpur. Earthscan Publications. UPM Press. 87 August 2005. Guidelines for the transfer of management of irrigation systems. National Water Resources Study 2050. MOA (2008). Kay. Yusof Basiron (2007). FAO. J. Agriculture’s Direction. Rijsberman. (1999).. (2000).

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Administration .Part A Introduction & Administration Chapter 2 .

........ 2-7 2..3 2..3 2.................................2............................................................................................2.....................3....................................3....2 DESIGN ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA .....................................4 Density of Irrigation and Drainage System ..........2..........................2. 2-1 2.......................... 2-19 2............................................................................... 2-12 2........ 2-16 2............2............2....................... 2-4 Drainage ...........1.............3................................2 Irrigation Water Requirement ......................................3......1 Ownership of Water ... 2-1 2.....................5 Environmental Protection..........................2.......................3.................2 Drainage and Irrigation .........4....................................................... 2-16 Review of Existing Legislation ...................... 2-8 2........3.....3...........................1 March 2009 Authority Requirement .....3...............................2...............Chapter 2 .................... 2-19 2....1 INTRODUCTION ...........4 Crop Drainage Requirement..........1 Federal Government ......5 Operation and Maintenance .....3......................................6 Irrigation System ......................................3 Performance Indicators ....2...............2.............6 Farmers/ Stakeholders Participation.........ADMINISTRATION Table of Contents Table of Contents ......................1.... 2-11 2........ 2-iii 2.2 Land Resource............................................................. 2-3 2.................................4.3......3............ 2-i List of Tables .........................2..............3......2......2 Application for Use Water .1..........................2..........................3....2 Irrigation....................4.......................2........ 2-12 2.........................................................2........... 2-18 AUTHORITY REQUIREMENT AND DOCUMENTATION ..... 2-16 2... 2-18 2.......... 2-18 2..........................3........................................2..... 2-2 2......3 Drainage of Tidal Lands................3 Application to Import Earth...........1 Application for Land Development ...............................2...........1.1............................1 2............1 2....5 Water Resources Quality ........................................................................... 2-16 2..............1......3.............................................................. 2-13 Laws on Irrigation and Drainage.... 2-7 Roles and Responsibilities ............................. 2-12 2..............1.............2.......... 2-18 2.............3....... 2-15 2. 2-19 2...........................1 Water Resource .................................................1 2...................................................4...............................3 Drainage and Irrigation ....2......................................................... 2-16 2............4 Water Resources Quantity ................................... 2-4 2......................4 Flood Mitigation for Agricultural Area ......................3 Irrigation Water Losses ............3.....................2...........................................................1...............2 State Government....................................2...........2 Drainage of Organic Soils .........................1.......................5 Drainage System .................. 2-11 2........................ 2-6 2...................... 2-9 2.....3 Water Resources Management.........1 Crop Water Requirement ........................... 2-1 2........... 2-iii List of Figures .....4 Control of Water Table ........................................... 2-11 INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK ......................3................................................................3..2......................................3...2 2.......................... 2-9 2.. 2-17 2..........1.................. 2-1 2.............2........... 2-3 2.......................2..... 2-19 2............................................1.......... 2-16 2.........................................2..................................................................................... 2-19 2-i ....4 Environmental Management ...3........

...4........4 Requirement During/After Construction ......1 Drawings ........................................... 2-20 2..............................2...........2 2....................................................3........3...................................4................................ Guidelines and Orders ..................................................... 2-22 REFERENCES ...................................................................................3....1.................. 2-20 2........... 2-21 Submission Requirement .....5.......................2 Environmental Conservation ........................................5..........2 Submission to Import Soil.............5.... 2-23 APPENDIX 2A: Legislation....1....................7 Requirements of the Department of Environment ........................4............4..2.............. 2-21 2.................................. 2-21 2.... 2-20 2.....5 Works Related to Utility/Services.............................5................................4........4....... 2-A1 2-ii March 2009 ..................................ADMINISTRATION 2.............3 2. 2-22 2..............................................1 Land Clearing ............. 2-20 Documentation ..........Chapter 2 ...5 2.............3 Special Applications ........ 2-22 Geographical Information System (GIS) ...... 2-21 2. 2-21 2...........................1 Public Safety Consideration.....................4 2.............4...6 Operation and Maintenance .................................4........... 2-22 2...................... 2-22 2.......................................... 2-20 2............................5.............................. 2-20 2........3 Land Development .4..............1.......................................................5...........................3.....................2 Reports and Manuals ........... 2-21 OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA ...............3...2 Land Levelling or Grading.......................................1..........................1 Submission for Water Extraction ................................ 2-22 2.........4.............5...........

6 Communication facilities criteria 2-6 2.11 Radius of curvature for carrier channels 2-10 2.1 Irrigation module for transplanted rice 2-2 2.2 Irrigation module for direct seeding 2-3 2.ADMINISTRATION List of Tables Table Description Page 2.14 Density of irrigation and drainage system for rice cultivation 2-11 2.13 Performance indicators of irrigation and drainage systems 2-11 2.7 Design storm period and duration 2-7 2.12 Areal reduction factors for affluent channels 2-10 2.1 Description Flowchart for application to use water March 2009 Page 2-19 2-iii .Chapter 2 .5 Open channels criteria 2-6 2.9 Drainage design criteria for peat area 2-8 2.15 Enforcement authority related to Irrigation and Drainage 2-15 List of Figures Figure 2.3 Rainfall analysis criteria 2-4 2.10 Collector drain design criteria 2-9 2.8 Drainage criteria for acid-sulphate area 2-8 2.4 Water resource quality 2-5 2.

ADMINISTRATION (This page is deliberately left blank) 2-iv March 2009 .Chapter 2 .

Other Chapters in the Manual give more detailed requirements for individual system components. high water table.2. It varies from month to month. The design acceptance criteria are requirements that shall be adhered to in planning and design of I&D systems of new areas or upgrading of I&D systems in existing schemes. Under the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3). an efficient approval system is required for a smooth project implementation. latitude. they shall be adopted as a long-term goal and progressive upgrading shall be directed towards that goal. A uniform standards and practices of application and documentation are essential and must be available for this to materialise. Irrigation and drainage are two important elements under water planning required for sustainable agricultural development. I&D projects for instance. soil moisture. Authority approval requirements are part and parcel of the implementation of any particular projects related to land. the amount of irrigation water to be supplied depends on the crops grown and the effective rainfall. water and environment which the States and/or Federal governments have interests. The criteria in this Chapter apply generally to all I&D systems. March 2009 2-1 . humidity. irrigation and drainage systems must be planned and managed carefully and this depends a lot on the institutional and legal framework. 2. the crop water need is also termed evapotranspiration (ETc) and its amount is expressed in depth of water layer per unit of time (mm/day). The approval may also be required at various stages of its implementation.Chapter 2 . The efficient use and management of water in agriculture will play a role for achieving sustainable water resources. institutional and legal matters. available at surface and underground. 2. solar radiation and wind speed. air temperature. ETc depends on various factors such as type of crops. in the right time is the way forward. Inefficient irrigation will affect crop growth.1 ADMINISTRATION INTRODUCTION Although Malaysia is blessed with bountiful water. are projects where such approval is needed. Thus.1 Crop Water Requirement Water losses to the atmosphere by plants are through transpiration and evaporation processes. which will limit the ability to meet these requirements. Although there are some limitations such as funding constraints. Therefore. water wastage and it may lead to water scarcity crisis during a prolonged dry spell. Therefore. The total amount of water required in any given period is the total water used by crops plus losses. any irrigation system should be designed to supply the right amount of water at the right place and time.1. growth stage. it was formulated that agricultural growth will be pursued through moderate expansion of land and further intensification of land area usage but with systematic and strategic irrigation and drainage planning. Ideally. Ideally. good management of the resources is needed to ensure its continuous supply.1 Irrigation The objective of irrigation is to fill the soil moisture reservoir in the active root zone up to the soil field capacity. Irrigation will provide water to replenish soil moisture deficit in the soil moisture reservoir to field capacity or to the prescribed standing water in case of rice to avoid water stress. On the other hand. design and management approaches as documented in the present Manual.2 DESIGN ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 2. Providing right amount of water to the crops at the right place.ADMINISTRATION 2 2. flooding and crop harvesting risk might be the result of inefficient drainage. as well as authority requirements and documentations to ensure a successful implementation of I&D Projects. This Chapter provides the aspects of design criteria. Irrigation is the largest consumer of water in Malaysia.2.

Table 2.1. Pre-saturation 20. 2-2 March 2009 . Double Cropping System a. the Penman-Monteith equation is normally used to obtained crop reference evapotranspiration ETo. sprinkler irrigation or micro irrigation.6 79 0.1 Irrigation Module for Transplanted Rice Description Irrigation Module mm/d ac/cusec L/s/ha 1. Typically. Detailed computations are shown in other chapters of this Manual.Chapter 2 . the irrigation module for direct seeding methods is shown in Table 2. 2.ADMINISTRATION For the purpose of estimating crop water requirement. surface irrigation.0 30 2. Estimated values of Kc for various types of crops are discussed in other chapters of this Manual.4 a. or • Wet Bed – Wet Seeding.1.2 b.9 2. transplanting or direct seeding method shall be adopted in planning and design of irrigation system. Pre-saturation 10. Detailed computations are shown in other chapters.2. The term “irrigation module” is often used to indicate the irrigation water requirements.2 a) Irrigation Water Requirement Rice For rice.0 60 1.0 to 12. Direct seeding method to be used in planning and design of irrigation system can be any of these techniques: • Dry Bed – Dry Seeding (rainfall or irrigation induced germination method) • Dry Bed – Wet Seeding. Crop coefficient (Kc) is used to relate ETo and ETc. Single Cropping System In direct seeding method. b) Other Crops Irrigation water requirements are computed for different types of crops to be grown as well as the irrigation methods used for applying water either by sub-irrigation.2. Typically. the sequence of water supply. the irrigation modules for transplanted rice with 30 days pre-saturation period are as shown in Table 2. volume and duration depends on the method of direct seeding.33 b.0 50 to 60 1. Supplementary 10.2 to 1. Supplementary 7. It is the number of acres or hectares served by one cusec or litre per second of irrigation water.

9 c. Second Build-up (7 to 10 days) 20 30 2. a) Direct Rainfall The rainfall analysis that must be carried out shall be in accordance with Table 2. Dry Bed – Dry Seeding (Rainfall induced germination method) Normal (100 days) 2.33 10 60 1.Chapter 2 .2 a. Three categories of losses.2 Irrigation Modules for Direct Seeding (Chan and Mohd Nor.93 b. 2. Dry Bed – Dry Seeding (Irrigation induced germination method) Third Build-up (7 to 14 days) d. river and ground water are the three main sources of irrigation supply that can be considered.1.2. Second Build-up (7 to 14 days) 8 76 0.ADMINISTRATION Table 2.6 10 60 1. First Build-up (7 to 10 days) 25 24 2.2 1.4 Water Resources Quantity Direct rainfall. River flow is often regulated/sustained by dam upstream. March 2009 2-3 .2 a. Wet Bed .3. 10 60 1. Dry Bed – Wet Seeding Normal (100 days) 4.9 b. Second Build-up (7 to 14 days) 25 24 2. First Build-up (7 to 14 days) 8 76 0.2 a.33 c. The amount of losses is reflected by the efficiency of the irrigation systems.9 b.9 c.3 Irrigation Water Losses Irrigation water is loss during transfer of water from the source to the crops or fields to be irrigated.2. Normal (100 days) 3.9 b. 1993) Description Estimated Irrigation Module mm/d ac/cusec L/s/ha a.9 c. 14 43 1. Second Build-up (14 days) 25 24 2. First Build-up (Pre-saturation) (7 to 14 days) 25 24 2. 10 60 1. Normal (100 days) 2. First Build-up (7 to 14 days) 8 76 0.Wet Seeding Third Build-up (14 days) d. are: • Storage losses • Conveyance losses • Application losses. 20 30 2. which shall be considered in planning and design of irrigation systems.1.

The main is intended to convey irrigation water to the whole irrigation area. 2. The most important characteristics of irrigation water are: • Total concentration of soluble salts. Generally.3(R-200) + 120 b) River Flow The 5 and 10 years return periods.1.6 Irrigation System A main-distributaries system approach shall be adopted for the planning and design of irrigation system. Effective rainfall Mean monthly rainfall (R) < 200mm/month – Monthly effective rainfall (RE) = 0. Some of the water resource quality standards to be adopted in planning and design of I&D projects are in accordance with Table 2. Mean monthly rainfall 15 to 20 years rainfall record 2. • Proportion of sodium to other cations.3 Rainfall Analysis Criteria Type of Analysis Criteria 1. distributaries and related facilities. The three main low flow characteristics are duration. 2-4 March 2009 . land subsidence or degradation of the quality of the groundwater. magnitude and frequency of occurrence of the low flows.1. • Bicarbonate concentration. the quantity of groundwater to be abstracted shall not exceed the natural recharge capability or safe yield of the aquifer to avoid any adverse effects such as progressive depletion of the water resources.ADMINISTRATION Table 2.Chapter 2 . any water with low salts concentration is suitable but this depends upon the crop and soil requirements. Generally an irrigation system consists of intake.6R Mean monthly rainfall (R) > 200mm/month – Monthly effective rainfall (RE) = 0.5 Water Resources Quality Its mineral constituents govern the suitability of water for irrigation. 2.4. In general. • Concentration of potentially toxic elements. An effective irrigation system is planned and designed to convey the right amount of water from the source to the field/crops within the specified time.2. The distributaries are intended to convey and distribute irrigation water to the field/crop.2. respectively. c) Groundwater Groundwater resource shall be exploited in places where surface water is inadequate or of limited quantity and economically not viable. conveyance. annual 7-day low flow characteristics of the river shall be adopted in planning and design of irrigation water resource for small and large areas.

a storage weir or any other gated structure with a provision of spillway is constructed across a river to store water. The selection of the type of intake facilities depends on: • location. Boron (mg/l) < 1. 2. The criteria in Table 2. a solid barrier such as a dam. size and topography of the area • elevation of the lowest river water level and other river condition • yield of river with respect to the maximum water requirement. the maximum allowable velocity to be adopted in planning and design is 1. the unlined or lined canal system shall be adopted. Manual of Water Data Standard. Pump Stations : Pump intake facility shall be adopted when the field level of irrigation area is higher than the low flow water level of the river/ water source and the low flow discharge is much more and adequate for the irrigation water requirement as well as for the river’s maintenance. b) Conveyance Conveyance canal or pipeline (non-pressurized or pressurized) carries the total irrigation requirement for the whole irrigated area.75 for tolerant crops. 3.Chapter 2 . nuts and beans < 2. Direct Irrigation by Gravity : In this system. c) Distributaries Distributaries are canals taking water from conveying canal or pipeline. 4.4 Water Resource Quality Parameters 1.25 for fruits. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) < 20 unless special soil management is practised.50 for cereals and vegetables < 3.5m/s. Residual sodium carbonate (mg/l) < 66 is preferable but should not exceed 132. Reservoir Irrigation : In this system. March 2009 2-5 .5 are applicable for the planning and design of distributaries. For open channel. This system shall be adopted when the water level in the river/ water source is much higher than the field level.5. water from the river is directly diverted for irrigation. For pipeline (non-pressurized). This system shall be adopted when the low flows of the river is much less than the daily irrigation requirement.ADMINISTRATION Table 2. The criteria to be used in planning and design of open channel are in accordance with Table 2. 8 to 12 and not exceeding 16 for tolerant crops. Source : Water Quality and Sediment Yield.1977 a) Intake Facilities Gravity/direct or/and pumped irrigation shall be adopted in planning and design of intake facilities. Electrical Conductivity (mmhos/cm) Standard < 4 for beans and most vegetables. but the total annual yield of the river must be more than the annual irrigation and river’s flow maintenance requirement.

6 to 1. 2-6 March 2009 .3 m minimum (major) 4.Chapter 2 . higher yield and better soil condition.45 m (small canal and distributaries) 0. These facilities are particularly important in areas with uneven topographic condition. other agricultural activities. Clay loams – 1. An ideal drainage system is one that is able to maintain a desirable level of water table and be able to drain out any excess water within a desirable period. besides having small earthen ridges.2 m minimum (Bund not used for farm road) Less than 1. good operation and maintenance.5:1 or 2:1 (ordinary condition) Flatter than 2:1 for poor soil properties 1:1 to 1. Freeboard 0.2 Drainage Good drainage is necessary for better water and farm management.3 to 1.0 m/s and Stiff clay – 1. farm roads shall be provided along canals or pipelines and for every two to three rows of tree crops.3 m wide (Bund used for farm road) 1. Velocity 0.5:1 3.3 cumecs or 1000 cusecs) 1 to 2 2. 1980) Variables Unlined Canals Criteria Lined Canals Criteria 1.ADMINISTRATION Table 2. In paddy fields. Earthen drains are normally constructed.50 m (larger canals) 0. (Sandy loams – 0. Table 2.6.5m/s On-Farm Facilities On-farm facilities such as field control or off-take structures are required for better on-farm water management.3 m wide minimum (Bund used for farm road) 1. Ratio of bottom width to depth 2:1 (very small canal) 5:1 (canals with capacity of about 28.2 m minimum (Bund not used for farm road) 5. Design loading 5 tonnes (minor) 10 to 12 tonnes (major) 2.6 Farm Roads Criteria for Paddy Areas Variables 1.0m for larger canals) 4. Generally. quaternary ditches are also essential in improving water management. Location Criteria Along canals and drains 2. e) Farm Roads Good network of farm roads is essential for good operation and maintenance of irrigation system as well as.5 Open Channels Criteria (DID. Top width 4.2 m/s) d) 4.6 m/s.2.10 to 0.25 to 0. Lay bye 200 m to 300 m interval (not more 500 m) 3. Bund top width and berm 4. Some temporary floodings or ponding of part of the area for a duration that would not result in unacceptable crop damage are allowed.2 m/s. Side slopes 1. Criteria to be adopted in planning and design of farm roads for paddy cultivation are in accordance with Table 2.20 m (small canal and distributaries) 0.

Chapter 2 . Cocoa. 5.7 Design Storm Return Period and Duration Crop Type Design Duration (hr) Return Period (yr) 72 5 yrs for minor drains 1. etc • Land usage variables such as type of crops and farming practices • Environmental variables such as water quality standards to be maintained • Management variables such as operation and maintenance and financial arrangement. Rubber.2.1 Crop Drainage Requirement The main aim of drainage is removal of excess irrigation water and storm water runoff to prevent flooding and crop damage. Sorghum. structures. Maize. Pineapple. Surface drainage is the removal of excess water from the surface of the land while sub-surface drainage is the control of ground water levels through the removal of sub-surface water. 2. Table 2. Development of these areas for agriculture requires proper management practices to avoid any undesirable effects to the environment as well as crop loss. Tobacco. Banana.2. Generally drainage requirements for crops are: • To avoid sea water intrusion into agricultural land • In low lying coastal areas. 48 Papaya 4.2.7. The design storm return period and duration to be adopted in planning and design of agricultural drainage shall be in accordance with Table 2.ADMINISTRATION The determination of the optimal planning and design requirements depends on the following variables: • System variables such as drain types. Orchards (collector and branch) and 2. the drainage module to be adopted in planning and design of minor drains is between 60 mm/day (10 ac/cusec) to 30 mm/day (20 ac/cusec). to maintain the water table at depths to be decided by local requirements • To improve access to the area for maintenance purposes as well as for rural welfare. Rice 72 (Partial submergence) 25 yrs for major drains 48 (Total submergence) (main) 3. March 2009 2-7 .2 Drainage of Organic Soils Two types of organic soils commonly encountered and widely developed for agriculture are acidsulphate soil and peat soil.2. For rice cultivation. The term “drainage module” is often used to indicate the crop drainage requirement. Oil palm. 2. vegetables 24 Very low tolerance and should not be planted in flood prone areas. Coffee. Coconut. to lower the water table as low as possible and maintain it • In inland areas rising above highest tide levels. The two broad categories of agricultural drainage to be adopted in planning and design are surface drainage and sub-surface drainage. matching irrigation system requirement.

the soil pH declines to 3. 2. Non-rice 1.6 m 3. Top width shall be 3. 2. Design discharge a) Normal (long-term average) b) Peak(1:5 years extreme) 2. 3.5 million hectares are in Sarawak.0 2-8 March 2009 .9.6 million hectares of peat soils of which about 1. Irrigation water should be from a non acid-sulphate area.0 mm/d 3.ADMINISTRATION a) Acid-sulphate Soils Along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia considerable areas of land are composed of recent deposits of marine and brackish water alluvium containing high amounts of sulphur compounds. and the remaining 1. Table 2.6 m minimum with 3:1 side slopes.8. Groundwater level (Below ground level) 0. then producing sulphuric acid and sulphates of iron and aluminium.9 Drainage Design Criteria for Peat Soil Area Variables Shallow-rooting Crops Deep-rooting Crops 1.8 Drainage Criteria for Acid-Sulphate Areas Rice 1. Field drainage system for all crops shall be planned and design in accordance with Table 2. As a result. Spoil is obtained from excavation of borrow pits on the inland side of the coastal bund 12. Excessive drainage exposes the sulphur compounds and oxidation occurs.0 million hectares in Peninsular Malaysia.2 m 0.920 ha of acid-sulphate soils in the coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia.5 or less.Chapter 2 . In planning and design of drainage for rice and non-rice cultivation the criteria to be adopted is in accordance with Table 2.90 m 2. which are subjected to the influence of tides.0 mm/d 3. The agriculture drainage areas are to be bunded and gated to stop seawater intrusion.40 m 0.2. 0. b) Peat Soils Peat soils are soils with organic matter content greater than 65%. In Malaysia.4 km inland. Coastal bunds shall be located about 0. Table 2.1 million hectares in Sabah. In strongly acid-sulphate soils drains should be deepened in stages. Irrigation and drainage are kept separate. Water level in drain (Below ground level) 0. Water level in the drain does not drop below the acid-sulphate horizon. there are approximately 2. Field drains to be excavated not more than 75 mm below the potential acid-sulphate layer.0 mm/d 15.2.0 mm/d 15.3 Drainage of Tidal Lands Tidal lands are the areas found along the coast. There are some 351.

Wherever possible.10.46 m/s)* 3.83 m3/s 1:10. Design rainstorm As per Table 2. also known as branch drain intended to convey water from collector drains to the main drain. Borrow pits are also used as reservoirs to store drainage water during the period of high tide when the outlet gates are closed.2.2. Borrow pits frequently have no gradient and their dimensions depend on the amount of spoil required for the construction of coastal bund.4 Control of Water Table An element of water table control shall be incorporated in planning and design of irrigation and drainage systems. Bed width to depth ratio Varies from 2:1 for small channels to 5:1 for channels with flow capacity of 28. sandy loam – 0. 2. March 2009 2-9 . carrier drain shall be planned and designed with proper curvature.85 to 2.3 m3/s or more 5.10 Collector Drain Design Criteria Variables Design Specifications 1.76. wherever required.11.5 Drainage System a) Tertiary Drains Tertiary drains are collector drains intended to collect excess water from the field to avoid flooding or undesirable high water table. except for side slope and flood level.2. It is a normal practice to drain out water before the on set of the wet season and to retain water in drainage system before the on set of the dry season.Chapter 2 . Side slope to use is 2:1 while flood level depends on the collector drains requirement.2 m/s (Clay – 1. Side slopes 1½:1 to 2:1 for ordinary conditions 6. In coastal areas. 2.83 m3/s 4. Velocity 0.2. subsurface pipes and groundwater wells are used. The radius of curvature to be adopted is in accordance with Table 2. Table 2. The criteria to be adopted for the planning and design of open carrier drains are in accordance with Table 2.10.7 2. automatic gates operations shall be adopted. In inland areas surface drains. a general method to be applied to control water levels above the minimum is by the operation of the tidal control gates and the intermediate gates. Gradient 1:5000 for flows between 0. fine sands – 0. which affect crop growth.2. For erosion prevention. The criteria to be adopted for the planning and design of open collector drains are in accordance with Table 2.ADMINISTRATION m from the toe of the bund.000 or flatter for flows greater than 2. Flood level at the head of the drain Not higher than 150 cm below ground level * Maximum permissible velocity (USBR) b) Secondary Drains Secondary drains are carrier drains.3 to 1.

4 to 2.84 0.3 C = 6 to 7 Greater than 28. appropriate excessive erosion prevention shall be introduced.83 0.67 0.92 0.92 0.92 200 0.66 0.8 C=4 2.6. Table 2. Perak is an example of this type of drainage system.80 0.84 0.84 0.92 350 400 d) Drainage Pump Pumped drainage system shall be chosen as a last alternative due to high investment.80 0.69 0.8 to 14. Farm roads shall be provided along drains and for every two to three rows of tree crops.0 Storm Duration (hr) 1 3 6 1. dwellings or other limitations. Thus.84 0. the drainage module can be reduced. It is common to install at least identical units and it is assumed that all pumps are in operation during peak flow. the average value of rainfall decreases.90 0.2 m whichever is greater.72 0.0 1. Gajah.4 or less C=3 1. e) Farm Roads A network of farm roads is essential for good operation and maintenance of drainage system as well as other agricultural activities. 2-10 March 2009 .89 0.2 Note: Radius of curvature = C x Water surface width or 15. In cases where the minimum radius of curvature of 15.2 minimum 1. also known as the affluent drains is intended to convey water from carrier drains and discharges it into receiving waters.12: Areal Reduction Factors for Affluent Drains Area of Catchments (km2) Less than 50 ½ 1. As the area to be drained increases.80 0. The Tumbuh Block Drainage Scheme in Kg. The design loading shall be in accordance with Table 2.86 0. 1980) Drain Capacity (m3/s) Radius of Curvature (m) * 15.80 0. Drainage pumps have to discharge large quantities at low heads and an axial flow or mixed flow pumps are more suitable for these conditions.ADMINISTRATION Table 2.0 50 0. c) Main Drains The main drain.2 C=5 14.92 300 0.84 0. a lake.95 100 0. (DID.11 Radius of Curvature for Carrier Drains.2 to 28.58 0.Chapter 2 .90 0.0 1.93 150 0. Areal reduction factors for a range of rainfall duration and catchments to be adopted in planning and design of affluent drains are in accordance with Table 2.65 0.80 0.0 24 1.68 0.61 0.12.92 250 0. a river or to the sea.2 m is not possible due to topography. operation and maintenance costs and these have rarely been implemented in Malaysia.82 0.

14.3 Performance Indicators Performance indicators are the indicators used to evaluate the performance of an irrigation and drainage system.ADMINISTRATION 2. Area provided with main/secondary canals and drains up to secondary level More than 10 up to 20 2. This term is more suitable to be used in association with rice cultivation. Sufficient maintenance will ensure proper operation of the system.14 Canal Density of Irrigation and Drainage System for Rice Cultivation Description Canal Density (m/ha) 1.4 Density of Irrigation and Drainage System Density of I&D system is the total length of canals or drains per unit area (m/ha) served by the canals or drains. As the agriculture sector is the main water user and it is used mostly for irrigation. Table 2. Area provided with main/secondary/tertiary canals and drains up to tertiary level More than 30 up to 50 2.Chapter 2 . For rice cultivation. Performance indicator plays a key role in the performance assessment. curative or preventive measures can be taken.2.13 Performance Indicators of Irrigation and Drainage Systems Description 1. Since irrigation and drainage system is required for better agricultural and water management practices.2. Table 2.2.13. Some of the performance indicators to be adopted in planning and design of irrigation and drainage systems are in accordance with Table 2. Irrigation System Performance Indicator i) Cropping Intensity (%) area for rice cultivation in a year ii) Yield (tonnes/ha) iii) Water Productivity Index (kg/m3 water use) for paddy irrigation iv) Irrigation Efficiency (%) v) Irrigation Uniformity (For sprinkle system and micro irrigation) vi) Distribution Uniformity (For sprinkle system and micro irrigation) 2. the recommended canal density of irrigation and drainage system to be adopted in planning and design is in accordance with Table 2. March 2009 2-11 . the performance of an irrigation and drainage systems must be assessed to provide engineers with the information on the system shortcomings of which remedial. therefore. areas with higher system density (subject to certain limit) will normally perform better than areas with lower density.5 Operation and Maintenance The design of I&D system needs to consider the required regular/normal or periodic/deferred maintenance of the system. Drainage System i) Yield (tonnes/ha) ii) Water table depth (m) a) Area (ha) b) Duration (day) 2.

Financial support can be provided on selected and priority projects to the States through direct loans. operation and maintenance and implementation of non-structural measures. The responsibility for irrigation and drainage management. of which irrigation and agricultural drainage development is one of the important aspects.1 Federal Government The Federal government has the responsibility of providing assistance to the State Governments in socio-economic development of which I&D development is one of them. As crop production increases. at the Federal level. The roles and responsibilities of the Federal Government and their agencies in irrigation and drainage development are described below: a) National Policy The Federal government plays an important role in the formulation and co-ordination of agriculture policy. Clearing of canals should be at least 3 times in a year. b) Financing Effective and efficient irrigation and drainage development and management depends very much on the availability of sufficient financing to cover cost of infrastructure development. canals/drains should be checked periodically and clearing/repairing works should be carried out before the beginning of irrigation supply season. The Federal Government also can assist the State Governments in securing loan facilities for I&D projects by undertaking guarantees to lending agencies. The Federal Government may also set-up special agencies for projects of national interest.3 INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK 2. In this case. operation and maintenance. Clearing/repairing of drains in drainage areas should be carried out preferably four cycles per year to ensure excess water can be removed on time.3. For rice cultivation. the socio-economy of the State will also improve. the Federal Government shall provide all the financial requirements through the agencies.1.ADMINISTRATION Adequate facilities such as farm roads. Currently. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry while the State DID is responsible for the implementation.1 Roles and Responsibilities Malaysia consists of thirteen (13) States and three (3) Federal Territories. Development budget can also be arranged and disbursed for use in State projects through the five-yearly Malaysia Plan co-ordinated by the Ministry of Finance. An I&D system must also be planned and designed such that operation can be carried out easily and maintenance activities can be performed without the risk or inadvertent damage to the other private properties. BPSP. Irrigation and drainage development aims to provide an environment conducive for healthy crop growth. operation and maintenance is shared between Federal and State agencies (institutions). A Chief Minister heads the State Government. or grants. MOA through such assistance scheme. 2. 2. can undertake responsibility for the development of I&D facilities and infrastructures including the management. Governments at the State levels are co-ordinated centrally by the Federal Government. For instance. operation and maintenance of the I&D infrastructures. while the Prime Minister is Head of the Federal Government. management.Chapter 2 .3. access road and crossings for maintenance equipment shall be provided. irrigation and agricultural drainage is generally administered by the Bahagian Pengairan dan Saliran Pertanian (BPSP). Federal assistance may also be channelled to the State through their agents. The policies can serve as a guide to uniformity in irrigation and drainage regulatory framework and practices in the States. c) Technical Assistance and Capacity Building The Federal Government through various Federal agencies also responsible for giving the State Governments technical assistance for the implementation of irrigation and agricultural drainage 2-12 March 2009 .

As the population of the country increases. This is possible through the conduct of integrated research and development programs. It is envisaged that the Federal Government through its Federal agencies such as DID is in the best position to implement and coordinate an integrated national capacity building that will cover aspects of irrigation and drainage development. IPTRID and FAO with the National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM).1. MOA as well as other Federal agencies can further enhance the R&D programmes. The State Governments shall play important roles in I&D development and this is summarised below: a) State Level Policy State Governments normally evolve their own policies in consonance with Federal policies. 2. is managing various data such as rainfall. the States have been able to gain expertise in new fields and technologies. The State EPU can carry out the overall planning and coordination at the State level. The responsibilities may cover planning. studies and implementation of projects. budgeting.Chapter 2 . d) Data and Information Management Various data required for the irrigation and drainage development are being collected and kept by various Federal agencies. construction.3. e) Research and Development Irrigation and drainage development is a process of matching the crops and their water requirements under different and variable environment. training program. b) Financing Effective and efficient I&D development and management requires adequate funding. more food has to be produced. Through these bilateral governmental linkages. The DID. Adequate manpower is also necessary for the implementation of irrigation and drainage development and management program. As the availability of land and water for food production is decreasing due to competition with other sectors. The State UPEN carries out overall policy coordination. for example. while the responsibility for the development and management can be delegated to the agencies at the State level such as DID. collaboration between local institutions of higher learning such as UPM or possibly international institution such as International Rice Research Institute IRRI. The State Government needs to expand expenditure annually for the development of I&D facilities. stream flow.2 State Government The State Governments have the responsibility for I&D development and management. These include secondment of staff. operation and maintenance (O&M) of the I&D facilities. which can further improve the socio-economic standard of the people. and in this respect. water table and agro hydrologic data. water level. Continuous training with the introduction of various innovative approaches and modern technologies are vital to meet the fast changing needs and challenges in this field. including March 2009 2-13 . management. but as of 2008 the task for developing irrigation and drainage related policies has always been delegated to the DID. the production per unit area has to be increased to meet the increasing demand. Secondary data are available but scattered in various Federal Government agencies as follows: • Crops and agricultural land use – Agriculture Department • Maps – Survey and Mapping Department • Crops production/ population census – Statistics Department • Socio-economic data – Economic Planning Unit.ADMINISTRATION development. the Malaysian Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and BPSP.

Outdated laws and regulations have to be revised at a regular basis. as being practiced. Campaigns and information dissemination programs to educate and to enhance the farmers’ understanding of the issues. understanding of. for example. An institutional platform is essentially required to discuss and sort out these differences. Infrastructure Ownership . and the right attitude towards I&D matters at hand. The tender selection committee depends on the sources of finance. This often given inadequate emphasis and as a result several I&D infrastructures has deteriorated and requires substantial allocation for reinstatement. one is always confronted with land-water issues that will result in conflicting views. Federal loans. operation and maintenance. It relies on the establishment of a comprehensive legislative framework. This includes infrastructures built by private sector and handed over to the State government. The Area Farmers’ Associations’ existence has been used as a stepping-stone to enhance the awareness and education programs. but these sources may be of limited amount.The Federal Government is generally responsible for the development of I&D facilities. farmers must realize that they have a part to play in ensuring the success of I&D development. the awareness. organised from time to time. Funds may be available from variety of sources such as Federal grants. Generally.I&D development are planned according to the best applicable engineering practices. Meetings of the Majlis Tindakan Daerah at the District level and if the needs arise meetings of the Majlis Tindakan Negeri are two avenues where this can be achieved.Chapter 2 . d) Regulatory Responsibilities Establishment of Legislative Support .ADMINISTRATION management.The management.Infrastructure facilities developed by the State Government agencies on State land belong to the State Government. While infrastructure facilities developed by Federal Government on land given to or owned by the Federal Government belongs to the Federal Government. 2-14 March 2009 . respectively. Contractors from the private sector normally do the construction works tendered out or negotiated or directly given out to contractors appointed by the Treasury under a special program. or quit rent (including water and drainage rate). KADA and DOA on limited scale. Normally maintenance works are tendered out to contractors from the private sector. c) Infrastructure Development and Management Infrastructure Development . Current policy prohibits the use of Federal funds for any development of permanent infrastructures on State land.Effective regulation of I&D development and management is important to ensure the sustainability of the irrigation and drainage areas and at the same time preserving the environment. Farmers’ participation in the form of water user group (WUG) has benefited both the farmers and the State Governments. This may require some changes to the existing practices for the I&D systems to function effectively. Projects financed by the Federal Government can be submitted to State or Federal level committees in accordance to the Treasury procedures and instructions. requires continuous improvement and changes in consonance with the current issues. while additional regulation and procedures have to be introduced in line with contemporary practices. The State Government has the power to act upon it. thus there is no policy currently available on the question of ownership for projects developed by Federal agencies on State land. so that consensus of opinion can be reached. All draft Bills will be tabled to the State Assembly for approval before being finally gazetted for enactment. Thus. operation and maintenance (O&M) responsibilities for the completed I&D facilities are under the respective agencies who implemented the projects. State funds. At present. Coordination and Conflict Resolution . They must have first and foremost. Infrastructure Management .In I&D development and management. MADA. these activities are being carried out by the DID. Planning and design may be implemented in-house or by registered engineering companies. once every 10 or 20 years. I&D schemes are taken care of by DIAD except for Muda Irrigation Scheme and Kemubu Irrigation Scheme which are under MADA and KADA. Farmers’ awareness and education .

The fund is normally channelled through the Federal agencies. March 2009 2-15 . which include rivers. disaster management is principally under the care of the District Officer (DO). Table 2. Unauthorised discharge and water extraction 5.2 Laws on Irrigation and Drainage I&D essentially deal with the application of water to soils and the removal of excess water from soils effectively for crops cultivation. The responsibility for this mainly rests on agencies as shown in Table 2.Enforcement of legislation for I&D and related fields is essential. Existing laws associated with irrigation and drainage shall be thoroughly considered as follows: • Water resources. In this aspect. has a very important part to play. I&D systems are provided without much considerations on the regional implications. groundwater. administrative practices on the ground and constitutional jurisdiction are also important. Other issues such as State/Federal relationships. f) Transformation in I&D Management Strategies Even though Malaysia is blessed with bountiful water. • Land and the development or exploitation of such land • Drainage and irrigation • Environmental management.Chapter 2 .ADMINISTRATION Enforcement . irrigation. 2. The agencies that administer the I&D facilities monitor and conduct the damages assessment and forward to the DO for further actions. Inefficient I&D management leads to water wastage and it was envisaged that reforms in I&D management strategies are important steps to be taken for sustainable development of water related activities. which is the main water user. it has to be managed wisely to minimise water stress as the incidence of water scarcity has occurred more frequently than ever lately. wetlands and other water bodies may be extracted from them.15 Enforcement Authority Related to Irrigation and Drainage (I&D) Offences 1. Land-use violation 2.3. while excess water might be discharged into such water bodies.15. the Federal and State Governments are both responsible in taking appropriate measures for the I&D transformation to be materialised. Uncontrolled use of pesticide 3. At present. Unlicensed blockages and diversions 4. To meet these objectives. lakes. The new approach is to look at I&D within the context of integrated water resources management (IWRM). The Federal Government is also assisting the State Governments by providing special allocations for the reinstatement of damaged facilities. Unauthorised obstruction of water flow in canals or drains Enforcement Authority Land Administrator Department of Agriculture/ Department of Environment Land Administrator/ DID Land administrator/ DID DID e) Disaster Management I&D facilities may expose to damage due to unexpected disaster such as extraordinary flooding which require immediate action to reduce the negative impacts to the socio-economy of the State. In this respect. This practice has to be changed for sustainable agricultural and water resources development.

thus they are in a better position to control and regulate the water resources on their ground.3 Drainage and Irrigation Under the Federal Constitution.2. Since. This implies both the Federal and State Governments have legislative power over this particular function. 2.3 Review of Existing Legislation Irrigation and drainage in Malaysia although specifically covered under irrigation and drainage legislation. Some of the legislations.3. It has been decided by the Malaysian Court of Appeal that in the event of conflict between State law and the Federal Environmental Quality Act (EQA) 1974.4 Environmental Management There is no direct reference to the control and regulation of environmental pollution in the Federal Constitution. Thus. Thus. The Federal Government or any State Government. 2.3. it has exclusive power. land improvement and soil conservation are also enumerated in the State List. are within the State Authorities’ jurisdiction. definitely legislation concerning water has certain impacts on I&D development and management. Together with land.3. the State List includes water related items such as water supplies. which is prescribed exclusively in the State List. guidelines and orders which are directly or indirectly related to drainage and irrigation are shown in Appendix 2A. related matters such as forestry. 2. water and matters relating thereto. drainage and irrigation is enumerated as a specific item in the Concurrent List. 2. rivers and canal works or resource utilisation works such as hydropower generation implemented by the Federal Government. which are closely related.2.3. Water by definition includes rivers. Forest. lakes. 2. streams and groundwater.3.3.2. The definition of “Land” includes land under water.Chapter 2 . The Federal and State Governments shall implement the policy so formulated.3. taken as a whole. may consult the National Land Council formed in accordance to Article 91 of the Federal Constitution.2 Land Resource Based on the National Land Code. there are several other federal and state laws. all matters relating to land are placed under the State jurisdiction. with respect to any matter relating to the utilisation of land or in respect of any purported legislation.2. control of silt. the application of any environmental legislation will depend on the specific subject matter to which it is to be applied and whether the State or Federal Governments has power over the matter under the Constitution.1 Ownership of Water Drainage and irrigation is a sector very much associated with water. the State Government has extensive power over drainage and irrigation and matters related thereto. Various aspects of legislation relating to water vest ownership of water in the State Government. Environmental matters related to land and water services for example. agriculture and mining are under the State jurisdiction. dealing with land or administration of any such law.ADMINISTRATION The position of the Federal and State governments with regard to the following public issues by constitution is briefly discussed. However. and in particular land. are under the State Governments. However on certain water-based projects in the States such as water supplies. control of silt and riparian rights and also administration of land. particularly in terms of 2-16 March 2009 . It is necessary therefore to infer the source of authority for environmental matters by examining particular issues. rivers and canals. 2.1 Water Resource Water is a State matter.

The Drainage Works Act also specifies that the State Government may appoint a “Drainage Board” and the Board may make recommendations pertaining to matters such as: • to consider any objection by the land owner/occupier • drainage area coverage • additions. canal. but their agricultural activities shall be covered under other laws such as Water Acts and Environmental Quality Act. 2. channel. the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989) Section 3 provides that “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is and shall be vested solely in the Ruler of such State”. Drainage and irrigation areas have to be managed effectively to ensure that the provisions of I&D facilities serve its purpose. No person shall possess a right to the use of water without licence except for water of less than 200 litres/day used for domestic purposes.3. the conservation and protection of water resource and incidental matters pertaining thereto. any person intended to extract groundwater shall inform the Director General except to those making a well for extraction of water which is less than 9. March 2009 2-17 . irrigation and drainage areas which have not been declared and gazetted such as irrigation areas owned and developed by private companies are not covered under these Acts.15m (30 ft) in depth or yields less than 2.3. Under the Irrigation Areas Act and Drainage Works Act. stream. Sabah Ordinance 15/1956 and the Drainage Works Ordinance. Every irrigation or drainage area shall be in the charge of Drainage and Irrigation Engineer or such other officer appointed by the appropriate authority. 1953. management. 1974. supervision and maintenance of such irrigation facilities. diversion. improvement or new drainage works • uses of drainage rate for any drainage works. Under the National Geological Survey Act.2 Drainage and Irrigation Agricultural drainage and irrigation development generally are covered under the Drainage Works Act. the State Governments may impose annual rate (drainage rate or water rate) to defray the cost of the provision of such drainage facilities or to offset the expenditure on construction. respectively shall be applicable. This Act emphasizes more on the planning of water resources development. 1966. Sarawak. Both Acts shall only be applicable to the States of West Malaysia. the Drainage and Irrigation.Chapter 2 . Under this Act. lake. 1954 and the Irrigation Area Act. the acquisition and administration of rights to the use of water. whether surface or underground and “watercourse” means any river including any tributary thereof. State licensing was also not required for any Federal works. The enforcement of the provisions of the Acts shall apply to those irrigation and drainage areas that have been declared and gazetted by the State Authority and in this case is the State Government. For the States of Sabah and Sarawak. Pursuant to this.27 m3/day (500 gallons per day) for domestic purposes. may be granted under this Act.ADMINISTRATION water that occurs in rivers and water bodies within the State. Thus. use of water or to increase the use of water whether it is surface or groundwater by any person is subject to approval of the District Office in the form of licence. Current practice indicates that DID District Engineer will normally be appointed as the officer-in-charge of irrigation or drainage area for the respective district. The Drainage Works Act and the Irrigation Areas Act provide for the arrest or punishment of any person committing an offence against the Acts. including the watering of gardens and livestock. reservoir. swamp or overflow area or groundwater aquifer. “water” means any water. pond. Licence to divert water from rivers for irrigation. The District Office is the licensing authority and any extraction.

a State Water Resources Committee may declare any Watershed Reserve Area and the Committee shall gazette the dimensions within 90 days of its declaration.3 Water Resources Management In order to minimise. The EIA requirement is a preventive measure to ensure that proposed projects take into consideration environmental matters in their implementation. states that the State Water Resources Development Plan shall propose specific actions concerning various subjects and some of them are related to water resource management such as: • Water Demand: Identification of existing and projected domestic. Besides that. Under this Act. 1974. 2-18 March 2009 . The Land Conservation Act. The Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order. prevent or address problems of water scarcity and deterioration of water quality. industrial.6 Farmers/ Stakeholders Participation Participation and cooperation from farmers and any interested parties are vital to ensure the respective laws and legislations are effectively implemented.3. Section 34(A) of the EQA provides for environmental impact assessment (EIA). salinity intrusion or erosion from existing and planned development.3. 2. 2. watershed or dependent resource within the State.3.4 Flood Mitigation for Agricultural Area Under the Ministerial Functions Act. 2.3.Chapter 2 . 1984.3.ADMINISTRATION 2. 1987 has prescribed measures to prevent or mitigate the impact of large projects. agricultural and navigation-related water demand by District. a Federal law is the principal legislation that protects the environment.3. which includes good management of rivers and other water sources reserves. there are other laws aimed directly or indirectly at managing water resources. • Water Source Protection: Identify any water source. 1960 Part II. Allocations for flood mitigation for agricultural areas are mainly obtained from the Federal Government. which also includes agricultural areas.5 Environmental Protection The Environmental Quality Act (EQA). water resources must be managed effectively. the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment is entrusted with the responsibility for flood mitigation. • Minimum Flow: Determination of the minimum flow requirement of any watercourse within the State incapable of satisfying existing or projected water demand on a continuous basis. • Groundwater: Identify all geographic areas within the State where a condition of groundwater overdraft exists or anticipated. while under the Forest Enactment. siltation.3. forest areas may be declared as forest reserve for the purpose of protecting river catchments.3. The Water Enactment. This must also go along with careful basins or catchments management. Section 3 provides for declaration of “hill land” which cannot be disturbed to prevent erosion and siltation. which is threatened by pollution.

4. The National Land Code must be complied if it involves land use conversion. Figure 2. The application shall be forwarded to the Land Office. On the other hand.3 Application to Import Earth In cases where earth has to be imported from other places.1 Authority Requirement 2.2 Application for Use Water Permission to use water or to increase the use of water or to change the place of diversion or use of water by any person requires approval in the form of licence from the District Officer.1 Application for Land Development Development of land for agricultural purposes can be carried out either by the State or Federal Governments through its agencies or by individual or private company.Chapter 2 .1. any individual or private company may apply any land for agricultural development.4.1. 2. March 2009 2-19 .1 shows a flowchart for application to use water. These agencies may develop the land on their own or they may lease it to individual or private company of which an agreement specifying the terms and conditions shall be made between both parties.1 A Flowchart for Application to Use Water from the District Office.ADMINISTRATION 2.1. The application for a water use licence shall be forwarded to the District Officer prior to the commencement of any works related to such use. permission shall be obtained from the State authority prior to the commencement of such works. Generally the State Governments have allocated land to State/ Federal agencies for agricultural development. The application shall be forwarded to the District Land Office. For State or Federal Governments owned projects. 2.4. Submission of application to District Officer Forward to State Water Resources Committee Comply with conditions Rejected and notify the applicant Arrange Hearing Forward decision to District Officer Notify the applicant Figure 2. the party engaged for the projects development shall forward the application.4 AUTHORITY REQUIREMENT AND DOCUMENTATION 2.4.

4. which have been constructed by the user/ owner shall be operated and maintained by the user/ owner. detailed design. Any facilities that are not covered under these agencies responsibilities or those facilities.1. DID or the respective agencies that manages the I&D areas.1 Drawings Drawings submitted for the purpose of approval of licences and/or permits shall contain important details such as location plan.4. Documentation shall be managed effectively and shall facilitate retrieval of data and information whenever needed. The prescribed irrigation and drainage activities are as follows: • Drainage of wetland. commissioning.2.6 Operation and Maintenance The O&M of I&D facilities provided by the State or Federal Governments is normally carried out either by the DIAD. it shall be sorted through joint consultation between the agencies to avoid any complications and conflict of interests.4. planning. The documents shall include drawings. 2. which can be incorporated in Irrigation and Drainage Information System (IDIS).Chapter 2 . The documents shall be in the form of hard copy and soft copy and shall provide the necessary information.4 Requirement During/After Construction Permission to use existing facilities such as farm roads and crossings or to construct any canal. The officer-in-charge shall conduct site checks prior to granting permission and do so from time to time to ensure compliance with the permission given. construction. cross-sections and other foundation and structural details and services whichever applicable that may be affected. reports and manuals.1. 2. 2-20 March 2009 . 2.4. Other activities under the “prescribed activities” list where drainage and irrigation might be involved are shown in appendix 2A4. The applicant shall specify the facilities and the duration involved. It shall cover all the various stages of project implementation including project inception.4. O&M and upgrading.000 ha or more • Construction of dams and manmade lakes and artificial enlargement of lakes with surface areas of 200 ha or more. wildlife habitat or of virgin forest covering an area of 100 ha or more • Irrigation schemes covering an area of 5.ADMINISTRATION 2. layout plans. but there is no statutory provision for the requirement. wherever and whenever decisions from different agencies are required. 2.5 Works Related to Utility/Services During the implementation of projects.1.2 Documentation The management. 2. There is a general understanding between agencies on the need for a joint consultation. The DOE has prepared several guidelines to facilitate project proponents in complying with the EIA/EMP requirements. operation and maintenance of I&D facilities require complete and comprehensive documentation. As-built drawings shall also be submitted after the completion of the project.7 Requirements of the Department of Environment Drainage and Irrigation works categorised as “prescribed activities” under the EQA (1974) shall be subjected to EIA and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) requirements.1. drain or such things to connect with existing facilities within an irrigation or drainage area shall be obtained from the officer in-charge of the areas.4. levels.

2. 2.4.2 Reports and Manuals All related reports and manuals shall be prepared and shall include design reports and EIA report wherever applicable. An authorised person such as a professional engineer shall endorse design reports.2.Chapter 2 . specifications and other relevant information. Standard of typical measures to improve public safety include: • safety railing on crossings. detailed calculation.3.4.1 Submission for Water Extraction The application for water extraction shall be forwarded together with details of the proposed use. quantity of water to be extracted and any facilities to be erected or constructed.3. The extraction and use of groundwater shall require the following: • Drilling shall be undertaken by an authorized registered driller • Record of progress of the work including the depth of strata passed through and the water level • Samples of all geological materials passed through • Results of any pump test. 2. Details to be submitted include: • Description of land • Estimated quantity of earth to be extracted • Sketch plan of the land.3 Submission Requirement This section explains the requirements a project proponent must submit. residual problems and procedures to be followed in the operation and maintenance of the I&D systems.5 OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA 2. 2. headwalls or other locations where the public could fall into drains or water bodies • safety fencing for head works. layout plan showing the location of intake point.5.4. site and soil investigation. Design reports may include a project brief. This is to ensure the objectives of the Manual are met. Operation and maintenance manuals of the I&D systems shall at least cover project brief.2 Submission to Import Soil Application for importing earth shall be submitted in standard form (Form 4C – Permit to Remove Rock – Material) available at the particular District Land office.ADMINISTRATION 2. design criteria adopted.1 Public Safety Consideration Many of the requirements for the planning and design of I&D systems presented in this Manual have either directly or indirectly considered the need to protect public safety. I&D managers and designers must consider the need or otherwise to implement additional measures to further protect public safety. Notwithstanding these requirements.4. apart from requirements by other agencies. pump intakes compound or other location to prevent any unauthorized people from entering the areas • covered drains or canals close to residential areas March 2009 2-21 .

GIS is one of the important components for the successful implementation of precision farming. Land Development Land Clearing Land clearing for agricultural development shall be undertaken properly and wherever possible natural vegetation shall be retained to minimise erosion within a site.3. it shall be incorporated in any new development of irrigation and drainage areas.3.3 2.5. Land Levelling or Grading Whenever land levelling or grading is practiced.ADMINISTRATION 2.2 • maximum flow velocity criteria for canals and drains • maximum flow velocity criteria for flow on or across roads.5.3 Special Applications Hilly areas development shall be planned and designed with proper erosion and sedimentation control practices to maintain the soil fertility as well as to control sedimentation and pollution in waterways and to avoid damage to other land. it must be carried out with the best possible methods and practices to avoid the needs of excessively deep downstream conveyance system or drainage pumps to drain out excess water.Chapter 2 . As this tool is becoming more and more important and widely used. This will maintain the soil fertility as well as to control sedimentation and pollution in waterways. Standard of typical measures to conserve the environment include: 2.3. GIS application shall be planned and designed in accordance with Garispanduan Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) issued by DID via Surat Pekeliling JPS Bil 2/2005 or any new related instructions or circulars issued from time to time as well as MS 1759 – Geographic Information/Geomatics – Features and Attributes Codes. Environmental Conservation Due consideration has to be made on the importance of environmental conservation in planning and design of I&D systems. 2. I&D managers and designers must consider the need or may otherwise implement additional measures to conserve the environment.5.1 • limiting the depth of open drains in peat soil areas to avoid excessive subsidence • limiting the quantity of ground water extracted for irrigation purposes to avoid saline water intrusion • implementing appropriate measures to minimise erosion or/and sedimentation • controlled burning in land development.4 Geographical Information System (GIS) GIS is one of the management tools that can be used by I&D managers in managing irrigation and drainage areas.5. 2-22 March 2009 . 2.

A. Agroclimatic and Crop Zone Classification of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. DID (1977).H. Glenn J. Water Quality and Sediment Yield. Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia. Balkema Publishers. (1965). Irrigation Water Needs. (1993). Kuala Lumpur. DID (1980).. Modern land drainage – planning. Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. Revised in 1989. (2004). Parlimentary Acts. Kuala Lumpur. National Forestry Act. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). Manual of Water Data Standard. Government Printing. (1988). Government Printing. Kanun Tanah Negara. Food and Agricultural Organization. Land Conservation Act.W. Third National Agricultural Policy (1998 – 2010). and Derrel L. 543. A.. Robert G.O. Guidelines. (1969).E. DID (1973). Principles of farm irrigation system design. The Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) of Malaysia. Irrigation Areas Act (1953). New York.. Government Printing. Smedema L. March 2009 2-23 . Codes & Standards of Malaysia Laws & Regulations. Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia. Government Printing. Kuala Lumpur. Irrigation and Water Management Manuals. Guidelines. (Act 354) & Irrigation Areas Act 1953 (Act 386). (1984). Soil And Water Conservation Engineering... C C (1993). Waters Act. Drainage and Irrigation Department Manual. Marvin E. Design Manual for Water Conveyance Systems. and Rycroft D. Ferguson Foundation. Government Printing. Perintah Menteri-menteri Kerajaan Persekutuan 2004. Codes & Standards of Malaysia Laws & Regulations . Guidelines. John Wiley & Sons. Larry G. (1983).Chapter 2 . Ministrial Function Act. (1974). Government Printing. Impacts and Implications of Direct Seeding on Irrigation Requirement and Systems Management. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia. Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems.M. Guidelines. Kuala Lumpur. Agricultural Engineering Series. Revised in 1988. Food and Agricultural Organization. Codes & Standards of Malaysia Laws & Regulations of Malaysia Laws & Regulations. Kuala Lumpur.J. Kuala Lumpur. Government Printing. FAO. Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. Government Printing. Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia.K. Vlotman W. Rome. (1993). (1920). design and management of agricultural drainage systems. Design and Operation of Irrigation Systems for Smallholder Agriculture in South Asia. Government Printing.J. FAO. Drainage Works Act (1954). Codes & Standards of Malaysia Laws & Regulations. Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia. New York. NAP3 (1998). Schwab. Chan.F. (1986). (1986). pp. National Geological Survey Act. Rome. (1960).ADMINISTRATION REFERENCES Malaysian Meteorological Services. G.

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Cap. Development of agricultural estate covering an area of 500 ha or more involving changes in type of agricultural use. Agricultural programmes necessitating the resettlement of 100 families or more. National Resources and Environment Ordinance. 1984 12. Land Conservation Act. Sabah Water Resources Enactment. 1965 5. Sabah Forest Ordinance. Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for Drainage and/or Irrigation Projects. 1920 2. 21. Irrigation Areas Act. Drainage Works Ordinance. Sabah Land Ordinance. Drainage and Irrigation. Sarawak 19. The Water Enactment. The National Land Code. 1974 6. Guidelines and Orders Appendix 2A1: List of Legislation 1. Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Soil Erosion and Siltation in Malaysia. Land Reclamation • March 2009 Coastal reclamation involving an area of 50 ha or more. 1965 16. Waters Act. 1998 13.ADMINISTRATION APPENDIX 2A: Legislation. Sabah Ordinance 15/1956 9. Appendix 2A4: List of Prescribed Activities related to Drainage and Irrigation a) Agriculture • • • b) Land development scheme covering an area of 500 ha or more to bring forestland into agricultural production. Sarawak Land Code. 126 Appendix 2A2: List of Guidelines 20.Chapter 2 . Environmental Quality Act. The Drainage Works Act. 1954 4. The National Geological Survey Act. 1987. Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order. Forest Ordinance. Appendix 2A3: List of Orders 22. 1930 15. 1984 11. 1994. 1958. Sabah Conservation of the Environment Enactment 14. 1974 8. Sarawak. 1966. 1958 18. 2A-1 . The Forest Act. Sarawak Water Ordinance. 1953 3. The Natural Resources and Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order. 1994 17. Sarawak. 23. 1960 7. Sarawak 10.

000 ha or more.ADMINISTRATION c) Forestry • • • • • d) Conversion of hill forest land to other land use covering an area of 50 ha or more Logging or conversion of forest land to other land use within the catchments of reservoirs used for municipal water supply. Note: Information extracted from the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities). 2A-2 March 2009 . Environmental Impact Assessment Order.Chapter 2 . Drainage and Irrigation • • • Construction of dams and man-made lakes and artificial enlargement of lakes with surface areas of 200 ha or more Drainage of wetland. 1987. irrigation or hydro-power generation or in areas adjacent to state and national parks and marine parks Logging covering an area of 500 ha or more Conversion of mangrove swamps on islands adjacent to national marine parks Clearing of mangrove swamps on islands adjacent to national marine parks. wildlife habitat or of virgin forest covering an area of 100 ha or more Irrigation schemes covering an area of 5.

System and Technology .Part A Introduction & Administration Chapter 3 .

.5 Subirrigation…. 3-17 3. 3-15 3.3. 3-28 3.4 Semi-Permanent Systems …………………………………………………………………….3-27 3.….……………………………………………………………………… 3-34 3.……….2.3.2 Semi-Portable Systems …………………………………………………………………………3-12 3.2. 3-4 3.… 3-34 3.2..3-29 Low Cost Drip Irrigation……………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-40 March 2009 3-i .3.2 Field Drainage System………………………………………………………………………….3.3-19 3.2 Pipe Drainage System….2.3-iii 3. 3-16 3.2.2 Shallow Ditch Systems ………………………………………………………………………… 3-31 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION. Special Applications………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Main Drainage System………………………………………………………………………….3-29 3.3. 3-15 3. 3-17 3.1 Types of Drainage Systems ……………………………………………………………………………….4...5 Continuous Move Systems …………………………………………………………………… 3-14 3.2 Border Irrigation………………………………………………………………………………….2.4.3 Surface Drainage……………………………………………………………….3.1 Types of Irrigation Systems……………………………………………………………………………….2.4 Subsurface Drip System ……………………………………………………………………….3 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-14 3.5.3. 3-5 3..1 Bedding Systems ………………………………………………………………………………… 3-30 3.2 Bubbler System ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-29 3.1 Basin Irrigation…………………………………………………………………………………….……….3.2.7.……………………………………………………………………………………………………….3-19 3.2. 3-29 3.2.2 Surface Irrigation……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-2 3.4 Mole Drainage Systems………………………………………………………………………… 3-39 3.2 Chemigation and Fertigation Systems ………………………………………….3.3-8 3..1 Soilless Culture System ……………………………………………………………….5 Interception Drainage.2.1 Portable Systems ………………………………………………………………………………...3-1 3.1 Important Characteristics……………………………………………………………………… 3-18 Components of a Drainage Systems…………………………………………………………………….4.4 Subsurface Drainage………………………………………………………………………………………….2. 3-38 3..3 Sprinkler Irrigation …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-8 3. 3-13 Tubewell Drainage Systems………………………………………………………………….3.5. 3-1 3..SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Table of Contents Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………….2.2.………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-25 3.3 Solid Set or Permanent Systems …………………………………………………………… 3-13 3.2 Types of Sub-irrigation System……………………………………………………………… 3-18 3..3.3.4 Microirrigation ………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Open or Deep Ditch Drainage System………………………………………………….4. 3-19 Microsprinkler System………………………………………………………………………….2.3.3-i List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3 Grassed Waterways……………………………………………………………………………… 3-32 3..4.3.2 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS ……………………………………………………………………………………….Chapter 3 .2.2. 3-3 3.1 Drip or Trickle System…………………………………………………………………………. 3-1 3.3. 3-34 3..……….3.2.…………………….3 Furrow Irrigation………………………………………………………………………………….3.

3-53 3.…………………………………………………………...5 WATERTABLE MANAGEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….4. 3-54 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………….3 Reuse of Drainage Water for Crop Irrigation.……………………………………………………… 3-50 3.1 Low Quality Municipal Water……………….7.…………………… 3-42 3.. 3-46 3..3-51 3..7...….5.1 Where to Apply the Practice……………………………………………………………………………….1 Importance of Drainage Water Reuse ………………………………………………………………… 3-50 3.1.2 Rainfed Systems………….3-55 APPENDIX 3.………………………………….D: Adaptability and Conservation Features of Pressurized Irrigation Systems……… 3A-6 3-ii March 2009 .…………….…………………………………………………..4.2 Decision Support System (DSS) ………………………………….3 Irrigated Systems…………………………………………………. 3-46 3..3.6.. 3-50 3. 3-47 3.3...3.3..3 Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation.3 WEB-based System………………………………………………………..4.6 DRAINAGE WATER REUSE ………………………………………………………………………………………….Chapter 3 .. 3-47 3.4..………………………………………………………………………………3-52 3. 3-40 3.3 Management and Maintenance……………….………………3A-2 APPENDIX 3. 3-46 3.………………………………………………………………. 3-48 3.3.3 Inactivation of Microorganisms …………………………………………………………….. 3-42 3.1 Possible Biodrainage Scenarios……………………………………….1.… 3A-1 APPENDIX 3.1 Particle Removal…………….SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3..6..3..2 Operation………………………….B: Suitability of Irrigation Systems for Various Crops in Malaysia………. 3-46 3.7.…………………………………………………………………….6..4..6 Biodrainage …………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 Impacts of Watertable Management………………………………………………………………….3-47 3. 3-46 3..4 Low Quality Tail Water…………………………………….7.1 Planning and Design….3.3. 3-49 3.3 Low Quality Surface Water…………………………………………………….3..C: Adaptability and Conservation Features of Surface Irrigation Systems……….……………………………………………….6.2 Impacts of Drainage Water Reuse……………………………………………………………………….6.5...A: Comparison of Irrigation Systems in Relation to Site and Situation…………….2 Low Quality Well Water…………………….3A-5 APPENDIX 3.2 Selection of Treatment Process …………………………………………………………………………. 3-47 3.4.5..1.1 Potential Water Quality Problems………………………………………………………………………. 3-45 3.7 ICT APPLICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………....3.6.3 Methods of Treatment ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-47 3. 3-46 3.7 Composite Drainage system……………………………………………………………………………... 3-49 3. 3-48 Salt and Hardness Removal ………………………………………………………………….7.……………………….1 Geographical Information System (GIS) …………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………….3. 3-46 3.…………………………… 3-44 3. 3-52 3.4 WATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER USES.……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-51 3.

USA 3-24 3.6 Typical Furrow Irrigation Systems 3-5 3.31 Irrigation of Soilless Culture in Greenhouse 3-21 3.38 Major Purposes of Agricultural Drainage 3-28 3.33 Hydroponic Culture in a Gravel Filled Trough 3-22 3.26 Microsprinkler Irrigation System 3-17 3.25 Bubbler Irrigation System 3-16 3.2 Major Classifications of Irrigation Systems 3-2 3.36 Chemigation Station Layout 3-26 3.17 Hose-pull Systems 3-11 3.11 Surge Irrigation Systems in Florida.10 Corrugated Furrow Irrigation System 3-7 3.27 Subsurface Drip Irrigation System 3-17 3.21 Semi-permanent System 3-13 3. USA 3-14 3.41 Drainage by Overland Flow in Bedding Drainage System 3-31 March 2009 3-iii .28 Subirrigation Systems and Applications 3-18 3.3 Typical Irrigation System Components 3-3 3. USA 3-9 3. USA 3-16 3.30 Low Cost Microirrigation with Solar Power 3-20 3.12 Side Roll or Hand Move Sprinkler System 3-8 3.7 Levelled Furrow Irrigation System in Florida.35 Open Field Soilless Culture for Vegetable Production Systems in Florida.32 Nutrient Flow Culture Using Plastic Film in Recirculation System 3-22 3.24 Emitters Arrangement for Point and Line Sources in Florida.16 Gun Type Sprinkler Systems 3-10 3.8 Contour Furrow Irrigation System 3-6 3.14 Portable Hand-moved Sprinkler System in Florida.19 Hose-fed Laterals Sprinkler System 3-12 3.37 Watertable Conditions in Root Zones 3-27 3. USA 3-7 3.1 Illustrated Complementary Systems and Technology in Irrigated Agriculture 3-1 3.4 Typical Basin Irrigation System of IADP Selangor 3-4 3.23 Drip Irrigation System 3-15 3.39 Common Agricultural Drainage Systems 3-29 3.5 Typical Border Irrigation System 3-5 3.18 Hose-reel Systems 3-11 3.Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY List of Figures Figure Description Page 3. USA 3-6 3.22 Continuous Move Systems in Florida.34 Full Floor Sand Culture System for Capsicum 3-23 3.20 Solid Set Sprinkler System 3-13 3.29 Low Cost Microirrigation System 3-20 3.40 Surface Drainage Bedding 3-30 3.15 Side-wheel-roll Lateral Sprinkler System 3-9 3.9 Graded Furrow Irrigation System 3-7 3.13 Common Portable Sprinkler Systems 3-8 3.

57 Break-of-Slope Planting of by 2-yrs Blue Gums 3-43 3.48 Pipe Drainage Layout Patterns 3-38 3.61 Controlled Drainage by Weir and Flap Gate 3-49 3.55 Dryland Plantation Scenario 3-42 3.42 Random Open Drains 3-31 3.58 Deforested Hill with Salinity Problems in Australia 3-44 3.Chapter 3 .47 Subsurface Pipe Drainage System 3-37 3.45 Grassed Waterway 3-34 3.56 Recharge Control Plantation 3-43 3.63 Basic Structure of SDSS 3-53 3-iv March 2009 .51 Mole Formation by Pulling a Bullet 3-39 3.52 Mole Drainage Discharging into Drain Trenches 3-40 3.50 Tubewell Drainage System 3-39 3.54 Controlling Waterlogging and Salinity by Biodrainage 3-41 3.60 Watertable Management Alternatives 3-48 3.62 Reuse of Drainage Water in MUDA Rice Irrigation Scheme 3-50 3.44 Cross Slope Drain System 3-33 3.53 Interception Drainage Systems 3-41 3.43 Parallel Open Drains 3-33 3.46 Subsurface Drainage Systems 3-36 3.59 Inundation Caused by Seepage from Irrigation Canal 3-45 3.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3.49 Typical Flow Pattern to Parallel Pipe Drains 3-38 3.

A. condition of water and its supply. a typical irrigation and agricultural drainage system is usually comprised of intake. field irrigation.Chapter 3 .2. and topography. microirrigation or subirrigation systems. Each of these irrigation systems has variable adaptation that work with certain conditions. soil type. The major classification of irrigation systems is shown in Figure 3. Employing the modern irrigation technologies appropriately is the key to overcoming this challenge. Conveyance Irrigation Use Distribution Excess/Used Water Drainage Intake Pre Treatment Reuse Disposal River Sea Figure 3. field drainage and disposal system. It requires proper design and operation along with experience. Efficient irrigation systems have a great influence to the entire growth process of crops. sprinkler. This is vital to manual users before moving on to subsequent design chapters. Surface irrigation is the simplest type among all irrigation systems. the challenges to increase the productivity in irrigated agriculture involving both technological and management interventions. Other factors to consider are plant water requirements. Advancement of irrigation and drainage system has been reported from many countries worldwide.2 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS Irrigation is a process of transferring water from a conveyance system of channels or pipes into the field for the purpose of agricultural production.1.B. science and even some art.1 Illustrated Complementary Systems and Technology in Irrigated Agriculture 3. Comparison for three major irrigation systems in relation to site and situation is presented briefly in Appendix 3.1 Types of Irrigation Systems Water is commonly applied to crops by surface. Therefore. one must give careful consideration to both the environment in which the irrigation system must function and to the capabilities and limitations of all potential irrigation system alternatives. 3. The objective of this Chapter is to provide introduction and summary of illustration and information of various irrigation and drainage systems and technology considered appropriate for use. To do a proper selection.2. Some practices have been adopted locally and more are expected in the near future.1 INTRODUCTION The aim of irrigation and drainage is to ensure the sustainability of agricultural activities particularly in achieving food security. microclimate concerns and irrigation scheduling constraints. It is of course necessary to choose an irrigation system before design. March 2009 3-1 . equipment specification and installation. Proper training and maintenance are also required with the use of advanced technology. A typical illustration of the complementary systems and technology is shown in Figure 3. conveyance and distribution. Suitability of irrigation systems for different crops is given in Appendix 3.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3 SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. Irrigation systems are designed to supply an adequate amount of water in a timely manner to plants. However.

A suitability chart for surface irrigation systems is provided in Appendix 3.2 Major Classifications of Irrigation Systems 3. Three common surface irrigation methods are: • • • Basin irrigation Border irrigation Furrow irrigation There are two features that distinguish a surface irrigation system from others: • • the flow has a free surface responding to the gravitational gradient the on-field means of conveyance and distribution is the field surface itself There are many factors affecting the choice of suitable irrigation method. soils. Water Conveyance System: Water conveyance systems for surface irrigation convey water from the source to fields through open channel and/or pipelines. crops and labour. The capacity of a delivery system must be sufficient to deliver required amount of water to any point in the field whenever is needed. such as land topography. If the water source is above the level of the field to be irrigated. a pump or headworks will be required to raise the water level to the required elevation. Delivery system may include structures for regulating and diverting water into the farms. reservoir and groundwater or from the combination of them. field shape. it can flow to the field by gravity through an open channel or pipelines.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Irrigation Systems Sprinkler Surface / Flood Basin Level Microirrigation Portable Graded Border Permanent Level Furrow Graded Subirrigation Drip/Trickle Natural or Water Table Control Bubbler Artificial or Burried Pipe Micro-sprinkler Semi-Permanent Sub-surface Drip Self-moved Level Furrow Graded Furrow Contour Furrow Figure 3. Common surface irrigation systems practiced in Malaysia are basin and furrow.C.Chapter 3 .2.3). Delivery system 3-2 March 2009 .2 Surface Irrigation Surface irrigation is the introduction and distribution of water into fields by gravity flow of water over the soil surface. They are: • • • • • • • Water source Water conveyance system Farm water distribution system Turn-outs Provision for holding water in the field Flow measurement and Reuse reservoir or tail water ditch Water Source: The water sources for surface irrigation are from rivers. If the water level is below the level of the field. There are several basic components of surface irrigation system (Figure 3.

There is no simple calculation to select the best basin sizes for March 2009 3-3 . timer for mains (manual and automatic). The size depends on soil type.2. The bunds prevent flowing of water to the adjacent fields. ‘dikes’. Flow Measurement: The control mechanisms include orifices. 1989) 3. stream size. which increases the uniformity of the water application and saves the excess water for the reuse. pesticides and salts that may wash from the irrigated fields are kept in the reservoir from entering streams and polluting them. They are called ‘levees’.Chapter 3 . This system is widely practiced for paddy cultivation in Malaysia. Turnouts: Turnouts are used for releasing water at various canal levels to the next lower canal level and finally from water distribution systems onto the land to be irrigated. The basins are filled to the desired depth and water is retained until it infiltrates into the soil or the excess is drained off.1 Basin Irrigation Basin irrigation is the simplest in principle among all methods.4). Fertilizers. Basins are flat areas of land. It allows higher flow rates through the irrigated strip.3 Typical Irrigation System Components (FAO. The floodgates are used for controlling irrigation supplies. garbage dumps.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY should be convenient to operate and maintain and be economically justified by the return from the crop to be grown. Reuse Reservoir or Tail Water Ditch: A reuse reservoir is used for collecting excess water for reuse. Provision for Holding Water in the Field: Provisions for holding the water in the field to be irrigated are necessary to most surface systems. parshall flumes. field size. ‘borders’ or ‘batas’. In general.2. Parshall Flume Water Supply Check Head Ditch Gated Pipe Field Ditch Water Use System Water Delivery System Drop Division Box Tail Water Ditch Water Removal System Figure 3. Farm Water Distribution System: Farm water distribution system or head ditches or head pipelines extend along one end of the field to be irrigated. surrounded by low bunds (Figure 3. irrigation depth. the basin method is suitable for crops that are unaffected by standing water for long periods. They consist of a ridge of earth. There are many different sizes of basins. land slope and farming practice. It is to make water available from the delivery system to the different areas in the field. formed from field soil to enclose the area to be irrigated. and control gates for channels.

An increasing rate of slope usually results in uneven water distribution and erosion of the soil because of the speed of water flow. Farm Channel Drain Drain Basin Basin Water Spreading (a) Basin layout (b) A Tertiary Canal with Control Gate (c) Paddy Field View Figure 3. which will cause the water to flow down the border strip. 3. level across the narrow dimension but sloping along the long dimension. sloping strips of land separated by bunds (Figure 3. The experience of local irrigators often provides a good guide to the best size.Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY different stream sizes. The slope of the border strip down which the water flows should be uniform or slightly decreasing. A minimum slope is needed to provide the hydraulic gradient.2. These 3-4 March 2009 . Many factors that affect the choice of border size and shape.2. border checks or strip checks. irrigation depths and soil types. and bounded by ridges or borders. varying in size from 100 – 800 m long and 3 – 30 m wide. Borders are long. They are sometimes called border strips.2 Border Irrigation Border irrigation is one of the most complicated among all surface irrigation methods. Border irrigation uses land formed into strips.5). Physically basin irrigation is popular for all systems of irrigated rice production where levees are formed for controlling the water in paddy fields. which differentiates from other crops.4 Typical Basin Irrigation System of IADP Selangor Rice is the most common basin crop grown in submerged condition. Borders are usually rectangular in shape. A uniform distribution of water is important to use the right unit of stream size for the soil and land slope and to stop the flow at the right time so that just enough water infiltrates to fill the soil reservoir of the crop root zone.

Optimal furrow lengths are primarily controlled by the soil intake rates and stream size. field size and shape and farming practice. Border irrigation system is not widely practiced for irrigated agriculture in Malaysia. Irrigation water flows from the field channel into the furrows by opening up the bank of the channel. unit stream size. Farm Channel Recession Level Uniform Border Slope Length Channel Advance Width (a) Border Layout (b) Farm Channel View Figure 3. To obtain high uniformity. (a) Furrow with Siphon in Florida. soil type and furrow length. Some common crops are: March 2009 3-5 . contour and graded types. A large stream size is applied to spread water quickly along each furrow to keep deep percolation losses small.2. channels or tubes towards the fields distribute the water. 1983) 3. slope. With runoff return flow systems.6 Typical Furrow Irrigation Systems Suitable Crops: Furrow irrigation is suitable especially for row crops. or by means of siphons or spiles (Figure 3. Crops easily damaged by water covering their stems or crown should be irrigated by furrows. Malaysia Figure 3. Furrows can be designed with a variety of shapes and spacings. siphons or by opening a furrow from the supply lines. The crop is usually grown on the ridges between the furrows. furrow irrigation can be a highly uniform and efficient method of applying water. the water application can be automated by regulating the flow delivered into the furrow. The furrow irrigation systems commonly practiced are level.2. USA (b) Furrows for Tobacco at Jelabu. Floodgates may be used to control the application of water in a particular field.Chapter 3 .3 Furrow Irrigation In furrow irrigation system. It is also suited to the early stages of tree planting. The water enters into furrows by means of floodgates. irrigation depth.5 Typical Border Irrigation System (Kay.6). The size of stream required depends on the irrigation depth.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY include soil type.

High application efficiency can be obtained if it is designed properly and the surface runoff can be reduced. carrot. The superior and inferior furrows must be protected. onion. tobacco and soybean. The capacity of the furrows must be sufficient to maintain the flow rate. The amount of water can be adjusted according to the variations of the furrows. cauliflower.Chapter 3 . The length of the furrows must be short to eliminate excess water that can destroy the furrows. The furrows along the contours can be used to irrigate areas with pronounced slopes. cabbage. With furrow irrigation. Furrows with slopes can be used in all soils except sandy soils. sugarcane. The furrows (Figure 3. The furrows along contours are used jointly with parallel terraces to provide protection against breakage of furrows.8) follow the contour lines of the land. Figure 3. except for sandy soils. (a) Furrow with Wider Bed (b) Special Furrow System Figure 3. vegetables. broccoli. pineapple. with high 3-6 March 2009 . The system is efficient and acceptable if all the practices are followed. beans. This system is suitable in uneven lands. This procedure reduces cost of construction and maintenance of the distribution system. orchards etc. The recommended slope must be between 1% and 2%. chilli. This method requires faster supply of water. A proper method is necessary to avoid the overflow of the water in the furrows.7) with no slopes are used to irrigate crops seeded on the furrows or on the sides of furrows.7 Levelled Furrow Irrigation System in Florida. hilly areas. Level Furrows The level furrows (Figure 3. since the water can be applied from both sides of the furrow. Fruits such as citrus. radish.8 Contour Furrow Irrigation System (VSA. such as tomatoes. 2008) (c) Graded Furrows Slopping furrows consist of small channels with uniform continuous slope that follow the direction of the irrigation (Figure 3. USA (b) Contour Furrows This system utilizes small channels with continuous and almost uniform slope by which the hilly areas are irrigated. The furrows can be doubled in length. Crops that would be damaged by inundation.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY • • • (a) Row crops such as maize. etc. garlic. the best results are obtained in gentle and uniform slopes.9). and row crops. potatoes.

SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY degree of infiltration capacity and with a very little lateral distribution. Figure 3. equipment used. When surge irrigation is used.11 Surge Irrigation System in Florida.9 Graded Furrow Irrigation System (VSA. and spacing between crop rows.11). slope. This intermittent application of water is accomplished by alternating the application between two irrigation sets through gated pipe and is regulated by a surge valve (Figure 3. Size and shape of the furrows depend on the stream size. The flow to each furrow must be regulated carefully so that the distribution of the water is uniform and minimum runoff. Figure 3. USA March 2009 3-7 .10). Figure 3. Water flowing in the corrugations soaks into the soil and spreads laterally to irrigate the areas between corrugations. The method is not adaptable for shallow rooted crops or low irrigation rates for the germination of seeds. 2008) (d) Corrugated Furrows Corrugation irrigation is a partial surface flooding method. the furrow is allowed to partially dry between water applications. crop grown.10 Corrugated Furrow Irrigation System (e) Surge Irrigation Surge irrigation is the intermittent application of water to a furrow.Chapter 3 . Irrigation water is applied in small channels or corrugations evenly spaced across the field (Figure 3.

vegetables. The lateral and sprinkler is then moved to the next set position.3. Suitable Crops: Sprinkle irrigation is suited for most row crops. wind speeds and low humidity and salinity problems affect the water application performance. However. It consists of a pump. the initial investment is low and they are very simple to use. Common sprinkle irrigation systems used in agriculture are briefly described below. and “sprinkler” is the water outlet device. erodible soils on undulating ground. The length of time in a position is called irrigation set time.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. lateral and rotary sprinklers spaced 9-24 m apart.12 Side Roll or Hand Move Sprinkler System (Kay. the lateral is moved between one and four times each day depending on the set time. to irrigate a rectangular strip. Lateral Line Water Source Main Line Lateral Line (a) Layout of Portable System (b) Carrying Laterals to Another Zone Figure 3. Portable Sprinkler System Hand-moved Laterals End-tow Laterals Side Wheel Role Laterals Perforated Laterals Gun Type Laterals Hose-fed Laterals Boom Laterals Figure 3.2. Overhead impact sprinkler and rain gun are very popular in Malaysia. Figure 3. Usually. mainline. the term “sprinkle” is more correct in describing the system. They may also be mounted on posts above the crop height and rotated through 90 degrees. Like “trickle” irrigation system. extremely high temperatures.13 Common Portable Sprinkler Systems 3-8 March 2009 . Comparatively. The system distributes water in pipes under pressure and spraying it into the air so that it breaks up into small water droplets and falls on the ground. 1986) The simplest portable system is one moved by hand. Sprinkler generally needs less water and labour than surface irrigation and can be adapted to sandy. Skilled operators are also needed to run and maintain the systems properly. flowers and tree crops. It can be adapted to most climatic conditions and crops in irrigated agriculture.12).2. and sometimes a portable pump (Figure 3. This system consists of portable main pipelines and one or more lateral lines of portable pipe or hose.13 shows some common portable sprinkler systems. which carry water under pressure from a pump or elevated source to lateral lines along which sprinkler heads are spaced at appropriate intervals. Portable sprinklers are one of the most popular systems and are used to irrigate a wide range of field and orchard crops.1 Portable Systems A portable sprinkler irrigation system is set in a fixed location for a specified length of time to apply a required depth of water. A suitability chart is provided for sprinkler systems in Appendix 3D-1. field crops. It is gradually moved around the field until the whole field is irrigated.Chapter 3 . The lateral pipes are usually laid on the ground surface. 3.3 Sprinkler Irrigation A sprinkle system or sprinkler system consists of pipelines.

14 shows a typical portable hand-moved aluminum pipe system.15 Side-wheel-roll Lateral Sprinkler System in Florida. hand-moved sprinkler systems are manually moved from zone to zone. USA (b) Side-wheel-role Lateral Side-wheel-roll lateral system is a portable self-moved sprinkler system consisting of sprinklers mounted on aluminium lateral pipes on wheels above the soil surface (Figure 3. 9 and 12 m long. Because the lateral pipe is mounted only 1-1.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (a) Hand-moved Laterals Portable. Lateral must be dismantled and moved back across the field to the start position after completion of the last set location in the field unless multiple laterals are used and the finish location is adjacent to the start location of the next set. Portable aluminum or plastic lateral pipe has quick couplers.5 m above the soil surface. The lateral pipe itself forms the axle for the wheels.Chapter 3 . A hand-moved system has a low initial cost. Application efficiencies can be 60% to 75% with proper management. even with partial rotations. Portable or buried mainline pipe with uniformly spaced valve outlets provides the water supply.15). such as corn. Riser height must be based on maximum height of the crop to be grown.14 Portable Hand-moved Sprinkler Systems in Florida. Hand-moved sprinklers are easily adapted to odd shaped fields. Each lateral pipe section is supported by a large diameter (at least 1 m) wheel normally located at the centre but can also be at the end. Figure 3. (a) Sprinklers on a Lateral Pipe with Risers (b) Aluminum Laterals connected to a Submain Figure 3. Figure 3. but requires high operating labour. USA This system is similar to a hand-moved system except that wheels are mounted on the lateral. It is difficult to use in tall crops. With proper management. Risers and sprinkler heads are either center-mounted or end-mounted. Self-righting or vertical self-aligning sprinkler heads are used because the sprinkler head is always upright. These composed of portable pipelines with risers and sprinkler heads. A power unit (air-cooled gas engine) usually mounted at the centre of the line mechanically move the lateral pipe. application efficiencies can be 60 to 75 percent. Lateral sections are typically 6. Lateral pipes serve as the axle for wheels located along the length of the lateral in moving the system sideways by rotation to the next set. March 2009 3-9 . The system is best adapted to rectangular fields on relatively uniform topography. this system is only adaptable to short crops.

Water is supplied through a flexible hose up to 200 m long and 50-100 mm in diameter. giant sprinkler or raingun irrigation system is well adapted for the field crop such as sugarcane. With proper management. The forward speed of the machine controls the depth of water applied. Equipment cost for a rain gun system is estimated to be about RM 6. Nozzle diameters can vary from 15 to 55 mm. or an internal combustion engine. which winds in the guide cable and pulls the rain gun across the field. There are two main types of system.000/ha. and operating pressures from 60 to more than 825 kPa. In Malaysia.16 Gun Type Sprinkler Systems (NLSON.17). Laterals are generally aluminum pipe with quick-coupled joints. This system is found to be very suitable for big farms more than 5 ha with both clay and sandy soils. depending on their size and whether they are towable. The pressure at the rain gun controls the application rate. A steel guide cable on the sprinkler carriage is pulled out to the far end of the field and firmly anchored. Typical machine speeds vary from 10-50 m/hr the faster the 3-10 March 2009 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (c) Gun Type Laterals These sprinklers are operated and moved as a large single impact type sprinkler head (Figure 3. The sprinkler is moved from one set to the next set either by hand or using a small tractor. The rain gun carriage is positioned at the start of its first run. (a) A Giant Sprinkler or Rain Gun (b) A Cable-tow Travelling Gun (c) Small Gun with Hose Traveller (d) Rain Gun with Hose Traveller Figure 3. This slowly turns a winch. pulled behind the machine. application efficiencies can be from 50 to 60 percent. Sprinkler discharge can range from 3 L/s (50 gallons per minute) to more than 65 L/s (1. A strip up to 400 m long can be irrigated at one setting although the flexible hose may only be 200 m long. The rain gun carriage is moved either by ‘water motor’ powered from the water supply using a piston or turbine drive. namely. tobacco and maize. 2008) Hose-pull system: The hose-pull machine has a rain gun mounted on a wheeled carriage (Figure 3. Generally only one sprinkler is operated per lateral. (i) Hose-pull system and (ii) Hose-reel system. The valve coupler is slowly opened to start the irrigation.16). The flexible hose is laid along the travel lane and connected to the rain gun and the valve coupler on the mainline.000 gallons per minute).Chapter 3 .

Only the hose length needed is pulled out. At the end of a run the hose-reel automatically stops winding. For small fields the mainline may be placed along one edge. 1986) March 2009 3-11 .18. The pump is started and the valve coupler slowly opened to start the irrigation. an internal combustion engine or the power take-off point on a tractor.18 Hose-reel Systems (Kay. On some machines a mechanism also shuts down the main water supply to the rain gun. 1986) Hose-reel system: The hose-reel machine has a rain gun mounted on a sledge or wheeled carriage shown in Figure 3. In a typical layout for a hose-reel system the mainline is laid out across the center of the field from the pumping station.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY machine travels the smaller the depth of water applied. When irrigation is completed in this position the hose reel and rain gun are towed by tractor to the next field location. the surplus remains neatly coiled on the reel. Water Turbine Drive Main Line Valve Coupler Hose Reel Rain Gun Hose Figure 3. The hose-reel placed close to the mainline at the start of the first run is slowly pulled across the field by a tractor and the hose allowed to uncoil from the reel. Power to drive the hose-reel can be provided by a water motor. At the end of a run it stops automatically. Water is supplied through a more rigid hose than that used for the hose-pull although it is still flexible enough to be wound on to a large reel. provided the hose is long enough. On simpler machines an operator needs to be on hand to stop the pump. Machines are available with hose lengths ranging from 200 to 400 m. Once the machine is operating it should not require any supervision for many hours. The hose is used to pull the rain gun towards the hose reel positioned at the edge of the field. Application rates and machines speeds are similar to the hose-pull system. Labour is required only to reposition the hose and machine and to start the next run.17 Hose-pull Systems (Kay. a job carried out simply by one man and a tractor. The rain gun is slowly pulled back across the field by winding the hose on to the hose-reel.Chapter 3 . When the hose-reel is used in the centre of the field it is turned through 180o and the rain gun pulled out to start the next irrigation run. Direction of Travel Rain Gun Speed Control Valve Water Piston Drive Hose Rachet Drive and Cable Drum Steel Cable Figure 3.

Spacing between lateral sets must be quite close to achieving an acceptable uniformity of application.19 Hose-fed Laterals Sprinkler System in Florida. Boom sprinkle systems are not suitable for use in windy areas. the boom is allowed to remain at one location (set) until the desired amount of water is applied. This system is excellent for orchards and irregular shaped fields. Figure 3. (f) Boom Laterals Periodic move boom systems are operated and moved with a tractor similar to large gun sprinklers.19). The mainline is buried across the middle of the field. (g) Perforated Laterals Perforated pipe systems spray water from 1. Typically lateral positions are offset a half of the total move. With proper management. Wind adversely affects uniformity of application and rotational operation. Guide rollers are used near the mainline to position the lateral at the next set. It rotates around a central swivel joint where water is introduced. This system may be suitable on more than one field where there is an extended mainline. USA (e) End-tow Laterals The end-tow lateral system is similar to a hand move system except that it consists of rigidly coupled lateral pipe and is mounted on skid plates or dolly wheels. Power for the rotation comes from backpressure caused by directional sprinkler nozzles. application efficiencies can be 50 to 60 percent. The supply line is generally portable aluminum with quick-coupled joints. High winds can overturn the entire boom. 3-12 March 2009 . A few low capacity sprinkler heads are mounted on small diameter flexible plastic or rubber hoses that are attached to outlet valves.2.Chapter 3 . Both ends of the lateral can be connected to the mainline via a flexible hose. application efficiencies can be 50 to 65 percent. Common operating pressures are 35 to 140 kPa.5 mm diameter orifice or holes drilled at uniform distances along the top and sides of a lateral pipe. Application efficiencies can be 60 to 75 percent with proper management.3. The holes are sized and spaced to apply water uniformly along the length of the lateral. Application rates close to the lateral are generally quite high. 3. When irrigating. lightweight flexible hose that can be easily moved by hand.2 Semi-Portable Systems A semi-portable system is similar to a fully portable system except that the location of the water source and pumping plant is fixed. The boom generally contains several closely spaced impact sprinklers or spray heads. The hoses with equally spaced sprinklers are pulled by hand to the next adjacent set. submains are used. With proper management. Either plastic or aluminum laterals with quickcoupled joints are used. Laterals are towed lengthwise across the mainline from one side to the other with a tractor. To utilize small.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (d) Hose-fed Laterals A variation to end-tow laterals is the hose fed system (Figure 3.

This depends on the size of the pipes and the amount of water available. Mainlines are usually buried with risers for connecting laterals.2. Most permanent systems have only part of the systems irrigating at one time.4 Semi-Permanent Systems A semi-permanent system has portable lateral lines.21). permanent mainlines.3. (a) Typical Layout Water Supply (b) Operational View Figure 3. The system cost is high. and a stationary water source and pumping plant (Figure 3.20). It is inconvenient for cultivation or other agricultural operations. This system requires less labour requirements because the pipe does not need to be moved while in the field. needing sufficient lateral pipes and sprinklers to cover the entire field. USA March 2009 3-13 .Chapter 3 .21 Semi-permanent System in Florida. Flow is diverted from one part of the systems to another by valves. Figure 3. Laterals can be either permanently buried or portable pipe laid on the ground surface.2.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. A solid set sprinkler system can be easily automated. 1997) 3.3 Solid Set or Permanent Systems A fixed or solid set sprinkler irrigation system has sufficient number of laterals and sprinklers that none of the laterals or equipment need to be moved to complete irrigation once in place (Figure 3.20 Solid Set Sprinkler System (USDA. It allows light applications at frequent intervals.3.

partial wetting of the soil surface and soil volume. thus. The linear or lateral move system is built the same way as a centre pivot. fertilizer.Chapter 3 . and labour requirements if managed properly. These two types of continuous move systems.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. and Low operating pressure. It is constructed using a span of pipe connected to moveable towers. It operates under low pressure with small-sized wetting patterns and low discharges. There are four principal characteristics associated with micro irrigation systems • • • • 3-14 Low flow rate. Localized. March 2009 . reducing the wetted area by wetting only a fraction of the soil surface. quite common in Europe and US are hardly seen in Malaysia. Microirrigation is immensely popular because of its potential to increase yields and decrease water.5 Continuous Move Systems Continuous-move systems have laterals and sprinklers that are connected to the mainline and move continuously as water is supplied. (a) Center Pivot System (b) Lateral Move System Figure 3. Systems are useful and suitable for sloping or irregularly shaped pieces of land that are impossible to flood or sprinkler irrigate. This system is not yet being used in Malaysia. It has gained more attention where water supply is limited and/or expensive.2. rectangular or regular shaped fields. The popularity of these systems has steadily increased due to shortages of labour for moving portable laterals and sprinklers have continued. The centre pivot. Center pivots are adaptable for crop of any height and are particularly suited to lighter soils. centre pivot and linear-move. Microirrigation saves water because of high application efficiency and water distribution uniformity. Some systems are capable of wetting only a fraction of the root zone while supplying adequate water to satisfy crop water requirements. Water is pumped into either one of the ends or into the centre. Water discharge patterns differ because emission devices are designed for specific applications due to agronomic or horticultural requirements. which is a self-propelled sprinkler system rotates around the pivot point and has the lowest labour requirements of the systems considered. Figure 3.4 Microirrigation Microirrigation systems are localized irrigation methods that slowly and repetitively distribute water uniformly to the plant root zone via emitters. are commonly used for irrigating large. The systems ensure to apply water and fertilizer directly to individual plants or trees. Centre pivot and boom sprinklers. Repetitive water applications due to the limited wetted volume. The main difference is that all the towers move at the same speed and in the same direction.2. USA 3.22 Continuous Move Systems in Florida. water is applied directly into the root zone.22 shows the centre pivot and linear move systems in operation in the fields. with moving towers and spans of pipe connecting the towers.3.

Sublateral loop Submain Water source Gate valve Fertilizer tank Filter Lateral Pressure control valve d.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Suitable Crops: Microirrigation is primarily suited only for high value perennial crops. vegetables and floriculture whereas almost all upland crops can be irrigated by micro irrigation systems. A suitability chart for microirrigation systems is provided in Appendix 3D. wetted soil surface area or the mode of operation. through a network of valves. fruits. March 2009 3-15 . Distributors Gate valve Main line Pressure regulator Figure 3. and a small basin is required to control the distribution of water. Basin bubblers are used in orchards and landscaping and for ornamental plants. either onto the soil surface or directly into the root zone. These systems are best used with medium to fine textured soils. emitter discharge rate.1 Drip or Trickle System Drip irrigation or trickle irrigation is an irrigation method which minimizes the use of water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants. Application of microirrigation for greenhouse. (b) Line source Drippers are installed closely along the lateral with overlapping of the wetted soil volumes by adjacent drippers. This layout is suitable for densely grown row crops. water is applied under low head through bubbler emitters (Figure 3.4. Emitters may have single or multiple outlets and are mostly pressure compensated. The discharge rate is greater than that for drip or subsurface irrigation but less than 4 litres per minute (L/min).2.25).23 Drip Irrigation System Microirrigation systems are further classified into various categories in terms of installation method. Porous type b. pipes. Multi-cutlet distributors c. Discharge rates are less than 12 litres per hour (L/hr) for widely spaced individual applicators and less than 12 L/hr per meter for closely spaced outlets along a tube (or porous tubing). There are two arrangements as shown in Figure 3. tubing.2. a. and emitters (Figure 3. The emitter discharge rate normally exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. 3. (a) Point source Drippers are installed along the laterals at intervals to create a discrete wetted soil volume by each emitter without overlapping. Arrangements of emitters on laterals determine the water distribution pattern in the soil. trees and in widely spaced annual crops.2.23). 3.24. tree crops.Chapter 3 . This layout is suitable for orchard irrigation.4. landscaping and nurseries has also increased tremendously.2 Bubbler System In bubbler irrigation.

90 degree quarter circle pattern and strip. Microsprinklers and sprayers are available with different flow rates and diameters.24 Emitters Arrangement for Point and Line Sources in Florida.4. Microsprinklers and sprayers are rated by flow rate. 2007) 3. 3-16 March 2009 .2. USA Stake Bubble riser Basin Burried & Lateral (a) Bubbler Installation (b) Bubbler Emitter Figure 3. 360-degree jet pattern..Chapter 3 . microsprinklers and sprayers are available in 360-degree full circle pattern. Microsprinklers and sprayers have small sized droplets and good uniformity of coverage that provides a low precipitation rate.26). wetting diameter.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (a) Point Source (b) Line Source Figure 3.3 – 4 L/s and with diameter from 1 – 15 m. Like sprinklers.3 Microsprinkler System Microsprinklers and sprayers are available in a variety of styles and configurations and like drip emitters they operate at a low-pressure range of 690 to 1380 kPa (100-200 psi) (Figure 3.25 Bubbler Irrigation System (Lamm et al. or radius. and the spray method (moving parts versus non moving parts). 180-degree half circle pattern. allowing longer watering time with less runoff. from low flow at 0.

2. in which the root zone is irrigated through watertable control. water is applied slowly below the soil surface through buried emitters. SDI is now being installed on small fruit and vegetable crops and field crops. Maintenance requirements are similar to surface microirrigation systems. with discharge rates generally in the same range as drip irrigation (Figure 3. chemical March 2009 3-17 . It depends on the root characteristics of the crop.27). Emitter outlets should be pointed upwards to avoid clogging.28 is a typical example installed in Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) areas for irrigating mango farm. bacterial activity. SDI systems have gained wider acceptance since earlier problems of emitter clogging have been reduced and improved methods of installation have been developed. Figure 3. called laterals.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3.4. Figure 3.4 Subsurface Drip System In subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). 2007) Figure 3. Water is typically applied from a parallel network of open field ditches (water furrows) or underground pipe (drain tiles). Irrigation then occurs by capillary movement of water into the crop root zone..26 Micro-sprinkler Irrigation System (Lamm et al. Open ditches are more common because underground pipe systems are more expensive.Chapter 3 . This method of application is not to be confused with subirrigation. 2007) 3.5 Subirrigation Water is applied beneath the ground surface usually 30 to 75 cm below the ground surface either by raising the watertable within or near the root zone or by using a buried perforated or porous pipe system that discharges directly into the root zone..2.27 Subsurface Drip Irrigation System (Lamm et al. and more prone to clogging by roots.

and field equipment requirements. runoff often occurs from the fields. Irrigation efficiencies are lowest when runoff water is discharged from the irrigated 3-18 March 2009 . Crops with deep root system (such as citrus) are unsuitable for subirrigation. Watertable is recharged by seepage from irrigation canals. depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity and on irrigation. and other causes. ET rates. cultural. (i) Constant watertable system in which irrigation water is applied continuously to maintain a watertable at the level required for optimum crop growth.28 Subirrigation Systems and Applications (Tobiar. and some fruits. Subirrigation is adapted for vegetables and root crops. in a horizontal and vertical direction and to a recommended depth below the root zone.2 Types of Subirrigation System The sub-surface irrigation may be classified into natural subirrigation and artificial sub-irrigation. soil properties. and water levels are typically controlled with flashboard riser structures at the downstream end of the irrigated field. 3. The ditches are also required for surface drainage during large rainfall events. The evaporation losses are reduced to a minimum. forage crops and gardens. Irrigation from below does not allow the weed seeds to germinate.2. time of year. The selection of crops is limited. The level of the water can be maintained at the optimal depth according to the crop requirements at different growth stages. Subirrigation is appropriate for multiple textured soils with a good permeability so that the water is mobilized quickly. Constant watertable seepage systems are used to irrigate large acreages of vegetables and sugarcane. almost level or very smooth with uniform slope. MADA) 3. even time of day.Chapter 3 . but with restrictive subsurface layers and existing high watertable. Flow rates are often adjusted as a function of stage of crop growth.2. The topography must be uniform. and management practices. (a) Lateral Ditches in Mango Farm (b) Main Ditch of Subirrigation in Mango Farm Figure 3. drainage.5. Depending on field slope. Water with high concentration of salts cannot be used. Water is continuously diverted or pumped into ditches or water furrows.5. and in some cases. Lateral ditches are typically spaced from 3 to 20 m apart on sandy soils.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY precipitation. (a) Natural Subirrigation This method is applicable to low lying lands where the watertable is high and within the capillary reach of crop root zones.1 Important Characteristics Sub irrigation method is used in soils with low capacity and when surface irrigation cannot be used and the cost of pressurized irrigation is excessive. This method of irrigation is limited to be used on permeable soils such as sandy loam or loam with high hydraulic conductivities in the surface soil layers. Effective control is required as it may develop into waterlogged conditions.

6 Low Cost Drip Irrigation Low cost irrigation system is suitable for growing fruits. such as pine bark. 3. Early systems relied on naturally available sand. Fluctuating watertable systems are less frequently used than constant watertable systems because higher levels of management are required. main line. The system is currently relied on heavily in greenhouse vegetable production in many areas around the world. Cheap low-pressure drip systems are available. Soilless culture is used in greenhouse cultural systems. Local simplified versions may easily be developed for these small holders irrigation systems. (ii) Fluctuating watertable system in which watertable is permitted to fluctuate on a daily basis as water is only applied intermittently in an effort to reduce runoff. The pipes can be placed at a spacing of 45 cm and at a depth of 50 cm. The following is an outline of important aspects of successful open-field soilless production of vegetables. The system is suitable only under favourable water supply and subsoil conditions for high yielding crops. perlite. volcanic rock. which carry water under pressure to percolate into soil. to polyethylene bags or rigid plastic pots containing one to three plants.2. or troughs with a lightweight medium is the simplest. some of which are not larger than 1000 m2. vegetables and flowers in family-owned gardens. Efficiencies are highest when runoff is recycled or applied to other irrigated fields and when application rates are matched to changes in water requirements during each day.2. or a mixture of barks and wood chips. composted plant materials. Many of these soilless media systems can be adapted for openfield use. and other materials in plastic containers or plastic wrapping. rice husk.29 and 3. but also can be used by growers producing crops in large fields. gravel. Soilless culture is being more widely practiced because soil fumigation is becoming less practical and more expensive. Modern systems employ manufactured media such as rockwool. coconut coir. also are used successfully for greenhouse culture of vegetables.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY field. Water supply is cut-off when watertable is high and runoff begins to occur. 1977). 3. laterals.. Bag or pot systems using bark chips or peat-lite are in common use. filter.1 Soilless Culture System Soilless culture is an artificial means of providing plants with support for nutrients and water. Soilless culture in bags. Water is provided to crops by capillary through a network of buried perforated pipes. March 2009 3-19 . and easiest to manage of all soilless systems.Chapter 3 . manifold. The potential for leaching crop nutrients is increased.7 Special Applications 3. Soilless systems are particularly adapted to small farms producing a variety of crops. The perforated subsurface pipes allow the infiltration through the soil. The most common types of media used in containerized systems of soilless culture are peat-lite (Boodley and Sheldrakejr. valves. etc.30).31. pots. These buried pipes can suffer damage by deep plowing. It is expensive and out of the reach of small producers.7. most economical. micro-tubes or emitters. Certain organic products. Water supply is restarted when watertable drop to critical levels or during peak crop water use. Conventional drip technology is not suitable for these small gardens. Container types range from long wooden troughs in which one or two rows of plants are grown. developed by IDE International in India and Watermatics in USA (Figure 3. Both types include a tank. Typical soilless crop production system in a greenhouse is shown in Figure 3.2. (b) Artificial Sub-irrigation It is a very expensive method. expanded clay. or various mixtures of these materials. and yield reductions occur when watertable fluctuates excessively.

Liquid systems are generally closed circuit with respect to nutrient-solution supply: the solution is re-circulated from a supply reservoir either continuously or intermittently for a period of days or weeks.Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Microtube Coverage Bucket Take off Valve Line filter 12 mm lateral line Microtube 15 m 15 m End cap (a) Layout (Bucket Kit and Drum Kit) (b) Application Figure 3.30 Low Cost Microirrigation with Solar Power (Watermatics. The two most common liquid systems in use today are nutrient-flow technique (NFT) and gravel bed culture. 2007) Drip Line Distribution Line Solar Panel Main Line Filter Solar Pump Figure 3. 3-20 March 2009 .29 Low Cost Microirrigation System (IDE. 2008) (a) Types of Soilless Culture Systems Liquid-medium systems are further differentiated from solid-medium systems by method of operation.

A plumbing system of plastic tubing and a submersible pump in the tank are basic components. asphalt-coated wood or fiberglass also has been used. Capillary matting is sometimes used in the bottom of NFT channels. The purpose of intermittent flow is to assure adequate aeration of the root systems. plants could experience water stress if the flow period is too short or infrequent. so the system must recirculate solution from the supply tank to the beds several times a day by means of a time clock and submersible pump. but some systems are operated intermittently by supplying solution a few minutes every hour. but under rapid growth conditions.Solid-medium soilless culture may employ any one of the many types of suitable March 2009 3-21 . 2008) Nutrient-flow technique (NFT) growing system consists of a series of narrow channels through which nutrient solution is recirculated from a supply tank.32).31 Irrigation of Soilless Culture in Greenhouse (NETAFIM. In either case.Chapter 3 . principally to avoid the side-to-side meandering of the solution stream around young root systems. Therefore. however. Gravel-bed culture utilizes a waterproof trough filled with pea gravel. The advantage of the two-pipe system is that any root growth into the drain line will not interfere with the uniform distribution of nutrient solution to the bed. Gravel particles retain very little water and nutrients.33). which is plumbed to a nutrient solution reservoir (Figure 3. root growth will eventually clog the drain line and rotary cleaning equipment must be used to remove it. Flow is usually continuous. The channels are generally constructed of opaque plastic film or plastic pipe (Figure 3. This also reduces the energy required. but it also acts as a reservoir by retaining nutrients and water during periods when flow ceases.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (a) A Typical Run-to Waste System (c) Soilless Culture in Trays (b) Rockwool Slabs with Recirculation (d) Strawberry Grown in Soilless Culture Figure 3. The basic characteristics of all NFT systems are the shallow depth of solution that is maintained in the channels. intermittent-flow management seems better adapted to mild-temperature periods or to plantings during their early stages of development.

a container in which the lateral is confined. Staples Roots Plug Pump Black polyethylene Nutrient solution Poly lined Figure 3. and the weight of soil is much greater than other types of material. but a supply of very uniform soil in the volume required may be difficult to find.50 mm. particle-size distribution is an important consideration in order to maintain a good balance between drainage and nutrient and water retention. Particle sizes should be in the range of 0.25 to 0. Basic requirements are a material of uniform texture that drains well yet retains some nutrients and water.0 mm with an average of 0.1 to 1. Where sand is used. and a means of supplying nutrient solution.Chapter 3 . A well-drained sandy loam could be used as a growing medium.34).SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY media in various types of containers. Full-floor sand culture has been successful for vegetable culture in greenhouses and is considered a good means of providing plants with a uniform. 2007) Pea Gravel Nutrient Solution Soil Surface Fill and Drain Line Submersible Pump End View V-Shaped Through Figure 3.33 Hydroponic Culture in a Gravel Filled Trough (US Davis. 2008) 3-22 March 2009 .32 Nutrient Flow Culture Using Plastic Film in Recirculation System (US Devis. well-drained rooting medium (Figure 3.

largely because of increases in numbers of extra-large fruits (Figures 3.35a). (c) Key Aspects of Growing Crops in Soilless Substrates Soilless substrate must have the following properties: • • • • • • (d) High water capacity and mobility High air content Light weight Stable High capacity to supply nutrients Non-salinity Advantages of Soilless Cultures • • • • • • • (e) Enhanced control of water and fertilizer applications Optimal moisture in the substrate Optimal nutrient supply Significant advantage in disinfecting between growing periods Water recycling enables reduced expenses Environmental solution Excellent alternative for unsuitable soils due to salinity. 2008) (b) Field Site Soilless Culture System Soilless culture can be practiced on any field site on the farm where possible. Limitations of Soilless Cultures • • • • • • Low root volume Low nutrient storage Trace elements .35f and 3.35d). drainage problems.35g). 3.35e.35c and 3. etc. Production of strawberry has been increased by 50% on a field area basis compared to standard soil-based field production (Figure 3.35h).35b). Tomato and pepper production is increased with the soilless system.34 Full Floor Sand Culture System for Capsicum (US Davis and NETAFIM. An alternative for small production units is to place nursery ground cloth on the ground underneath the bags (Figures 3. Raised beds place the bags above the soil reducing the chances for soil contamination of the media and increases air movement and water drainage.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Greenhouse Drip tubing Soil surface 30 cm Drip sand fill Drain lines Polyethylene liner (a) Layout (b) Soilless Culture View Figure 3. growers should choose areas free of weeds such as nut sedge and areas least likely to flood (Figure 3.Chapter 3 .important to control Low buffering capacity Fast changes in pH Salinity control March 2009 3-23 . It is preferable to place the soilless bags on polyethylene-mulched raised beds in the field (Figure 3.

SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (a) Level.Chapter 3 . USA 3-24 March 2009 . Sandy Field for Strawberry (b) Perlite-filled Lay-flat Bags for Strawberry (c) Perlite-filled Lay-flat Bags for Strawberries (d) Perlite-filled Bags on Black Nursery Cloth (e) Continuous-filled Perlite Bags for Strawberry (f) Tomato in Outdoor Soilless Culture (g) Pepper Production in Outdoor Soilless Culture (h) Strawberry in Perlite-filled Lay-flat Bags Figure 3.35 Open Field Soilless Cultures for Vegetables Production Systems in Florida.

Figure 3. It is not necessary to use a complicated or expensive injector to obtain good results. the principal types are piston and diaphragm pumps and venturi.36 shows the sketch of a chemigation layout. Depending on the type of agricultural chemicals being applied. the irrigation and chemigation equipment must be maintained and operated properly. the chemical needs to be applied uniformly to the field. Irrigation systems used for chemigation must have the required antipollution safety devices and the appropriate injection equipment installed. etc. fungigation. Diaphragm pumps usually are made of a chemically March 2009 3-25 . and peppers.7. labor costs may increase. Positive displacement pumps are piston pumps or diaphragm pumps. Uniformity of distribution is dependent upon thorough mixing and uniform water application.2. it is accurate. particular care should be taken in selecting fertilizers and injection equipment as well in the management and maintenance of the system. such as lettuce. Fertigation provides the only good way to apply fertilizers physically to the crop root zone. In mobile system. and it must be stopped to change calibration. but is actually necessary. but it has surfaces that might be exposed to corrosion. the microirrigation system should not be used for chemigation. Chemigation is one of the best ways to apply many agricultural chemicals. insectigation. (a) Injection Methods There are numerous ways to inject chemicals into irrigation water. The other types of pumps work on differential pressure rather than positive displacement. Positive displacement pumps are precise and operate on an external power source such as electricity (120 volt AC or 12 volt battery). Often a pump is used to inject the chemical into the pressurized irrigation pipe. Chemigation units can be either fixed or mobile. Once a piston pump is calibrated to a given rate. however.Chapter 3 . it is very important that high water application uniformity occurs. most components of the chemigation system are mounted on trailer or truck and are shared by several irrigation systems. safe and effective chemigation requires top-level management by the operator. the level of fertigation management for achieving high yields and crop qualities exceeds to what is found with other irrigation methods and crops. To capitalize on fertigation benefits.2 Chemigation and Fertigation Systems Chemigation is a process of applying an agricultural chemical (fertilizer or pesticide) to the soil or plant surface with an irrigation system by injecting the chemical into the irrigation water. The objective of applying nutrients or chemicals is to meet the nutrient needs of the crop or to control pests and diseases. The uniformity of the chemical application is dependent on the uniformity of the water application. an internal combustion engine. In permanent systems. Fertigation is not optional. Mobile units can significantly reduce the fixed costs of chemigation. or waterpower. Therefore. all components are devoted to a single irrigation system. and the entire system must be in good working condition. herbigation. If the application uniformity is less than 80 percent. and to be efficient. (b) Fertilizer or Chemicals Metering Devices Many types of injector pumps are available. The process must not result in plugging or corrosion of the irrigation system components. tomatoes.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. It optimizes production and reduces potential environmental hazards. In addition. On high value drip irrigated crops. But. The best method depends on • • • • Solubility of the material to be injected Potential hazard of the chemical Availability of power Portable versus permanent installation The injection device typically differentiates one injection system from another. chemigation may be referred to as fertigation. while the venturi uses the force of the irrigation water as the driving force to inject the chemical.

The venturi bypass is simple and relatively low cost. which might or might not be proportional to the desired rate. Pumps inject the fertilizer solution in a pulsating pattern. Automatic low pressure cut-off Irrigation pipe line Electric motor and pump Irrigation pump panel Flow meter Vacuum relief valve Control panels electrically interlocke Automatic low pressure drain Check valve Injection tank Drain line Injection and automatic check valve Chemical discharge line Agitator Electric conduit Panel for inject pump and agitator Injection pump Filter prior to injector pump Connections for fresh water to flush out chemicals Chemicals flow meter Injection hose Figure 3. and they work well in nurseries or greenhouses.Chapter 3 . There are also proportioner injectors that sense the rate of flow and adjust the injection rate as the flow rate changes. One possible disadvantage is that these injectors require some pressure to operate.36 Chemigation Station Layout (Burt. Injection may be initiated and controlled automatically or manually. and pressure changes in the system might alter the rate of injection. Since the injection rate depends on the pressure differential. They are accurate and can be adjusted as they run. a constant predetermined ratio between the irrigation water and the fertilizer solution is maintained. any pressure fluctuations in the system change the injection rate.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY resistant material. and so the fertigation process can be completed in less time than will be required to meet the irrigation needs of the crop. The injection pump should be sized for maximum amount of fertilizer to be injected at any time during the season. Positive displacement injection pumps give better control of injection rates and are preferable to venturi or pressure differential devices. a measured amount of fertilizer is injected into the irrigation system during each application. These pumps do not require an outside power source. These pumps inject at a constant rate regardless of flow or pressure changes in the system. In quantitative dosing. In proportional dosing. 3-26 March 2009 . 1994) (c) Control and Automation in Chemigation System Two types of dosing patterns are normally followed. Venturi injectors apply the fertilizers continuously and in constant connection. It works from differential pressure in the system (usually 20 percent) from one side of the device to the other.

e. The physical factors identified the topography. 1980) March 2009 3-27 . It is accomplished by a provision of an agricultural drainage system. i.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Drainage is the artificial removal of excess water and dissolved salts from agricultural land in order to enhance crop growth. Selection of one mode of drainage or combination of drainage methods depends upon the nature of the problem and the typical characteristics of the project area.Chapter 3 .37 Watertable Conditions in Root Zones (FAO. ease in operation and maintenance and long term impacts on the environment. soil and water.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. The specific objectives of agriculture drainage are: • • • • To To To To lower the watertable for favorable crop growing conditions remove excess surface and subsurface water remove excess soluble salts with the (excess) water from the drained soil profile maintain groundwater levels at a desired level Two drainage modes are normally used in agriculture. However. when physical factors are equally favourable then the deciding factor may be their relative economics. the horizontal drainage (open or closed conduits) and vertical drainage (tubewells drainage). Unwanted water can be accumulated on fields due to heavy rainfall and/or excessive irrigation. The general objective of agricultural drainage is to enhance crop growth and to maintain the soil productivity (Figures 3.38). Too much water application is harmful to crops and must be removed faster as possible to provide site access and trafficability for timely planting and harvesting. Open drainage systems are the most common but combination of open and subsurface drainage is used to lower groundwater levels quickly after rainstorms or at the end of the rainy season. Soil not saturated Unsaturated soil Water table Saturated soil Water table Saturated soil (a) Before drainage (b) After Drainage Figure 3.37 and 3.

or by a combination of surface and subsurface components that collect and convey water from fields.1 Types of Drainage Systems Agricultural drainage is accomplished by a system of surface ditches. Both types of systems need an internal or "field drainage system".SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Over land flow Watertable without drainage system Watertable with drainage Saturated soil (a) Removing Excess Water by Open Ditch Extra water is supplied Salt are removed by the water Collector drain Drain pipe (b) Controlling Salinity by Pipe Drainage Pipe Drain Watertable without drainage system Watertable with drainage Saturated soil (c) Maintaining the Watertable by Pipe Drainage Figure 3. A surface drainage system is applied when the water logging occurs on the soil surface. Field drainage systems can be either surface or subsurface drainage systems. which lowers the water level in the field. whereas a subsurface drainage system is applied when the water logging occurs in the soil and there are problems with excessively shallow watertable and/or secondary salinization.39 illustrates the different drainage systems practiced for crop production.38 Major Purposes of Agricultural Drainage (USDA 2001) 3. and removes the excess rain or irrigation water and an external or "main drainage system". subsurface conduits.Chapter 3 . 3-28 March 2009 . which convey the water to the outlets of the drainage basins.3. Figure 3.

The rate at which water is removed by surface drainage depends on several interrelated factors. Water is carried to the outlet channel by lateral ditches. The principal function of the main drains is to convey water to the outlet point for disposal. the sea or any other component of the hydrological system which will be suitable to act as a recipient of drainage water. lateral ditches. The final point of a main drainage system is the gravity outlet structure or the pumping station.2.3. and should include land smoothing or land grading. interflow and subsurface flow and removes water from the irrigated areas for disposal.3 Surface Drainage Surface drainage is the removal of water that collects on the land surface.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Drainage Systems Shallow Collector Disposal Drains Main Drainage Deep Collector Field Drainage Deep Main Drain Interception Drainage Subsurface Drainage Surface Drainage Bedding Open Ditch Shallow Ditch Biodrainage Outlet Pipe/Tile Grassed Waterways Tubewells Mole Figure 3.2 Field Drainage System Surface water is usually collected by a system of shallow drainage channels along the lower ends of the farm. Deep collectors are required for subsurface field drainage systems. The main drainage systems consist of deep or shallow collectors.2. The deep collectors may either discharge their water into deep main drains (drains that do not receive water directly from field drains. whereas shallow collectors are used for surface field drainage systems.2 Components of a Drainage System 3. which receive water from field ditches or sometimes from the surface of the field.3. Many fields have low spots or depressions where water ponds.3. The terms deep and shallow collectors refer rather to the depth of the water level in the collector below the soil surface than to the depth of the bottom of the collector. This type of system is suitable for all slowly permeable soils and for soils with clay subsoils. and main or disposal drains. a lake. March 2009 3-29 . 3.3. but only from conveyance). The system consists of an outlet channel. Gentle side slopes are used so that agricultural machineries can operate across them to gain access to the fields. The bottom depth is determined both by the depth of the water level and by the required discharge capacity. or their water may be pumped into a "disposal drain".1 Main Drainage System Main drainage system receives water from fields as surface runoff. but they can also be used for pumped subsurface systems. 3. The outlet point of a drainage system will normally be located at the low points on a river.Chapter 3 .39 Common Agricultural Drainage Systems 3. and field ditches.

1 Bedding Systems Bedding resembles a system of parallel field ditches with the intervening land shaped to a raised. e slop Land Field ditich The furrows drain to field ditches s in tion a r e op tion ing ec Farm her dir eit 9 o 0t 300 m o 0t d1 to e c t spa rt en th c s r i e pa che sw 1p Dit 0 m a lly varie 9 a usu nt e de erce lop Gra /2 p and s 1 l 1 Outletdrain Drain Outlet Outlet drain should be at least 0. These lands or corrugations require establishment of field ditches and laterals for collection and removal of runoff from dead furrows. The crown is constructed with blade equipment. (b) Crowning The convex area in this type of bedding is usually greater than 20 m in width.40). the crown height. Some type of surface ditch forms the side boundaries of each crown.41).40 Surface Drainage Bedding (USDA. lies between two dead furrows. Local information should be used to determine the width of beds. Surface slopes are provided across each crown. This drainage system generally is used where the slopes are flat and the soil has a low permeability and other types of drainage are not economically feasible.15 to 0.30 m deeper field ditch Figure 3. fodder crops. 3. and cropping patterns. The bedding practice has two distinct forms namely corrugation and crowning (Figure 3. Beds are established to run with the land slope or in the direction of the most desirable outlet. which are usually spaced from 10 m to a maximum of 25 m apart.3. A topographic survey and a contour map of the area with sufficiently large scale are prerequisite before designing a surface drainage system. rounded surface (Figure 3.3.1997) 3-30 March 2009 . and maintenance.Chapter 3 . soil properties. construction method. Bedding is most appropriate for crops grown on the flat like grassland. sugarcane and various grain crops. (a) Corrugations The convex area in this type of bedding.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY including rainfall. formed by ploughing or blading. A bedding system generally is in small land areas and is installed using farm equipment.

2 Shallow Ditch Systems The systems comprise of shallow field ditches laid out in certain patterns. mostly through interflow. The ditches are usually too shallow and the subsoil too impermeable to achieve much subsurface drainage. There are four types of shallow ditch system may be distinguished based on the applied layout pattern and on the type and main function of the installed ditches. Depressions where runoff collects Waste spoil in low spots Farming operations in either directions Random field ditches (Outlet) drain (Outlet) drain Outlet drains should be 15-30 cm deeper than the random field ditches Figure 3. (a) Random Drain This system is applicable to undulating land where only scattered wet areas require drainage. The ditches should be shallow and have side slopes flat enough for farm equipment to cross. The ditches are established parallel but not necessarily equidistant. 1997) (b) Parallel Drain This system is applicable to land where the topography is flat and regular and where uniform drainage is needed. as shown in Figure 3.3. and laterals run in the direction of the slope.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Deep. The March 2009 3-31 .. Precision land forming and smoothing helps to assure the removal of surface water from less permeable soil.3.42).41 Drainage by Overland Flow in Bedding Drainage System (Smedema et al. loose topsoil maintained by up-hill ploughing Overland flow Watertable Dead furrow or shallow ditch Interflow "Impermeable" soil Figure 3.42 Random Open Drains (USDA. The main function is to collect surface runoff and provide shallow profile drainage. The ditches should be located so they intercept depressions and provide the least interference with farming operations (Figure 3.Chapter 3 . Field ditches are generally perpendicular to the slope. 2004) 3.43. The direction of the land slope generally determines the direction of the ditches.

the soil hydraulic conductivity.3 Grassed Waterways Grassed waterways are natural or constructed channels established for transport of concentrated flow at safe velocities using adequate vegetation (Figure 3. and nutrient management. Grassed waterways provide a stable channel for the conveyance of a concentration of surface water flow through cultivated areas. and the uniformity of the topography. cross slope ditches.44). evaporation control. The drain is located across the slope as straight as topography will permit (Figure 3.45). spacings should be adjusted to fit the number of passes of tillage and harvesting equipment. all flow should be diverted away from the waterway during establsihment of the vegetative cover. to prevent the accumulation of water from higher land. The field ditches work best on slopes of less than 2 percent. and access roads for farming equipment can also influence the drain location. 3. This system facilitates surface water movement and aeration of the shallow root zone. the narrow bed system can be extremely effective for some cropping systems. (d) Narrow Raised Beds A narrow bed system has a raised bed wide enough for single or double crop rows to provide an aerated surface profile. Grassed waterways dissipate part of the energy from the flowing water and lower it to a level that will not erode away the vegetative cover or form fullies.Chapter 3 .3. Spacing of the field ditches depends upon the water tolerance of crops. They are generally broad and shallow by design to move surface water across farmland without causing soil erosion. Where possible. Advantages The main advantages of grassed waterway are: • Allows crossing of farm machinery • Waterway grass can be harvested as forage • Low maintenance once grass is established • Convey large quantities of water • Water quality can be improved Disadvantages The main disadvantages are: • Not suitable for subsurface drainage outlet • Vegetation establishment can be difficult 3-32 March 2009 . Land forming or smoothing between the ditches improves operation of the system by preventing the concentration of flow and the occurrence of ponding.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY location of diversions. The excavated material should be placed in low areas or on the downhill side of the drain. These waterways are not suitable for continuous flow. This is due to the variation of roughness with depth of flow and stage of vegetation growth. and to prevent the concentration of water within a field. When used with plastic covers for weed control. The geometry of the channel also varies with the stage of growth of the grass cover. Land forming can reduce the number of ditches required by making the topography more uniform. The spacing of these ditches varies with the land slope and should be based on drainage guides. For this reason. The design of vegetated waterways is more complex than that of a regular open ditch. (c) Cross Slope Drain This system is used to drain sloping land.3.

Main outlet drain Outlet drain After the ditches have been constructed. 1997) ope d sl Lan Cross slope drains should be constructed across the slope as straight and parallel as the topography permits with limited cutting through ridges and humps.3m deeper than the field ditches. Do not plant in the ditch bottom. . t io n lt iv a Di . Figure 3. smooth or grade the area between the ditches. Figure 3.44 Cross Slope Drain System (USDA. cu ting ing n a l est fp n o d harv o i t an r ec Field ditch Drains should be about parallel but not necessarily equidistant spacing. F ield slop e Outlet drain Outlet drain (lateral) should be about 0.Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Rows continuous across field. 1997) March 2009 3-33 .43 Parallel Open Drains (USDA.

3.Chapter 3 . In soils with poor infiltration characteristics and/or with poorly permeable soils.4.5 m below the soil surface. 3-34 March 2009 . size or shape) that conveys excess groundwater to control the watertable at a desired depth. shallow open drains are additionally required.45 Grassed Waterway (Green and Haney. Subsurface drainage is applicable in soils where the root zone is underlain by soil layers of reasonable hydraulic conductivity and/or thickness.4 Subsurface Drainage Subsurface drainage removes excess water from the soil profile.3. Maintenance requirements are minimal if the systems are properly constructed. Four types of subsurface drainage systems (Figure 3.4. Open drains combine surface and subsurface drainage functions.0 to 1. namely the horizontal drainage and the vertical drainage.5 m. but it is better to consider of "field drainage by wells". If overland drainage flows occur. Subsurface drainage by channels is often referred to as "horizontal drainage" and drainage by wells as "vertical drainage”. Pipe drainage systems are installed in the soil below the plough layer at a depth of 1.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Figure 3. The main disadvantages of open drainage systems are: (i) land loss. (iii) splitting-up of the land into small units. also called well drainage) Mole drainage Interception drainage (horizontal drainage) Open or Deep Ditch Drainage System A deep ditch drain is a channel with an exposed water surface that conveys overland flow as well as subsurface flow. or "field drainage by ditches or pipes". The drainage network generally outlets to an open ditch or stream. There are mainly two types of subsurface drainage systems in use.1 Deep ditch drainage (horizontal drainage. also called tile drainage) Tubewell drainage (vertical drainage. and the excess water on or in the soil is able to infiltrate and percolate through the root zone to the underlying watertable at reasonable rates. 3. also called ditch drainage) Pipe drainage (horizontal drainage.2 Pipe Drainage System A pipe drain is a buried pipe (regardless of material.3.46): • • • • • 3. usually through a network of perforated tubes installed 1. (ii) interference with the irrigation. The land can be farmed right over the drain and there is no loss of farming area.70 m depth) and therefore have the advantage of not interfering with the farm operations. subsurface drainage is both technically and economically impossible to remove excess water from the root zone. (iv) hampering (mechanized) farming operation and (v) relatively frequent maintenance requirements. 2008) 3. and at a spacing of 5 to 25 m (normally > 0.0 to 1.

2005) March 2009 3-35 .46 Subsurface Drainage Systems (Nijland et al.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Collector Drain Open Field Drain (a) Open or Deep Ditch Drainage Collector Drain Pipe Field Drain (b) Pipe Drainage Irrigation Canal Drain Tubewell Tubewell Watertable Aquifer (c) Tubewell Drainage Collector Drain Mole Drain Plastic Pipe at Outlet Canal (d) Mole Drainage Figure 3..Chapter 3 .

e. the field drains are buried perforated pipes that discharge into open collector drains (Figure 3. In a composite system. The outflow of a pipe drain into a ditch collector in singular system is easy to inspect. Typical slopes are 5-10 m per 100 m length of the drain. Moreover. (b) Flow Pattern of Pipe Drains Figure 3. • • Singular system Composite system In a singular pipe drainage system.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Subsurface pipe drainage systems can be divided into two major systems. (d) Envelope An envelope is porous material placed around a perforated pipe drain to perform one or more of the following functions: • • • • 3-36 Filter function Hydraulic function Mechanical function Bedding function March 2009 . They are natural system. Land loss by ditches in a singular system may amount to 2-3%. (a) Layout Most subsurface drainage for modern farming is achieved by pipe drainage systems.49 illustrates the flow pattern of the excess water to the field drains for the case of a parallel drainage system.47). the collector drains also consist of closed or perforated pipes that in turn discharge into an open main drain either by gravity or by pumping. In the herringbone system. the laterals are given slope by increasing the installation depth along the drain or along the land to be drained. In a composite pipe drainage system. blockage affects a small area only. In the parallel grid system. (c) Pipe Materials Three types of drain are used for the pipe drainage systems. Natural system is an irregular pattern of field drains running through a depression to collect surface runoff and interflow as well as groundwater flow. Pipe laterals may discharge either into a ditch collector or into a pipe collector through singular and composite systems. Composite systems often have significant advantages in drainage for salinity control in irrigated areas. i. as malfunctioning is not so evident.Chapter 3 . Considering the above factors. Three types of alignment of field drains and the collector drains are used in pipe drainage systems. singular systems are most suitable for flat plains. Field width in the singular system should not exceed 300 m for single sided entry and 600 m for double sided entry.48 illustrates field drainage patterns. concrete and plastic pipe drainage systems. blockage may affect a large area while it is liable to continue over a longer period. An open ditch is often used in preference to a buried pipe. The collector system itself may be composed of sub-collectors and a main collector. Parallel and herringbone systems are suitable in areas where the size of depressions decreases and their number increases. Figure 3. herringbone system and parallel grid system. so that the pipes slope downwards the collector drain but remain at a constant depth below the surface. clay tile. the collector drains are aligned down the main slope and the field drains are aligned across the slope but at a slight angle to the contours.

SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Drain Sea. River or Lake (a) Single System Sea. junctions and control Crossings Outlets Sump outlet March 2009 3-37 . 2005) (e) Structures Structures in pipe drainage systems are: • • • • • Surface water inlets Inspection..47 Subsurface Pipe Drainage System (Nijland et al. River or Lake (b) Composite System Figure 3.Chapter 3 .

SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Wet spots Field dra (Latera in l) or ct lle Co Herringbone system Natural stream Slope of the land Field drain Collector Main drain (lateral) Field drain (a) Natural System (lateral) Main drain Collector Double sided entry One sided entry (b) Parallel Grid system Figure 3. 3-38 March 2009 .49 Typical Flow Pattern to Parallel Pipe Drains (Smedema et al.4. 2004) 3.50 depicts an example of well drainage in controlling watertable.3 Tubewell Drainage System Tubewell drainage means drainage of agricultural lands by wells.48 Pipe Drainage Layout Patterns (Smedema et al.. Figure 3. including provisions for running the pumps.Chapter 3 .. and surface drains to dispose off the excess water. The system requires intensive operation and maintenance and a continuous power supply.3. A tubewell drainage system consists of a network of tubewells to lower the watertable. Tubewell drainage is used in areas with a high soil permeability and preferably fresh groundwater that can be reused for irrigation. 2004) Soil surface Watertable Infiltration and percolation of excess h Streamline Pipe drain Field drainage base Figure 3.

and the risk from erosion is reduced. Mole drainage is applied only under very specific conditions.Chapter 3 . Mole drains are generally spaced about 2 m to 5 m apart and are 0.51). Mole drainage is widely used in New Zealand and England on heavy soils to improve productivity of crops and pastures. Safe gradients are in the range of 0. This provides an intensive drainage system suitable for heavy clay soils that quickly removes excess water from the root zone and much less interception of saline groundwater than deeper traditional pipe drains. Mole drains do not drain groundwater but only water that enters from above.8 m deep. Mole formation and associated soil cracking Leg 45o Log fissures 45° Leg slot Mole channel Expander Fool Figure 3. It is formed by pulling a solid object.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Figure 3. This should enable relatively trouble free moles in that minor surface undulations will not block with negative gradients. The flatter the gradient.3. usually a solid cylinder with a wedge-shaped point at the end. They are a more sophisticated drainage system than open drains. mainly in stable clayey soils.50 Tubewell Drainage System (Christen. These unlined conduits remove water from the soil (Figure 3. rather than at controlling the watertable as such.4.4 Mole Drainage Systems A mole drain is an unlined underground drainage conduit 75-100 mm in diameter formed in clay soil by a mole plough. The effect of mole drainage is a rapid removal of excess water from the surface layers. Mole drains are used when natural drainage needs improvement due to lack of slope or heavy clay subsoil prevents downward drainage. the more even the soil surface has to be and more interceptor drains needed to achieve good results. Mole drainage is a cost effective option for clay soils.5 – 0. 1983) 3. through the soil at the proper slope and depth. It is important to prevent water stagnating in the mole channels since this will weaken the walls and lead to premature collapse.2 – 3%. this is rarely used in Malaysia. 2001) Moling is suited to clay soils with minimum clay content of 30%.51 Mole Formation by Pulling a Bullet (USDA. March 2009 3-39 . The generally accepted maximum effective length of moles is about 200 m. without a trench having to be dug. where existing surface drains can be used. However.

The biodrainage system consists of fast growing tree species. Other suitable species for biodrainage may be Casuarina glauca. Drain trench A Boundry ditch A 30-50 m Top soil Boundry ditch Drain trench 50-60 cm Subsoil Mole channel 20-30 cm Gravel Pipe Drain trench Mole channels (2-3 m apart) (a) Layout (b) Cross section A-A Figure 3. Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cuminii etc.5 Interception Drainage Interception drainage systems remove excess water originating upslope. deep percolation from irrigation or rainfall.54). Fast growing Eucalyptus species known for luxurious water consumption under excess soil moisture condition are suitable for biodrainage (Figure 3. with the trenches mostly following the depressions in the field.3. The trenches may be parallel and regularly spaced or be laid out in close accordance with the topography. which absorb water from the capillary fringe located above the ground watertable. Interception drains are open ditches or buried conduits located perpendicular to the flow of ground water or seepage. These species can be planted in blocks in the form of farm forestry or along the field boundary in the form of agroforestry. This provides a dependable outlet and allows the use of short length mole channels in large fields.. The trenches are provided with a pipe drain and are backfilled to well above the mole depth with gravel to allow the discharge from the mole channels to flow readily down to the pipe.Chapter 3 . 3.6 Biodrainage Biodrainage is the vertical drainage of soil water through evapotranspiration by vegetation for controlling water logging and salinity. The drain trenches are installed first and then the mole channels are drawn across and through the trenches. The gravel should be clean and have a minimum size of between 3 and 5 mm. 3. it generally refers to the removal of subsurface water. It also helps in counteracting the harm done by excessive irrigation or seepage of the water through the canal.53). 2004) Mole drains generally respond rapidly to rainfall and their discharge rates can be substantial.52).SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY A better system is to intercept the flow in the mole channels at suitable intervals by means of drain trenches installed across the mole channels (Figure 3. 3-40 March 2009 .3.52 Mole Drainage Discharging into Drain Trenches (Smedema et al. It presents itself as a feasible and environment-friendly option based on the property of plants and trees to transpire water and is used to remove excess water and salinity. buried stream channels (Figure 3. Biodrainage trees and plants only help in removing the drainage surplus water by absorbing through the roots and transpiring from the leaves thus lowering the watertable. The pipes should also be designed to cope with this rapid response to rainfall. Therefore it is essential that the hydraulic conductivity of the backfilled gravel should be high in order to minimize head losses at the discrete points where water cascades from the mole channel into the gravel-filled trench. Although this method of drainage may intercept and divert both surface and subsurface flows. They are installed primarily for intercepting subsurface flow moving down slope. Terminaliaarjuna. and water from old.

Chapter 3 . Hence. biodrainage by trees can control the rise in watertable in irrigation command areas and prevent the formation of water logging and eventually the saline wasteland.5m depth Topsoil Permeable backfill Water table decline Interceptor drain pipe Figure 3. 1999) (a) Waterlogged Field (b) Biodrainage by Eucalyptus species Figure 3.53 Interception Drainage System (BCDF. Original water table Soaked Area Trench 1 – 1.54 Controlling Waterlogging and Salinity by Biodrainage (Albertus et al. as the plants drain out filtered fresh water in to the atmosphere In-situ solution of the problem of water logging and salinity Preventive and curative system of long life Facilitate combined drainage and disposal system Mitigates the problem of climate change due to greenhouse effect Purifies the atmosphere by absorbing CO2 and releasing Acts as wind break and shelter belts in agroforestry system Provides higher income to the farmer due to the production of food. fodder and timber March 2009 3-41 . 2002) The merits of biodrainage over the conventional engineering based sub-surface drainage systems are as given below: • • • • • • • • • • • • Relatively less costly to raise biodrainage plantations No operational cost. the trees help in preventing the accumulation of salts in the root zone. biodrainage is the best way to lower watertable and avoid the problems of disposal of drainage effluent. Hence.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Biodrainage system does not remove the salt from the soil. as the plants use their bio-energy in draining out the excess ground water into atmosphere Increase in worth with age instead of depreciation No need of any drainage outfall and disposal of drainage effluent No environmental problem. But by controlling the watertable rise and decreasing the capillary water fringe.

rainfed and irrigated land use systems as follows: Dryland/rainfed systems • Recharge control • Groundwater flow interception • Discharge enhancement Irrigated systems • Water table control • Channel seepage interception • Biodrainage cum conventional drainage systems 3.3. water fluxes passing beneath the root zone of vegetation communities are 3-42 March 2009 .55 Dryland Plantation Scenario (Albertus et al.55). thus creating a storage buffer to accommodate the next rainfall season.1 Possible Biodrainage Scenarios Biodrainage management mechanisms can be classified based on land use context considering dryland.6. a) Recharge Planting b) Break-of-Slope Planting c) Discharge Planting Without Tree With Tree Water Table Groundwater Flow Figure 3. So there is a delayed drainage response to rainfall inputs with the soil reservoir filling over rainy season and being depleted by vegetation water use over dry season.Chapter 3 .6. 2002) (a) Recharge Control The sustainability of natural environments relies on the balance between recharge and discharge or hydrological balance. Non-irrigated biodrainage plantings can be designed for different purposes as described in the following sections (Figure 3.3.2 Rainfed Systems A major problem with biodrainage (as opposed to conventional drainage) in rainfed conditions is that plant water requirement is generally low during cooler winter periods with high rainfall.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3.

based on a thorough understanding of the underlying stratigraphy. The process to minimize deep seepage losses in the higher parts of the landscape to minimize discharge problems down-slope is often referred to as recharge control. 2002) March 2009 3-43 . Australia. re-vegetation of recharge areas can also have negative effects. the trees are considered to intercept these flows and thus reduce discharge problems further down the slope.57 Break-of-Slope Planting of by 2-yrs Blue Gums (Albertus et al. This scenario is often encountered in catchments covered by newly established fast-growing plantations. (b) Groundwater Flow Interception Break-of-slope plantings have been promoted as flow interceptors for areas where groundwater flows through permeable layers overlying low-permeability strata. 2002) However. where the quality is still relatively fresh. By tapping these layers at some point down the slope. Figure 3. Where vegetation is changed by agricultural ‘development’ and crops with lower annual water use and/or shallower root systems are planted. Watertables in the recharge areas are too deep to be accessed by vegetation root systems. Figure 3. and plants in these areas rely on rainfall for their evaporative requirements. Figure 3. As the conveyance capacity of the underground aquifer system is often not high enough to accommodate the increased recharge volumes.56).56 Recharge Control Plantation (Albertus et al. the drying-up of wells and increasing groundwater salinity. It is an example of an over-designed recharge-control biodrainage system and could cause problems such as reduced river flows.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY laterally discharged through regional subsurface aquifer systems. groundwater tables rise and cause water logging and salinization.57 shows a break-of-slope planting of two-year-old blue gums (Eucalyptus globulus) in northern Victoria.Chapter 3 . is extremely important if this concept is to work. recharge increases. Re-vegetation of recharge areas is a major tool in the fight against dryland salinity in Australia (Figure 3. Location of the tree plantations.

the salts 3-44 March 2009 .3 Irrigated Systems In landscapes with undulating topography. a region that had been a malarial swamp since Roman times. To avoid salinity problems. deep and extensive root system is used to dry out waterlogged soil profiles. (a) Watertable Control Shallow water table levels pose a threat to agricultural crops as they often result in salinization of the plant rootzone. 3. The long-term sustainability of biodrainage in this environment is a topic of intense debate.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (c) Discharge Enhancement Low-lying landscape units with shallow watertables often serve as local discharge areas (Figure 3. with their flat topography and shallow watertables.58 Deforested Hill with Salinity Problems in Australia (Albertus et al. unless some form of conventional drainage is installed to control salt balance to the vegetation’s rootzone by removal of saline drainage effluent (Heuperman. 2000). One special application of the biodrainage concept is the amelioration of waterlogged soils during the initial reclamation or ripening phase of ‘new’ land development. salt balance is provided. Figure 3. which is defined as the depth at which capillary salinization is negligible. Vegetation with a vigorous. the distinction between recharge and discharge is less clearly delineated and frequently areas that are discharging groundwater by evapotranspiration between irrigation events temporarily turn into recharge areas during and immediately after irrigation. Recharge occurs at the higher parts of the landscape and discharge lower down the slope. Where these areas have drainage outlets and seepage flows discharge into rivers. Sustainability of irrigation is determined by the leaching capability of soils. In Australia it is now widely accepted that in discharge situations.58). The use of biodrainage in waterlogged discharge areas is based on the concept of enhanced evapotranspiration.6.3. enhanced evapotranspiration biodrainage sites will eventually succumb to salinity. In irrigation areas. Smedema (1997) suggests that biodrainage could be considered for waterlogged landscape depressions and canal seepage interception.Chapter 3 . Where the depressions are closed basins and percolation to deeper aquifers is inhibited. recharge and discharge areas are often relatively easy to delineate. salinization of the landscape unit is inevitable. and could be applied in ‘parallel field drainage’ arrangements as an alternative to conventional field drainage systems. The management of irrigation areas often aims to keep watertables below the critical depth. 2002) Plants can use water both from the unsaturated part of the soil profile above the watertable and from the saturated part below the watertable. Allender (1990) states that Eucalypts were successfully used during the nineteenth century to drain the Pontine Swamps near Rome.

7 Composite Drainage System A combined surface and subsurface drainage system is required when both surface and subsurface water logging occur. 3. A final equilibrium salinity level will establish. when water application exceeds plant water demand. if not left to evaporate and increase in salinity. Plants can remove water from the soil either (1) directly from the saturated zone below the water table. High seepage rates will result in groundwater mounds beneath channels. depending on applied water salinity. is not sustainable without some form of rootzone salt balance. Figure 3. Surface water should not be connected directly to a subsurface drainage system. It may join non-perforated pipe conveying water from surface drainage systems and subsurface drainage systems when the junction is at an elevation lower than any perforated pipe. (b) Channel Seepage Interception Channel seepage shown in Figure 3.3. In scenarios (1) and (2) leaching becomes restricted and salt accumulation processes begin to occur. Where biodrainage results in salt accumulation. causing water logging and salinity problems in the adjoining land. can be productively used by vegetation and commercial crops. as is often the case in irrigation areas. leaching will take place. one to collect and convey surface water and another to collect and convey subsurface water. Water quality in supply channels is normally good and the seepage water. The most cost-efficient system in terms of lifecycle costs may include completely separate systems. 2002) (c) Biodrainage Cum Conventional Drainage Biodrainage crops are no exception to the basic rules that irrigation. The excessive volume and velocity of water from a surface drain system connected directly to drains may actually leach out of the perforated pipe defeating its function as a groundwater collection device. or for that matter plant growth. (2) from the unsaturated capillary fringe above the water table or (3) from unsaturated topsoil layers after rainfall or irrigation. is still a matter of long-term concern. The issue of salt balance.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY present in the irrigation water will have to be removed from the rootzone by leaching them either laterally to adjoining non-irrigated areas or streams or vertically down to levels below the vegetation rootzone.59 can be a major contributor to watertable accessions in irrigation areas. Scenarios (1) and (2) result in watertable control.59 Inundation Caused by Seepage from Irrigation Canal (Albertus et al. scenario (3) recharge control. March 2009 3-45 . although less critical than for more saline groundwater situations. soil hydraulic conductivity. engineering assistance is needed to make the system sustainable. unless it is designed for it. hydraulic gradients and vegetation type. This happens especially where water tables are shallow. In scenario (3) leaching is unimpeded.Chapter 3 .

reservoir. improved quality.g. 3. and higher utilization efficiency of the irrigation water. to prevent certain ion toxicities and build-up of salinity. 3. Furthermore.4.1. Therefore. possible treatment options can be identified. and heavy metals should also be low to reduce the likelihood of specific ion toxicity. fluoride. Hence. This will require input from all parties involved in the project including the funding source(s). depending upon the type of irrigation system used. if available for use in irrigation in a given facility. treatment and disposal of agricultural drainage water continues to be a necessary component of agricultural production systems. and the rest is disposed as tail water. lake. High concentrations of primarily calcium.2 Low Quality Well Water Well waters potentially have high salt and hardness levels.2 Selection of Treatment Process The first steps in the selection of any treatment process for improving irrigation and drainage water quality are to thoroughly define the problem and to determine what the treatment process is to achieve. regulatory agencies and the public. sulfate and chlorine.1.3 Low Quality Surface Water A surface water resource. and potentially higher levels of undesirable salts. In addition to these physical and chemical parameters.1 Potential Water Quality Problems It is well known that irrigation water should be free of particles that are larger than 50-100 micron.4 Low Quality Tail Water Crops consume a relatively small fraction of the irrigation water applied to the plants (evapotranspiration).4. organic matter coming from the growth media.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. yet it may contain salt and hardness levels high for irrigation of certain types of plants.1. the reuse of the tail water is obviously beneficial for reducing the need for additional irrigation water and fertilizer. Water quality problems may affect the sustainability of irrigation and drainage projects. the irrigation water should preferably have low salt content.1 Low Quality Municipal Water Municipal water. Sometimes high salt levels may also be observed. is generally free of disease-causing microorganisms. microorganisms. 3. Controlled quality and delivery of the irrigation water play significant role for improved crop yields. 3. Typical water quality problems are given below: 3. 3-46 March 2009 ..g. Iron and manganese values need to be kept low to prevent staining problems.. Once the selection criteria have been defined. 3.Chapter 3 . users (farmers. industries or municipalities). water authorities. sodium chloride and sulfate cause elevated salt and hardness levels in water.4.4 WATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER USES An irrigation system should ensure increased yields. Typically surface waters contain high levels of suspended solids and a variety of microorganisms. concentrations of boron.1. e.4. magnesium.4. pond and stream can be used for irrigation.4. and can also be contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms. Some well waters might have high turbidity caused by suspended particles as well. tail water usually contains high concentrations of suspended particles. A thorough knowledge and understanding of water quality criteria is required prior to selecting any particular treatment process. such as a river. Tail water contains high concentrations of nutrients added to the irrigation water as fertilizers. However. usually measured by the electrical conductivity (EC) or the total dissolved solids (TDS) levels. another major concern is the biological integrity of the water. e. Many additional parameters.

1 Particle Removal Filtration is a common technology to take out particles from water. controlled drainage. the greatest challenge for both irrigation design and management. Most of the cases.) can occur. uniformity.3 Inactivation of Microorganisms Chlorine is used for cleaning and maintaining irrigation systems. clogging of pipes. Generally. subsurface drainage.3. Many processes exhibit both physical and chemical aspects and so are sometimes called physicochemical treatment. spray jets. Watertable management practices include surface drainage.3 Methods of Treatment Treatment approaches can be divided into three general types: physical. fungi.Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3. always check with the manufacturer recommendations to make sure that problems will not occur if chlorine is injected. Ion exchange process also works effectively. If water is not properly treated. and algae use chemical elements such as nitrogen.3. Proper injection methods and amounts of chemical must be used to provide an effective water treatment program without damaging the irrigation system or the crop being grown. sulfur.2 Salt and Hardness Removal Membrane processes. resulting in decreased crop growth and development because of reduced water application amounts. 3. chemical and biological. and maintaining the watertable during transition (controlled drainage). and efficiency. fungi.60). and to conserve water. WATERTABLE MANAGEMENT Watertable management is the operation and management of a shallow groundwater level to maintain proper soil moisture for optimum plant growth. raising the watertable during dry periods (subirrigation). etc. such as micro-filtration and reverse osmosis can successfully remove ions contributing to the water hardness and high electrical conductivity (or TDS) levels. This challenge of clogging prevention requires meeting these criteria: • • • • • 3. and subirrigation or a combination of these (Figure 3. fittings. or algae which are often present in surface and ground water. Different types of water treatment technologies are briefly discussed to solve each individual problem. integrating several technologies to solve the waterrelated problems provide the most cost-effective solution.5 Selecting and installing the proper system components Filtering the effluent properly and effectively Effectively suppressing biological growth and chemical precipitation in the effluent Flushing of materials in the distribution system Monitoring system performance needs strengthening to avoid catastrophic clogging. 3. and emission devices (sprinklers.4. 3. It is the operation of a subsurface drainage system for the purpose of lowering the watertable below the root zone during wet periods (drainage).4. yet it is usually more costly or impractical compared to the membrane processes. filtration alone cannot effectively remove these microorganisms. Controlled drainage and March 2009 3-47 . to sustain or improve water quality.4. when applying biological effluents through microirrigation systems. Therefore. A fully automatic filter system prevents the solids from entering into the delivery system. Because chlorine can react with some metals and plastics.3. Chlorination can be used to minimize the growth of microorganisms within the pipes and other components of irrigation systems. phosphorus.4. or iron as nutrient sources to grow and develop. drippers. Bacteria. Irrigation systems can become partially or completely clogged from biological growths of bacteria. is the prevention of emitter clogging to keep the system operating as designed. Filters should be backwashed on a preset frequency and/or by sensing pressure differential through the filters.

Raising the watertable during the non-growing season can result in a 30% reduction in the discharge of nitrates. and harvesting. With a low watertable. Slopes of 1% or less are recommended.2 Impacts of Watertable Management Watertable management can have a significant impact on crop production. the subsurface drainage rate is decreased and the height of the water level in the ditches and surrounding fields rises. 2001) When dropboards are added to the riser. The topography should be relatively uniform. Raising the watertable decreases the amount of water passing through the soil. Managing the field water through the use of controlled drainage allows timely drainage and also maximized storage of water within the field for utilization by the crop.1 Where to Apply the Practice Drainage water management can be applied on drained fields where outflows from the drains can be controlled.Chapter 3 . planting. ponding is less likely to occur or to be sustained when it does occur. 3. 1995).60 Watertable Management Alternatives (USDA. and can extend the growing season by allowing earlier access to the field. and proportionally decreases the transport of nitrates and soluble phosphorous from the field. Nitrates and soluble phosphorous move with the drainage water and are transported to the drainage outlets. Lowering the watertable improves field trafficability and timeliness of crop management operations such as field preparation. Non-uniform watertable depths can lead to non-uniform crop growth that complicates management decisions. A lower watertable results in 3-48 March 2009 . Lowering the watertable increases the amount of water passing through the soil. Watertable Flow (a) Subsurface Drainage Adjustable weir Water Level Watertable No flow (b) Controlled Drainage Adjustable weir and water level Watertable Flow (c) Subirrigation Mode Water supply Figure 3. and flat to gently sloping within a management unit or zone. The aerobic conditions created in drained soils decrease the occurrence of denitrification. The system helps to improve water quality by reducing the quantity of nutrient enriched drainage water leaving fields. and can provide production benefits by extending the period of time when soil water is available to plants.5.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY subsurface drainage systems can often be retrofitted to function as a subirrigation system (Broughton. 3.5.

61 Controlled Drainage by Weir and Flap Gate 3. installed in the drainage outlet allow the water in the drainage outlet to be raised or lowered as needed. If a new system is to be installed for both drainage and subirrigation. The reuse of agricultural drainage water is already practiced on a large scale in several countries.3 Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation The process called controlled drainage occurs when the structure is used to conserve water by reducing drainage outflows and when no additional water is pumped in. In this mode the system is being used for subirrigation. During dry periods. Usually a weir is placed in the control structure so that the water level in the drainage outlet has to rise higher than the weir crest before the water will flow out of the field.62). at what height to maintain the weir in the control structure.61). the system's size and layout must satisfy the water management needs of the specific site.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY aerobic soil conditions and an increased depth of the root zone. in the MUDA scheme in Malaysia (Figure 3. March 2009 3-49 .Chapter 3 . When the flashboards are lowered or removed. The most important management decisions include: • • • when to raise/lower the control structure. When a structure (such as a flashboard riser) is used in the outlet ditch to regulate the drainage rate. Many factors influence this size and layout. 3. This water management practice has become known as controlled drainage. thus raising the water level in the field. such as a flashboard riser. Drainage water recycling has been applied very successfully.6 DRAINAGE WATER REUSE Increasing demand for available fresh water resources in many areas of the world has provided a driving force for the use of marginal-quality water for irrigation.5. and when to add water to the system. excess water is removed from the field through a system of underground drain tubes which outlet to a main drain tube or open ditch. Here. Partially raising the watertable after crops are established can conserve soil moisture and may enable a crop to be more productive in the years where there is an extended dry period during the growing season. (a) Water Profile in Drainage Ditch (USDA. It contributes 6% of the total water demand of the MUDA scheme. the system may function in either the controlled drainage or subirrigation mode. for instance. 2001) (b) Rectangular Flap Gate in Indonesia Figure 3. water may be pumped into the control outlet where it moves back through the drainage network. subsurface drainage occurs more quickly (Figure 3. Water control structures.

3 Reuse of Drainage Water for Crop Irrigation The major degradation factor of reused waters is the high concentration of ions.6. The objective of the recommended management practices involve managing. well-designed and managed drainage systems must remove runoff and leachate efficiently. need cost effective reclamation and management to achieve their potential productivity. acid soils and peat soils. the quality of the drainage water determines which crops can be irrigated. soils with specific limitations such as clay soils. pesticides. However. However. since the irrigation water contains pollutants such as nutrients. factors that should be considered include the effects of changes in salinity during the growing season.6. Drainage water of different salinities can be successfully applied to crops during different growth stages or can be used with crop rotations between tolerant and sensitive crops. drainage water can be used to supplement them. salinity. pathogens. Other problems such as human health hazards and quality degradation of groundwater are also possible. phosphates. pesticides. The safe use of the drainage water in irrigation needs to apply appropriate management to reduce the negative impacts. the average salinity distribution in the root zone. specific ions may become toxic or interfere with the uptake of other nutrients. Another management factor is control of the range of salt tolerance expressed in crop species. 1988). Sugar beet and sugar cane are among the most salt tolerant.6. Water reuse for agricultural crops has distinct economic incentives and a number 3-50 March 2009 . crops can be grown with saline waters provided that suitable irrigation and cropping strategies are used (Rhoades. as salinity increases. 3.1 Importance of Drainage Water Reuse Reuse and safe disposal of agricultural drainage water are important components of comprehensive water management and have the potential to increase water resources available for agriculture and protect the quality of downstream water resources. Therefore. For cyclic use strategies. In regions where irrigation water supplies are limited. saline and gypsiferous soils. trace and heavy metals. On the other hand. and the effects of different soil types. pathogens. There is a wide range in plant species response to salinity. and salinity. sediments.62 Reuse of Drainage Water in MUDA Rice Irrigation Scheme 3. use of marginal-quality water has the potential of causing serious problems of soil degradation and reduction in crop productivity because of resulting low irrigation water quality. heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition. Waters with low ionic concentrations provide plants with an adequate supply of many of the essential nutrients needed for growth.2 Impacts of Drainage Water Reuse Drainage water reuse for irrigation may be hazardous to the environment. and minimize erosion from applied water. sandy soils. 3. However. the interactions with climatic variables. Drainage and leaching of salts from the root zone are key factors in the management of salinity in agriculture.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY (a) Pump Installed in the Main Drain (b) Drainage Water Pumping into the Main Canal Figure 3. or removing pollutants such as nitrates. limiting.Chapter 3 . thereby reducing adverse impacts on surface water and ground water. control deep percolation.

salinity is not a problem in Malaysia due to the high rainfalls that leach away any accumulated salts in the crop root zone. Sprinkler irrigation should be done at night or in the early morning when evaporation is less. enhancement of water quality and maintenance of soil structure and permeability. It is possible to safely reuse agricultural drainage water if the characteristics of the water. Blending is the mixing of poor quality drainage water with good quality irrigation water. directly affect irrigated agriculture. soil. Fortunately. modelling. The greater the salinity of the irrigation water. investigations.1 Planning and Design Information technologies have gained importance in the worldwide organizations due to their efficiency with low costs. growers can take advantage of the fact that many crops are most salt sensitive during the germination and seedling stages and are much more tolerant during later growth stages. generating new information and knowledge. Mapping is an important component in planning and design of any irrigation project. Rates of salt accumulation in the soil are dependent upon the amount and concentration of the saline water applied and the amount remaining after plant water needs have been met. decision support systems. They are: Computer Technology. However. interactive visualization. analysis. which must adjust as well as possible its consumption in adequacy with its needs.7. the greater is the need for adequate irrigation and drainage. there is a greater need to monitor and manage irrigation and drainage practices and to consider the sustainability of the system. manipulating and updating data becomes easier. The recent technologies provide lots of tools for spatial technologies and data modeling.Chapter 3 . Modern agriculture is a largescale water consumer. it is necessary to employ modern methods of surveying. In general. Drip irrigation has advantages when saline water is used. Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Communication Technology and Information Management Technology. design and implementation. Remote Sensing and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are now common tools to modernize and simplify the physical March 2009 3-51 . developments in computer and information systems. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in agriculture is increasingly important. 3. 1989). there is a continuous leaching of the soil nutrients.7 ICT APPLICATION Nowadays. These technologies are applied for processing. Furthermore. and the intended crops are known and can be economically managed. Due to development of the information and communication technologies. Where nonsaline waters are available for critical irrigations. mixing and delivery systems. Naturally. water resource management is more and more important. exchanging and managing data. As drip irrigation is normally applied frequently. Data management is the most important part in agriculture. poorer quality water can be used for surface-applied irrigation than for sprinkler irrigation. development of computers and data systems has opened new perspectives of creating and managing data systems easily and economically. while preserving the natural resources and the quality of the productions. delivering materials (maps). 3. collecting data. Irrigated agriculture is a complex system that requires a large amount of data with various formats. The feasibility of blended applications of high quality water with drainage water depends on both supply and the availability of storage. improvements in water management. especially data management systems. as salinity increases in the irrigation water. However. Considering the stupendous task and the constraint of time. expansion of the computer systems and advances in internet related technologies and GIS is a new horizon. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer solutions to make possible a finer approach of the irrigation of the crop by facilitating the work of the farmers.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY of crops are known to be highly tolerant to salinity. Poor quality water requires selection of crops with appropriate salt tolerances. Managing of different types of data causes serious problems for any new irrigation and drainage scheme. Drip irrigation avoids wetting of the leaves with saline water and can be managed to maintain relatively high soil water potentials. It consists of three main technologies. Blending strategies for using waters of different salinities can be successfully applied to crops during different growth stages (Rhoades.

It is an essential tool to apply water in the necessary quantity and at the right time to sustain agricultural production and to achieve high levels of efficiency in water. but also providing the water and friendly environmental solutions. energy and chemical uses. 3. analyze.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY surveys required for investigation and planning related to maintaining irrigation and drainage systems. the performance of a simulation model integrated with ICT application depends on the objective. Dramatic improvements continue in the capability of hardware and software operating platforms. software cost. Main issues and challenges include user considerations. and display spatial data.Chapter 3 . energy and chemicals while responding to environmental changes and development stages of the crop. The difference between these is that closed control loops have feedback from sensors. and the skill of the user and modeler.2 Operation A controller is an integral part of an irrigation system. and computer aided design techniques. operation. GIS has been applied in resource planning and decision-makers with a set of tools to analyze spatial data effectively. proper data management. Irrigation controllers have been available for many years in the form of mechanical and electromechanical irrigation timers. make decisions and apply decisions to the irrigation system. and irrigation systems scheduling. thus helping to improve water productivity. tailoring soil and crop management to fit the specific conditions found within a field with the aim to improve production efficiency. GIS-based mapping and models are nowadays indispensable tools for irrigation and drainage professionals in the planning. GIS technology has grown rapidly to become a valuable tool in the analysis and management of spatial ecological problems. with the basic function as spatial data management. This system uses irrigation duration or applied volume for control purposes. Two general types of controllers are used to control irrigation systems: Open control loop systems. availability of data and resources. pipe networks. design. micro and sprinkler irrigation systems. availability of skills. ICT technology is revolutionizing not just the food and agriculture industries. design of wells and pumps. and closed control loop systems. maintenance and management of irrigation and drainage systems. ICT is increasingly being used in irrigation and water resources because of its ability to store. A more popular application of GIS in agriculture. It is not new for GIS to be used in irrigated agriculture. open channels.1 Geographical Information System (GIS) The GIS technology has come a long way in the past decade and continues to evolve. In open control loop systems. Closed control system takes over and makes detailed decisions of when to apply water and how much water to apply. a decision is made by the operator on the amount of water and the time to apply. 3-52 March 2009 . Finally.3 Management and Maintenance 3. and performance evaluation of irrigation systems. and large volumes of data sets have become available. A properly designed and managed irrigation and drainage system can minimize the losses.3. and the difficulties of coupling water management models with software. irrigation design. 3. drainage optimization models and design.7. These devices have evolved into complex computer-based systems that allow accurate control of water. Irrigation engineers and agriculturists are very interested to seek more efficient ways for both conveyances of water and irrigation supplies for crop production. ICT can provide application of computer software for design of surface.7. ICT plays an important role in the development of innovative planning models. Common applications of GIS in irrigation and drainage are improved irrigation and drainage practices. GIS maps help to characterize fields according to various criteria in order to help illustrate how and where future actions may be prioritized.7. GIS application. which may be classified as micro application nowadays is digital agriculture.

Its primary functions are to (a) provide the mechanisms for interactive input and manipulation of large volumes of spatial data. Integrating all required data along with analytical models can provide a framework to support decision-making process for complex irrigation problems. analysis model and GIS to assist farm-level agronomic decision-making and that is fit for any circumstances in agriculture production region with efficient knowledge support. fluctuation of river flows and uncertainties. database (management). agronomic March 2009 3-53 . GIS technique integrated with agro-hydrological models can help to evaluate and diagnose the irrigation system performance to aid in improving the water management. etc. (c) provide output in a variety of spatial forms. management and analysis capabilities coupled with appropriate models can help to enhance the decision-making in agricultural water management since the temporal and spatial dimensions could be studied at once. and (d) facilitate decision-making and improve the effectiveness of the decision made.).3.2 Decision Support System (DSS) Basic component of DSS include control unit. with spatial database different from common database in DSS. Database Modelbase Knowledgebase Sub-system of database management Sub-system of modelbase management Sub-system of knowledgebase management Control unit User interface Figure 3.Chapter 3 . model base (management). Efficient operation and water management for irrigated agriculture needs to cater a huge amount of spatially distributed data covering variability in soil and crop conditions. knowledgebase (management) and user interface. All these determine and affect the irrigation water requirements for different crops. canal and water distribution networks and various control structures as well as socio-economic and administrative aspects. SDSS are explicitly designed to provide the user with an interactive decisionmaking environment that enables geographic data analysis and spatial modeling to be performed.7.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY A good management and timely application of water usually result in better crop yield and drainage control. 3.63 Basic Structure of SDSS Web-based decision support system that integrates the expert knowledge. hydrological uncertainties. including analytical techniques that are unique to both spatial analysis and modeling. (b) allow representation of the complex spatial relationships and structures that are common in spatial data. The approach involves general GIS spatial data management (geo-referenced digital map. It is generally agreed that SDSS is evolved from DSS which combines geographic information with appropriate algorithms and extend these capabilities to provide a rational and objective approach to spatial decision analysis and a more vivid graph expression than DSS clearly. The modern GIS (Geographical Information System) with its powerful modeling. Spatial model integrated with GIS as known as spatial decision support system (SDSS) is useful tool for solving more sophisticated and special problems. spatial agriculture decision unit.

which not only extends the capability of decision support service space but also makes the system easy to maintain. expert knowledge and analysis model. GIS offers much more than a typical “display” of data related to irrigated agriculture.3. and provides the capability of combining the data itself with virtually any other geographically based information.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY diagnosis and decision-making with integration of expert knowledge and analysis model. Creating a real-time system. There are many possible ways when constructing a web-based map system.3 WEB-based System Various data structures an d exchanging different types of data cause serious problems at the beginning of the development of any new scheme. which is very useful in agriculture production. Recently. 3. so that the variable-rate application of water and fertilizer to any regular or irregular cultivated field can be addressed. it is possible to tap the variable-rate water and fertilizer application to agronomic fields even in the mountainous and remote region and gain maximum benefit with minimum purchased input. web-based GIS with the rapid expansion of internet and the World Wide Web is regarded as one of important issues for web application. Capable data structure that recognize different raw data formats Creating a data processing system that exchange different data formats into one format Creating an interactive web-map on the fly with the processed data Creating a reporting system that produces reports based on user specified parameters Like most of the internet applications. With this approach and the basic principle of the traditional digital agriculture. Web-based information system gives the following benefits: • • • • • • • • Integration of data in a GIS Creating a web-based system. Investigating proper programming languages and web technologies. the options are narrowed down to scripting languages and widely used web data presentation systems in order to increase capability. In a server/client system a computer acts as a client that sends requests to the server computer. 1998).Chapter 3 . Creating an open-sourced system. and several GIS products running on web browser have been announced. 3-54 March 2009 . model organization.7. the main determiner for the project is the technologies that will be used. The core technology involved includes expert knowledge representation. web-based GIS are based on the simple server/client model. the server computer processes the requests. and then sends the results back to the client (Kim and Lee. and make it possible to calculate meaningful value-added results. The framework of the developed system is a hybrid structure model composed of B/S (Browser/Server) and C/S (Client/Server). software data exchange standard and integration of GIS.

(2007). Rome. and J. (1990). Allender. K. Biodrainage .H. (2005). BCDF (B. Belcher and F.M. and T.. pp. GIS Technologies and Their Environmental Applications. (1995).Chapter 3 .S. New Delhi. (1977). Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd. (2004).W. Elsvier.J. production and environmental impacts of subirrigation and controlled drainage.ext. PP A. Boca Raton. Nijland H.. Irrigation Training and Research Center. ILRI Publication no. San Luis Obispo.. and Ritzema NELSON (2008).P.W. Water Application Solutions March 2009 3-55 . FAO (1980). (1986). Canberra 2002. Dieleman. WIT Press. FAO.B.F. Harry W. and Nakayama F.. Kay M. NETAFIM (2008). Equipment and practice. Lambert S. 52 p. Microirrigation for crop production. Ayars J. Wageningen.nelsonirrigation. 183–191. UK. 18-22.Principles.W. Drainage design factors. Kim. Ruehr (1994). operation and maintenance of subsurface pipe drainage systems.C. Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems. Canada. (1983). Design.K.V. Surface Irrigation. Drainage Factsheet) (1999).W. pp 446. Serial No. Tree species for woodlots . D'Itri (ed. Proceedings Eighth ICID International Drainage Workshop. 32. Modern Land Drainage: Planning. Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd. Hornbuckle (1983). K. Arjun S.R. In Proceedings Woodlots Workshop. India. Equipment and practice. Experiences and Applications. 2000. operation and management.S..K. Willem F. Sprinkler Irrigation. Lamm F.J. (http://www.W.2 Subsurface drainage design and management practices in irrigated areas of Australia. R.pdf Heuperman. Biodrainage: an Australian overview and two Victorian case studies.D. "Cornell peat-lite mixes for commercial plant growing. ed. C. Green. (2008). C. London. and Sheldrakejr R.existing cultivars. Rome. 38. Australia. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 608.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY REFERENCES Albertus F. O’Connor. (2002). Agricultural Drainage Criteria.A.sera17. Netherland. Lewis Publisher. pp 120. Broughton R. Irrigation Insights No.) Subirrigation and controlled drainage. P. Croon F. CA. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. Boodley W. 1995. Burt C. and David W. P. p. pp.H. Brebbia. E. In H. Pascolo. “The Development of Web-based geographic information system”. Grassed Waterways USDA-ARS. Land and Water Australia. (http://www. Irrigation Industry Association of British Columbia.E. FL. (1998).K. Developments in Agriculture Engineering 13. Kay M." Informational Bulletin 43. Economic. California State University.S and Lee. Christen E. 60. Accessed on the 20 December 2008 http://www. International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Mildura. and Haney. Subsurface Drainage Practices: Guidelines for the implementation. Alterra.netafim..

org/TVN-Manual_Vf. (2004).F. FAO Drainage of irrigated lands.W.K. ISBN 9058095541. Rhoades. http://www. Smedema L. Smedema. Bouchet. http://en. 16:37-52. magazine of the IPTRID 3. Soil Culture of Green House Vegetables. Balkema Publishers. USDA (1997). isolating and re-using drainage waters for irrigation to conserve water and protect water quality.wikipedia.D. intervention program (ADITI). Irrigation. Proven and Green Environmental Solutions.ncsu. (1989).edu/HS176. and Fernando Florida (2008). Affordable drip irrigation technology Irriline (2008). (1988). USDA (2001). ed. Rhoades. http://www.htm. CIHEAM . Vetiver System Applications. Irriline Sprinkler Irrigation System.irriline. Issue 11: p. http://edis.L. pp.ufl. design and management of agricultural drainage systems. Vlotman W.P. 3-56 March 2009 .. Open-Field Soilless Culture of Vegetables (Accessed on 15 March 2008).ide-india. pp Agronomic Institute of Bari and Water Research Centre. Wikipedia (2008).org/wiki/irrigation VSA (2008).A. Kselik Florida Irrigation Systems NCSU (2008). Egypt. National Engineering Handbook Part 652 Irrigation Guide. US Davis (2008). 16-21.Chapter 3 .). Controlled Drainage: What is it and how does it work.K. seminar on the reuse of low quality water for irrigation (R. Agric. (1997). Biological drainage: myth or opportunity? GRID.vetiver.ucdavis. http://vric. National Engineering Handbook Part 624 Draiange.ufl. Technical Reference Manual.shtml. Modern land drainage – planning .ifas. http://edis.pdf. http://www. EDIS Florida (2008).pdf EDIS.D. J. J.soil. http://www. In: Int. ADITI (2008).. Cairo.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Ritzema H. Vegetable Research and Informatin Centre.A. Water Manage.html. and Rycroft D. Intercepting. (1996). Evidence of the potential to use saline water for irrigation. Irrigation water management training manual: 9. L.

some training Moderate.A Comparison of Irrigation Systems in Relation to Site and Situation Surface Irrigation Site and situation factors Infiltration rate Redesigned surface systems Moderate to low Moderate slope Sprinkler Irrigation Level basin Intermittent mechanical move Moderate All Small slopes Continuous mechanical move Medium to high Level to rolling All but trees and vineyards Small streams nearly continuous Salty water may harm plants Average 80% Crops All All Water supply Large streams Very large streams Water quality All but very high salt All Efficiency Average 60-70% Average 80% Level to rolling Generally shorter crops Small streams nearly continuous Salty water may harm plants Average 70-80% Labor requirement High training required Low. continuous and clean Salty water may harm plants Average 70-80% Low to seasonal high. little training All Average 80-90% Low to high. training required High High Moderate Low to moderate Moderate High Some interference May have considerable interference Long term Variable Windy conditions reduce performance. some training Low. some training Capital requirement Energy requirement Management skill Low to moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate to high Medium Moderate Moderate Machinery operations Medium to long fields Short field Duration of use Short to long Long Moderate to high Moderate to high Some interference circular fields Short to medium Topography Medium field length. small interference Short to medium Weather All All Poor in windy conditions Better in windy conditions than other sprinklers Chemical application Fair Good Good Good March 2009 Microirrigation Solid-set and permanent Emitters and porous tubes All All Level to rolling All all High value required Small streams Small streams.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY Appendix 3.Chapter 3 . good for cooling All Good Very good 3A-1 .

3A-2 - - - Pisang Cili Bayam Timun Halia Kacang Tanah Cili Padi Nangka Bendi Serai Limau Nipis Kacang Panjang Jagung Mangga Manggis Kelapa Sawit Padi Betik Lada Hitam Peria Banana Chilli Chinese spinach Cucumber Ginger Groundnuts Hot Chilli Jackfruit Lady's Finger Lemon grass Lime Long bean Maize Mango Mangosteen Oil palm Paddy Papaya Pepper Biter Guard - √ - - - √ - - Level Local English Crops Names √ - - √ - - - √ - - - - - - - √ - √ - - Graded Basin - √ √ - - - - √ √ - - - √ √ √ - - - √ √ Level √ √ √ - - - √ √ √ √ √ - √ √ √ √ - √ √ √ Graded Furrow Surface/Flood Irrigation - √ √ - - - - - - - - √ - - - - √ - - √ Contour - √ - - √ - √ - - - - - - - - - - - - √ Subirrigation √ √ √ - √ √ √ - √ √ √ - √ √ - √ - - √ √ Drip - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - SDI Microirrigation APPENDIX 3.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY March 2009 .B: Suitability of Irrigation Systems for Various Crops in Malaysia √ - - - √ - - √ - - - - - - - - - √ - - Sprinkler Irrigation √ - - - - - - - √ - - - √ - - √ - - √ - Soilless/ GreenHouse Irrigation Chapter 3 .

B: Suitability of Irrigation Systems for Various Crops in Malaysia (Contd.).March 2009 - Belimbing Tebu Limau Manis Ubi Keledek Ubi Kayu Teh Tembakau Tomato Tembikai Cempedak Durian Rambutan Kelapa Dokong Ciku Duku Langsat Kubis Bunga Kubis Brokoli Hidroponik Star fruit Sugarcane Sweet Orange Sweet Potato Tapioca/Cassava Tea Tobacco Tomato Watermelon Cempedak Durian Rambutan Coconut Dokong Ciku Duku Langsat Cabbage Cauliflower Broccoli Hydroponic - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Nenas Pineapple Level Local English Crops Name - - - - - - - - - - - √ - - - - - - - - - Graded Basin √ √ - √ √ - √ - - - - - - - - √ √ - - √ - √ - √ Graded √ - - - - - - - - √ √ - - √ - √ - √ Level Furrow Surface/Flood Irrigation - √ √ √ - - - - - - - - √ √ - - - - - - √ Contour - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Subirrigation √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ - - √ - √ - √ √ Drip - - - - - - - - - - - - √ - - √ - - - - - SDI Microirrigation APPENDIX 3. - - - - - - - - - - - √ - - √ - - - - - - Sprinkler Irrigation √ √ √ √ - - - - - - - √ √ - - - - - - - - Soilless/ GreenHouse Irrigation Chapter 3 .SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY 3A-3 .

SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY March 2009 . √ √ - - √ √ √ √ Sprinkler Irrigation √ - √ √ - - - - Soilless/ GreenHouse Irrigation Chapter 3 .3A-4 - - Citrus Jagung Kacang Soya Strawberi Buah Labu Nursery bed Padi Sayur Buah Buahan Lain-lain Citrus Corn Soybeans Strawberries Pumpkin Nursery bed Paddy Vegetables Fruits Others - - √ √ - - Lobak Carrot Level Local English Crops Names √ √ √ - √ √ - - Graded Basin √ √ - - - √ - √ Level √ - √ - - √ - √ Graded Furrow Surface/Flood Irrigation √ - - - - √ - √ Contour - - - - - - - - Subirrigation √ - √ √ - - √ √ Drip √ - - √ - - - - SDI Microirrigation APPENDIX 3.B: Suitability of Irrigation Systems for Various Crops in Malaysia (Contd).

Good for alkali control. 60-80 Controlled Flooding Close-growing crops on rolling land. 40-55 Furrows Row crops. truck crops. Provides water control and fairly uniform wetting where land cannot be used for other methods.Chapter 3 . Graded Borders Hay or grain on uniform slopes up to 3%. 65-80 Wild Flood Water is allowed to flow over the land without the use of furrows. Provides uniform wetting and prevents erosive water accumulation on land too rolling or steep for borders or basins. Best adapted to light soils. Provides uniform wetting and efficient water use. Utilizes large water streams safely and thus less time is required to cover area. established pasture on uniform slopes up to 6%. Provides good control of water applied.C Adaptability and Conservation Features of Surface Irrigation Systems Efficiency (%) 60-80 Method Adapted to Conservation Features Basins or Level Border Close-growing crops on flat land with sandy soils. Provides no conservation features unless furrows laid on nearly level land on the contour and water applied with extreme care. Makes use of small streams. 60-80 Corrugations Close-growing crops on sloping land with soil slow to take water. pasture sod established by corrugations or sprinkler. Extreme care is needed in applying water to slopes of more than 2%. 25-40 March 2009 3A-5 . orchards.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY APPENDIX 3. borders or other structures. vineyards and berries on gentle slopes with all but coarse-textured soils. Provides little to no water control and non uniform wetting on sloping and rolling lands.

may be equipped with drop tubes and various spray heads to reduce wind drift and evaporative losses and can operate on low pressures. chemicals and fertilizer are efficiently applied. Application uniformity is usually high.Chapter 3 . suited for high intake rate soils. Permits storage of water in lower part of soil profile.SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY APPENDIX 3. wind greatly affects water distribution pattern. Surface Trickle Subsurface Trickle Microspray or Mist 3A-6 Efficiency (%) 85-95 85-90 March 2009 . easily automated and application uniformity is usually high. Good for rectangular fields. More labour intensive than a side roll system. Easily automated. less water required. Labour requirements are low. runoff and deep percolation are controlled. 75-90 75-90 60-75 60-75 60-75 55-65 3D-2 Trickle Irrigation Systems Method Adapted To Conservation Features All terrains and most agricultural crops and soils including steep or rocky ground that is unsuitable for other forms of irrigation. good control over timing and water application. Manual labour minimized. labour requirements are low and pressure requirements are often low. Good for rectangular fields. not suited for tall crops. not adapted to tall crops. Side Rolls Hand Move Big Gun (Travelling or Stationary) Efficiency (%) Conservation Features Provides good control of water applied. Results can be accomplished on fields which are less than a full circle. Good for irregular shaped fields.D Adaptability and Conservation Features of Pressurized Irrigation Systems 3D-1 Sprinkler Irrigation Systems Method Adapted To Linear Move Center Pivot Fixed Solid Set Nearly all crops on any irrigable soils. alignment may be difficult on undulating topography. Good for irregular shaped hills and rolling terrain. can be used on soils with low infiltration rates and low water-holding capacity. except in very windy hot climates.

Part B Planning Chapter 4 .Planning Process .

.. 4-12 4. 4-iii List of Figures ......................... 4-4 4.................1 Flow of Water in a Stream .................5....... 4-16 4...........6 What is the Effect of Irrigation on Crop Production? ....................1 INTRODUCTION ........ 4-14 4......5.............................. 4-15 SELECTION OF WATER APPLICATION METHOD ........................... 4-12 4.......5...4 4....................... 4-15 4..................5..................................................................5........5.................1 Sources of Water ............................................4........................................................................5....................3 Effect of Land Drainage on Crop Production .. 4-12 4.......... 4-14 4.............................................4.............................. 4-14 4........2 Amount of Water in a Lake.....................................................5.......................................5........PLANNING PROCESS Table of Contents Table of Contents .........................4.....2 Effect of Trash and Dirt in the Water .............4 Effect of Fringe Benefits from Irrigation .....................................................6............. 4-13 4...........................2 Effect of Water Laws and Water Sharing...... 4-17 4...............5................... 4-15 4............1......3 Outline for Irrigation Project Planning ...... 4-14 4........2 Effect of Additional Water on Crop Production ...5... 4-17 4............. 4-13 How Much Water is Needed ............................2 Effect of Water Intake Rate .............. 4-15 4..........1 Seasonal Water Demand ........... 4-15 4...............................................................3 Effect of the Distance to the Water.............. 4-14 4..........................1 Effect of Chemical Content of the Water ...3 4................................................6...... 4-3 4...... 4-16 4............................... 4-13 4..2................6. 4-1 4................1..........1...................................................3.......3 PLANNING PRINCIPLES .......4 Capacity of Combination of Sources...6.........4........6.....................................1...........1 4......1...................... 4-17 4.....................................................................................2 Project Planning Relationships.....3.............................................. 4-15 4...........................1 Method of Applying Water ...............2 4.... Pond or Reservoir ...............................1................Chapter 4 . 4-15 4....1......5. 4-11 4..........................................4....5............1........... 4-5 DETERMINING PROJECT NEEDS ......................... 4-13 What are Satisfactory Sources of Water?............4...................................2.....................5.......... 4-4 4.5..................3 How to Find Peak-use Rate of Water Demand .................................5....................4 Effect of the Height of the Water to be Lifted ...................................2.......5........2 NEED FOR PLANNING ..........2 What System to Select for the Sprinkler Irrigation Method ...... 4-13 4............1.4... 4-17 4......1 Effect of Amount and Timeliness of Rainfall on Crop Production .................. 4-15 Is the Quality of Water Satisfactory?................. 4-2 4.....1 Watershed-based Planning....................4 Effect of Water Tolerance of Crops ...................2 Peak-Use Rate of Water Demand ..............................................................6.6.................... 4-17 March 2009 4-i .3 What System to Select for the Trickle/Drip Irrigation...........3 Flow of Water from Groundwater Well ....................5.............................3.......................5.....4 PLANNING PROCESS FOR IRRIGATION PROJECTS.............6... 4-i List of Tables .......5...............1 Effect of Land Slope..............................5.............4 What System to Select for the Surface Irrigation Method ....5 4.......................3 Effect of Water Holding Capacity ...........5 4.............3............................ 4-14 How Much Water Is Available? .................. 4-15 4............5................................5............5.. 4-1 4.. 4-12 4........6...............5 Effect of Wind Action ...................................... 4-iii 4...... 4-14 4....

.......3 Field Investigation ....................... 4-20 4...........................5 Design of Field Drainage Systems....... 4-23 4...................................................................................... 4-25 REFERENCES ....8............................2...................... 4-26 APPENDIX 4.......................1 4........... 4-19 4......7 DETERMINING IRRIGATION COST AND RETURN ON INVESTMENT...................3 System Capacity and Drainage Coefficient ......................................... 4-22 4................7 Regional Agricultural Drainage Criteria.3.......C Factors Affecting the Selection of Surface Irrigation Systems ....................6 Determination of Design Criteria ......................8.............................10 PARTICIPATORY PLANNING .......... 4-19 Project Preparation Stages.........2.....................2 4...............1.....................................B Factors Affecting the Selection of Micro Irrigation Systems .................................4 Design Rainfall ..................... 4-21 4......... 4-21 4..................8......................................................................................Chapter 4 ..........................................8 Design Procedure Overview ......................... 4-21 4....1 Identification.................8............8.........................PLANNING PROCESS 4............8............................1........... 4-22 4....................................................................................... 4-19 4.........8.....5.................................................................8....................8......................8................................................. 4-18 4.........11 RAIN-FED LANDS IN TROPICAL HUMID ZONES .......3 Feasibility Study ................ 4-22 4............ 4-A2 APPENDIX 4...8....... 4-A3 4-ii March 2009 .5...................................................4 Detailed Design .........8....8....3.....................8.3... 4-18 4...............................................................................................5........2 Subsurface Drainage Systems. 4-18 4...................... 4-20 Basic Design Criteria ....6...9 WATER QUALITY PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT............. 4-19 4...........................................8.......... 4-A2 APPENDIX 4.... 4-18 4... 4-19 4..................... 4-23 4...............8..........1 Surface Drainage .......................................... 4-21 4..........8.....1 Surface Drainage Systems .....................................2 Subsurface Drainage............................3..........8..A Factors Affecting the Selection of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems…………………………4-A1 APPENDIX 4............5...............5 Energy Requirement of Irrigation Systems ......................2.....4 Controlled Drainage .... 4-23 4...2...................................2 Plan Preparation .8 PLANNING PROCESS FOR AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PROJECTS ...................................................D Cost and Return Form......................................... 4-25 4................................. 4-22 4..8.......................8...........1 Problem Diagnosis .................................................... 4-23 4.................................8.....3 Main Drainage ..4 Field Drainage Systems ..... 4-22 4............8..... 4-24 4............................................................... 4-19 4......................2 Reconnaissance ......

1 Resource planning process for project plan (Steps 1-4) 4-4 4.Chapter 4 .1 Factors affecting the selection of a water application method 4-16 4.PLANNING PROCESS List of Tables Table Description Page 4.2 percent slope) 4-17 4.1 to 0.3 Relationship among all Variables in Drainage Design 4-20 4.5 Illustration of a Straightforward Method of Analysis of Drainage Effects on Agriculture 4-21 March 2009 4-iii .4 The Role of the Basic Drainage Criteria in Drainage Design 4-21 4.2 Resource planning process for project plan (Steps 5-9) 4-5 4.3 Examples of Engineering Factors by Type of Drainage System 4-22 List of Figures Figure Description Page 4.2 Maximum length of run for surface irrigation furrows in soils of different textures (0.

Chapter 4 .PLANNING PROCESS (This page is deliberately left blank) 4-iv March 2009 .

financial. etc. whether it increases the March 2009 4-1 .Chapter 4 . flood risk. This is particularly true for the planning function. each of which is intended to perform one or more functions in controlling the quality and quantity of irrigation water and agricultural drainage runoff. During and immediately after a flood or drought. designing. The public generally takes irrigation and agricultural drainage system for granted. for example in oil palm plantations can also be used for irrigation. constructing and operating irrigation and agricultural drainage systems tend to literally rise and fall in relation to the frequency of droughts and flooding or other related problems. Irrigation and agricultural drainage management planning should not be done after all the other decisions have already been made as to the form and layout of a new agricultural area. 4. legal. Irrigation and agricultural drainage system consists of various integrated components. flooding or other related problems. It is this latter approach that creates irrigation and agricultural drainage problems. Irrigation and agricultural drainage planning is normally only undertaken in reaction to serious crop failure.2 NEED FOR PLANNING Irrigation and agricultural drainage systems and their management impact directly the community’s quality of life by either enhancing or adversely affecting the natural environments. The extent to which existing irrigation and agricultural drainage problems are ultimately addressed and future problems prevented depend on the degree to which this integration is achieved. ideally carried out in that order. design. environmental. Sometimes. However.1 PLANNING PROCESS INTRODUCTION Development of public services and facilities including irrigation and agricultural drainage projects will involve planning. Accordingly. particularly those undergoing land use change or urban consolidation. A unique characteristic of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems is that they function by season. This means that planning of flood-free agricultural developments can be very difficult and that flood problems are inevitable. construction and operation functions. when the planning has been completed and costly recommendations made. which generally seems to enjoy the least support from the general public and elected officials. Prevention of flooding using land zoning regulations. public interest in and willingness to pay for planning. the community is often willing to fund remedial efforts and planning projects. public interest wanes. which are costly to correct. An understanding of these inter-relationships will influence the form of new development and determine what improvements need to be made within established areas. irrigation will play an important role in replenishing the crop water requirement. whereas in the wet season the drainage system is more important in removing excess water from the crop root zone. In the past an orderly planning function has not been given much emphasis. flow control storages or flood protection works is usually difficult to justify politically before any floods have actually occurred. amenity. months later. Irrigation and agricultural drainage planning is a method of addressing these complex quantity and quality problems in a coordinated and holistic manner on total catchment basis.PLANNING PROCESS 4 4. there is a need to reconsider how irrigation and agricultural drainage is managed and assess how these changes impact the natural environment. Waterways provide a direct link between all land uses. administrative and political facets. the same drainage system used. Irrigation and agricultural drainage problems are complex involving economic. recreational opportunities. All changes to land uses and the management of land. How irrigation and agricultural drainage is managed can impact on each land use in terms of water quality. traffic disruption. little or nothing is done and the cycle is repeated. For established areas. There is an obvious need for irrigation and agricultural drainage systems to be planned and integrated into the public services at the earliest possible stage in the planning process for rural development. In dry season.

Overall. Erosion and sediment control. Planning of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems is a multi-faceted exercise involving direct interaction between professionals having expertise in the following fields: • • • • • • Agriculture Agricultural Engineering Hydrology and hydraulics Civil/Structural Engineering Ecology Socio-Economics. Irrigation and agricultural drainage management should be a central part of an overall catchment management program involving both the community and government. In some instances it will be necessary to include additional specialists (e. The quality of the planning effort determines the ultimate costs to the project developer and the ultimate effect on the community. botanists. potential benefits may not be fully realized or drainage improvements in one location may worsen problems in another. It emphasizes sound land and water management in the upper catchments to reduce the need for expensive ‘end-of pipe’ solution in the lower catchments and in receiving waters. but the planning must be integrated on a regional level if optimum results are to be achieved. Irrigation and agricultural drainage strategic planning should normally address all of these considerations. economic and environmental concerns to achieve sustainable development. The ways in which proposed local irrigation and agricultural drainage systems fit existing regional systems must be quantified and discussed in an irrigation and agricultural drainage strategic plan.PLANNING PROCESS impervious area or the excessive use of fertilizers. affect the quantity and quality of irrigation and agricultural drainage runoff.3 PLANNING PRINCIPLES Irrigation and drainage management planning should apply Integrated Catchments Planning principles to ensure that all components are planned and coordinated so as to achieve the desired results. 4-2 March 2009 .Chapter 4 . as a best or optimum solution may not be possible or economically feasible. irrigation and agricultural drainage management planning is done. should be coordinated with planning for landuse. chemists. those government authorities most directly involved must provide co-ordination and strategic planning. flood control. open space and transportation. Irrigation and agricultural drainage system planning and design must be compatible with catchment management plans and in particular. (b) Irrigation and agricultural drainage is a sub-system of the total water resource system. farm extension service) depending on the characteristics of the area and the nature of the proposed development. Experience has shown that the following principles apply when planning and designing irrigation and agricultural drainage systems: (a) Irrigation and agricultural drainage is a watershed or river basin phenomenon that does not respect boundaries between government jurisdictions or between public and private properties. Without coordinated planning.g. Irrigation and agricultural drainage runoff occurs no matter how well or how poorly. Irrigation and agricultural drainage management planning may not lead to the best or optimum solution for irrigation and agricultural drainage problems. Integrated Catchments Planning is a philosophy that balances social. the planning process will hopefully lead to good courses of action and avoid a multitude of erroneous and probably unnecessarily expensive courses of action. site grading criteria and regional water supply are all closely inter-related with irrigation and agricultural drainage management. 4. However.

The Field Office Technology Guide (FOTG). 4. will result in damage or will impair or even disrupt the functioning of other systems and services. depressions. Failure to provide proper maintenance reduces both the hydraulic capacity and pollutant removal efficiency of the system. Soil Conservation Service USDA (1997) has outlined the purpose of the planning and implementation process is to: • Provide methodology that helps planners work effectively with project proponents to identify opportunities and needs and to solve identified resource problems or concerns. filter sediments and other pollutants. and recycle nutrients. Existing features such as natural watercourses. and necessary documentation are detailed out in Chapter 2 of this Manual. (e) Planning and design of irrigation and agricultural drainage management systems should consider the features and functions of natural drainage systems. floodplains. Both systems should be carefully considered. Project proponent should be familiar with the local legislations. help control the velocity of runoff. runoff will overflow or encroach onto other landuses.Chapter 4 . wetlands. particularly in combination with open space and recreational uses. Every catchment contains natural features that may contribute to the management of irrigation and agricultural drainage runoff under existing conditions. If adequate provision is not made for the space demands of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems. guidelines and orders as land and water are under the State Jurisdiction. One is the minor drainage system. Plans for urban development should carefully identify and map the existing natural system. which carries more runoff and operates when the rate or volume of runoff exceeds the capacity of the minor drainage system. The keys to effective maintenance are the clear assignment of responsibilities to an established agency and a regular schedule of inspections to determine maintenance needs and to ensure that required maintenance is done. Established past local maintenance performance should be the basis for the selection of specific planning and design criteria.PLANNING PROCESS (c) Every watershed has two drainage systems. The volume of runoff present at a given point of time in a rural area cannot be compressed or diminished. March 2009 4-3 . ‘Natural’ engineering techniques can preserve and enhance the natural features and processes within a development area and maximize post-development economic and environmental benefits. stream bank erosion and sediment deposition. beginning with the outlet or point of outflow from the catchments. extend the time of concentration. (d) Irrigation and agricultural drainage project is a space allocation problem and therefore an intrinsic part of the country and town planning process.4 PLANNING PROCESS FOR IRRIGATION PROJECTS The institutional and legal frameworks as well as authority requirements guide the planning of irrigation and drainage projects in Malaysia. The other is the major drainage system. The downstream conveyance system or receiving water should be evaluated to ensure that it has the capacity to accept design discharges without adverse backwater or downstream impacts such as flooding. Good planning and design can improve the effectiveness of natural systems. which is designed to provide on-farm quick removal of excess water in the crop root zone that accommodates relatively moderate frequent runoff. All the components of an irrigation and agricultural drainage system have the potential to both convey and store runoff. replace or ignore them. (f) Agricultural drainage management systems should be planned and designed. rather than negate. (g) Irrigation and agricultural drainage management systems should not be put in place if they cannot be maintained or will not receive regular maintenance allocation. permeable soils and vegetation provide natural infiltration.

1 Help project proponents recognize and understand natural resource conservation principles.PLANNING PROCESS • • • • • 4. Help project proponents develop a plan that meets established project specific quality criteria including environmental concerns. The watershed approach follows the established planning process and empowers local people to recognize problems and opportunities and find workable solutions for resolving issues and attaining goals related to ecosystems. Enable project proponents to achieve their objectives as well as to meet social. resource committee concern. The result is a watershed plan with clear description of resource concerns. Resource treatment and effects are considered for each alternative. Technical Public’s and stakeholders’ Steering goals.4. education assistance and funding assistance from Federal.2 (steps 5–9). problem. This approach provides a forum for successful planning and conflict resolution.1: Resource Planning Process for Project Plan (Steps 1-4) 4-4 March 2009 .4. concerns and problems. 4. Watershed-based Planning The watershed-based planning approach provides a comprehensive process that considers all natural resources in the watershed (project) as well as social. objective.Chapter 4 . State and local entities for implementing solutions. goals to be attained and identified sources for technical assistance. etc team’s assistance Benchmark systems and effects Inventory Resource Legislated programs and criteria Analyze resource data Identify problems FOTG State quality criteria Local quality criteria Determine objective Resource concerns Next larger project plan (report) Problems defined and quantified: objectives established Steps 5 and 6 FOTG : Field Office Technical Guide Figure 4.2 Project Planning Relationships Project planning relationships adopted by the USDA are displayed in Figures 4. legal and program requirements. Assess the effectiveness of installed practices in meeting the goals and objectives of the project proponents while solving problems and impacts on environmental values. Develop and evaluate alternatives that lead to the decision to implement and maintain conservation treatments and management for the project. cultural and economic factors. The process tailors workable solutions to ecosystem needs through the participation and leadership of sponsors.1 (steps 1–4) and 4.

Intensity of investigations required for various outline components varies with the level of planning and the scope and significance of the project being planned. It provides an orderly format for planning. Perform only those items described in the outline that are directly applicable to appraise the capability of satisfying a component need. organizing supporting documentation and facilitating reviews.Chapter 4 . The procedural outline is subject to additions or deletions should a particular project warrant. Identify Problems and Concerns (Scoping Process) An interdisciplinary team should review the project proponent’s application and gather and review existing information about the project area and ecosystem(s). benefits. The outline is not intended to indicate a fixed chronological order or procedure. effects and impacts at the various stages of progressive planning. the lowest intensity is associated with pre-application planning level. it provides an orderly format for organizing information to facilitate comparison of alternatives. Adherence to the principles of the outline will help ensure a uniform approach in estimating physical feasibility.2 Resource Planning Process for Project Plan (Steps 5-9) 4. investigating and analyzing physical resources for a project.3 Outline for Irrigation Project Planning The following outline is a guide for inventorying. It can assist planning personnel with irrigation aspects of planning a project. The procedural outline does not describe program requirements for plan preparation. implementation and evaluation. As a part of the planning process. Many of the investigations may be carried out concurrently. Generally. It also provides guidance for writing of plans.PLANNING PROCESS Steering committee Established objective and defined and quantified problems and resource concerns Public and stakeholders CPPE and CMS process Technical team’s assistance Legislated programs and criteria Formulate Alternative Discipline manuals and handbooks Evaluate alternative CMS: Conservation Management Services CED: Conservation Effects for Decision-makers State quality criteria CED Local quality criteria Planning unit ecosystem component Next larger project area Ecosystem component Resource concerns Cause and source of impairment FOTG Client select alternative Step 8: Implement plan Natural and introduced Human activities Interactions and effect CPPE: Conservation Practice Physical Effects FOTG : Field Office Technical Guide Step 9: Follow-up Figure 4.4. It increases to full intensity for investigation of the selected plan. Step 1. They should: March 2009 4-5 .

but look at all natural resources. both onsite and offsite. treatment and management of available resources.PLANNING PROCESS • • • Step 2.Chapter 4 . (b) Overlay maps • Soils • Farm boundaries.Project conveyance facilities including canal and pipeline locations and delivery points . production goals. Tailor inventory detail to expected complexity of resource setting. This is generally best done at one or more public meetings. eg. systems or both (c) Conservation farm maps Skeletal outline of farm distribution system and field layout is needed. discipline. time frame to do tasks and expected product for each task. Step 3. Have project proponents assist throughout the inventory process as much as possible. Develop Plan of Work outlining. public and private utilities. Small groups can be effective in identifying resources of concern. and problem solving. • Topography or elevations typically one to five contour intervals. All personnel or groups affected by the project should be interviewed for their real (or perceived) concerns and problems. Delivery location(s) and amount of water delivered are shown for each farm. measuring devices • Irrigation service areas .Potential • On-farm irrigation methods. Establish project specific quality criteria for resources of concerned. Determine Objectives Help project proponent develop project planning goals and objectives based on needs and values regarding the use.Wells . Inventory Resources Review goals and objectives determined in step 2 as related to land uses.Water control structures. MADA. economic and cultural resources in the area. Make a field review of the project area with specific interest in project proponent’s concerns. parks. irrigation authority boundaries. key points where resource data have been collected. 4-6 March 2009 . Inventory may be by farm. Review with project proponent the purpose and importance of the inventory process. wildlife reserves. KADA • Water rights (if appropriate) • Skeletal outline . what should be done. Determine environmental. communities. Other agencies and specific interest groups are good sources for information. how much time will be required and what documentation will be provided. railroads.Drainage facilities—surface and subsurface . roads. other agencies and special interest groups. ponds. list of tasks. group of farms. social. Obtain input from the public. climatic stations. This can be accomplished using the scoping process. streams.Reservoirs .Present . project or sample area as determined by intensity of study and variation of conditions.Diversion points . lakes. Suggested inventory procedure outline: (a) Develop project base map • Identify cultural features.

(g) Climatic records (mean monthly and seasonal or monthly for historical period) • • • • • • • Temperature maximum.Sediment content and type . pH • Erodibility designation or group from both water and wind • Water table depth by month. group. (e) Crops • • • • Crops grown including time of year Acreage of each crop Acreage by irrigation method and/or system(s) Growing season with planting and harvest dates for multiple cropping.Furrow. solar Availability-blowouts. diesel. sodicity. if a factor Water rights . including shape. rill.PLANNING PROCESS (d) Soils Description of soil series.. pipelines. shape.based on size.Sprinkler • Soil chemistry. minimum. i. season. flow rate or both .Chapter 4 .Listing of water rights as to source .Temperature. location and size Capacity .Reservoir storage availability . if available Precipitation-effective precipitation during growing season Humidity Wind-speed and prevailing direction. gravity. management groups • Acreage and location • Soil moisture storage management groups • Intake characteristics . corrugation .. natural gas. (f) Water supply • • • • Quantity records-historical or probability . water user) Competing water uses from the same source. basins . surface textures.Ground water including depth Quality records . average daily and growing degree days. by month or season Pan evaporation Solar radiation Percent probable sunshine.Direct stream diversion .Border. laterals.Seasonal volume.Priorities by date .e. irrigation organization. salinity. and conveyance gradient or elevations March 2009 4-7 . rates and power interruption potential. (h) Energy sources • • • Type-electric.How administered (state. (i) Project conveyance facilities • • Canals. lightening Cost.Chemical and mineral content . etc.

Sediment content Location in the project. as determined by study.Pumping plant discharge . public and other agencies affected by the project is necessary. outlets. Analyze Resource Data Use scoping process to determine the types of analyses needed.PLANNING PROCESS • • Length(s) Conveyance losses (preferably measured) . i. (j) Project runoff and wastewater disposal including reuse facilities • • • • Type Capacity Location of disposal facilities and areas.Combination • Water measuring facilities . diversity of soils.Farm deliveries • Geology.Per irrigation or application event . etc. project proponent’s objectives.For auxiliary use.Seepage .Evaporation . field measurements.Mineral content .Pipeline division points .Demand. sample evaluations.Chapter 4 .) Acreage by method and system-Inventory by field. hand-move sprinkler. 4-8 March 2009 .Operational and management spills and other losses • Method of delivery . program criteria and environmental values to be considered. size.Continuous flow .Per irrigation season . project area or representative sample areas. farm. sub-irrigation) and systems (furrow. State or local agencies is essential. border. (k) Irrigation methods and systems • • • • • Irrigation method (surface. Agreement by the project proponent(s) and Federal. sprinkler. submersed and floating aquatic weeds . management areas Quantity of water used or applied . special interest group(s). Quantity records. etc.Canal and lateral division boxes .e. temperature control. pump back or reuse facilities and areas Real or anticipated effects of runoff and wastewater disposal. leaching On-farm irrigation scheduling methods Project irrigation scheduling methods.. (l) Return flow-tailwater.Organic content .Chemical concentration . Quality records . runoff usable in the project • • • Step 4. including elapsed time between request and delivery.Evapo-transpiration stream side vegetation. group of farms. line source micro.Rotation . potential for adverse environmental or social impact and controversy need to be considered. Is quantity variable? Is delivery period (time) variable? Can user request variable time and amount? . chemigation. irrigation water user's interdisciplinary team. Input from project proponent. cost. micro. Identified problems and concerns. Types of planning.

PLANNING PROCESS Define the existing and future resource conditions in the project area. by month • • By type and condition of conveyance facility By construction material. historical period • • • Acres provided full water supply Acres provided partial water supply Water deficiencies and excesses .. This can help define the conditions that limit the project proponent from fully realizing their objectives. by probability. PVC pipeline.Crop yield and quality improvements. or months as needed • • • Frequency (continuous.e. Typically several alternatives are analyzed. earth. Without Project Conditions can be for existing conditions or future without project conditions. monthly (c) Water supply. weeks..Time periods (g) Project delivery system capacity requirements • • • • • Unit peak period water requirements Composite peak period water requirements Farm turnout capacity and pressure requirements Project conveyance facility capacity and pressure requirements Water measurement for division of supply for farm delivery (h) Irrigation benefits • • March 2009 Net returns . and some are eliminated before the near final selection of best alternative(s). irrigation. by days. i.Reduced farm. steel pipeline (e) Overall application efficiencies including management • • By irrigation method and/or system By type and condition of on-farm distribution facilities (f) Crop water budget/balance.Volume . Separately analyze with.and Without Project Conditions. One of these is selected and used as the benchmark to compare alternatives. Analysis of resource data outline: (a) Project area to be irrigated • • • Acreage of composite groups of soils that can be managed similarly Acreage by crop Acreage by irrigation method and/or system (b) Crop water requirements • Project wide composite for different crops. concrete.e. or both organization operation costs Environmental improvements 4-9 . intermittent) Historical period (including time of year) Risk assessment (probability) (d) Conveyance efficiencies. optimizing net benefits . weekly.Chapter 4 . i.

Estimate environmental. public. Include list of tasks. and organic material in ground and surface water. disciplines involved and time required for preparing land acquisition plans. sediments. Land treatment (structural and non-structural) as well as preventive measures should be considered. Management improvements using the existing system are always the first increment to be considered. Step 6. and environmental values. and other agencies and interest groups affected by the project should be included in the quantification process. The project proponent. the public. Display evaluations in a manner easily understood by the project proponent. decreased ground water mining Community benefits Other resource improvements—air quality. prepare land surveys.Chapter 4 . economic. public input obligations. public. Project proponent provides a decision. individual landowners. with public information (and review) as necessary. and other agencies. cost estimates. Project proponent reviews the plan. plant. Quantification of effects should be done as agreed to by the interdisciplinary team. Both beneficial and adverse impacts are considered. final design of construction drawings and specifications. Formulate Project (Components) Alternatives Identify practices (components) and other treatments that address the project proponent’s goals and objectives. Needed measures to mitigate any potential environmental damages should be included. • • • • • Step 8. Develop preliminary designs and cost estimates. and animal resources plus social and economic considerations. diversion and storage requirements resulting in increased in-stream flows. Analyze the risk and uncertainty associated with each alternative. Develop benefit-to-cost analysis for selected alternative(s). reducing stream temperatures Water quantity improvements—reducing seepage and deep percolation losses thereby reducing pumping. Implement Project Plan Develop Plan of Work for implementation of practices and measures. acquiring necessary right of way. objectives. Evaluation detail for each alternative will vary and become more refined as needed in the selection process. Make a preliminary evaluation of the effects of each practice on resource concerns. Provide opportunity for public response.PLANNING PROCESS - - - Water quality improvements—reducing agricultural related chemicals. both for the benchmark and each alternative. bid documents. 4-10 March 2009 . problems. Evaluate Project (Components) Alternatives Quantify effects on soil. Use the project proponent and public affected by the project to help identify and formulate alternatives. water. special interest groups. Acceptability of the alternative by the project proponent. Compare alternative to project quality criteria. Compare selected alternative to project specific quality criteria. air. and State and Federal agencies should be established. Develop alternatives (composite of components) as necessary. and responsibilities. Compare the effects of each alternative to the benchmark. Make Decisions Assist the project proponent in reviewing alternatives and evaluations. Step 7. and human effects. social. Compare alternatives to project quality criteria. salts. and installation sequence and schedule. wildlife habitat (i) Review and finalize quality criteria for project with water users and non-water users affected by the project Step 5.

Project proponent obtains necessary agreements.Performance evaluations of measuring devices. and double cropping How much water is needed and where to look for a good water source How the different irrigation system works. One of most significant risk factors in agriculture is the weather. project and individual discipline the products to complete the evaluation. Develop Operation. M.5 Gather information. and detailed cost involved. That is why it is important to plan carefully before investing in an irrigation system. As identified in the Plan of Work. If established project quality criteria were appropriate. grower or an agricultural entrepreneur in Malaysia. Examples of evaluations may include: . Develop planning of work to guide evaluation efforts. permits and approvals. Develop plans for any mitigating loss of environmental values that resulting from project plan implementation. make analyses. This will vary based on the project and the purpose of the evaluation. develop recommendations and prepare necessary reports. mitigation should be minimal. and what is to be the product.Chapter 4 . Step 9. Identify who will do the work and the process followed for periodic inspections and development of plans for remedial action.Delivery (conveyance) system operation and management.Monitoring water quality . when it is to begin. Develop by component. Identify personnel who will be involved in remedial work and together develop procedures to be used. and pumps . these information are needed: • • • • • • How much increase in yield can be expected from different crops with irrigation? How does yield quantity and quality improved? What management practices will help make irrigation profitable? Such practices as growing more plant per hectare. conveyance facilities. how much water must be moved and several other factors. and R) plan and agreement(s). and Replacement (O. cultural resources and wetlands. Consequently more land is being irrigated than ever before. some of which can be costly.PLANNING PROCESS Particular attention should be paid to all special environmental concerns. Develop a schedule showing who has responsibility for a specific action. type of the system. such as threatened and endangered species. Turner and Anderson (1980) listed some of the commonly asked questions: • • • Will irrigation be beneficial and profitable for farmers? Which type of irrigation should be used? Approximately how much will a system cost? To answer these question and other questions. periodically: • • 4. Take necessary actions as a result of the evaluation. Evaluate Project Plan (Follow-up) Establish evaluation criteria including what use will be made of the results. Usually the first question that comes to mind is “How much will an irrigation system cost?” The cost varies depending on field conditions. being a humid country with a lot of rain. There are several factors that will influence the decision to install an irrigation system. DETERMINING PROJECT NEEDS A farmer. Maintenance. and what are their energy and labour requirements How to compare the total cost of a system with the value of the expected increase in yield from irrigation March 2009 4-11 .Dam performance and safety inspections . when it is completed. needs convincing that irrigation pays. During the growing season there will be one or more periods when rainfall does not meet crop water needs. Seldom is rainfall adequate to obtain optimum crop production even in humid areas. time required.

Determining what type of irrigation system to use. Drought conditions occur. Better qualities increase the market value of the agricultural produce. we must be assured of enough water from the sources. So irrigating high value crops is generally more profitable than irrigating low value crops. buildings.5.5. the average increase in crop value due to irrigation must be equal to or more than the total cost of irrigating. and Determining irrigation cost and return on investment. Crops in some soil conditions will suffer if they do not receive water within five days or less. Good management practices are also necessary. more efficient use of fertilizers is possible and improved varieties (ones developed for use with irrigation) can be planted. graveyards. there is enough rainfall for most crops but it is not distributed evenly. we need to reach decisions on the following: • • • • • 4. drainage and fringe benefit from irrigation 4. They are rainfall. There is a need to plant the recommended varieties. To help us to decide whether or not to irrigate.5. Obstructions such as roads. Research and experiment have shown that irrigation improves yield quality. 4.3 Effect of Land Drainage on Crop Production We can irrigate any slope that can be cultivated successfully if the system is designed properly and proper soil conservation practices used. the amount of rainfall is very low. Land grading can reshape rough grounds with irregular slopes. when crop suffer from lack of water.1. disease and plant competitors. If the irrigation is to be profitable.1. provide proper cultural practices. The best irrigation system possible will not guarantee a profit.5.PLANNING PROCESS This section will discuss the planning of an irrigation system on three main headings: • • • Determining whether or not to irrigate.2 Effect of Additional Water on Crop Production The main purpose of irrigation is to increase crop yields and to improve crop quality.Chapter 4 .1. Yield increase when ample water is available from irrigation due to better assurance of a good stand during early growth and transplanting. The real value of irrigation is in getting the maximum return on investment by optimizing yield. additional water. We can expect many of these dry periods to be longer than five days minimum.1 What is the effect of irrigation on crop production? How much water will be needed? What are satisfactory sources of water? How much water is available? Is the quality of water is satisfactory? What is the Effect of Irrigation on Crop Production? There are four factors that affect the crop production. pipelines and the moving of the equipment. In addition. use proper seeding rates.1 Effect of Amount and Timeliness of Rainfall on Crop Production In arid areas. 4-12 March 2009 . 4. power lines and streams must be considered in irrigation planning as they may interfere with ditches. We cannot afford to invest a large sum of money in an irrigation system later find that we do not have enough water. plants suffer and yield decrease. In semi arid. the time between rains is very long. more plants per unit area can be grown. There are often period of time even in the most humid areas. sub humid and humid areas. and control of insects.

4. The amount of water a crop uses during a season is called “seasonal consumptive use” or “seasonal water demand” of that crop. Detailed discussion on crop water requirements is presented in Chapter 5. we are more concerned with how much water is available continuously than the total quantity needed for the season. the water from irrigation can also be used for domestic. For this purpose.5. The peak-use demand rate varies with climatic conditions.4 Effect of Fringe Benefits from Irrigation The use of irrigation for its fringe benefits can be just as valuable as irrigating to supply plants with water.PLANNING PROCESS Providing for drainage with irrigation is often needed to control the water in the root zone of the plants. For other purposes. For some other crops like rice.5. we need to know how much total water will the crop use during the season and how much water will be used daily when the crops need water the most.5. 4. and control of harvesting dates. This is called “complete water management program”. be sure to include this factor in the planning of the system. Fringe benefits are crop cooling. 4. The amount of water used per day by crop during this period is called “peak-use rate of water demand” of that crop.2 Peak-Use Rate of Water Demand There is a period. when it will use more water than any other time.5. If we were to take advantage of some or all the fringe benefits. depending on the rainfall in the cropgrowing region.2. plants require more water than in wetter areas because of greater evaporation and transpiration (ET) losses. soils and crops.5. 4.1. fisheries and environmental protection. application of chemicals and application of liquefied animal waste. usually during crop fastest growing period.g. Too much water is harmful to most crops. the peak water demands is for presaturation and land preparation. If we run out of water during growing season.1 Seasonal Water Demand Different crops require different amount of water. not the crop water requirement. the rate of flow must be equal or greater than the peak use demand rate of the crop. we can still have a crop loss even with an irrigation system. Rice grown in the wet main season requires about 100 mm less ET compared to the drier off-season. We need to compare what our crop will need with the amount of water available. This is because the irrigation system must be capable of supplying enough water to meet the need even if there is no rain during that period.2. To meet peak-use rate water demand. This water demand is an estimated of the maximum amount of water needed. Irrigation should be capable of meeting all or part of this amount.2. such as applying water for cooling. e.3 • • How to Find Peak-use Rate of Water Demand Find peak-use demand rate for the crop in millimeters or inches per day Determine the peak-use demand rate per day for the total area to be planted March 2009 4-13 . This varies with climatic areas.2 How Much Water is Needed We must be certain that we allow enough water supplies in our irrigation planning. recreational. Drainage can be accomplished by surface drainage or sub surface drainage. add these amounts to the total expected need. In large irrigation schemes. If the source of water is a stream or well. Maize growing in humid region will use 580 mm of water during a 100 days growing season. In drier areas.Chapter 4 . 4.

surface flow and other losses or wastages.2 Effect of Water Laws and Water Sharing Water by definition includes rivers.4. community pipelines and canal.1 Flow of Water in a Stream Streams and rivers are the most common sources of water for irrigation. new laws are being written and old laws are being revised. cities and farms.5.4 Effect of the Height of the Water to be Lifted The height from the water level to the field is also a factor in irrigation planning.5.PLANNING PROCESS • • • Estimate how long is the expected duration of the irrigation system operating per day. 4. Close source is normally cheaper to develop. For centrifugal pumps. non-uniform application. Assume this is during a time of drought when crop is completely depending on irrigation system.5. and ground water wells. lakes. water storage in the form of a lake. The use of water is increasing with the population increase and the demand by industries. However.5.5.4 How Much Water Is Available? 4. we must apply more water than the minimum requirement for the crop. As irrigation efficiency is not 100 percent. 4. even though “water” is under the jurisdiction of the State Government. Estimate the total cost of pumping from different sources to decide which source to use. 4. the concern is with the height from the water (especially groundwater wells) to the pump and the height from the pump to the field. lakes. get the estimate of the total cost of conveying the water from each source before making decision. 4. and groundwater. the height from water to the pump or “suction lift” should not exceed 5 meter for maximum efficiency.3. In Malaysia. If we have a choice. For gravity scheme.5. Compare peak water demand with available water supply. Determine the minimum rate of flow needed for irrigation.1 Sources of Water Most water for irrigation comes from one of four different sources.3. Add lift and height from the pump to the field to get total elevation difference. pond or reservoir should be provided. The flow rate during dry weather should be checked against peak use rate by the crops. If the stream flow is unreliable.5. 4.3 Effect of the Distance to the Water The distance of the source from the farm is a factor in deciding if the source is satisfactory.Chapter 4 .3. streams/rivers. the present development approach is to look at irrigation and drainage within the context of Integrated Water Resources Management (IRWM). It is important to check with the state authorities before we decide to irrigate. 4-14 March 2009 . pond or reservoirs. Irrigation efficiency generally ranges from 50 to 80 percent due to evaporation.3. streams. To control this use. the height will determine the height of diversion structures to be constructed. Find the peak-use demand rate per day for the whole area in litre per second or cubic meter per sec. or cusec.3 What are Satisfactory Sources of Water? 4. Distance and height determines cost. the State governments have extensive power over irrigation and drainage and related matters. Many are dependable but some streams dry-up when we need the water most during the dry season. For pumping.

industrial wastes and organic acids and stains. There are so many different types of systems available.3 Flow of Water from Groundwater Well The flow rate and drawdown from ground water wells are normally obtained through pumping tests. Most storage reservoirs collect soil from the watershed over a period of years.PLANNING PROCESS 4. lakes. from above the ground surface such as sprinklers. on the ground surface such as basin and furrows and under the ground surface such as subsurface drip and sub-irrigation by water table control.5.5.1 Method of Applying Water As discussed in great details in Chapter 3. Pumping action stops. 4.5. Pond or Reservoir Lakes. the cost of irrigation systems has to be balanced with the return expected. chlorine.1 Effect of Land Slope Slope of the land may determine which method of irrigation to be used. The final selection of one system over another is likely to be based on the difference in their total annual cost and initial cost. the March 2009 4-15 . lakes or stream as a source. depending to wide range of field conditions. If the land is sloping.5. reservoirs and sometimes from wells that contain chemicals which are harmful to plants. These chemicals are salts. Also since the labour is one of the major costs. After deciding on the method that fits our needs. all four methods can be used. The sediments settle at the bottom of the lake and reduce its capacity. soil types and crop varieties to which the irrigation system must be adapted (Table 4. much effort has been made to design systems that require very little labour. A study of the rainfall-runoff records may be necessary to determine the total amount of water available.2 Effect of Trash and Dirt in the Water Trash in water is a problem with most of the systems using ponds. If the water is not replaced as fast as the pump removes it.5 Is the Quality of Water Satisfactory? 4.1 Effect of Chemical Content of the Water There is always a chance of getting water from streams. the water level will drop below the pump intake. 4. but most trash can be filtered or screened before entering pump or irrigation canals. If they are stream fed. If the land is level or it can be made level without too much expense.6. boron. there are four basic methods by which water can be applied. a combination of pond-and-well or pond-and-stream may be used. 4. 4. If sand and silt are present in irrigation water. Sand in water reduces the life of pumps and sprinklers.5. we have to decide which type of irrigation to be used.5.1. they tend to fill lakes and ditches and build up deposits in the field.6. 4. Soil erosion control must be practiced.4.5.1). Such a combination allows the grower to irrigate part of the time from the pond where the water is being supplied continuously to the pond from the stream or ground water well. 4.Chapter 4 .4 Capacity of Combination of Sources If none of the sources supplies enough water.2 Amount of Water in a Lake.4. Drawdown is an indication of the rate at which the underground water is being replaced in the well while pumping.4.5.6 SELECTION OF WATER APPLICATION METHOD 4. the storage capacity must be sufficient for the peak use rate during the dry season. ponds. Since the financial return on some crops is low compared with others. ponds or reservoirs must be able to hold water even for the driest seasons.

1980) Water Application Method Factors Affecting Selection Land Slope Water Intake Rate of the Soil Water Tolerance of Crops Wind Action Sprinkler Adaptable to both level and sloping ground surfaces. Wind may affect application efficiency. No problem. No effect.3 Effect of Water Holding Capacity The water holding capacity (WHC) of soil is the amount of water it will hold after the free water has been drained away by gravity. an even distribution of water can be applied slowly enough to prevent runoff and possible erosion. Micro/Trickle /Drip Adaptable to all land slopes.1 Factors Affecting the Selection of a Water Application Method (Source: Turner and Anderson. With sprinkle method. Soil texture (size of soil particles). With the trickle method. Uniform pressure distribution can be obtained through pressure regulation and lateral arrangement. emitter discharge rates can be matched to soil intake rates. Adaptable to all intake rates. or a high controllable water table. but the frequency of irrigation and the amount of water applied per irrigation. Not generally recommended for soils with high intake rates of more than 60 mm per hour or with extremely low intake rates such as peats and mucks.6. Sub-surface Irrigation Land area must be level or graded to limit slopes or contours. Coarse textured soils hold less water than fine textured soils. Usually not considered a factor. Adaptable only to medium to fine textured soils with moderate to good capillary movement.1. 4-16 March 2009 . Adaptable to most crops. Surface Land area must either be levelled or graded to limited slopes or contours (0 to 1. Adaptable to most crops.0 per cent slopes for most systems). The WHC of a soil depends largely on its textures. A coarse-textured soil must be designed to apply more frequently than a fine-textured soil. The water intake rates of the soil affect the method of irrigation to be used. No effect. The WHC does not affect the method of irrigation. choice is limited to sprinkle or trickle method. BelowSurface Subirrigation Land area should be level or contoured.PLANNING PROCESS Table 4. Adaptable only to those soils which have an impervious layer below the root zone. May be harmful to root crops and to plants that cannot tolerate water standing on roots.2 Effect of Water Intake Rate Water intake rate (measuring how fast the soil can absorb water) determine the maximum rate irrigation water can be applied so that the surface puddling and runoff will not occur. 4. 4. But high winds may affect the application efficiency on bare soil. Adaptable to most crops. surface sealing. No problems. May help promote fungi and disease on foliage and fruit.6. It sometimes is possible to flood slightly steeper slopes that are sodded. slope cover and tillage conditions affect intake rates of the soil.1. Adaptable to any soil intake rates. No effect.Chapter 4 .

The outlet device that emits water onto or into the soil is called emitter. the use of sprinkler method may not be suitable. With sub-irrigation. the water is directed down furrows between the rows shown in Appendix 4. This is accomplished by using either one or more spray nozzles or perforated pipe (Appendix 4. Below surface irrigation is classified into sub irrigation and subsurface irrigation. silty clays and clays 792 (2600) Peats and mucks Not suitable March 2009 4-17 . fine sands and loamy sands 183 (600) Moderately coarse texture – sandy loams and fine sandy loams 274 (900) Medium texture – very fine sandy loams.1 to 0. 1980) Soil Textures Very coarse texture – very coarse sands Length of Run Maximum.4 What System to Select for the Surface Irrigation Method With the surface method.2 Percent Slope) (Turner and Anderson. 4. This is accomplished in two ways. unplanted level areas.PLANNING PROCESS 4.6.C and Table 4. but it may slow down germination of shallow planted seeds.Chapter 4 . Below surface method of applying water supply may help in reducing weed growth. in Meter (feet) Not suitable Coarse texture – coarse sands. surface irrigation method may not be able to be used.B). 4. After leaving the emitter. High wind will sometimes affect the application efficiency of surface irrigation. 4. If we plan to use floodwater for weed control on crops such as rice. Water is carried out through an extensive pipe network to each plant.A).4 Effect of Water Tolerance of Crops For crops that are likely to develop fungi or disease under high moisture conditions. For row crops or crops in beds.6. Strong wind will distort the water distribution pattern to the extent we may get too little water on the windward and too much water the other side.5 Effect of Wind Action Wind action may affect the water application efficiency of the sprinkler and surface methods. water is applied on the ground at the ground level. For close growing crops like rice.1. water is supplied below the surface. loams and silt loams 366 (1200) Moderately fine texture – clay loams.2 Maximum Length of Run for Surface Irrigation Furrows or Strips in Soils of Different Textures (0. 4. the entire field is flooded.6.3 What System to Select for the Trickle/Drip Irrigation A system of supplying filtered water directly onto or below the soil surface. surface method must be used.6.2. particularly on large. silty clay loams and sandy clay loams 549 (1800) Fine texture – sandy clays. by porous or perforated plastic pipes. The crops that cannot tolerate having roots stand under water for several hours.1. water is distributed to a wetted zone by its normal movement through the soil (Appendix 4. Table 4. It flows by gravity over the surface of the field. water is supplied to the root zone by artificially regulating the ground watertable elevation.2 What System to Select for the Sprinkler Irrigation Method Water is sprayed through the air and it falls to the ground like rain. In subsurface irrigation.6.

making the agricultural use of the land less susceptible to excess water. Pressurized irrigation systems can be automated. In most cases. installation energy. and federal regulations Soil information Wetland impact Adequacy of system outlet Field elevation. determining annual depreciation cost. determining the initial cost. manufacturing energy. determining return on investment and filling the cost and return form. Pressurized irrigation systems on the other hand require pumping costs and piping network. It is very important to know the requirements for the drainage network composition and to design types of drainage systems in cultivated lands of different areas. In some cases. Transportation energy is required to move irrigation system over the field during the season. determining annual operating cost. however. It is also necessary to understand the hydrological and hydraulic calculations of drainage and to know the main drainage arrangement conditions. 4. The operating energy is required to run the system for a given amount of time and pressure. Electrical generating efficiencies are considered when comparing electrical motors to internal combustion engine. The procedure involves compiling information needed. The detailed of such works being mostly in the domain of engineering is commonly referred to as design.8 PLANNING PROCESS FOR AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PROJECTS Agricultural drainage is accomplished by a system of surface ditches. state. slope and topography Economic feasibility Present and future cropping strategies Environmental impacts associated with drainage discharge Easements and right-of-ways Quality of the installation Field Investigation The necessary field survey and related investigations required for the planning and design of a drainage system. the core of a drainage plan consists of the construction of some new drainage works. including: • • • • • • • • • • 4.D.1 Local. the best solution to a drainage problem may well be a change in land use or in farm practices.7 DETERMINING IRRIGATION COST AND RETURN ON INVESTMENT Irrigation systems cost varies with the method of water application and the energy requirements. Most of the investigations and the indicated levels of detail are for the detailed drainage phase. Surface method is considered as the least expensive and the most energy conservative system. and would generally also be undertaken during the feasibility stage at a somewhat 4-18 March 2009 . or by a combination of surface and subsurface components that collect and convey water from fields.5 Energy Requirement of Irrigation Systems The increasing cost of energy necessitates an understanding of energy requirements of irrigation system. The total energy requirements for an irrigation system can be divided into four categories. The more sophisticated the system will definitely increase the costs. Micro irrigation systems normally require filtration units.8. 4. operating energy and transportation energy. Planning of agricultural drainage involves the preparation of a plan for the solution of a drainage problem. Determining the cost and return on an irrigation system is a long and detailed mathematical process.PLANNING PROCESS 4. subsurface conduits. The plan will generally consist of a number of measures to be taken and/or works to be constructed. A typical Format is as shown in Appendix 4.6. Planning an effective drainage system takes time and requires consideration of a number of factors.Chapter 4 .

topographic maps. The investigations and/or evaluations are comparable to those needed for the performance and benchmarking activities. Information should be obtained for the project area and for adjacent areas that may affect the proposed drainage project.1 Identification First formulation of the project mostly on the basis of available information and analysis and/or evaluation 4. Intended targets are: • Information should be collected through semi-detailed type of field investigations (Map Scale: 1:10000 to1:50000) March 2009 4-19 . 4. plans. land use. Parallel with the planning and design process. hydrological. the following four stages of project preparation may be distinguished. technical. soil patterns. Various types of maps are useful during this stage: geographical. It involves the nature and cause of the problem and the harmful effect. showing relief.3 Feasibility Study Preliminary investigation will be performed using available recorded data.2..8. Aerial photos are also particularly useful.8. soils.1 Problem Diagnosis A correct diagnosis of the drainage problem is essential for the preparation of a sound drainage plan. etc.2 Project Preparation Stages Investigations and planning for a agricultural drainage project normally proceed in stages. 4. characteristics elevations. Evidence that proposed project is promising and desirable.8. further investigations are carried out to establish the environmental. 4.2 Plan Preparation Plans for drainage problems can be conceived once a satisfactory diagnosis of the problem is made. Long-term records are needed for performance assessment and benchmarking with a lower density that for detailed design. This information will in particular be used: • • To diagnose the drainage problem in land and conceive possible solutions To prepare plans and designs 4.1. 4. including reports. administrative. main infrastructure features and other relevant information.2. In general. studies.8. etc.8.2 Reconnaissance The Intended targets are: • • • • Broad and general field investigations for the collection of relevant information. socio-economic and institutional conditions under which the planned measures and works are to be implemented and to operate. the present drainage systems. supplemented with field reconnaissance. Planning and design requires a great deal of information on the project.8.Chapter 4 . Preliminary diagnosis of the drainage problem. Depending on the project certain stages may be omitted or combined.1.2.. Draft outline for the possible solution and delineation of the project area and its subareas.PLANNING PROCESS lower level of detail. The assessment of the outlet conditions and of foreign water involvement may require the investigation of a wider area than the project area.

• 4. alignments. matching with irrigation system variables. spacing. maximise the objectives) Figure 4. etc. The formulation of the basic design criteria considering with all the relationships in an integrated manner is illustrated in Figure 4.2.3 Relationships among all Variables in Drainage Design (Smedema et al.3. capacities. Design variables (mutually related) Constraints Objective - Technical - Economical - Financial - Environmental - Other System variables Environmental variables Land use variables Management variables (restricting the values which the variables can assume) Optimal plan (combination of design variables which. cropping patterns. etc. on-farm water management practices.8. Land use variables: crops. Detailed plans and designs. while meeting the constraints. Provide sufficient evidence and proof that the proposed project is the best available solution and it is administratively workable and economically feasible.8. 4. construction methods. structures. farming systems. construction drawings and specifications are elaborated for all plans for working documents.3 Basic Design Criteria The preparation of a drainage plan involves the determination of the optimal combination of the plan and design variables. financial arrangement. operation and maintenance. permissible impacts on downstream flow regime. materials. 2004) 4-20 March 2009 . Environmental variables: water quality standards. etc. They are as follows: System variables: types of drains. etc.. wetland protection and conservation.Chapter 4 . Management variables: institutional organizations and procedures. outfalls.PLANNING PROCESS • Presentation of the proposed plans with sufficient information to demonstrate convincingly that the options are technically sound and to enable costs to be estimated within some 10% accuracy.4 Detailed Design Information is collected through detailed field investigations. depths.

8.3. 4.8. Recharge due to irrigation. This straightforward procedure is illustrated in Figure 4.3) A Measure the corresponding crop production (object factor) Figure 4.8. The conveyance system must be sized appropriately for both base flow and design storm flow.4 illustrates the main role of the basic drainage criterion in the drainage planning.2 Subsurface Drainage The basic design criterion for subsurface drainage involves the required watertable control during and after the occurrence of a design rainfall.4 The Role of the Basic Drainage Criteria in Drainage Design (Smedema et al. 4. 2004) Field Drainage Systems To obtain a quantitative insight into the effects of drainage on agriculture. Vary the drainage systems engineering factors (Table 4. and should where relevant be incorporated in the design criterion.Chapter 4 . The engineering factors mentioned in the figure depend on the type of drainage system involved..3. 4. Some of the engineering factors are specified in Table 4. one can do experiments with varying drainage designs and measure the corresponding crop production. seepage etc may need consideration.PLANNING PROCESS Figure 4. Drainage Costs (a) Occurrence of excess water on/in the land Basic design criterion (desired degree of excess water control) (b) Farming Benefits Figure 4.3 Main Drainage The technical criteria applicable to main drainage systems depend on the hydrological situation and on the type of system.1 Surface Drainage The basic design criterion for the surface drainage involves the span of time the excess water on the agricultural land resulting from the design rainfall must be removed. The relationships between drainage and farming have been broken down into: • • The relationship between the provided drainage and the occurrence of excess water on or in the field The impacts of these excess water occurrences on the farming.3. Irrigation losses may also be important with rainfall.5 Illustration of a Straightforward Method of Analysis of Drainage Effects on Agriculture March 2009 4-21 .3.8. Criteria for the design of main drainage systems may be derived from the field discharges they collect. The require watertable control may be formulated in a steady state or a non-steady state form.

It is generally economic to accept occasional damage rather than a construct a foolproof.e. Any refinement of these drainage coefficient guidelines should be done after consulting with drainage experts and local drainage contractors or farmers. sugar beets or other vegetable/truck crops) Soils have a coarser texture Crops have a lower tolerance to wetness The topography is flat (implying poorer surface drainage) Large amounts of crop residue are left on a field March 2009 .5. dimensions of furrow and bedding Main drainage system Depth..5.8.5 Design of Field Drainage Systems The general process of design for agricultural drainage systems are outlined briefly. capable with coping with even the highest rainfalls. it generates the most serious of all excess rainwater incidences. further details being given in Chapters 13 and 14. cross-section and slope of drains. spacing and dimensions of ditches or pipe drains Tubewell drainage system Depth.. 4.5.g. NRCS literature suggests the drainage coefficient may need to be increased where one or more of these situations occur: • • • • • 4-22 The crop has high value (e. expensive drainage system.3 Examples of Engineering Factors by Type of Drainage System Type of drainage system Engineering factor Subsurface drainage system Depth.PLANNING PROCESS Table 4.1 Surface Drainage Systems The main variables to be defined are: • • • 4.8. Designed drainage system may no be fully controlled for higher rainfalls which may occur rarely and therefore these will cause damage. Subsurface Drainage Systems The following main variables required to be defined in the design: • • • • • 4.Chapter 4 . which the system is designed to control..3 Type and layout of the system Discharge capacity Watertable depth to be maintained in the field relative to the soil surface The depth of the pipe drains or the watertable to be maintained in the ditches Spacing of the field drains System Capacity and Drainage Coefficient To protect crops.4 Design Rainfall The design rainfall is the most critical rainfall event that the drainage system should be able to cope with i.2 Type and layout of the system Discharge capacity of the system Depth of the field drainage i. pump capacity Surface drainage system Length and slope of the fields. spacing of the network 4.8. spacing and dimensions of wells.e.8. 4. a subsurface drainage system must be able to remove excess water from the upper portion of the active root zone 24 to 48 hours after a heavy rain. width.8. water level to be maintained in the field ditches.

The role of prior experience is reflected mainly in the use of empirical formula and engineering rules of thumb. When conducting a drainage study using the above criteria. includes a facility for the control of the discharge and appropriate structure. March 2009 4-23 . pump capacities.8. 4. The selection of design discharges which largely determine the required canal dimensions. The drainage system must be cost effective throughout the planning and design process. the base flow in channels must be maintained at 1. The total time it takes to remove flooding and return the water level to base flow should not exceed 2 days for the design storms stated in the first two criteria.8. the water level should return to base flow levels within 24 hours after cessation of flooding. it is now important to consider the impacts of further drainage improvements on downstream water quantity and quality.8. Therefore technical aspects of the drainage project must be compatible for future operation.6 Determination of Design Criteria Design criteria are generally established partly based on sound theory. Design criteria should be also established based on future operation of the project. Operational considerations should play an important and fully integrated role in the planning and design of an agricultural drainage project. Stream capacity. the flooding on the surface of the land is analyzed first. Existing streams and discharge outlets. The local availability of skills and materials should be always be an important consideration for cost effective drainage project. etc. 4. 2 day storm.5. determining the length of time required to remove water from the surface of the land (field elevation). Stream slope and alignment. the following items should be evaluated as appropriate from information given by the preliminary investigation: • • • • • Drainage area.8. 4. To provide adequate drainage to the root zone. The conveyance system must be sized appropriately for both base flow and design storm flow.2 m below field elevation.Chapter 4 . Effects of adjacent structures (upstream and downstream). analysis and experience.PLANNING PROCESS • • • • There is little or poor surface drainage Crop evapotranspiration is low Frequent and low intensity rain is common Planting and harvest times are critical 4. Drainage affects the entire watershed and must be considered as one element in overall water management within the watershed.8 Design Procedure Overview The general design procedure steps are: Site Analysis: At each site where a drainage structure(s) will be constructed. however. It.7 Regional Agricultural Drainage Criteria The regional drainage criteria for agricultural areas are: • • • To remove the runoff from the 10 year.4 Controlled Drainage The design of control drainage systems in principle follows the same sequential steps for the conventional systems. Although drainage improvements were traditionally evaluated solely for their impacts on the field in which they were installed. The time for the water levels in the channel to return to base flow is then determined. within 2 days in the growing period Between storm events and in periods when drainage is required.

If drainage water is unsuitable for reuse.Chapter 4 . Drainage water is no different from any other water supply and is always usable for some purpose within certain quality ranges.Alignment of the structure with drainage channel Environmental impacts WATER QUALITY PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT It is important to recognize that while technologies may be available to minimize water quality impacts from drainage effluent. drainage water must be disposed. Coordination with representatives of the various environmental disciplines is encouraged. institutional mechanisms must also be put in place to ensure that the technologies can be implemented. including legal and monitoring aspects. changes in the rate of flow.9 Drainage Area Size Improvements Performance of existing or adjacent structures .Erosion . Most subsurface drainage water has the potential to be reused. 4-24 March 2009 .Erosion . Recurrence Interval: Select a recurrence interval in accordance with the design policy in Chapter 2. • Environmental permit concerns and constraints. The management goal of agricultural drainage is to maintain proper soil water balance in humid areas (ASCE. it should be disposed of in a sink of lower quality water.Vegetation . 1990.High water level Channel Condition . 1990). and chemical concentrations need to be determined. Policies and programmes. The amount and quality of drainage water managed. require an institutional framework.PLANNING PROCESS • Soil erodibility. Items to check include: • • • • • • 4. Items to be considered include: • • • • • Agricultural water management Water quality Soil erosion and sediment control Drainage collection methods Disposal systems These elements should be considered during the design process and incorporated into the design as it progresses. Environmental Considerations: Environmental impact of the proposed drainage system and appropriate methods to avoid or mitigate adverse impacts should be evaluated. Drainage water from different locations and/or facilities will have different quality characteristics. There are several factors to consider when determining the constraints for the management of surface or subsurface agricultural drainage water. Hydrologic Analysis: Compute the design flow utilizing the appropriate hydrologic method. Beyond these limits. Poor quality water should be separated from good quality water. Smedema. Drainage Review: The design engineer should inspect the drainage system sites to check topography and the validity of the design. Hydraulic Analysis: Select a drainage system to accommodate the design flow utilizing the appropriate methods.

Only when the soil's hydraulic conductivity is very high could the spacing be wide enough to be practically feasible. Further. Innovative approaches or good practices that stress responsible and negotiated agreements between participants should be reviewed and adapted to local circumstances.11 RAIN-FED LANDS IN TROPICAL HUMID ZONES The humid tropics are characterized by long-lasting rainy seasons (more than 8 months) with an annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm. Farmers at the tail-end of irrigation systems who may currently receive poor quality water are often left out of planning exercises.10 PARTICIPATORY PLANNING Participatory planning is an important process in solving some of the difficult problems (Le Moigne et al. no attempt should be made to implement a drainage system without a flood-control scheme. Special efforts to incorporate their needs are necessary. When the inundations have a strong influence.Chapter 4 . 4.PLANNING PROCESS 4. because subsurface drainage systems in the humid tropics are often prohibitively expensive as they would have to be designed for very high discharge capacities and would need very narrow spacing. Water logging occurs frequently in the flat areas. March 2009 4-25 . investigations ought to be made to check whether an adjustment of the cropping system would be sufficient to eliminate the drainage problem.. If a drainage system is still found to be necessary. a surface drainage system is usually the appropriate choice. 1994).

1. Cairo. and Giltner. (1990). Amer. 22-35. p. In: Symposium on land drainage for salinity control in arid and semi-arid regions (H.W. Natural Resources Conservation Service. L. Modern land drainage – planning .L. Agricultural salinity assessment and management.K. Le Moigne. M.R. S.C. and Rycroft D. ed.).). 4-26 March 2009 . Smedema L. DID Malaysia. Vol.F. 71.Chapter 4 . Anderson (1980).A. A. (1990). A guide to the formulation of water resources strategy. Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia. Subramanian. G. Natural salinity hazards of irrigation development in (semi)arid regions.. 1(994). ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice.PLANNING PROCESS REFERENCES American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Turner. Planning for an Irrigation System. 619p. MASMA Volume 3 Planning Processes. Irrigation Guide. Vlotman W.: World Bank. Technical Paper 263. p 446. Field Office Technology Guide. Smedema. DID (2000). (2004). J.H. Egypt: Nubar Printing House. United States Department of Agriculture. A. and C.K. Balkema Publishers.. American Association for Vocational Instruction Materials. D. USDA-NRCS (1997). Xie. National Engineering Handbook. Washington. New York: ASCE.. (eds. design and management of agricultural drainage systems.

05-.5-1 (.05) 50(2) 2.5) 50(2) 6.25 (.20) 75(1.10) 50(2) mm/hr (in/hr)1 1.moved Tractor.7 (.4-16 (1-40) .5) .4 or more (1 or more) 8-20 (20-50) Ha (a) Approx.2-3.4 (.1-.5) Labor Required Size of single System Yes Chemical Application APPENDIX 4.1-.10) 1.1-.5) 50(2) 6.mounted Multi-Sprinkler Permanent Hand-Moved Portable Set Solid Set Type of System 6.2-.5-1 (.7 (.05-.5) 25(1) 5.PLANNING PROCESS 4A-1 .2-.10) 50(2) 5. Yes Not Recom. 1980) Yes Fertilizer Application Adaptable To Yes Not Recom.A Factors Affecting The Selection Of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems (Adapted from Turner and Anderson.10) 50(2) Water Application Rate Min. Yes Not recom.1-.5-15 (3-6) 15-30 (6-12) 15-30 (6-12) 12-24 (4.5) .10) 50 (2) 1.5) 50(2) 2.5(.4 or more (1 or more) .5) 25(1) 1.4 (.7 (1-3) Hrs/ha (a)3 .3 (0. path for towers Safe operation of tractor Reasonably smooth Smooth enough for safe tractor operation No limit Field Surface Conditions 2-3 (8-10) 2-3 (8-10) No limit 2-3 (8-10) 2-3 (8-10) 1.4(2.4-12) 30-90 (12-36) 12-24 (4.5(.5-1.0(.8-12) RM/ha (a)x1004 30-90 (12-36) 6-24 (2.moved Self-propelled No limit 5-15 10 No limit 10 No limit 20 (%) Max Slope Self-Moved: Side-Wheel-Roll Tractor-Moved: Wheel.2-.20) 25(1) 6. Square or Rectangular Rectangular Any shape Rectangular Any shape Shape of Field Lane for boom and hose Land for winch and hose Safe operation of tractor Clear of obstructions.2 (2-5) 15-30 (6-12) 8-80 (20-200) 15-30 (6-12) 7.moved: Wheel-Mounted Self-Propelled 5 5 Boom-Sprinkler Tractor. Rectangular Any shape Rectangular Any shape Circular.15) 1.sprinkler Hand.2-.5-1.2 (4) 1-2 (4-6) No limit m (ft)2 Max.3(.5) 8-16 (20-40) 4-40 (10-100) 8-16 (20-40) 8-16 (20-40) 8-16 (20-40) .1-.2-3.5) .15) .0(.4(2. Max.7 (1-3) .2 (.8-12) 8-32 (20-80) .4(2.2-1.5) 2.5(.2 (. Cost .3) .5-1. Liquid Animal Waste Distribution Chapter 4 .5-1.4) . Height of Crop .05-.2-.7 (.March 2009 10 20 20 20 Side-Move Self-Propelled: Center-pivot Lateral-Move Single.4(2.5) 25(1) 6.4(2.2-.5(.

0 Nearly level Level Furrow Graded: Graded border 0.15 .5-15 (3-6) 15-24 (6-9) RM per ha (a) x 100 15-24 (6-9) 7.0 Cross slope 6.1 Contour levee (per cent) Sod Crops NonSod Crops Nearly level NonSod Crops Any Shape Shape of field No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Adaptable to Orchard & Row Crops (row Vineyards or bedded) Yes No (Adapted from Turner and Anderson.5 (1-2) .15 .5(.0 2.1) 2.4-1.2-4.5-1.1) 2.2) 1. 1980) No Yes No No No Sown.6) 1-3 (.5 NA NA 4.1) 50(2) 38(1.1) 2. Cost 2000-3000 2000-3000 2000-3000 2000-3000 2000-3000 Approx.5 (.1-.5-4.5(.3) 2.15 .5-15 (3.1) 7.5(.24 (.1) 2.4-1.15 Labor Required (hrs per hectare) APPENDIX 4.B Factors Affecting The Selection Of Micro Irrigation Systems Chapter 4 .0 Sod Crops Max.7) Hrs/ha (a)2 Per irrigation .5-1.5) .5(.5) 15-27 (6-18) 15-27 (6-18) 7. 1980) Water Application Rate of Intake Family Yes Yes Orchards and Vineyards 6-12 (1.2-.5-2.15 .0 NA 15.5) 75(3) 75(3) 50(2) 50(2) 13(.6(.8) 7.5(.5(.2-3. Rows should be of equal length Yes No Yes Rows should be of equal length Rectangular No Yes Any shape Rectangular Rows should be of equal length Any shape Shape of Field Row Crops (Row or bedded) No Yes Yes No No Yes Adaptable to Sown Weed Drilled Control or In Rice Sodded Crops (Adapted from Turner and Anderson. RM per hectare Labor Required . Drilled or Sodded Crops 8.2) .12-1.PLANNING PROCESS March 2009 .7 (.0 4.24 (.0 3.5-15 (3-6) 1-3 (.0 4. Cost.0 4.5) Approx.0 2.5(.2-1) 2. 2.0 NA Contour ditch Contour furrow 0.05-.73 (.C Factors Affecting The Selection Of Surface Irrigation Systems Any 38 76 Any Maximum Slope Humid Areas Arid Areas No limit 5 5 No limit No limit Maximum Water Intake Rate soils (mm per hour) Any Level: Level border Type of System Drip Point-source Emitters Line-source Emitters Subsurface Bubbler Spray Type of system Maximum Slope APPENDIX 4.25-1.5 NA Graded furrow Corrugation Cross slope 3.1) 2.5) 50(2) mm (in)/hr1 Min.4A-2 0.

Seasonal consumptive use of the crop 6. Number of hours operation per year 11.GENERAL INFORMATION Item 1.) 4.DEPRECIATION COSTS Item WELL Casing: 8 and 10 Gage 12 Gage 3/16 inch Concrete RESERVOIR PUMP Line Shaft Propeller Turbine Centrifugal POWER UNIT Electric Gasoline Diesel Natural Gas. Size of power unit needed 20. LPG. Crop(s) to be irrigated 2.PLANNING PROCESS APPENDIX 4. Value of crop per unit (kg. Interest rate 22. Type of power unit 21. Hours labour per ha per irrigation Information PART B. Number of hours to operate each day 8. etc. Peak-use demand rate of the crop 7. Source of water 17. Total operating head 19. Number of ha in field 13. or Propane MISCELLANEOUS Electric Switch Gas Line: Iron Plastic Fuel Tank: Propane Diesel or Gasoline March 2009 Est. Stand-by charges for electricity 23. Number of ha in field 15. tonnes. Years of Life Initial Cost (RM) Cost Factor (RM) Annual Cost (RM) 25+ 15 25+ 25+ 20+ 10 15 12 25 20 12 12 20 20 18 20 18 4A-3 . Maximum soil water-intake-rate 5. Expected increase in yield per ha from irrigation 3. Number of irrigations expected per season 10. Shape and dimensions of field 12. Minimum days required for each irrigation 9.Chapter 4 . Type of system 14. Pumping rate needed in L/m (gpm) 16. Total height water is to be lifted 18.D Cost and Return Form PART A.

_____ 9. It varies with the crop. Fuel ________ x Number of Hours Operated _______ x 2.Chapter 4 . etc 20 Total investment (Initial Cost) Taxes and insurance ( _______ total investment x . 4A-4 March 2009 . Fertilizer. Oil-Gear Drive or Electric motor 4. Total Amount Operating Cost Horse-power Required x Cost Per Unit of Fuel (RM) ________ ÷ __________ _____ BHP Hours Per Unit of Fuel Total (RM) RM _____ initial cost x . of irrigations x ____ ha x RM ____ per hour ……………………………………………………………………….01): Stand-by (fixed) charges for electricity: Loss of income due to acreage out of production RM ______ / ha x _____ ha: TOTAL AMOUNT DEPRECIATION (OWNERSHIP) COST: PART C. Additional Seed. _____ _____ * This value is the amount that you expect to spend in addition to that which you would spend if you did not irrigate. you may not have any additional expenses. Reservoir and Field Maintenance 7. Repair and Maintenance (power unit) 5.ANNUAL OPERATING COST ITEM 1.. Chemicals and Harvesting Cost (estimate) 8.005……………………………………… _____ RM ____ anticipated additional expense per ha x ____ number acres* _____ _____ hrs per ha per irrigation x No.PLANNING PROCESS Land Plane 15 WATER PIPE Underground Pipe: Concrete 25+ Steel 20+ Asbestos Cement 25+ Plastic 20+ Above-ground Pipe: Aluminum 15 Galvanized Steel 15 PIPE TRAILER SPRINKLER 10 SYSTEMS Hand-moved 15 Tractor-moved 10 Self-moved 12 Self-propelled 15 Permanent 20 SURFACE SYSTEMS Land Grading 20 SUBSURFACE SYSTEMS Ditches 20 Pipelines 25 LAND DRAINAGE. Oil-Engine ________ x _______ x _________÷ __________ _____ 3.005 ……………………………………… _____ RM _____ initial cost x . Repair and Maintenance ( irrigation equipment) 6. For some crops. Labor ________ x _______ x _________÷ __________ _____ ____ bhp x __ hrs _________ Per bhp.

etc. tonnes.) (from Part A) Total annual cost per ha (a) of irrigation: RM ___ annual depreciation cost (from Part B) + RM ___ annual opening cost (from Part C) = RM ____ RM ____ ÷ ___ number of acres (from Part A) Expected Additional Profit Per ha (a) From Irrigating: RM ___ value of expected increase less RM ____ annual operating costs per ha (a) March 2009 TOTAL (RM) __________ __________ ___________ 4A-5 .RETURN ON INVESTMENT Value per hectare (acre) of expected increase from irrigation: ____ yield per ha (a) (from Part A) x RM ____per unit (kg.Chapter 4 .PLANNING PROCESS PART D.

Part B Planning Chapter 5 .Water Demand Estimation .

............1 Conveyance Efficiency (Ec)………………………………………………………………… .. ..5 Water Demands for Non-paddy Crops under Microirrigation……………………………… .3.5-17 5....5-24 5........5-10 5.6...5 WATER QUALITY …………………………………………….5-9 5.....4.......5-1 5..5..2 Net Irrigation Depth (dx)…………………………………………………………………… ..4.5-1 5. .5-i List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....2 Recommended Water Depth for Rice Production ………………………………… ......6....… ....5-8 5.2 Net Irrigation Requirement (NIR)…………………………………………………………………… ...5-iii 5..3 Soil-Water Holding Capacity.....…………………………………………………………………….4........3 Pan Evaporation Method……………………………………………...6....4......3..4..2 WATER DEMAND IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE. ..........1 Crop Coefficient (Kc)………….5.. ..6.....…………………………………… ....1......4....… ....6...1.... . .WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Table of Contents Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ...6..7 Gross Irrigation Water Demand (GIR)………………………………………....1 Upland Crops…………………………………………………………………………………… ...6...... . .2...5-20 5.........5-8 5...5.3 SOIL-WATER-PLANT RELATIONSHIP.5-17 5.1 INTRODUCTION.......1 Crop Root Depth…………………………………………………………………………………………… .2.6 WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION PROCEDURES…………………………………………….... ........3 Calibration of ETo for Local Conditions……………………………………………………………….5-iii List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ...5-8 5..……………………………………………..6..2 Mathematical Models for Estimating ETo……………………………………………....6.6.4 Seasonal Leaching Requirements……………………………………………...5-2 5.........6.5-10 5...6........ ..... .............5-12 5..3 Daily Consumptive Use (Td) ……………………………………………………………… ..5.5-8 5.6...5..................2 Leaching Fraction (LF) ……………………………………………....4.4 Determination of Irrigation Requirements…………………………………………… .6.4 CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ETC)……………………………………………....2 Blaney-Criddle Method……………………………………………...... ..5-9 5..1 Water Demands for Tree Crops………………………………………………………....5-7 5.... .........3.......5-21 5..6............………… .....4...4 Water Demands for Rice……………………………………………...5-12 5..5-7 5.5-15 5.2 Low Land Paddy…………….5-12 5... ...5.. ....3 Leaching Requirements (LR) for Salinity Control ………………………...5 Effective Rainfall (ERF)…………………………………..1 Penman-Monteith Method……………………………………………...………………………….………………………………………………………………….........5-18 5......1 Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) …………………………………………….1...6...........2 Soil Textural Diagram.....6.5-2 5........4...6....5-3 5....……… ...........4....6...6...……………………………………………..........3 Gross Irrigation Requirement (GIR)………………………………………………………………… ......5-16 5.......4........………………………………………………………… .Chapter 5 ........5-20 5.…….......5-12 5.5-22 5....3 Application Efficiency (Ea)………………………………………………………………… ......1 Irrigation Efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………….2.5-2 5...2 Distribution Efficiency (Ed)………………………………………………………………… .......5-14 5.... .... .4 Seasonal Net and Gross Irrigation Depth and Volume. .5-14 5.. .3 Irrigation Duties………………………………………………………………………………....5-7 5.… ..5-15 5....2..........5......6 Application of Water Balance Equation…………....5-11 5.........5-7 5...4........6.....2.… ....1 Water Losses and Auxiliary Water Demand ……………………………………..5-24 5.......4......5-22 5......5-18 5..…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ...5...........5-25 March 2009 5-i .........…………………………………………………........

....5A-4 APPENDIX 5.....2 Deficit Irrigation Technique……………………………………………...........7 Design Daily Irrigation Requirement (DDIR)……………………………………….H.5-32 APPENDIX 5..5A-18 5-ii March 2009 ..7.3 Irrigation with Limited Water……………………………………………..10 Irrigation System Capacity (Qsys)…………………………………………………….5A-10 5....5-30 5.H. ..H. ...6..5-30 5.6.4 Water Saving Technology……………………………………………...5-27 5.6...... ...5...G Cropping Management of Direct Seeded and Transplanting Rice Fields…………. .2 Water Demand for Paddy Irrigation………………………..5 Water Demand for Multicrops Farming System…………………………………..… ..6.... .6 Water Demands for Non-paddy Crops under Sprinkler Irrigation………………………..….6...........7..5.5-30 5.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.....Chapter 5 . . .5 Water Demands for Row Crops…………………………………………………………...5..6.5... .....5-29 5.7.......H.5-30 5.5A-5 APPENDIX 5...5... ..6.4 Water Demand for Crops under Sprinkler Irrigation……………………………….5-30 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...H...9 Seasonal Irrigation Requirements (SIR)……………………………………………… ...… ..5A-15 5.H Worked Examples……………………………………………...5-30 5..6....C Pan Coefficient KP for the Class A Pan Evaporation under Different Conditions ..8 Design Daily Irrigation Requirement for a Farm (DDIRf)………………………..5-29 5.5A-1 APPENDIX 5...B Crop Coefficients (Kc) at Different Growth Stages of Given Crops………………….... Well-Drained Soil Profile…………………………………………………….....5A-3 APPENDIX 5......6. .. .5-29 5..5-28 5....5A-7 APPENDIX 5.........6..........5A-11 5..5-27 5...F Crop Tolerance and Yield Potential of Selected Crops as Influenced by Irrigation Water Salinity (ECw) or Soil Salinity (ECe)…………………………………… . ...1 Presaturation Irrigation Requirements Calculation for Paddy……………………..... ....5A-6 APPENDIX 5. ... ..... ....7 Irrigation for Crops Grown under Special Considerations…………………………………...5A-17 5..5A-10 5..6.. . Uniform.. ..6 Irrigation Requirements Per Application (IRRI)…………………………………… ..... .E Nomograph for Determining the SAR Value of Irrigation Water and Estimating the Corresponding ESP Value of a Soil at Equilibrium with the Water……………..5A-9 APPENDIX 5.6...A Typical Root Depths that Contain about 80% of the Feeder Roots in a Deep.... ...D Water Quality Guidelines………………………………………………………………………….5....1 Shallow Watertable Condition……………………………………………...3 Water Demand for Crops under Microirrigation………………………………………..7..

6 Factors Influencing Irrigation Water-Use Efficiency 5-11 5.12 Peak Period Transmission Ratios (TR) 5-26 5.5 Total Soil-Water Content for Various Soil Textures with Adjustment for 5-4 Changes in Bulk Density 5.Chapter 5 .4 Schematic Illustration of the Soil Water Reservoir Concept 5-4 5.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION List of Tables Table 5.5 Classification of Saline Water 5-9 5.1 Water Demand Categories for Different Irrigated Crops 5-1 5.9 Rice Planting Methods 5-16 5.3 Ranges in Available Water Holding Capacity (AWHC) of Different Soil Textures 5-5 5.3 A Soil-Water Column 5-3 5.1 5.11 the Irrigation Canal Networks 5.15 Typical Row Crops under Microirrigation Systems 5-27 March 2009 5-iii .8 Conversion Factors for Irrigation Depth 5-18 5.13 Factors Affecting Plant Water Requirements 5-23 5.12 Water Balance Components in a Paddy Field 5-21 5.13 Seasonal Transmission Ratios (TR) 5-26 List of Figures Figure Description Page 5.4 Available Water for Various Soil Textures 5-5 5.7 Daily and Seasonal Water Use in Rice Production in the Tropics 5-17 5.9 Crop Coefficients (Kc) at Different Growth Stages of Crop 5-22 5.8 Variation of Actual Evapotranspiration Rate with Soil Water Content for Upland 5-15 Crops 5.2 Soil Textural Diagram 5-2 5.14 Typical Point Source Microirrigation System 5-23 5.6 Water Application Efficiencies 5-14 5.10 Water Requirements for Paddy at Different Growth Stages 5-17 A Schematic of Watertable Depth Variation in a Irrigation Block with Respect to 5-18 5.2 Description Page Characteristics of Soil Separates 5-3 Typical Results for Field Capacity. Permanent Wilting Point and Available Water 5-5 for Different Soil Types 5.7 Procedures of Irrigation Water Requirements Calculation 5-13 5.11 Management Allowed Deficit (MAD) Values for Various Crops 5-24 5.10 Effective Soil Water Storage Factor (S) 5-24 5.

WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION (This page is deliberately left blank ) 5-iv March 2009 .Chapter 5 .

the flow rate potential must be known to operate irrigation systems.1. Water requirement also depends on the type of crop. March 2009 5-1 . Irrigation under Low Infiltration Soils e.Chapter 5 . crop. Deficit Irrigation Technique Figure 5. Indeed. These fundamental principles have resulted in several methods of measuring and estimating crop water demands. Water Saving Technology b. The designer needs to understand how plants use water and how they interact with the soil and atmosphere. different methods of irrigation systems have been developed. and the amount of available soil moisture in the field for upland crops and ponding water for rice. while longer term estimates are needed for planning. and development of irrigation projects.1 INTRODUCTION Water demand estimation is the primary considerations for planning and design of any irrigation system. Water requirements strongly depend on climate. Therefore. Water demand categories of different irrigated crops are shown in Figure 5. Water use changes during the growing season and is difficult to predict. Therefore. design. net irrigation water requirement and water demand estimation for the irrigation project. Most agricultural water is obtained from surface sources and very small percentage from groundwater. Water Demand for Irrigated Crops Paddy Crops Grown Under Special Conditions Non-Paddy Crops a. The objective of this chapter is to demonstrate the water demand estimation principles in planning and designing of irrigation systems. climates.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5 WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.2 WATER DEMAND IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE Irrigated agriculture is the largest user (70%) of the developed water resources in Malaysia. and crops in designing the farm irrigation systems. This includes soil-water-plant-atmosphere relationships.seasonal water demands and daily water demands. determining crop evapotranspiration (ETc). A crop with a deeper rooting depth has a greater volume of soil water to draw between irrigations than shallow rooted crops. the water supply rate must exceed the rate of crop use.1 Water Demand Categories for Different Irrigated Crops Different crops use different amounts of water during crop growing periods. irrigation systems generally are evaluated using two criteria . Daily and weekly crop water use estimates are needed to schedule irrigations. a unified procedure is needed to quantify irrigation water demands for the diverse soils. Crops also need different amounts of water at different times during the crop growing seasons. Irrigation under Shallow Water Table d. The irrigation supply must be sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the irrigation system and supply enough water to meet crop needs. 5. Because irrigation is not fully efficient. Irrigation with Limited Water c. Due to these variations in water use among crops. The irrigation water must be adequate to meet crop water demand.

Each of these particles has a specific definition.1 Crop Root Depth The crop root depth determines the depth of soil profile from which the crop can extract soil water and nutrients. 1997) As an example.2. Soil textures are usually represented using the Soil Textural Triangle as shown in Figure 5. through mechanical analysis. What is the soil textural class? By using Figure 5. silt and clay are termed soil separates. and 13% Sand.3.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.2. For design and management decisions. 5-2 March 2009 . The crop’s rooting depth and water requirements are very important to the design and management of irrigation systems. a particular soil was found to have 35% Clay. The sand.A. which is the relative proportion of sand. 5.1 defines the size range for soil particles based upon the US Department of Agriculture system (Foth. Table 5. 5.3 SOIL-WATER-PLANT RELATIONSHIP Soil and crop characteristics determine how an irrigation system should be designed and operated. understanding how soil.3.2 Soil Textural Diagram (USDA-NRCS. These values are recommended to be used when information is not available locally. Water moving beyond this depth is unavailable to the crop. 52% Silt. only the water within the root zone is considered. silt and clay sized particles in the soil. 1990). the soil is silty clay loam. water and plants work together is important to both the design and operation of any irrigation system. 10 100 20 90 30 80 40 Sandy Clay Clay Loam 80 Sandy Clay Loam Loam Sandy Loam Silt Loam 10 Sand Silt Loamy Sand 10 0 20 90 30 Silty Clay Loam 70 40 60 Silty Clay 50 50 rce nt 60 t Sil nt Pe Clay rce Pe Cla y 70 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 Percent Sand Figure 5. The effective rooting depths of common crops are given in Appendix 5.Chapter 5 .2 Soil Textural Diagram Soil texture describes the size of soil particles. Therefore.

Some important definitions are as follows: Db = Ws Vs + Vp Dp = Ws Vs % Solid= Vs D ×100 = b ×100 Vs + Vp Dp D % Pore Space = 100 − b × 100 Dp W % Water = w × 100 Ws % Volume of Water = Vw W × 100 = w × D b × 100 Vs + Vp Ws % Volume of Water = % Volume of Water × d w 100 Air V Va W WwW Water V VwW Ws W s Solids a V Vpp W W V V Vs V s Figure 5.05 0. A schematic view of soil-water column is shown in Figure 5. Tables 5.4 and 5. g/cm3. March 2009 5-3 .3 A Soil-Water Column Where.10-0. and management of irrigation and agricultural drainage systems. Soil characteristics determine how an irrigation system should be designed and operated.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Table 5.5.65 g/cm3.002 < 0. Particle Density (Dp): The mass of oven-dry soil per unit volume of solid particles.4 provide available water holding capacity for various soil textures.05-0. Db = bulk density (gm/cm3) Dp = particle density or specific gravity (gm/cm3) = weight of oven dried soils (gm) Ws Ww = weight of soil water (gm) = volume of solids (m3) Vs = volume of pores (m3) Vp Vw = volume of water (m3) Vs + Vp = total soil volume m3) dw = depth of water (mm/m) W = depth of wet soil column (m) V = volume of soil column (m3) Bulk Density (Db): The mass of oven-dry soil per unit volume (natural state).10 0.2. g/cm3.00-0.Chapter 5 . 1990) Separate Diameter (mm) Very coarse sand Coarse sand Medium sand Fine sand Very fine sand Silt Clay 5.1 Characteristics of Soil Separates (Foth.3 and 5. The relation between field capacity.00 1.002 Soil-Water Holding Capacity Soil properties are important in design. Soil-water characteristics must be known by the irrigation consultants and decision makers in order to implement proper irrigation water management.50-0.25-0. Dp of the soil is usually taken at 2.50 0.3. 5.00-1. operation.3 2.3. permanent wilting point and total available water are illustrated in Figures 5.25 0.


Porosity (Vp): Porosity of a soil is the volume of all open spaces (pores) between the solid grains of
soil. The porosity is important as it defines the volume of water that can be held in a given volume of
the soil. The porosity is the percentage of the total soil volume not occupied by solid soil particles.

Field capacity

soil water
Available deficit

Total volume of
water in the soil


Permanent wilting point

Complete Dryness
Figure 5.4 Schematic Illustrations of the Soil Water Reservoir Concept (Lamm et al. 2007)
















Available water

Excess water


Soil-water content (inches of water per foot of soil)

Soil-water content (percent by dry weight of soil)







Water not available for plant use












Soil bulk density (gm/cc 3)


Soil Texture

Figure 5.5 Total Soil-Water Content for Various Soil Textures with Adjustment for Changes in Bulk
Density (USDA-NRCS, 1997)

March 2009


Table 5.2 Typical Results for Field Capacity, Permanent Wilting Point and Available Water for
Different Soil Types (Keller and Bliesner, 1990)
Soil Type

Total Pore
Space (%)

Moisture (% by weight)
Field Capacity
Permanent Wilting Point

Available Water
(mm/m of soil)



Clay Loam
Sandy Loam
Fine Sand










Table 5.3 Ranges in Available Water Holding Capacity (AWHC) of Different Soil Textures
(Keller and Bliesner, 1990)
Soil Texture

Very coarse texture – very coarse sand
Coarse texture – coarse sands, fine sands and loamy
Moderately coarse texture – sandy loams
Medium texture – very fine sandy loams, loams and silt
Moderately fine texture – clay loams, silty clay loams
and sandy clay loams
Fine texture – sandy clays, silty clays and clays
Peats and mucks

Water Holding Capacity
Range (mm/m) Average (mm/m)
33 - 62
62 - 104


104 - 145


125 - 192


145 - 208


133 - 208
167 - 250


Table 5.4 Available Water for Various Soil Textures (USDA, 1998)

Fraction Available


Sands, and loamy sands and Less than sandy loams in which the sand
is not dominated by very fine sand



Loamy sands and sandy loams in which very fine sand is the dominant
sand fraction, and loams, clay loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay

0.10 - 0.15


Silty clay, and clay

0.10 - 0.20


Silt, silt loam, and silty clay loam

0.15 - 0.25

Moisture Content (%): It determines the total volume of water held in a soil. The soil moisture is
reported as a percentage of the dry weight of the soil sample.
Saturation: Saturation occurs when all the voids in the soil are completely filled with water. Although
plenty of water is available to the crop at saturation, water uptake is seriously curtailed by the lack of
oxygen in the soil at soil water contents greater than the field capacity.
Field Capacity (θfc): It is the amount of water remaining in the soil when rapid drainage has ceased
and any further drainage occurs at a very slow rate. The downward water flow from gravity becomes
negligible at this level. Field capacity corresponds to a soil moisture tension of 0.1 to 0.5 bars (10 to
50 kPa).
Wilting Point (θwp): It is the soil water content at which permanent wilting of the plant leaf occurs
and applying additional water will not relieve the wilted condition. Wilting point is usually taken as
the soil moisture content corresponding to a soil moisture tension of 15 bars.
March 2009



Available Water (AW): Available water is the amount of water that a soil can store that is available
for use by plants. It is the amount of water released between field capacity and permanent wilting
point within a crop root zone depth. The available water is expressed as:


Drz θ fc − θ wp

AW =

AW =
θwp =




available water (cm)
depth of root zone (cm) [Appendix 5.A]
field capacity in percent by volume (%)
permanent wilting point in percent by volume (%).

Soil samples are taken from undisturbed soils if possible and the moisture content is determined by
drying in an oven at 105oC. The field capacity then can be determined using equation (5.2).
θ fc =

Loss in Weight
× 100
Final Dry Weight


Example 1:
Determine the amount of available water that can be held by the following layered soil profile.
Soil Texture
Sandy Loam



Depth (cm)

The total amount of available water can be computed using Eq. 5.1.
AW =

15 (14 − 6 ) 13 (22 − 10 ) 75 (27 − 13)

= 13.26 cm
The rooting depth affects the total available water holding capacity in the soil. The available water or
soil water storage can be also determined using the information given in Table 5.3 as follows:
AW = Drz x AWHC


Where, AWHC is the depth of available water per meter of the soil depth.
Example 2:
A crop will be grown in clay loam soils. The average root zone depth of the crop is 1.5 m. Determine
the available water in the field?
Using Table 5.3, the available water holding capacity (AWHC) is 183 mm/m
So, AW = 1.5 x 183 = 275 mm
Field Estimation of Available Water: The available water range is the moisture between field capacity
and permanent wilting point expressed as a percent of the dry weight of the soil. It must be
converted into mm of water for irrigation depth calculation. The total mass (Ww) is made up of the
oven dry soil and the water it contains. Consider a wet soil column of unit cross-sectional area.
Ww = (D × A ) + (d × I w )

March 2009


Ww = total soil mass (gm)
= the depth of soil (m)
= the dry density of the soil mass (gm/cc)
= the equivalent depth of water held in the soil (m)
= the density of water (1 gm/cc)
Moisture content (M)


Weight of water
Weight of oven - dried soil

× 100

× 100


If d is required in mm per mm of soil then,

d = 10 M × D × A



Crop water use is determined by the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), which is the amount of water a
crop uses during a period. The determination of irrigation water demands and irrigation schedules
requires an accurate estimate of the crop water use rate. The major climatic factors that influence
the crop water needs are: sunshine, temperature, humidity and wind speed. Crop water use (ETc) is
computed using the reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and a crop coefficient (Kc).

ETc = K c x ETo

= Crop evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), mm/day.
= Crop coefficient (Appendix 5.B).
= Reference or potential crop evapotranspiration, mm/day.
Crop Coefficient (Kc)


When using the coefficients, it is important to know, how these were obtained. Appropriate crop
coefficient values are provided (Doorenbos and Pruitt, 1977) to estimate the ET for specific crops
which are given in Appendix 5.B. The following is an empirical relation between ETc and ETo:
Kc =

ET c
ET o


Mathematical Models for Estimating ETo

Many investigators have developed the equations that are already established. The Penman-Monteith
formula is considered the most precise which is recommended by the FAO and the USDA–Soil
Conservation Service (Allen et al. 1998). Nevertheless the Penman, Class A Pan Evaporation, BlaneyCriddle and Hargreaves-Samani equations, can also be used. More reliable results can be obtained
with local calibration for the given method.

Penman-Monteith Method

The FAO Penman-Monteith method for prediction of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo) is the
sole standard method (Allen et al. 1998). The FAO Penman-Monteith method requires radiation, air
temperature, air humidity and wind speed data. The Penman-Monteith equation is given as follows:

ETo =

March 2009

u2 (e s − ea )
T + 273
Δ + γ (1 + 0.34u2 )

0.408Δ (R n − G ) + γ





= reference crop evapotranspiration (mm day-1)
= net radiation at the crop surface (MJ m-2 day-1)
= soil heat flux density (MJ m-2day-1)
= air temperature at 2 m height (oC)

e s – ea

= wind speed at 2 m height (m sec-1)
= saturation vapour pressure deficit (kPa)
= slope of saturation vapour pressure curve (k Pa oC-1)
= psychometric constant (k Pa oC-1)
= conversion factor.

Blaney-Criddle Method

Jensen, et al. (1990) found that the Blaney-Criddle method modified by Doorenbos and Pruitt (1997)
was the most accurate temperature-based method evaluated for estimating crop ETo. They
recommended individual calculation for each month. This method is not very accurate and it provides
a rough estimate. This technique is commonly referred to as the FAO-Blaney-Criddle method. The
equation is given as follows:
ETo = C × P × (0.46 × T + 8)
ETo =


Potential evapotranspiration (mm/day)
Monthly average temperature (°C)
Percentage daily sunshine (%)
Correction factor (0 to 0.40) which depends on the local climatic condition.
Pan Evaporation Method

Class A Standard Pan is widely used to estimate reference crop water evapotranspiration. The
reference crop ET is determined as:
ETo = kp × Epan


= pan coefficient (Typical values are given in Appendix 5.C)
Epan = evaporation from the pan (mm/day)

Calibration of ETo for Local Conditions

Local calibration is always necessary to obtain reliable and good estimates of the crop water
demands. The Penman-Monteith equation can provide accurate estimations from a month to an hour
depending on the calibration method. For short periods, lysimeters can provide the necessary data
for the crop evapotranspiration (ETc).


Water supply for irrigation in Malaysia is obtained from surface (river, reservoir, and lakes),
groundwater and other sources. Issues with respect to water supply and irrigation include both
quality and quantity. Good quality irrigation water is required to ensure food safety and must be in
sufficient quantity to meet the crop’s need. Irrigation with poor quality of water not only can harm
crops but may also harm the environment. Salts, heavy metals and pathogens make their way into
the soil and may be taken up by crops or may build up in the soil to unacceptable levels. Irrigation
system uniformity also can be affected by poor quality of water. Poor uniformity can lead to higher
application rates resulting in runoff in microirrigation and sprinkler irrigation systems. Water quality
classification based on electrical conductivity and salt concentration for irrigation greater than 0.7–2
dS/m and 500–1500 mg/L respectively (Table 5.5).


March 2009


Table 5.5 Classification of Saline Water (Ayers and Westcot, 1994)
Water class

conductivity (dS/m)

Salt concentration

Type of water


< 0.7

< 500

Drinking and irrigation water

Slightly saline

0.7 - 2


Irrigation water


2 - 10


Primary drainage water and

Highly saline

10 - 25


Secondary drainage water and

Very highly

25 - 45


Very saline groundwater

> 45

> 45,000



The FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No.29 on “Water Quality for Agriculture” provide detailed
guidance to farm and project managers, consultants and engineers in evaluating and identifying
potential problems related to water quality. The total salt content gives a reasonably correct idea of
irrigation water qualities. Water quality guidelines given by Schofiled (1935) and Christiansen are
presented in Appendix 5.D.

Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)

The suitability of water for irrigation depends on the total amount and type of salts in the water, the
crops grown, soil properties, irrigation management, cultural practices and climatic factors. The
relative amount of various cations in the saturated-soil extract is used to characterize the soil water
(Appendix 5.E). Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), the most often used term, is defined as:



Ca + Mg

Where, Na, Ca, and Mg are concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium (mg/l)
Example 3:
Determine SAR

from the water analysis report given below.
2.32 me/l
1.44 me/l
7.73 me/l

Using Eq. 5.12, SAR can be determined as follows:


2.32 + 1.44

= 5.64

Leaching Fraction (LF)

Leaching is accomplished by applying sufficient water so that a portion percolates through and below
the entire root zone carrying with it a portion of the accumulated salts. The fraction of applied water
that passes through the entire rooting depth and percolates below is called the leaching fraction.

March 2009



Leaching Fraction (LF ) =

Depth of water leached below the root zone
Depth of water applied at the surface


If the water salinity (ECw) and the leaching fraction (LF) are known or can be estimated, the salinity
of the drainage water that percolates below the root zone can be estimated. The salinity of the
drainage water can be estimated from the equation:
LF =

EC w
EC dw


= salinity of the drainage water percolating below the root zone (equals to salinity of soilECdw
water, ECsw)
= salinity of the applied irrigation water
= leaching fraction
Example 4:
A crop is irrigated using water with an electrical conductivity (ECw) of 1.2 dS/m. The salinity of the
soil-water that is percolating from the bottom of the root zone (ECdw) is approximately 6.7 dS/m.
Determine leaching fraction?
ECw = 1.2 dS/m
ECdw = 6.7 dS/m
Using Eq. 5.14, the leaching fraction is:

LF =

EC w
EC dw



= 0.18

Leaching Requirements (LR) for Salinity Control

Both the irrigation water salinity (ECw) and the crop tolerance to soil salinity (ECe) must be known to
estimate the leaching requirement. ECe ranges for optimum crop growth of some common crops are
given in Appendix 5.F. For more exact estimates for a particular crop, the leaching requirement
equation (5.15) (Rhoades 1974 and Rhoades and Merrill 1976) should be used.
LR =

EC w
5 × EC e − EC w


LR =

EC w
2(maxEC e )


= the minimum leaching requirement needed to control salts within the tolerance (ECe) of the
crop with ordinary surface methods of irrigation
ECw = salinity of the applied irrigation water (dS/m) [Appendix 5.F]
ECe = average soil salinity tolerated by the crop as measured on a soil saturation extract
(Appendix 5.F). It is recommended that the ECe value that can be expected to result in at
least a 90 percent or greater yield be used in the calculation (Ayers and Westcot, 1994).

Seasonal Leaching Requirements

The total annual depth of water that needs to be applied to meet both the crop demand and
leaching requirement can be estimated using the Equation (5.16).
AW =


1 − LR


March 2009


AW = depth of applied water (mm/year)
AETc = total annual crop water demand (mm/year)
= leaching requirement expressed as a fraction
Example 5:
A maize crop is irrigated by furrow irrigation. The crop is planted in uniform loamy soil and river
water that has an ECw = 1.2 dS/m, is used for irrigation. The crop evapotranspiration (ET) is 800
mm/season. The irrigation application efficiency is 0.65. How much additional water must be applied
for leaching?
ECw = 1.2 dS/m
ECe = 2.5 dS/m (from Appendix 5.F for maize at a 90 percent yield potential)
ECe = 1.7 dS/m (from Appendix 5.F for maize at a 100 percent yield potential)
The total amount of water that must be applied to meet crop ET demand is 800 mm/0.65 = 1230
LR is computed using Eq. 5.15,
LR =

= 0.10 for 90% yield potential
5 × 2.5 1.2

LR =

= 0.16 for 100% yield potential
5 ×1.7 1.2


The actual amount of water to be applied to supply both crop ET and leaching can be found by using
equation (5.16).
AW =


= 890 mm/season for 90% yield potential and 952 mm/season for 100%.
1 − 0.10


Irrigation water requirements is defined as the quantity, or depth, of irrigation water in addition to
rainfall required to produce the desired crop yield and quality and to maintain an acceptable salt
balance in the root zone. The water balance components affecting the efficient use of the water for
irrigation is illustrated in Figure 5.6. The engineers and designers must care to solve these problems
through proper planning and design of the system.

Values in
of water
Taken from



Delivered to

Conveyance and
regulation waste

on land

by soil

1.6 Used by crops


Figure 5.6 Factors Influencing Irrigation Water-Use Efficiency (Schwab et al. 1966)
March 2009



A flowchart shown in Figure 5.7 describes the calculation of irrigation water requirements. Two well
recognized terms to determine the crop water demands are: (1) Net Crop Water Demand and (2)
Gross Crop Water Demand.

Irrigation Efficiency

Irrigation efficiency is the percentage of water delivered to the field that is used beneficially. It is
used as an index to quantify the beneficial use of water diverted for irrigation purposes to a farm,
field, or system. Irrigation efficiency can be divided into two components: water losses and
uniformity of application. Overall irrigation efficiency (IE) is defined as:
IE = Ec x Ed x Ea


= conveyance efficiency (decimal)
= distribution efficiency (decimal)
= application efficiency (decimal)
Three efficiency indicators are considered to give the overall scheme efficiency;

Conveyance efficiency (Ec), for lined canal this is assumed at 0.9, but for unlined could be
down to 0.7 (Halcrow et al. 1992).
If the distribution efficiency (Ed) is low, say less than 80%, then remedial measures should
be taken.
Field application efficiency (Ea) for well-run scheme could be as high as 80 percent.

The irrigation efficiency (IE) of a scheme with unlined canals, 80% distribution and application
efficiencies is calculated as follows:
IE = Ec x Ed x Ea
= 0.7 x 0.8 x 0.8
= 0.448
= 44.80%
≈ 45%

Conveyance Efficiency (Ec)

Water conveyance efficiency is the ratio of the volume of water delivered for irrigation to the volume
of water placed in the conveyance system. It can be defined as:
Ec =

Discharge reaching fields
× 100
Discharge released at system head


Distribution Efficiency (Ed)

It is a measure of the management losses incurred through spillage, wastage, incorrect allowance for
response time and travel time, and incorrect gate operation in the canal system. Distribution
efficiency over a period of time can be defined as:
Ed =

Flow volume reaching field
× 100
(Volume released at system head - Conveyance loss)


Application Efficiency (Ea)

Application efficiency is a measure of the water wasted in the field, being the amount of the
irrigation demand divided by the amount of water needed to satisfy the demand across the whole
field. It is defined as:


March 2009


Ea =

Volume of crop irrigation demand
× 100
Volume used to satisfy demand


Water application efficiency is very important both in system selection and design and in irrigation
management. Attainable water application efficiencies vary greatly with irrigation system type and
management. The ranges give some ideas of the efficiencies that may be achieved with reasonable
design management as shown in Table 5.6.
Determine ine Crop Growing Periods and
Time Interval of the Water Balance

Choose Method pf Determining
Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo)

Determine Crop Coefficient (Kc)

Determine Crop Evapotranspiration

Eatimate Effective Rainfall (ER)

Estimate Influent Contribution

Estimate Seepage Percolation

Calculate Net Irrigation
Requirement (NIR)

Determine Irrigation
Efficiency (IE)

Estimate Leaching
Requirements if Needed
Estimate Auxiliary Water

Calculate Gross Irrigation
Requirements or Demand


IS the Time
Interval Ended


Figure 5.7 Procedures for Irrigation Water Requirements Calculation
March 2009



Table 5.6 Water Application Efficiencies, Ea (Solomon, 1988)
Irrigation Systems
Surface Irrigation
Sprinkler Irrigation
Hand Move or Portable
Traveling Gun
Center Pivot & Linear Move
Solid Set or Permanent
Trickle Irrigation
With Point Source Emitters
With Line Source Products

Attainable Efficiencies (%)
80 - 90
70 - 85
60 - 75



75 - 90
70 - 85

Net Irrigation Requirement (NIR)

Upland Crops

For upland crops, the net amount of water to be replaced for each irrigation cycle is the amount the
soil can hold between field capacity and the moisture level selected when irrigation is needed
(Moisture Allowable Deficit or MAD).
The net irrigation water requirement for upland crops is defined as:


Where, MAD is the maximum allowable deficiency or depletion. MAD for most crops is about 0.65.
MAD is used to estimate the amount of water that can be used without adversely affecting the plant.
On the other hand, MAD is the amount of water that can be removed from the soil before the plant
is stressed. MAD is defined as:



The volume per unit surface area of soil water contents above θ c is called Readily Available Water
(RAW), which can be computed by the following Equation:


D rz (θ fc − θ c )


Where, θ c is the water content in percent by volume basis. Figure 5.8 shows the variation of a
typical plant’s actual evapotranspiration rate with soil water content and defines critical soil water
content. A higher crop yield and/or quality should be expected with moisture contents between
θ c and θ f c .
For example, if the total soil AW in the root zone is 20 cm and MAD = 45% then
Net irrigation = 20 x 0.45 = 9 cm
The irrigation requirement of upland crops also can be determined using Eq. 5.24.
NIR = D rz (θ fc − θ c ) + ET + LR − ER



March 2009


= crop evapotranspiration (mm/day)
= leaching requirements
= effective rainfall (mm/day)

TAW: Total Available Water
RAW: Readily Available Water
MAD: Maximum Allowable Depletion
UWP: Ultimate Wilting Point
PWP: Permanent Wilting Point
Өc: Moisture Content
FC: Field Capacity
Sat: Saturation Level




ET or






Figure 5.8 Variation of Actual Evapotranspiration Rate with Soil Water Content for Upland Crops

Low Land Paddy

For paddy, the irrigation water requirement can be calculated using the following formula:
IRt = ETc + SAT + SP + SWD – ER


= irrigation water requirement (mm)
ETc = crop evapotranspiration (mm/day)
SAT = presaturation water requirement (mm)
= seepage and percolation losses (mm/day)
SWD = maintained standing water depth in the field (mm)
= effective rainfall (mm/day)
= daily or weekly interval

Gross Irrigation Requirement (GIR)

It is the actual amount of water supplied to meet crop evapotranspiration and/or percolation and
seepage observed under field conditions.



GIR = gross irrigation requirements (mm)
= irrigation water requirements (mm)
= irrigation efficiency (%)
Example 6:
Seven cm of water is to be supplied to the paddy field for a particular week. The overall irrigation
efficiency is 45%. Determine the gross irrigation requirement.

March 2009


= 15.55 cm.




Water Demands for Rice

Water requirement for rice crop varies with the method of land preparation, method of crop
establishment and duration of the rice crop. It also varies with the soil, environmental conditions and
the management of the subsequent rice crop. Cropping management for direct seeded and
transplanting rice fields is shown in Appendix 5.G.

Wet Direct Seeding

The paddy fields are pre-saturated usually for 2 weeks until the standing water depth becomes 7080 mm. Then, water supply is stopped. After 3-4 days, farm lots are drained completely within 24
hours. Pre-germinated seeds are then broadcasted. After broadcasting, irrigation supply is continued
until water depth reaches 100 mm within 3 weeks. The normal irrigation water supply is then started
and continued for 80-90 days. Wet direct seeding method has an advantage in controlling weeds but
it needs much more water than the dry direct seeding method. Mid season drainage from 4th to 7th
week is normally practiced to allow maximum tillering by maintaining standing water depth at about
5 cm

Dry Direct Seeding

After land preparation, seeds are broadcasted on the dry paddy lots and irrigation is supplied
gradually to match the growth of rice plants. The start of water supply for presaturation depends on
the condition of seed germination. Irrigation supply is continued and gradually increased until water
depth reaches 100 mm within 3 weeks. The water depth is normally kept at 100 mm during the
normal irrigation period.

Transplanting Method

In this method, rice is grown in a nursery first and transplanted into well-puddled and prepared field.
A spacing of 15 to 20 cm by 15 to 20 cm is recommended. Transplanting is done at random and
straight row methods when seedlings are ready (Figure 5.9).

(a) Direct Seeding Method Using Blower (MUDA Irrigation Scheme)

(b) Transplanting Method Using a Transplanter (MUDA Irrigation Scheme)
Figure 5.9 Rice Planting Methods

March 2009


Water Losses and Auxiliary Water Demand

In paddy fields, water is lost through evaporation (E) from free water surface, transpiration (T) from
the crop, seepage and percolation from the soil, bund leakages and runoff from the field. Seepage
and percolation vary with the local condition. The main determinants of water requirement (WR) are:
• Evapotranspiration (ET) rate
• Seepage and Percolation (SP) rates
• Desired ponding water depth to be maintained in the fields during rice growing period

Recommended Water Depth for Rice Production

Water requirement for a successful rice crop production varies with the method of land preparation,
method of crop establishment and duration of the rice crop. It also varies with the soil,
environmental conditions and the management of the subsequent rice crop. Figure 5.10 shows the
water requirements during crop growing periods. Maintaining a standing water depth right from the
inception of crop establishment is an effective method to reduce weed growth in paddy fields.

100 mm

100 mm

20-50 mm

200 mm





59 66 73



110 (Days)


Figure 5.10 Water Requirements for Paddy at Different Growth Stages (Ayers and Westcot, 1994)
Typical values of water outflows from a paddy field are given in Table 5.7. For crop growth duration
of 100 days (high-yielding varieties), the total water requirements vary from 675 to 4,450 mm.
Table 5.7 Daily and Seasonal Water Use in Rice Production in the Tropics (Ayers and Westcot, 1994)

Daily (mm/day)

Seasonal (mm)



Wet season



Dry season







Land preparation

Seepage and percolation
Heavy clays
Loamy/sandy soils

Traditionally, rice is transplanted and grown under continuously flooded conditions. About 5 to 10 cm
or more standing water depth is maintained throughout the growing season. Recent studies by
March 2009



Hassan (2005) to investigate rice evapotranspiration using lysimeters in the Tanjung Karang paddy
fields show that the mean ET ranged from 5 to 5.3 mm/day for the first stage of growth. For the
mid-stage the mean ET ranged from 5.2 to 5.6 mm/day, and for the last stage the mean ET ranged
from 4.6 to 5.2 mm/day.

Irrigation Duties

The irrigation duties for presaturation and supplementary supply should be used depending on the
variability among schemes. In Malaysia, the total water requirement for rice production is about
1200 – 1500 mm. Conversion factors for irrigation duties are shown in Table 5.8.
Table 5.8 Conversion Factors for Irrigation Depth



L/s/ ha

1 mm/day




1 m /ha/day




1 L/s/ ha





Determination of Irrigation Requirements

(i) Presaturation Irrigation Requirements
The first operation in paddy irrigation is the pre-saturation process of the field. Irrigation water is
required for filling all the voids in the soil profile up to the watertable, or in some cases up to a depth
of 50 cm, beyond which additional water is considered to be deep percolation loss. In a double
cropping paddy scheme, the fallow period between seasons is short and watertable may still be close
to the surface when the next irrigation is due. Furthermore, the watertable may not be at the same
depth with respect to distance of the field from the main canal. A more inefficient rice system, where
water is deeper in top end fields, means less water moving downstream, whereas below, a more
efficient system, perhaps using a higher density of canals, means a faster areal growth (Figure 5.11).

(a) Without Insufficient Canal Density

Canal Network

(b) With Sufficient Canal Density

Figure 5.11 A Schematic of Watertable Depth Variation in a Irrigation Block with Respect to the
Irrigation Canal Networks
The pre-saturation water depth to saturate the soil and standing water depth needed for puddling
the soil by rotavation of the paddy field can be determined by the following equation:
H = (D s × D v ) + D w




required pre-saturation water depth (mm)
depth of soil up to watertable or 50 cm (mm)
depth of pores in the soil profile (mm), to saturate, up to 50 % of soil depth
standing water depth (mm), minimum of 50 mm

Therefore, the discharge rate required for pre-saturation is determined as follows:
Q ls =


S ×H


March 2009


= discharge rate (m3/s)

= area to be supplied with irrigation water in one day (m2)


= water depth required for presaturation and puddling (m)

86,400 is the number of seconds in a day
If pre-saturation is to be completed longer than one day, then the discharge rate is reduced
Example 7:
Determine the discharge rate for pre-saturation of 10 ha paddy field with clay loam soil to be
completed in one day, and watertable is at 50 cm.
From Table 5.2, porosity for clay loam soil is 50%. Pre-saturation is required up to 50 cm depth.
Assuming 10% is already available,
Ds = 50 cm, Dv = (50 – 10)/100 = 0.40 and Dw = 50 mm
Using Eq. 5.27,
H = [500 X (0.50-0.10)] + 50
= 250 mm = 0.25 m
Q ls =

S ×H
= 10 X104 X 0.25/86,400

= 0.289 m3/s or 289 l/s for 10 ha in one day.
From the second day onwards, there will be water loss due to deep percolation, evaporation and also
seepage to neighbouring lots. Typical local values for evaporation are 4.5-6 mm/day; deep
percolation loss for clay soils may be 1-3 mm/day.

Thavaraj Method

This method is widely used to determine the presaturation requirement in Malaysia. The detailed of
this method is elaborated in DID Information Paper No 2. The calculation procedure is given in
Appendix 5.H. Presaturation requirement is estimated using this formula as follows:

L − Eu
+ Eu
1 − e −z







T( L − Eu )

irrigation requirement per unit area (mm/day/ha)
total lost from saturated soil (sum of evaporation and percolation)
evaporation loss from the unsaturated soil surface (mm/day)
presaturation period (days)
total field water depth which is sum of the water depth required for saturating the soil and
standing water depth (mm/day)
= 2.718 is the base of natural logarithm

March 2009



Irrigation requirements during the presaturation period depend on the following factors:


Water required for saturating the soil
Evaporation from unsaturated soil surface
Evaporation while standing water depth is established
Infiltration and deep percolation
Standing water depth established in the field to facilitate ploughing, puddling and
Normal Irrigation Requirements

The supplementary irrigation would be required to meet the evapotranspiration and field losses for
this period.

SW =

SW + EP * k p * K c + SP - ER


normal irrigation duty during the crop growth stages (mm/day)
irrigation supply to maintain desired standing water depth (mm/day)
pan evaporation (mm/day)
seepage-percolation (mm/day)
effective rainfall (mm/day)
pan coefficient US Weather Service Class-A Pan
crop coefficient for rice
irrigation efficiency

Effective Rainfall (ERF)

Crop water demand is fully or partly met by rainfall. Rainfall for each period varies from year to year.
The monthly effective rainfall (ERF) is computed based on the 5 years low rainfall with 80%
probability of exceedance R5. One in 5-year dry dependable rainfall is recommended for designing
irrigation system. Effective rainfall can be estimated by the following equations:
For R5 < 200 mm

ERF = 0.6R5


For R5 > 200 mm

ERF = 0.3 (R5 + 200)


The effective rainfall (ER) can also be calculated using the following formulae (Brouwer et al. 1992):
ER = 0.8 RF -25

if RF ≤ 75 mm/month


ER = 0.60 RF -10

if RF > 75 mm/month


= monthly rainfall (mm)
= expected monthly 1 in 5 years dry dependable rainfall (mm)
= monthly effective rainfall (mm)

Application of Water Balance Equation

A quantitative estimation of the important components of field water balance is essential to
determine the irrigation scheduling and characterize the irrigation delivery performance for rice
irrigation system. The various water balance components are shown in Figure 5.12.
The inflow to the field consists of the total water supplied through rainfall and irrigation, and the
outflow consists of water leaving the field through evapotranspiration, seepage and percolation, and
drainage and/or surface runoff. Analysis of water balance can give management decisions on how


March 2009


the scheme ought to be operated to ensure better distribution of irrigation water to the service
areas. The generalized water balance equation for the paddy field can be expressed as follows:
Rainfall (RFj)

SWj = Standing Water Depth
ERj = Effective Rainfall
Evapotranspiration (ETj)

Irrigation (IRj)
Drainage (DRj) & Runoff (ROj)



Seepage-Percolation (SPj)
Hard pan
Water table

Figure 5.12 Water Balance Components in a Paddy Field (Bouman and Toung, 2001)
SWj = SWj-1 + IRj + ERj – ETj – SPj - DRj


= ponding water depth in the field during j-th day or week (mm)
= ponding water depth in the field during (j-1)-th day or week (mm)
= amount of irrigation water supplied during j-th day or week (mm)
= effective rainfall received during j-th day or week (mm)
= crop evapotranspiration during j-th day or week (mm)
= water lost through seepage and deep percolation loss during j-th day or week (mm)
= drainage requirement (mm)
= irrigation period in (day or week).

Gross Irrigation Water Demand (GIR)

The net water use in paddy fields consists of Evapotranspiration (transpiration of water by the plants
plus direct evaporation from the water surface, ETc), and Seepage and Percolation (SP) from the
paddy field. Gross crop water requirement for a particular period is expressed as below:
GIR j =

(SWmax - SW j ) + ETc j + SP j − ER j


SWmax = desired or maximum standing water depth during the period (mm)
= evapotranspiration from the paddy field during the period (mm)
= average seepage and percolation loss from the paddy field during the period (mm)
= effective rainfall during the period (mm)
= irrigation system efficiency expressed as a decimal.
Eq. 5.36 can be modified for the daily presaturation irrigation supply as follows:
Q prs =

March 2009

[ 0.001 t × (SAT − ER ) ] × A
8.64 t × IE




Normal irrigation supply during 2nd day until end of pre-saturation period (2nd to 15th days):
15 days

Qprs =

[ [0.001 t × (NIS - ER )] ] × (N − 1)A


8.64 t × IE


Where, N is the completed presaturation periods in days. The presaturation period may vary. It is
entirely dependent on the management strategy by the scheme authority. In Malaysia, presaturation
period will not exceed one month.
For normal irrigation supply after the presaturation period, the amount of water to be supplied can
be determined by the following equation.
end of season

Q rs =

[0.001 t × (NIS - ER )] A


8.64 t × IE

N = 16

The rice plants grow best in standing water. The required irrigation supply for a particular irrigation
period can be determined using the following relationship:
end of season

Q rs =




0.001 SWmax - SW j + t × ET j + SP j − ER j

)] × A

8.64 t × IE

N =16


= recommended irrigation supply for a tertiary canal (m3/s)
= targeted irrigation service area (ha)
= duration of water management period (day)
= irrigation efficiency.
86.4 = the factor for conversion of depth (mm) of water over the area during the period to units of
discharge measured in m3/s.
Table 5.9 shows Kc values for different growth stages of rice. Due to climatic variations of Malaysia,
the design rice evapotranspiration value, which from 5-7 mm/day is considered. This can be
estimated using a suitable technique described in Section 5.4.
Table 5.9 Crop Coefficients (Kc) at Different Growth Stages of Crop
Growth Stage




1.10 - 1.15

1.10 - 1.50



1.10 - 1.30 0.95 - 1.05


Growth Period

0.95 - 1.05

1.05 - 1.02

Water Demands for Non-paddy Crops under Microirrigation

Evapotranspiration data can be used to schedule microirrigation systems using a plant water
requirement or water budget method. In both cases, the methodology is to balance the amount of
water applied with the amount taken out through evaporation and transpiration.

Water Demands for Tree Crops

Parameters that must be considered to determine the plant water requirement are shown in Figure
5.13. The typical illustration for tree crops is shown in Figure 5.13. They must be taken into
consideration. Plant water requirement for a microirrigation system design is expressed as follows:
LPD = ETo × S × A × K c


LPD = plant water requirements litres/plant/day (LPD)

March 2009



peak evapotranspiration for location (mm/day)
effective soil water storage factor (decimal) [Table 5.10]
plant area (m2)
crop coefficient factor [Appendix 5.B].
Peak evapotranspiration rate

Crop coefficient




Plant area

Effective soil water
storage factor

Figure 5.13 Factors Affecting Plant Water Requirements
Effective soil water storage capacity (ESWS) is expressed as:
ESWS = Wa × D rz × MAD


= available water holding capacity of the soil (mm/m) [From Table 5.3]
= plant root zone depth (m) [From Appendix 5.A]
MAD = management allowed deficit (%) [From Table 5.10]

(a) Banana

(b) Papaya

Figure 5.14 Typical Point Source Microirrigation System

March 2009



After computing ESWS, the water storage factor (S) can be interpolated using the peak
evapotranspiration rate (mm/day) and effective soil storage factor (S) as shown in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10 Effective Soil Water Storage Factor (S) (Gulik, 1999)
Effective Soil Water Storage
Capacity (mm)

Peak Evapotranspiration Rate
6.35 - 7.62 or More
5.08 - 6.35
≤ 5.08


6.35 - 7.62 or More
5.08 - 6.35
≤ 5.08



6.35 - 7.62 or More
5.08 - 6.35
≤ 5.08


S Factor

Net Irrigation Depth (dx)

The maximum net depth per irrigation is the depth of water applied to replace the soil moisture
deficit at the Management Allowed Deficit (MAD), which is computed by:
dx =

× AWHC × D rz
100 100


= maximum net depth of water to be applied per irrigation (mm)
= management allowed deficit (%) [From Table 5.11]
= the percentage wetted area (%)
= available water holding capacity of the soil (mm/m) [From Table 5.3]
= plant root zone depth (m) [From Appendix 5.A]

Table 5.11 Management Allowed Deficit (MAD) Values for Various Crops (Adapted from James, 1988)
MAD (%)

Crop Type


Shallow rotted, high value fruit crops and vegetables


Orchards, vineyards, star fruit, berries and medium rotted row crops


Forage crops, grain crops and deep rooted row crops


Deep rooted trees, Maize, pastures

Daily Consumptive Use (Td)

The transpiration rate is a function of the conventionally computed consumptive use rate and the
extent of the plant canopy (Shraples et al. 1985). A simple equation for estimating the average peak
daily consumptive use rate is:
Td = Ud ⎛⎜ 0.1 Pd0.5 ⎞⎟


= average daily transpiration rate during the peak-use month (mm/day)
= estimated average daily consumptive use rate during the peak-use month (mm/day)
= percentage of soil surface area shaded by crop canopies at midday (%). The Td values
range from 0.1 Ud ≥ Td ≤ 100%.


March 2009


The net depth to be applied per irrigation to meet consumptive use requirements is computed as:
d n = Td × f x
fx =





= net depth to be applied per irrigation to meet consumptive use requirements (mm)
= irrigation interval (usually 1 day)
= average daily evapotranspiration during peak-use period (mm)

Seasonal Net and Gross Irrigation Depth and Volume

Net Seasonal Irrigation Depth (Dn)

The net seasonal irrigation depth is an important design parameter for estimating annual irrigation
requirements to meet seasonal transpiration requirements. Dn is computed by:


D n = (U − R n − M s ) 0.1(Pd )0.5




net season irrigation depth (mm)
seasonal consumptive use (mm)
effective rain during the growing season (mm)
residual stored soil moisture from off-season precipitation (mm)

Seasonal Irrigation Efficiency (Es)

The seasonal irrigation efficiency (Es) is basically a function of application uniformity but it depends
on minor losses, unavoidable losses and avoidable losses due to poor scheduling. Es is the
percentage of the gross water applied that is beneficially utilized to meet crop consumptive use and
leaching requirements. When seasonal unavoidable deep percolation is less than or equal to the
leaching requirement i.e., TR ≤ 1.0/(1.0 – LR), then:
Es = EU


= emission uniformity (%)
When seasonal unavoidable deep percolation is greater than the leaching requirement i.e., TR >
1.0/(1.0 – LR), the seasonal irrigation efficiency is computed as follows:
Es ≈

TR (1.0 − LR )


= seasonal irrigation efficiency (%)
= seasonal transmission ratio (5.13)
The peak use period transmission ratio (TR) is the depth of irrigation water transmitted to exactly
satisfy Td divided by the depth of water actually transpired, Td.

Gross Water Depths (dg)

March 2009



The gross depth is the sufficient amount of water per irrigation to allow unavoidable deep
percolation that satisfies leaching requirements. To minimize avoidable losses, systems should be
well designed, accurately scheduled and maintained. The gross depth per irrigation is computed as:
dg =

d n Tr
× 100


when, LR > 0.1 or TR < 0.9/(1.0 – LR):
dg =

100 Td
EU(1.0 − LR )


= gross depth of water application per irrigation (mm)
= peak use period transmission ratio (Table 5.12)
= emission uniformity (%)
= leaching requirement
Table 5.12 Peak Period Transmission Ratios (TR) [Keller and Bliesner, 1990]

Crop Root Depth
Shallow (< 0.8 m)
Medium (0.8 to 1.5 m)
Deep (> 1.5 m)

Very Coarse

Soil Texture


Note: TR values are given for drip emitters. For spray emitters add 0.05.
Table 5.13 Seasonal Transmission Ratios (TR) [Keller and Bliesner, 1990]
Crop Root Depth

Soil Texture
Very Coarse








Shallow (< 0.8 m)
Medium (0.8 to 1.5 m)





Deep (> 1.5 m)





Note: TR values are given for drip emitters. For spray emitters add 0.05.
Gross seasonal depth (Dg) of irrigation water required is:
Dg =

100 D n
E s (1.0 − LR )


= gross depth of water application per irrigation (mm)

= net season irrigation depth (mm)
= seasonal use period transmission ratio
= emission uniformity (%)
= leaching requirement
= seasonal irrigation efficiency (%)

For the condition TRS > 1.0/(1.0 – LR),
Dg =


× 100


March 2009

WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION For the condition TRS ≤ 1.6.Chapter 5 .55) fx gross volume of water (L/day) plant spacing in the row (m) row spacing (m) gross water depth (mm) irrigation interval (day) conversion unit 1.0/(1.54) Gross Water Volumes (Vg) The gross volume of water required per plant per day is a useful design parameter for selecting emitter discharge rates: Vg = K Where. the total water requirement can be determined. (a) Cabbage field (b) Lettuce field Figure 5. such as vegetables. Figure 5. If the plants or rows are spaced far apart so that portions of the field are not irrigated.0 − LR ) (5.56) K seasonal volume of water (m3/s) area (ha) gross seasonal depth (m) conversion factor (1000) 5. Equations in Section 5.0 for metric units Vs = Where.15 shows row crops under microirrigation.4 can be used to calculate irrigation requirements for closely spaced row crops.3 and 5. the water requirement per row is first determined. strawberries or any crop that is spaced close enough together so that the system is irrigating the entire field.5.0 – LRt). = Vg = Sp Sr = = dg = fx K = (5. the area of each row can be considered.5. Dg = (iv) Dn × 100 EU(1.5 Water Demands for Row Crops The water budget method can be used for row crops. = Vs A = = Dg K = S p S r dg Dg A (5.6.15 Typical Row Crops under Microirrigation Systems March 2009 5-27 . For more precise estimation of water requirements. For row crops.5. then the plant water requirement method will be a better approach. Then.6.

Solution: Using Eqs. IRRI Drz θfc θpwp ETc LR ER IE 5.58: DDIR = RAW = IRRI fx fx (5. The soil is 120 cm deep loam.6 mm Using Eqs. EP = 200 mm for the peak month.26 cm 100 = AD0.4).3 and 5.6.7 (5.5.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5. DDIR = design daily irrigation requirement (mm) RAW = readily available water (mm) = irrigation interval (day) fx Soil Water Conservation Service (SCS) USDA has developed an equation for estimating DDIR values from peak monthly evapotranspiration for various values of AD.5.65 x 120(31 14 ) = 13.57) = irrigation requirement per application (mm) = effective root zone depth (mm) = field capacity in percent by volume (%) = permanent wilting point at a particular time in percent by volume (%) = crop evapotranspiration (mm) = leaching requirement (mm) = effective rainfall (mm) = overall irrigation efficiency (80 . Irrigation will be accomplished by allowing 65% of the available water to be depleted between irrigations.6.7 and 5.59) Where. Determine DDIR? Consider θfc = 31% and θwp = 14%. 5. 5-28 March 2009 .6 Irrigation Requirements per Application (IRRI) The irrigation requirement of a crop is the total amount of water that must be supplied by irrigation to crop achieving full production potential under the given growing environment (James.09 (5.90 %) Design Daily Irrigation Requirement (DDIR) The design daily irrigation requirement (DDIR) is usually the rate at which an irrigation system must supply water to achieve the desired level of irrigation (Sections 5. AD = MAD x AW = MAD x ( D rz θ fc 100 θ wp ) = 0. DDIR is determined using Eq.5. ETm = average total evapotranspiration for the peak month (mm) AD = soil water depletion allowed between irrigation (mm) (usually RAW) Example 8: A farmer plans to irrigate sweet corn (maize).58) Where. This equation is: DDIR = 0. climate and soils of the farm. 5.034 ETm1. and Pan Evaporation.22 and 5.Chapter 5 . The DDIR for an irrigation system varies with crops.11. 5. ( ) ⎛ D rz θ fc − θ pwp + ETc + LR − ER ⎞ ⎟ IRRI = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ IE ⎝ ⎠ Where. 1988).5.

5. SIRj.62 n (SI∀f )k = K ∑(SIR j.62) j=1 Where.80 from Appendix 5C.k )× A j (5.8 226 1.k IE (ETs ) j.59. n ∑ (A )(DDIR ) i DDIR f = i i=1 (5. = area of crop j (ha) Irrigation System Capacity (Qsys) The required irrigation supply for irrigation system can be determined using the Eq.k IE = = = = × 100 (5. DDIR = 0.5. The total volume of water needed to irrigate the farm for a given season is calculated using Eq. which is estimated using Eq.k ERj.k K Aj 5. The value obtained is 1. 5.6.61. We get.10 x 0.63.09 = 8.Chapter 5 .5.k = Where. Pan Coefficient kp = 0. Using Eq.6 0.80 x 200 = 226 mm for the peak month.61) seasonal irrigation requirement for crop j during season k (mm) total seasonal evapotranspiration for crop j during season k (mm) seasonal effective rainfall for crop j during year k (mm) overall irrigation efficiency which is usually 80-90%.10. 5. (SI∀f)j.06 mm/day Design Daily Irrigation Requirement for a Farm (DDIRf) The design daily irrigation requirement for a farm (DDIRf) is determined by computing the cumulative irrigation requirement for the farm.09 132.5.034 5.k (ETs)j.6.k − (ER )j. SIR j.6.9 daily design irrigation requirement for the farm (mm/day) daily design irrigation requirement for crop i (mm/day) area of crop i (ha) number of crops grown on farm Seasonal Irrigation Requirements (SIR) The total amount of water needed during an irrigation season for a given crop grown at a specified location.10 = seasonal irrigation volume required for farm (m3) = 10 unit constant when SI∀f is in m3. DDIRf DDIRi Ai n = = = = 5. ETm = 1.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION ETm = kc x kp x EP Consider Crop Coefficient (kc) for fruit formation stage of corn from Appendix 5B. March 2009 5-29 . 5.60) n ∑A i i=1 Where.

7. then the following approach is recommended.6. However. has gone through many links.6.2 Deficit Irrigation Technique Normally deficit irrigation is discouraged because of its potential adverse effect on crop yield. conveyance. Adequate water is supplied during critical growth stages to maximize water use efficiency.1 Shallow Watertable Condition Soil moisture depletions between irrigations may be less than crop evapotranspiration.Chapter 5 .7.7. The amount of land to be irrigated and the crop mix that maximizes the benefits of irrigation must be determined. climate characteristics.7. 5. 5. Qsys = = Ts A = = Igr 5. 5.6. This consideration will reduce direct evaporation from the soil.63) Ts design irrigation system flowrate (L/s) system operating time per irrigation cycle (hr) total irrigated area (ha) gross irrigation depth (mm) Water Demands for Non-paddy Crops under Sprinkler Irrigation The computation procedure is the same as for microirrigation system under closed growing crops (P = 100%). • Replenish the soil moisture to field capacity with a preplant irrigation down to the depth of the root zone.6.3 Irrigation with Limited Water A water supply may be inadequate to meet crop evapotranspiration needed for maximum yield due to limited water supply. which in turn depends on cultural constraints.6 the the the the A I gr (5. including water resources allocation. deficit irrigation is regulated under shortage of water availability for irrigation supply and uses less water with little or no effect on yield and in some cases benefits of better crop quality. Upward capillary rise or flow of water from the watertable into the root zone causes this phenomenon. • Minimize the number of irrigations during the initial stages. passing from its source to the field and then absorbed by crops and finally enabling production. This system may be beneficial particularly in drought conditions. 5. soil evaporation and plant transpiration 5-30 March 2009 .6. Deficit irrigation is considered by allowing planned plant stress during one or more periods of growing season. One recommendation to cope with a limited water supply is to change to crops that are tolerant to mild water stress. • Avoid any significant deficits during growth stages that are sensitive to water stress. • Meet the evapotranspiration during early stages of growth. distribution. This flow can contribute up to 60% of the evapotranspiration requirements. This will provide soil moisture for good root development and will be provided stored soil moisture to be used later in the growing season.7 Irrigation for Crops Grown under Special Considerations 5. This approach is not always practical for the changing of cropping patterns.778 Where. impose stress mid to late season and cut off water earlier than normal.6. when partial canopy coverage occurs. soil quality and so forth. water quality. The same procedure is followed as described in previous section for microirrigation. If deficit irrigation is necessary.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Q sys = 2. irrigation application.4 Water Saving Technology The irrigation water.

March 2009 5-31 . Pereira L. when laid in a single direction. its stand-alone control area should be 3 km2 and 6 km2 respectively. and Martin M.80. Rome. which is an integrated index to centrally reflect the conditions of irrigation engineering and management level. metering and safety protection devices should be installed REFERENCES Allen R. • For water pipes in the well irrigation area. sprinkle or micro irrigated. It should not be less than 40 percent for large irrigation areas. the requirement on evenness should be met. It should not be less than 0. the water requirement of crops of dry farmlands.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION (a) Irrigation Water Requirement The irrigation of paddy fields should be made according to the controlled irrigational mode of being “thin.G.70 for large. and no less than 70 per cent for small irrigation areas. translational and windlass sprinkling irrigational machinery set should be safe and reliable. 56. and 0. Raes D. central fulcrum. if in double directions. The branch pipes. (c) Technical Requirements in Engineering The water saving technology provides the following guidelines: • Canal Protection Ratio: it is the ratio of existing seepage-controlled area to the water passage area. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. It should not be less than 0. respectively. should have intervals of no more than 75m. • The sprinkling irrigation should meet requirements for evenness and atomization. the consumption of field fixed pipelines should not be less than 90m/km2.S. medium and small irrigation areas. the pipe sprinkling irrigation system should have control. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. relevant control. no less than 50 percent for medium irrigation areas.60. the well irrigation area should be set with fixed water pipes. fruit trees and vegetables should be made according to their respective productivity.90 at the groundwater tube well irrigation area. (1998). • For micro irrigation engineering. and such irrigation methods as critical irrigation and insufficient irrigation should be determined. should have intervals of no more than 150m. for the light or small translational sprinkling irrigational machinery set.. and the drip or trickle irrigated area. respectively. 0. metering and safety protection devices. the water source should be strictly filtered and purified.. The water outlet (hydrant) should be arranged at intervals of no more than 100m and connected with soft pipes. 0. (b) Irrigation Water Use Efficiency It is the ratio of inlet water at the canal head to total amount deducted by the losses in the canal system and fields. shallow.50. Italy. wet and sunny”. for areas of water shortage. water requirement should be made according to the sensitivity of crops at each of their physiological stage.85 and 0.Chapter 5 .

Queensland Government. (ed). 6 . pp.18. 360 pp. Van Schilfgaarde J.. (1997). Estimation of rice evapotranspiration in paddy fields using remote sensing and field measurements. Mulder.M.D. Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements.G. and Pruitt W. Richards L. 543. Amer.. South Africa. (1992). Tanzania Hassan S.Chapter 5 . and Westcot D. (1976). (2007). Natural Resources and Water.T. pp. and Bliesner R. 69–110. (1974).O (1997).. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Pretoria. 5-32 March 2009 .J. (1990).D.. Schwab G. 179 p.W. Brouwer C. Halcrow. 49(1):11–30. Infrastructure Operation and Maintenance Manual: Kapunga Project. P. Washington DC. Smal. Evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements. (1966). FAO Soils Bulletin 31. Irrigation Water Management: Training Manual No. Operation and Management. IRRI (1997). 618. M. Inc. Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated rice.E. Assessing the suitability of water for irrigation: Theoretical and empirical approaches. D. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. Developments in Agricultural Engineering 13.D.. Merwe. Pumping from shallow streams. Australia.1-2. ARC . and Kenneth K.E. Lategan.J. (1994).Institute for Agricultural Engineering. 29. Drainage for salinity control. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Annual Los Banos.S. Microirrigation for crop production: Design. Jensen M. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). 17. pp. pp 433–462. In: Prognosis of Salinity and Alkalinity.A.. and Nakayama F.. Water quality for agriculture.J.G.. (1990). (2001). Netherland. Silverton. 160 p.P. Talcott W. (1988). Doorenbos J. Bouman B. and Tuong T. Irrigation design manual. Richard K. Koegelenberg. Water Series QNRM05391. ASCE No.E. Principles of farm irrigation system design. Rome. and Viljoen.. Water Manage. Rome..D (1990). US Department of Agriculture. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Lamm F. Ayars J. Inc. Heyns. In: Drainage for Agriculture.H.O. New York. 60. (1954). H. Agron. Burger.F. Philippines. pp 2. John Willey & Sons. Christiansen C. 70. 2007.S. W.D. (1977) Foth H. National Agricultural and Food Cooperation. H. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). Burman R. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. International Rice Research Institute. Irrigation terminology. Rhoades J. Fundamentals of Soil Science.D. Rome Italy.. Hoevenaars J. F. Chapter 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Hatcho N. Manuals and reports on Engineering Practice. Elsevier. John Wiley & Sons. 652.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Ayers R. Universiti Putra Malaysia. Stimie.E. Rome. F. (2006). C. Rhoades J. Soc..D. Agric. and Heibloem M.P. 8th ed.J. and Allen R. van Bosch B.S. New York.R. P. Italy. and Merrill S.B. USDA Agricultural Handbook No.A.Scheme Irrigation Water Needs and Supply. Annual Report.M.M. Monograph No.. (2005). po. and Partners (1992). Keller J. New York: John Wiley & Sons. New York.S.M. James L. P.

C.Chapter 5 . Ministry of Agriculture and Food.H. (1935).C. Irrigation Systems and Water Application Efficiencies.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Solomon K. USDA-NRCS (1997). Fresno. Irrigation water management handbook. T. B. Washington D.S. (This page is deliberately left blank) March 2009 5-33 . 3396. Smithsonian Institute Report. California Schifield C. The salinity of irrigation water.C. Trickle Irrigation Manual. (1999). B. Van der Gulik. (1988). Publication No. Center for Irrigation Technology Irrigation Notes. California State University.

WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5-34 March 2009 .Chapter 5 .

76 Celery 0.22 Carrot 0. Uniform.91 Cherry 0.46 0.52 Broccoli 0.61 1.07 March 2009 5A-1 .61 0.91 Corn (sweet) 0.30 0.76 1.61 Bean (dry) 0.22 Coffee 0.46 0.91 1.22 Citrus 0.61 0.61 Beans 0.76 Brussels sprout 0.46 0.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.91 1.61 Cauliflower 0.83 0.46 0.83 Cucumber 0.61 1.61 0.61 1.30 0.46 Berries 0.52 Beet (sugar) 0.61 Eggplant 0.52 Corn (grain and silage) 0. 1997) Root Depth (m) Crop Minimum Maximum Asparagus 1.46 0.61 Cotton 0.76 1.61 0.61 0.61 0.68 Cantaloupe 0.A Typical Root Depths that Contain about 80% of the Feeder Roots in a Deep.00 Banana 0.Chapter 5 .76 Beet 0. Well-Drained Soil Profile (Adapted From USDA-NRCS.46 0.76 Cabbage 0.91 1.61 Bean (green) 0.61 1.70 Chard 0.

61 Pepper 0.30 0.22 Turnip (white) 0.91 Pumpkin 0.91 Passion fruit 0.61 0.91 Strawberry 0.07 Tobacco 0.22 Tomato 0.61 Squash 0.83 Onion 0.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.30 0.30 0.91 1.30 0.40 Parsnip 0.40 Safflower 0. 1997) (contd. Uniform.46 Sudan grass 0.61 0.22 1.76 Watermelon 0.) Root Depth (m) Crop 5A-2 Minimum Maximum Lettuce 0.91 1.Chapter 5 .91 1.91 Sorghum (silage) 0.46 Lucerne 1.52 Sorghum 0.76 Pea 0.46 1.61 1.91 March 2009 .A Typical Root Depths that Contain about 80% of the Feeder Roots in a Deep.61 1.61 0.76 Spinach 0.22 Radish 0.22 Sugarcane 0.91 1. Well-Drained Soil Profile (Adapted From USDA-NRCS.46 0.61 0.15 0.30 0.46 0.76 Pastures (perennial) 0.22 Soybean 0.61 0.30 0.46 Pastures (annual) 0.61 0.46 0.

05 1.85 .95 .0.95 0.0.85 .30 .0.1.85 .20 0.95 .60 0.90 Cabbage 0.60 0.80 .75 0.40 0.0.40 .WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.80 Grape 0.90 Rice 1.50 – .65 .70 .85 .35 .80 0.60 .65 .80 1.70 .05 .70 0.90 .80 1.05 0.10 1.0.40 .80 .0.75 .0.95 0.75 Corn: Sweet .1.90 Green 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.11 0.80 .60 .90 0.95 0.00 0.85 1.0.60 . .75 .95 .90 Corn: Field 0.00 .80 0.1.95 .80 Beans 0.50 0.15 0.40 .90 .1.1.60 – 0.05 .1.40 0.75 .00 . 1977) Stages of Growth Stages Initial Vegetative Development Fruit Formation Late Period Crop Maturity Banana 0.1.50 0.0.30 .75 .00 .1.1.75 .75 .55 .1.90 1.80 0.0.90 0.0.10 .90 0.0.65 0.00 0.00 1.0.05 Tobacco 0.95 .70 .0.1.40 .80 Pepper 0.30 .0.05 0.0.90 Sugarcane 0.05 .1.65 .10 0.80 .0.1.85 .0.30 0.0.10 .70 .75 .0.1.20 0.0.85 0.1.30 .40 .95 .0.85 1.30 .05 0.80 0.0.90 Watermelon 0.70 – 0.95 .95 .95 .80 – 0.95 Tomato 0.70 – 0.70 – 0.0.75 .40 – 0.30 0.0.55 .00 0.85 . .50 0.0.15 1.80 1.25 0.1.70 – 0.02 Soy 0.50 0.70 .95 0.90 0.1.05 .55 0.1.10 .0.1.80 – 0.85 Crop March 2009 5A-3 .50 0.95 .40 0.05 .85 .05 .95 0.1.75 0.70 .90 Onion 0.60 .85 Total Growth Period 0.75 0.0.95 .20 0.05 0.0.80 0.80 0.0.70 – 0.75 .40 0.70 – 1.0.80 0.70 .60 0.40 .30 0.90 .0.1.95 0.0.00 0.1.50 0.40 .10 .1.80 Potato 0.85 0.0.75 .05 .50 .05 0.80 1.Chapter 5 .20 1.70 .B Crop Coefficients (Kc) at Different Growth Given Crops (Adapted From Dorenbos and Pruitt.0.35 – 0.

1977) Class A Pan Mean RH% Wind** (km/day) Light 175 Moderate 175 – 425 Strong 425 – 700 Very strong > 700 Distance from the green crop (m) 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 Condition A Pan surrounded by grass Low Medium High 40 40 .55 0.85 0.65 0. ** Total wind movement in km/day.50 0.45 0.55 0.45 * For areas of extensive uncovered and not developed agricultural soils.70 0.75 0.70 0.60 0.70 0.50 0.70 70 0.60 0.75 0.65 0.40 0.40 0.75 0.85 0.75 0.45 0.65 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.60 0. temperature and humidity.55 0.45 0.45 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.50 0.60 0.80 0.65 0.70 0.60 0.85 0.80 0.60 0.65 0.75 0.65 0.55 0. Reduce values of KP by 20% under hot wind conditions and by 5 to 10 % for moderate wind conditions.65 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.85 0.55 0.C Pan Coefficient Kp for the Class A Pan Evaporation Different Conditions (Adapted From Doorenbos and Pruitt.80 0.65 9.80 0.45 0.60 0.50 0.80 0.70 0.40 0.55 0.65 0.85 0.60 0.70 0.60 0.65 under Condition B* Pan surrounded by dry uncovered soil Mean RH% Low Medium High Distance from the dry fallow (m) 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 0 10 100 1000 40 40 .75 0.45 0.80 0.60 0.65* 0.75 0.70 70 0.70 0.55 0.50 0.50 0.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.60 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.55 0.45 0.70 0.35 0.80 0.65 0.55 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.60 0.65 0.45 0. 5A-4 March 2009 .Chapter 5 .

D Water Quality Guidelines 5.Chapter 5 .0 600 3 2000 70 9 2.0 1200 4 3000 80 12 3.5 3 4 0.5 275 2 1000 60 6 1.0 1950 5 4000 90 15 4.0 > 20 > 32 >4 > 2700 March 2009 5A-5 .1: Quality of Irrigation Water (Schofiled.D.0 6 8 1.0 15 24 3.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.0 10 16 2.D.0 20 32 4.0 2700 6 > 4000 > 90 > 15 > 4. 2006) Rating EC (mmho/cm) Na+(%) SAR Na2CO3 Cl (meq/l) ES Boron TDS (mg/l) (Ppm) 1 500 40 3 0. 1935) Total Dissolved Salts Water Classification Concentration (meq/l) Excellent EC x 10-5 < 25 ppm < 175 Sodium (%) < 20 Chloride <4 Sulphates <4 Good 25 – 75 175 – 525 20 – 40 4–7 4-7 Permissible 75 – 200 525 – 1400 40 – 60 4–7 4-7 Doubtful 200 – 300 525 – 1400 40 – 60 7 – 12 7 -12 Unsuitable > 300 > 2100 > 80 > 20 > 20 5.2: Quality of Irrigation Water by Christiansen (Christiansen.

75 1.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5. Ca and Mg are sodium.25 0.Chapter 5 . calcium and magnesium in mg/l from the water analysis.0 5 4 15 0 1 1 2 5 10 ES TI 2 MA TE D 3 3 SO D IU 10 MAD EQ SO UI 4 RP 5 LI TI BR 5 ON IU 6 -R M 6 EX 7 ATIO 7 CH (S AN 8 A GA 8 9 R) BL 10 9 ESO 10 12 DI UM 12 14 -P ER 14 16 CE 1 NT 6 1 20 AG 8 24 E (E SP 22 30 ) 26 30 2 Where Na. Ca++ +Mg++ mg/l 0 0 5A-6 20 March 2009 .E Nomograph for Determining the SAR Value of Irrigation Water and Estimating the Corresponding ESP Value of a Soil at Equilibrium with the Water (Richards.50 0. 1954) Na + mg/l 20 Na SAR Ca + Mg 15 0.

3 1.4 2.5 5.3 5.5 1.1 2.4 Rice (paddy) (Oriza sativa) 3. sweet (maize) (Zea mays) 1.4 2.4 Fruit Crops March 2009 5A-7 .7 Broadbean (Vicia faba) 1.7 1.6 3.7 3.0 4.8 7.9 3. 1994) Types of Crop 100% 90% 75% 50% 0% maximum ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw Soybean (Glycine max) 5.1 5.8 1.6 5.7 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) 1.5 1.F Crop Tolerance and Yield Potential of Selected Crops Influenced by Irrigation Water Salinity (ECw) or Soil Salinity (ECe) (Ayers and Westcot.6 3.9 6.9 3.7 6.7 3.) 1.0 0.3 0.9 3.) 1.8 3.0 4.9 6.1 2.9 3.8 2.6 4.3 2.8 1.0 Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) 1.9 4.8 1.8 2.9 Strawberry (Fragaria sp.2 4.8 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) 3.9 10 6.2 4.3 8.4 8.8 4.3 5.0 5.0 13 8.5 3.5 2.6 12 8.2 10 6.8 1.9 2.2 6.6 5.5 3.4 2.0 1.2 2.5 1.4 4.0 3.4 2.1 2.4 Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 2.4 1.5 8.1 3.7 3.7 4.3 Grape (Vitus sp.1 3.2 5.2 5.7 8.3 4.1 2.5 1.2 2.6 2.6 5.0 0.1 Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) 2.9 4.5 3.8 2.6 18 12 Cabbage (Br.0 2.5 12 7.8 3.2 4.2 2.9 2.1 3.3 2.3 5.0 Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) 1.7 1.4 9.2 5.5 1.8 Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 1.2 7.1 2.1 1.8 2.4 2.5 1.1 2.3 8.4 6.3 4.3 4.0 2.7 3.3 2.2 4.3 3.7 1.7 4 2.2 2.0 10 6.6 3.0 2.3 0.5 1.1 Potato (Solanum tuberosum) 1.2 1.8 1.9 1. scallop (Cucurbita pepo) 3.0 6.6 5.1 3.7 4.5 1.8 4.5 5.5 6.8 11 7.9 3.8 1.6 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) 1.3 6.8 2.1 3.5 1.0 6.3 2.5 3.7 3.1 3.1 Pepper (Capsicum annuum) 1.8 1.9 3.9 3.5 14 9.7 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 4.7 Corn.5 1.5 2.6 4.3 5.8 2.0 2.7 1.9 9.1 2.7 1.2 4.8 Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) 2.7 6.4 7.3 4.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.7 1.2 2.2 2.7 Star fruit 1.0 10 6.0 11 7.5 1.2 9.6 1.5 5.4 1.3 5.4 1.0 3.6 5.8 3.5 5.9 7.7 9.Chapter 5 .4 2.0 2.3 1.0 3.0 5.0 13 8.3 3.4 6.4 3.9 3.7 15 10 Celery (Apium graveolens) 1.4 Orange (Citrus sinensis) 1.2 2.3 Broccoli (Brassica oleracea botrytis) 2.7 3.4 7.2 2.9 10 6.9 10 6.0 5.8 19 12 Field Crops Corn (maize) (Zea mays) 1.5 12 8.7 1.6 3.2 Vegetable Crops Squash. oleracea capitata) 1.2 8.7 4.5 1.1 6.0 4.2 3.

7 1.1 2.3 6.4 5.1 5.9 4.5 7.1 5.0 4.7 3.9 16 10 Lovegrass (Eragrostis sp.4 13 8.8 5.8 6.2 3.6 2.1 5.9 3.0 12 8.8 9.6 7.5 1.5 1.9 3.9 2.3 3.5 5.1 19 13 Trefoil.) 2.4 8.2 5.0 3.0 6.9 6.3 2.0 7.6 Clover (Trifolium fragiferum) 1.8 9.6 2.0 3.6 11 7.8 Trefoil.3 1.4 5.3 1.1 5.6 3.3 3.4 2. red (Trifolium pratense) 1. big (Lotus uliginosus) 2.5 5.3 12 8.9 Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) 1.0 8.5 3.4 18 12 Foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis) 1.4 5.0 Wheatgrass.9 2. common (Vicia angustifolia) 3.7 4.5 6.0 2. tall (Festuca elatior) 3.8 1.3 1.8 6.4 6. perennial (Lolium perenne) 5.9 Onion (Allium cepa) 1.9 4.5 1.7 2.3 1.6 8.6 13 9.4 2.6 2.8 5.4 Other Crops 5.9 5.0 9.2 0.6 Clover.8 6.0 19 13 31 21 Wheatgrass.6 2.0 4.5 5.2 2.0 1.5 3.9 5. (Agropyron sibiricum) 3.6 3.1 2.9 5.5 1.3 1.5 3.0 1.7 6.2 2.9 4.4 18 12 Fescue.8 2.6 5. fairway crested (Agropyron cristatum) 7.7 14 9.7 15 10 Harding grass (Phalaris tuberosa) 4.6 8.0 2.0 3.5 3.6 6.7 20 13 Ryegrass.Chapter 5 .9 3.9 4.4 2.4 19 13 Cowpea (forage) (Vigna unguiculata) 2.9 7. beardless (Elymus triticoides) 2.0 11 7.0 5.8 3.3 3.5 2.4 6.6 3.6 5.5 1.0 9.6 2.3 Corn (forage) (maize) (Zea mays) 1.3 14 9.2 5.8 23 15 Barley (forage) (Hordeum vulgare) 6.1 3.2 Turnip (Brassica rapa) 0.2 7.7 1.5 8.0 1.7 15 10 Clover.9 12 8.9 Clover.3 6.1 2.4 15 9.8 1.8 9.5 6.1 5.7 3.8 4.3 1. ladino (Trifolium repens) 1.6 Clover (Trifolium hybridum) 1. narrowleaf birdsfoot (Lotus corniculatus tenuifolium) 5.6 3.5 3.0 10 6.2 12 7.0 3.9 6.8 9.4 5.0 7.0 9.3 6.0 2.2 2.7 3.3 4.8 1.4 8.7 9.8 6.0 0.7 3.0 2.9 3.0 0.9 7.3 4.2 0.7 1. 1994) (contd.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.0 Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) 2.1 5.3 3.0 2.4 3.4 4.6 3.4 5.8 1.3 3.0 3.7 4.6 5. tall (Agropyron elongatum) 7.3 1.8 22 15 Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) 6.5 1.8 4.6 5.6 26 17 Wildrye.7 1.6 5A-8 March 2009 .9 10 6.0 Carrot (Daucus carota) 1.5 1.6 11 7.6 8.3 7.0 2.8 20 13 Wheatgrass.0 3.6 2.3 17 11 Sphaerophysa (Sphaerophysa salsula) 2.5 1.2 3.2 2.2 15 9.) Types of Crop 100% 90% 75% 50% 0% maximum ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw ECe ECw Radish (Raphanus sativus) 1.9 9.6 2.5 5.8 12 7.6 5.8 1.7 2.8 1.3 8. berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) 1.F Crop Tolerance and Yield Potential of Selected Crops as Influenced by Irrigation Water Salinity (ECw) or Soil Salinity (ECe) (Ayers and Westcot.6 2.5 1.8 6.3 11 7.5 5.1 2.8 9.2 16 11 Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) 2.0 4.4 4.5 16 11 28 19 Vetch.8 3.2 1.6 5.0 2.5 2.1 4.0 1.9 3.8 19 13 Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) 1.9 9.7 6.5 1.6 3.6 3.7 3.5 12 7.1 Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) 2.8 1.4 5.9 0.5 4.

G.G Cropping Management of Direct Seeded and Transplanting Rice Fields (Adapted from FAO. 1994) 5.G.2 Water Regime for Growing Stages of Direct Seeded Rice Agricultural Activities Presaturation Seeding Days 15 1-3 Water Depth (mm) 200 50 Tillering Vegetative Stage Productive Stage Ripening Stage 15-21 20-45 46-85 86-110 50-70 100 Draining 70-100 5.1 Cropping Management of Direct Seeded Rice Fields Average Duration Rice Growing Stages and Duration Growth Stages Reproductive Ripening Depth Day After Seeding (days) Seeding 0 0 0 - Tillering 8 8 30 Gradual Active Tillering 15 7 50 Maximum Tillering 30 15 50 Panicle Initiation 45 10 100 Reduction Division 58 15 100 Heading 70 7 100 Phase Crop Establishment and Vegetative Growth Water Depth Variation (+/-) (mm) Increase Maintain/Constant Grain Filling 80 10 100 Active Ripening 90 10 0 Harvesting 110 10 0 Maintain Draining 5.Chapter 5 .3 Water Regime for Growing Stages of Transplanted Rice Agricultural Activities Nursery Days 7-15 Water Depth (mm) 20 March 2009 Land Preparation At Transplanting After Transplanting 5-7 150-200 20-30 50-70 Vegetative Stage Productive Stage Ripening Stage 20-45 46-85 Days 86-110 Days 50-70 100 Draining 5A-9 .WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.G.

32 l/s/ha [1 mm/day/ha = 0.77 mm Step 2: Computation of F F = Water Depth for Soil Saturation + Established Standing Water Depth = 100 + 100 = 200 mm Step 3: Computation of Z The value of Z is computed using the following relationship: Z= T( L − E u ) 15 (8.09 mm/day/ha z − 1−e 1 .32 = 2. 5.32 day 200 F Step 4: Calculation of Presaturation Irrigation Requirements (q) using Eq.77 − 4.5) = = 0.5 mm/day = 3 mm/day = 100 mm = 100 mm Calculate presaturation irrigation requirement for the above data.H Worked Examples 5. Note: Data should be taken based on the local condition Solution: Step 1: Determination of L The total water loss due to evaporation from saturated soil and Percolation L = (Pan Evaporation x Pan Coefficient) + Percolation Loss = 7.75 + 3.e -0.1157 l/s/ha] March 2009 .5 = 20.4.5 mm/day = 7.Chapter 5 .5 + Eu = + 4.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION APPENDIX 5.77 .30 q= 5A-10 L − Eu 8.H.0 = 8.7 x 0.1 Presaturation Irrigation Requirements Calculation for Paddy Provided Data Presaturation period Evaporation from Unsaturated Soil (Eu) Pan Evaporation Percolation Loss Standing Water depth Water Depth for Saturation = 15 days = 4.

10 1.75 0.62 256.60 162.Chapter 5 .75 0.10 1.2-2 Monthly Pan Evaporation.10 Average Rainfall RF (mm) 207.00 142.10 153.75 0. The overall irrigation efficiency is assumed to be 45%.04 196.30 415.20 1.80 144.75 0.75 0.67 455. Consider the maximum ponding or standing water depth is 10 cm during normal irrigation supply period.33 ha Dry Season 15 2000 133. Crop Coefficient and Rainfall Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Max Evaporation (mm) 161.00 173.48 84.70 78.05 1.H.33 133. Season (Col 1) Wet Season Dry Season March 2009 Daily Presaturation Areas (ha) (Col 2) 233.60 149.20 1.75 0.75 0.75 0.33 ha (Col 3)/(Col 2) Step 2: Estimation of Water Demands for Presaturation Period.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.40 1. The data for the local crop environment is given in the Tables.40 1.70 138.75 0.2-1 Field Data for Paddy Cultivation Description Wet Season Dry Season Crop growing period 115 days 115 days Presaturation Period 15 days 15 days Presaturation Irrigation Depth 20 mm/day 20 mm/day Normal Irrigation Depth 10 mm/day 10 mm/day Start of Season 16 August 16 March Table 5.32 138.00 Solution: Step 1: Determination of the Daily Presaturation Area.00 158.33 Presaturation Period (Col 3) 15 15 Required Depth SAT (mm/day) (Col 4) 20 20 Presaturation Water Depth (mm) (Col 3)x(Col 4) 300 300 5A-11 .10 1.29 149.75 Crop Coefficient (Kc) 1.27 267.20 182. Compute the water demand per hectare per season and seasonal water demand for wet and dry seasons.75 0.05 1.2 Water Demand for Paddy Irrigation Rice is to be cultivated in Machang Irrigation Schemes of 3500 ha in wet season and 2000 ha in dry season.75 0.60 Pan Coefficient (Kp) 0.69 88.H.40 1. Determine the scheme irrigation water demand and the required supply.00 145. Season Cultivated Areas (ha) (Col 3) Daily Presaturation Areas (Col 1) Presaturation Period (Col 2) Wet Season 15 3500 233. Table 5.H.40 148.00 136. Pan Coefficient.40 1.

01 x 3500)/3.5 1.0 + 0. Qns = [0.33]/(8.8 m3/s Total irrigation supply on the 3nd day = 1.67)/3. 5.33)/3.5 4. Qns = [0. 5.39 = 1.40 m3/s Normal supply on the 3nd day in Wet Season.88 = 0.39 m3/s.9 8.0187 x 133.99 ≈ 9 m3/s Note: The irrigation supply will be continued for 95 days for the main season.39 ≈ 0. the daily irrigation supply considering with effective rainfall.0 8.40.3 mm/day for dry season Presaturation Period = 15 days IE = 45% (Assumed) The daily presaturation irrigation supply can be estimated using Eq.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Step 3: Computation of Monthly and Daily Average Effective Rainfall using Eqs.30 m3/s Total irrigation supply on the 2nd day = 0.89 = 0.64 x 0.8 4.0065 x 466.Chapter 5 . Step 5: Daily Normal irrigation supply after presaturation periods (from 31st March/August) For wet season. the daily total irrigation supply will be gradually increasing @ 0. Qns = [(0.30 m3/s.64 m3/s Normal supply on 2nd day in Wet Season.32 and 5.78 ≈ 0.39 ≈ 1.36 and the normal irrigation supply is estimated using Eqs.0065 x 233.001(10 – 3.33. Qns = [(0.001(10 – 3.001(10 – 1.78 = 1.3 1.94 m3/s Total irrigation supply on the 3nd day = 0.33)/3.45) = (0.5) x (2-1) x 233.64 x 0.001(20 –1. 5A-12 March 2009 .94 + 0.0 m3/s Normal supply on the 2nd day in Wet Season.30 = 1.89 = 5.45) = (0.001(10 – 0)) x 3500]/(8.64 x 0.30 = 0.6 3.7 1. 5. Qprs = [(0.7 2.3) x (2-1) x 133.37 to 5.45) = (0.4 2. Qns = [0. Dry Season (16-30 March): Daily presaturation supply in Dry Season.2 2.64 + 0.5)) x 233.84 m3/s If effective rainfall is not considered or ER = 0 then.64 x 0.5 mm/day for wet season ER = 1.33)/3.89 = 0. Wet Season (16-30 August): Daily presaturation supply in Wet Season.3)) x 133.4 m3/s Total irrigation supply on the 2nd day = 1.64 x 0.89 = 1.89 = 8.24 m3/s Therefore.0087 x 133.0 + 0.64 x 0.33]/(8.001(20 – 3.33]/(8. Qprs = [(0.78 m3/s Therefore.45) = (0.5 Step 4: Estimation of Daily Irrigation Supply for Presaturation periods (16 – 31 March/August).33)/3.0165 x 233.5) x (3-1) x 233.45) = (0.001(10 – 3.33]/(8.64 x 0. the daily total irrigation supply will be gradually increasing @ 0. Rainfall (mm) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly 208 88 85 78 139 149 149 197 256 267 416 455 Effective 115 43 41 37 73 80 79 108 144 150 239 263 Daily Effective 3.45) = (0.33]/(8.89 = 0.5)) x 3500]/(8.45) = (0. Where SAT = 20 mm/day Normal Irrigation Supply (NIS) = 10 mm/day ER = 3.0065 x 3500)/3.

9 4.46 5.95 2.98 184.34 2.0 1.0 1.20 55.12 4.3)) x 2000]/(8.34 3.0 1.2 4.9 5.00 1.01 x 2000)/3.0 1.18 254.0 1.9 4.44 2.9 1.7 6.74 Supply (m3/s) Volume (MLD) 0.1 2.6 3.34 3.88 288.94 4.89 = 4.0 Col (4) 0 0. Qns = [(0.64 3.18 362.54 4.64 0.17 1.001(10 – 1.0 1.75 524.42 366.90 210.29 5.17 2.45) = (0.2 1.2 Col (3) + Col(4) 0.64 0.24 1.51 3.46 86.64 0.64 3.00 Col (4) 0 0.Chapter 5 .40 120.001(10 – 0)) x 2000]/(8.44 2.1 4.22 107. the Daily irrigation supply considering with effective rainfall.56 2.8 2.74 262.58 322.12 3.54 1.39 0.56 1.64 0.0 1. Step 6: Seasonal irrigation demands for the Wet Season 5.0 1.3 0.14 471.46 Col (3) + Col(4) 1.24 4.6 3.64 0.30 81.94 1.4 2.46 5.26 418.84 4.64 0.82 236.06 490.14 m3/s Note: The irrigation supply will be continued for 85 days for the off season.H.49 221.64 0.64 x 0.04 3.0 1.39 1.64 0.64 0.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION For dry season.68 6.90 5.5 4.2 5A-13 .64 0.0 1.74 3.36 457.84 4.2-3 Water Demand for Wet Season Date Days 1-Aug-08 2-Aug-08 3-Aug-08 4-Aug-08 5-Aug-08 6-Aug-08 7-Aug-08 8-Aug-08 9-Aug-08 10-Aug-08 11-Aug-08 12-Aug-08 13-Aug-08 14-Aug-08 15-Aug-08 16 Aug to End Col (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16-110 Planted Areas (ha) Col (2) 233 467 700 933 1167 1400 1633 1867 2100 2333 2567 2800 3033 3267 3500 3500 PIS (m3/s) NIS (m3/s) TIS (m3/s) Col (3) 1.6 0.95 3.0 0.1 6.10 153.0 1.73 3.14 2.2-4 Water Demand for Dry Season Date 1-Mar-08 2-Mar-08 3-Mar-08 4-Mar-08 5-Mar-08 6-Mar-08 7-Mar-08 8-Mar-08 9-Mar-08 10-Mar-08 11-Mar-08 12-Mar-08 13-Mar-08 14-Mar-08 15-Mar-08 16 Mar to End March 2009 Days Col (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16-100 Planted Areas (ha) Col (2) 133 267 400 533 667 800 933 1067 1200 1333 1467 1600 1733 1867 2000 2000 PIS (m3/s) NIS (m3/s) TIS (m3/s) Col (3) 0.94 4.88 Step 7: Seasonal irrigation demands for the Dry Season 5.14 133.64 0.78 1.2 2.78 2.34 3.7 3 3.8 2.7 4.64 0.0 1.79 187.97 389.68 5.24 4.50 340.73 4.0 3.94 1.29 4.66 423.3 5.27 355.5 Supply (m3/s) Volume (MLD) 1.04 3.64 0.51 4.54 1.64 x 0.4 1.89 = 5.07 6.5 5.45) = (0.3 3.H.0087 x 2000)/3.74 3.5 1.45 558.84 2.24 1.64 0.58 314.64 0.64 0.84 2. Qns = [(0.0 1.3 3.0 1.07 5.34 392.54 4.0 1.06 158.47 m3/s If effective rainfall is not considered or ER = 0 then.64 0.14 2.66 288.

H.2-2 Water Demand for Dry Season March 2009 .WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Days Days Figure 5.2-1 Water Demand for Wet Season 16 Aug 08 Days Days 16-Mar-08 15-Mar-08 14-Mar-08 13-Mar-08 12-Mar-08 11-Mar-08 10-Mar-08 9-Mar-08 8-Mar-08 7-Mar-08 6-Mar-08 5-Mar-08 4-Mar-08 3-Mar-08 2-Mar-08 1-Mar-08 3 3 /s) Supply(m (m Supply /s) 3 Supply (m /s) Supply (m3/s) Chapter 5 .H.5A-14 3 2 1 0 15-Aug-08 14-Aug-08 13-Aug-08 12-Aug-08 11-Aug-08 10-Aug-08 9-Aug-08 8-Aug-08 7-Aug-08 6-Aug-08 5-Aug-08 4-Aug-08 3-Aug-08 2-Aug-08 1-Aug-08 Nov-08 End End 0 Jun-08 Oct 08 4 May 08 5 Sep-08 6 Apr-08 Figure 5.

Average peak ET.5 = 3.5 Water Quality (ECw) Available Water holding capacity (AWHC) Percent shaded area (Pd) % 66 Wetted Area (Pw) m2 48.28 4. 5.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.61 × × 15 ×1. 5. So that AWHC = 10% of root zone depth = 0.H.1(66)0. (Ud) = 5.Chapter 5 .4 Water Quality - Good Soil Texture - Silt Loam % 10% Root zone depth (drz) m 1.47 mm/day Step 6: Consider design emission uniformity (EU) EU = 90% is a reasonable design target value.47 = 0. Irrigation System Crop Crop Area Unit Drip - Star Fruit ha 2 mmhos/cm 1.0 Average Peak ET (Ud) mm/day 5.5 = 4. 5.61 Solution: Step 1: Determine maximum net water depth (dx) using Eq.5 x 100 = 15 mm/m dx = 30 48.0 x 6.47 x 1 = 4.73 days ≈ 1 day Step 4: Irrigation interval (f) For design purpose.15 March 2009 5A-15 .46 f x = 3. 5.43 Drz = 1. it is usually most convenient to consider f= 1 day.5 m. then Step 5: Net depth to be applied per irrigation (dn) using Eq.5 0. Determine the crop water demands for the star fruit Field.47 mm/day Step 3: Determine maximum irrigation interval (fx) using Eq.5 MAD % 30 Plant Spacing (Sp x Sr) (m x m) 6. Step 7: Determine leaching requirement (LR) using Eq.5 mm/day and Pd = 66% [ ] Td = 5.3 Water Demand for Crops under Microirrigation The following information is provided.28 mm 100 100 Step 2: Determine average peak transpiration rate (Td) using Eq.44 Where.10 x 1. 5.45 dn = Td x fx = 4.

WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION Assume Max ECe for Star fruit = 8 dS/m LR = EC w = 0.08 5 × EC e − EC w Step 8: Gross depth per irrigation (dg) using Eq.0.96 mm Step 9: Gross water required per plant per day using Eq.52 = 48 m3/day Therefore.4861 = 86. total water demand for 2 ha star fruits is 48 m3/day.52 litre/day/plant 1 Step 10: Required total number of plants in 2 ha land = 2 x 10000 6x6 = 555 trees Step 11: Total water demand per day = No of trees x Gross water required per plant per day = 555 x 86.56 Vg = K S p S r dg fx = 1.47 mm/day.0 × 6 × 6 × 4. 5.96 x 0.51 Peak period transmission ratio with crop root zone depth and medium textured soil from Table 5. EU = 90% dg = 4. 5.47 × 1.Chapter 5 . 5A-16 March 2009 .12 is TR = 1.0 × 100 90 = 4. dn = 4.03 or 0.

80 Jun 8.Chapter 5 . The field data and monthly meteorological data are provided in Table 5.58 Jun 60.04 Volume (Mm3) 0.33 120 26 15 80 Jun 6.59 36570.15 120 27 12 80 May 6.59 Step 2: Compute Daily Design Irrigation Requirements (DDIR) using Eq.0483 0.0333 0. Compute Seasonal water demands by the crop.0366 0.0432 March 2009 5A-17 . 5.94 Step 3: Compute Seasonal Volume of Water using Eq.64 120 26 15 80 Mar 6.04 43217.76 25748.59 where Irrigation Interval is weekly basis.73 Apr 16.2-1.4-1 Field Data Month ET (mm) Drz θfc θι IE Feb 6.80 Mar 10. LR = 0 and ER = 0 The IRRI obtained as follows: Month IRRI mm/week Feb 82. The sprinkler irrigation system will be used for applying water in the fields.59 May 82.90 120 24 14 80 Apr 7.95 120 26 13 80 Solution: Step 1: Compute Irrigation Requirements per Application (IRRI) using Eq.56 Month Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Volume (m3) 33033.H.57 Assume.2 33252.09 Apr 112.08 Jul 97. Assume no rainfall will occur.H. 5.0330 0. Table 5.H.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.58 Jul 13.0257 0.58 Mar 75.48 48252.30 120 23 15 80 Jul 6.4 Water Demand for Crops under Sprinkler Irrigation A 10-ha corn will be grown in IADP Northwest Selangor Project in the dry season (February to July).08 May 11. 5. The maximum root zone depth is 60 cm. Month DDIR mm/day Feb 11.

H.95 Table 5. 5.000 ha of paddy crop.H.45 5.5-3 Computed Water Demand for Different Crops Area (ha) Growing Periods (Days) Total ET (mm) Total ER (mm) SIR (mm) Volume (m3) Cabbage 8 120 580.90 5.Chapter 5 . The monthly crop evapotranspiration and rainfall is provided for the respective crops in the Table.66 718 35879 Cauliflower 10 120 571.15 6.5 Water Demand for Multicrops Farming System Different crops can be cultivated in an Irrigation Project.H-1 and 5. The project has 17.78 192.05 15. The effective rainfall is considered only 25% of the total rainfall. Table 5.15 5.H.WATER DEMAND ESTIMATION 5.90 6.64 5.33 and 5.33 5.64 6. Step 2: The seasonal irrigation requirements can be computed using Eq.65 91. The seasonal water demand for paddy can be estimated in the similar manner as in Example 5. The appropriate information needs to be considered based on scheme water management strategy.58 827.95 5. ER is computed using Eqs.28 149.45 6.6 66.42 837 75302 Tomato 7 181 1226.35 57915 March 2009 .65 505 50510 Crop 5A-18 Tobacco 9 181 1195.H-2.84 489 39105 Carrot 5 120 769.5-1 Monthly Rainfall and Daily Average Crop Evapotranspiration (ET) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Rainfall (mm) 208 88 85 78 139 149 149 197 256 267 416 455 ET (mm)/day 6. 5.33 6. Compute the seasonal amount of water for the project.56 as follows.34 Table 5.5-2 Planted Areas of Different Crops Crops Planted Area (ha) Growing Periods Cabbage 8 Jan-Apr Carrot 5 Jan-Apr Cauliflower 10 Feb-May Tobacco 9 Jan-June Tomato 7 Feb-May Solution: Step 1: The water demand computation procedure for Paddy is different from other crops.H.

Part B Planning Chapter 6 .Hydraulic Fundamentals .

...... 6-12 6................................................5 Nozzle Flow ...............1......................3.............................................2 Fluid Flow......3 Flow through Ponds .................1 Conservation of Mass .............................2 6.3.........2...........3......2.......................................................................3.................................. 6-15 6..................3.............................................3...2.......1...........................3..............................................................3 Governing Equation of Motion .................3................................................................ 6-6 6............................................................................................................................... 6-18 6................................. 6-2 6............1...............1... 6-9 6............ 6-19 6.............. 6-6 6...2...............................................................1 Steady and Unsteady Flow.....3 Bends .....................1..... 6-1 6.....2............................................7 Compound Pipes.......1.................. 6-18 6......................................................2....... 6-16 6.....2 Conservation of Energy ..............................1.........3 6....................1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................3...................................................................................... 6-4 Application of Conservation Theories .....3..........1..............................3.............1 Gradually Varied Flow ............................3................... 6-14 6..................................................1...3....................... 6-20 6..............1 Laminar Flow............3.........2 Uniform and Non-uniform Flow .............................................6 Expansion and Contractions ...........................2....... 6-i List of Tables ............ 6-12 Unsteady Flow ............3.......1....... 6-21 6.................. 6-13 6............................................5 Branch Lines without a Structure...................2.................3 Head Losses ........................... 6-15 6...........................................................1.......1.......2 Rapidly Varied Flow................3 6......2 Turbulent Flow .... 6-5 6...........................2..............................3.............................. 6-18 6................................................ 6-iii 6........2................................................. 6-5 FREE SURFACE FLOW ... 6-3 6............................2 Inlets and Outlets .....3..............1......................................1 Junctions .................................... 6-iii List of Figures ................................Chapter 6 ................................ 6-20 6........... 6-9 Steady Varied Flow .....1..........8 Branched Pipes..2..........................................4 Specific Discharge.......................3................ 6-15 6.........................................HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Table of Contents Table of Contents ...... 6-21 6...3 Combination of Flows................ 6-9 6............3...............................4 6.............. 6-2 6.4 Varied Pipe Flow ..3 Conservation of Momentum .................................3.............................................................2.......... 6-22 March 2009 6-i ..................3........ 6-2 6.........3.....2..2 Open Channel Flow.............................3......................1 Chezy’s Formula .................................4 Obstructions or Penetration ................2.............. 6-1 Steady Uniform Flow ... 6-1 Classification of Flow ...........................................1......1 6..............................................3................................................................................................2....3 Hydraulic Jump.....................................1............................ 6-18 6.....................................................1................2 Manning’s Formula.... 6-8 6...................................... 6-19 6.............................1 6.............3......................................... 6-1 6........2...........1 Overland Flow .............2 6............................. 6-7 6.3...............................3 Specific Energy .........3..... 6-1 6.... 6-15 PRESSURISED FLOW...............................................

............4.1 Bed Load Transport ..........2 Unsteady Flow........... 6-37 6....... 6-38 6...........................................................................................4................6...................................1 Ideal Settling Basin ..............................................................2 Suspended Load Transport .5............... 6-29 6..............4...........4 6.....................3.............................................. 6-22 6.................................2 Transient Flow ........4......................... 6-40 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT THROUGH CONVEYANCE ................................... 6-34 6...............................5....................................................4.........................................................................................2 Governing Equations ..................................................................C1 Design Example on Pressure Surge.........................4..6.......................................1 Theory of Sediment Movement ......3....... 6-36 6..............................3............4..........................1 Transport Hydraulics in Porous Media ..............................................6 Unconfined Well Flow Hydraulics ...1 Steady Flow ..................................... 6-28 6............................................. 6-41 6.............2 Saturated Media .... 6-23 6........ 6-33 6........7....................................................7...........2........... 6-32 6....5.................4 6.............A1 Design Charts.................................Chapter 6 .......4..... 6-1 APPENDIX 6...................B1 Design Example on Pressurised Flow Network .......... 6-41 6........... 6-23 Pressure Surge ....... 6-27 6.....................................HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6.................6........................................................................5 Unconfined Aquifer Flow..................................4....2 Unsaturated Flow..........................................3.2 Real Settling Basin ..................4 Combined Flow................................................................3 6....4............................................................... 6-40 6.2 Power Transmission through a Nozzle ..................................................7.........................6................................7 Hydraulics for Pipe Network ................1 Steady Flow ............3............................................. 6-25 6..................... 6-42 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................1 Darcy’s Law. 6-28 6...................... 6-36 6...........3.......... 6-25 GROUNDWATER FLOW ...............................................................3.............. 6-44 APPENDIX 6............................. 6-29 6......................5....7 Watertable Management in Coastal Areas .......3 Sediment Removal in Settling Basin ..............5........5................................................................. 6-11 6-ii March 2009 ................ 6-28 6......................4....... 6-27 6..................5.............................................6........3........................................................... 6-32 6.......7 6..........................................1 Definitions.5 6..... 6-36 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT THROUGH BASIN ..................5...................................3 Total Load Transport...................................6 Velocity through a Nozzle ................................. 6-9 APPENDIX 6...................................................6 6.....3 Transport Hydraulics in Ponds.................. 6-37 6...... 6-39 6................................4........................................................2.............4.......... 6-30 POLLUTANT TRANSPORT .1 Unsaturated Media..........2 Settling Theory ................................................. 6-29 6....... 6-25 6......................... 6-35 6....... 6-27 Saturated Flow ....

1 Hydraulic Properties of Conveyance 6-2 6.28 Typical Schematic Model for Suspension of Solid Particles 6-42 March 2009 6-iii .14 Branched Pipelines (DID.26 Dispersion in One-dimensional Flow 6-33 6.11 Branch Line for Pipe System 6-19 6.20 Parameters for Darcy’s Law and Darcy Manometer 6-26 6.Chapter 6 . 2000) 6-21 6.1 Hydraulic Features of the most Common Conveyance Sections 6-7 6.23 Hydraulic Nature of Unconfined (Phreatic) Aquifer 6-29 6.4 Various Types of Free Surface Flow Patterns 6-6 6.6 Gradually Varied Unsteady Flow 6-13 6.3 Stream Tube for Conservation of Energy and Momentum 6-4 6.3 Drag Coefficients for Laminar Flow 6-37 List of Figures Figure Description Page 6.12 Sudden Expansion and Contraction 6-20 6.15 Spraying Water through Nozzle 6-22 6.21 Parameters for Steady Unsaturated Flow 6-27 6.7 Waterbody for the Continuity Equation of Gradually Varied Flow 6-13 6.25 Example of Saltwater Intrusion Process 6-31 6.18 Propagation of Shockwave through a Pipeline 6-24 6.10 Moody Diagram 6-17 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS List of Tables Table Description Page 6.8 Rapidly Varied Unsteady Flow 6-14 6.9 Elements of Overland Flow to Channel 6-14 6.16 A Typical Nozzle 6-22 6.22 Saturated Groundwater Flow 6-28 6.5 Specific-Energy Diagram 6-9 6.17 Surge for Incompressible Fluid 6-23 6.19 Typical Simple Pipe Networks 6-25 6.27 Ideal Sediment Basin 6-39 6.2 Characteristics of Flow Profiles 6-11 6. 2000) 6-21 6.2 Flow Control Volume for Conservation of Mass 6-3 6.24 Schematic of an Unconfined Aquifer Drawdown 6-30 6.13 Energy Diagram for Compound Pipe (DID.

HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS (This page is deliberately left blank) 6-iv March 2009 .Chapter 6 .

1. the magnitude changes with distance. the direction changes with distance and in flow with changing cross section. In flow around a bend of a pipe or channel. the flow is non-uniform. For the more complex and real world problems.1. pressure.1 HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION Appropriate planning and design of irrigation and drainage systems require understanding and application of surface and groundwater hydraulics fundamentals. then flow: ∫ Q = vdA = VA (6. Hydraulics discussed in this chapter deals with water. time and space. March 2009 6-1 . Flows can be classified based on two main parameters. If there is a change in any parameter. steady flow equations give reasonably accurate results when the unsteadiness occurs fairly slowly.1. However. steady flow equations are mostly preferred to analyse the flow pattern of a channel although a small degree of unsteadiness usually exists in the system. • Steady non-uniform flow (flow through a canal during dry season). which is the volume of liquid flowing past a given section per unit time (in cubic meters per second. discharge.1. 6. According to time the flow can be steady and unsteady while according to distance or space.1 Fluid Flow Fluid flow is measured in terms of discharge. porous media and other hydraulic structures.1.Chapter 6 . Some flows exhibit changes with respect to both time and distance.2 Uniform and Non-uniform Flow The flow is uniform if the parameters describing the flow do not vary with distance along the flow path.1) A in which. unsteady solution is preferred. Water movement in irrigation and drainage system can be steady or unsteady but usually nonuniform.1. On the other hand. Steady flow is usually much easier to analyse and solve than unsteady flow. However. ponds. pipes. This chapter provides general principles and formula that are necessary to support subsequent planning and design chapters involving flow through channels. along the streamline.1 Steady and Unsteady Flow A flow can be considered as steady if the parameters describing the flow (velocity. most of the fluid flows will fall into one of the following categories: • Steady uniform flow (flow through a long pipe of uniform diameter). etc.3 Combination of Flows The two main classifications of flow are not mutually exclusive. depth. Q is flow rate. m3/s). hence the flow is non-uniform. the flow is unsteady if the parameter changes either in magnitude or in direction with respect to time. A is cross-sectional area. sediment and pollutant at rest or in motion. uniform and non-uniform. either in magnitude or in direction. 6. Some materials of this Chapter are adapted from MASMA (DID. 6. 2000). That is why.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6 6. v = velocity through very small area dA and V = mean velocity over the section.1. 6.) at a point remains constant with respect to time. If the flow velocity (V) varies across the section.

and • Unsteady non-uniform flow (flow through a canal during a rainy day). and • Gradually varied Flow (Flow depth changes with space or distance). Let the velocity components in x.1b. Such equations and relationships are very useful for hand calculations and numerical simulation using computer. whereas the HGL of the free surface flow (open channel or closed conduit) is same as that of the water surface. hf Energy line 2 V2 Hydrau lic grad e line 2g y1 v1 2 V1 Center lin e of pipe y1 z1 Datum line (a) Pressurised Flow (b) Free Surface Flow Hydraulic Properties of Conveyance Flow also can be classified into four different categories according to the variability of flow with time and space. with sides having length dx. 6.2 Classification of Flow Flow of water through a conveyance can be in the form of free surface flow (open or close but at atmospheric pressure). pond and porous media. pressurised flow (usually pipe or closed conduit) and porous media flow (groundwater).3.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS • Unsteady uniform flow (pressure surge in pipe of uniform diameter). The main differences in hydraulic properties of free surface and pressurised flow are shown in Figure 6. • Uniform Flow (Flow depth does not change with space or distance). for either steady or unsteady.1.1 Conservation of Mass The differential form of the conservation of mass (matter) in three-dimensional fluid space. which are shortly defined below: • Steady Flow (Flow depth does not change with time). momentum and energy. respectively. y and z direction be u. 6. is derived based on (imaginary) control volume shown in Figure 6. v and w.1.1.3 Governing Equation of Motion The flows in irrigation and drainage system are solved by application of the conservation of flow. mass.1 2g v1 Channel bott om v2 z2 2 V2 v2 y2 z1 hf Energy line Water surface 2g 2g Piezometer tube 2 1 2 1 2 V1 March 2009 . as shown in Figure 6. 6-2 y2 z2 Datum line Figure 6. • Unsteady Flow (Flow depth changes with time).1a). dispersion and settling equations through conveyance. This section presents the general principles. dy and dz. which are later used in developing specific flow. The main difference between the pressurised and free surface flow is that the hydraulic grade line (HGL) of the former is higher than the surface of the pipe (Figure 6.1.2. velocity.Chapter 6 . 6.

This is the most common formula practitioners often use to check the continuity. the equation is reduced to: − ∂(ρu) ∂ (ρv ) ∂ (ρw ) ∂ρ − − = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t (6. The equation is valid if there is no inflow or outflow between the sections and the area must be that of a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow.6) in which the subscripts refer to different section. For steady incompressible fluid flow. the continuity equation can be written as: Q = A 1 V1 = A 2 V2 = A 3 V3 (6. it forms: ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z (6.3. in three dimensions. the sum of the rates of mass inflow to the control volume is equal to the time rate of change of the mass in the control volume. It applies to steady state fluid flows.4) which is the equation of continuity in its most general form. 6. the following energy equation can be written for any two cross sections 1 and 2 of the flow (Figure 6. steady flow.e. Therefore. fluid mass must be conserved. in x-direction the mass flow rate is: ⎧ ∂ρ ⎡ ∂ (ρu) ⎤ ⎫ ρu dy dz − ⎨ρu + ⎢ ⎥ dx ⎬ dy dz = ∂t dxdydz ∂ x ⎣ ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ − ∂ρ ∂ρμ dxdydz = dxdydz ∂t ∂x (6. or irrotational.7) 6-3 .Chapter 6 .5) For steady flow from section to section and average velocity is used for each section.2 o ∂(ρu) dx ∂x dy dx x Flow Control Volume for Conservation of Mass (DID.2) (6.3) For the control volume.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS z dz ρu + ρu w y v u Figure 6.1.3): p1 V12 p V2 + + z1 + E m + E H = 2 + 2 + z 2 + h L 2g γ γ 2g March 2009 (6. i.2 Conservation of Energy The law of conservation of energy is also known as energy equation. 2000) According to the law. The energy equation can be derived from Newton’s second law of motion. For onedimensional.

Chapter 6 . external energy sources and losses are ignored.3 Conservation of Momentum According to the Newton’s second law of motion. 6. The sum of the pressure head and the elevation head is termed the piezometric head. non-uniform flow is: 6-4 March 2009 . EH is the heat energy added. transition flow in pipes and open channels. The energy equation. A momentum equation for an unsteady. siphons. A1. will intercept the kinetic energy of the flow and hence indicate the total energy head. z + p/γ + V2/2g. can be applied to the solution of such problems as jets issuing from a sprinkler. h = (p/γ) + z. flow under a gate. hL V22 /2g V12 /2g P2. which is also known as Bernoulli’s equation: p1 V12 p V2 + + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 = H 2g γ γ 2g (6. and γ is the specific weight (ρg). A pitot tube. z1 and z2 are potential or elevation heads above a certain datum level. is a line drawn through the tops of the piezometer columns. For flow of an ideal fluid. V2 P2 /γ P1. V1 P1/γ Section 2 Z2 Z1 Section 1 Figure 6.8) where H is the total head.3.1. p1 and p2 are pressures at the two sections. or hydraulic grade line (HGL). the time rate of change of momentum between section 1 and 2 in Figure 6. the energy line is horizontal since there is no head loss. flow associated with pumps and flow through porous media. flow over a weir. p1 /γ and p2 /γ are the pressure heads at the two sections. a small open tube with its open end pointing upstream. A2.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS where (V12/2g) and (V22/2g) are velocity heads at sections 1 and 2 respectively. EM is the mechanical energy added between the sections.3 Datum Stream Tube for Conservation of Energy and Momentum If the fluid is assumed to be incompressible (ρ1=ρ2). The h represents the level to which liquid will rise in a piezometer tube. The piezometric head line. g is the gravitational acceleration. the energy equation can be written as follows. The vertical distance from the liquid level in the piezometer tube to that in the pitot tube is V2/2g.3 is equal to the net force applied in a given direction. which contains scalar quantities.

and V1 = flow velocity at the upstream cross section. which can be classified into the following categories: • Uniform or varied (gradually or rapid).11) There are three forces acting on the fluid control volume: friction.dA (6.10) S For a steady uniform flow it results in the forces applied to the system are in equilibrium: ∑F = 0 (6.1. gravity and pressure. Similarly. 6. The free surface flow actually has an interface between two fluids having different specific weights. V2 = flow velocity at the downstream cross section.9) S If non-uniform flow is steady it forms: ∑ F = ∫ V ρ V .12) in which ΣF = vectorial sum of the component of all the external forces acting on the water in the flow direction. culverts and various types of conduits. The non-uniform flow is divided into gradually and rapidly varied flows.d∀ + ∫ VρV. the mass of fluid into the system will be equal to the mass of fluid leaving the system. The most common types of flow in free surface channel in the irrigation and drainage system is steady flow. which can be applied in the irrigation and drainage systems. this conservation theory can be applied to calculate the flow through a branched conveyance network. Assuming the density of the fluids is constant. rapid (supercritical) or critical. Examples of such closed conduits are tunnels. drainage pipes. The momentum equation may be written for a volume of water between two cross sections in onedimensional flow as: ∑ F = ρQ (V 2 − V1 ) (6.Chapter 6 . and • Tranquil (subcritical). flow under free surface condition is generally considered as uniform if the depth of flow is approximately constant in the direction of flow.4 shows various types of free surface flow patterns through a channel. the conservation of energy and momentum theories got various invaluable applications in the numerical analysis of fluid properties. Figure 6. For practical purposes. March 2009 6-5 .4 Application of Conservation Theories According to the conservation of mass. such as air and water. Strictly uniform flow rarely exists. • Laminar or turbulent.dA ∀ (6. 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS d ∑ F = dt ∫ Vρ.2 FREE SURFACE FLOW Free surface flows include not only those which are completely open but also closed conduits which are flowing partly full under atmospheric pressure. The depth of uniform flow is called normal depth (yo).

proposed by Chezy in 1769. just as it does in conduits. may be written as. A few wellknown methods can be applied to determine the hydraulic properties of the flow. which is usually determined by calculating the Froude number (Fr). The most common equations for uniform flow in open channels are the Chezy’s and the Manning’s equations.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Varying depth Varying depth Constant depth Constant depth a) Steady Uniform Flow b) Unsteady Uniform Flow c) Unsteady Gradually Varied Flow (GVF) RVF GVF RVF GVF d) Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow (RVF) GVF RVF GVF RVF GVF e) Flow Patterns along a Channel Profile Figure 6. Hydraulic properties of three most common conveyance systems are given in Table 6. subcitical and supercritical condition.2.1 Steady Uniform Flow Hydraulics of a conveyance system with steady uniform flow is rather simple in nature. Turbulent flow may be over either a smooth boundary or a rough boundary. Depending on the effect of gravitational force.1 Chezy’s Formula This equation.2.1. 6. depending on the relative size of the roughness elements as compared with the thickness of the laminar sublayer.Chapter 6 .4 Various Types of Free Surface Flow Patterns Whether laminar flow or turbulent flow exists in an open channel depends upon the Reynolds number (Re) of the flow.1. which are useful for the steady uniform flow formula. 6. the flow can be in critical. 6-6 March 2009 .

assuming a parabolic distribution of velocity the value of C can be determined by the following equation. the coefficient C is. R Hydraulic mean depth. C= 8g f Table 6. Expressed in terms of the Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient f. In alluvial channels. This equation. R is the hydraulic radius and S is the slope of the channel or the sine of the slope angle. B Hydraulic radius.Chapter 6 . 6. A Wetted perimeter.14) For turbulent flow in wide channel. C g = Re 8 (6.16) Hydraulic Features of the Most Common Conveyance Sections B B B Section y 1 y D d x b Area. For laminar flow in a wide channel.sin 8 sin (1/2 ) D D Manning’s Formula In an effort to correlate and systematise existing data from natural and artificial channels.2.15).1. does not apply near the bed or near the surface of the flow.2 b Rectangle Trapezoid by (b+xy)y b+2y b+2y b+2xy by (b+xy)y y b+2y 1 8 1+x2 (b+xy)y b+2xy ( . the velocity distribution is assumed to be logarithmic (Eq. D m 6. however. P Top width. March 2009 6-7 . the magnitude of C depends upon the form of the boundary roughness.1 (6. and y0 is the total depth.15) where v is the local velocity at a depth y.sin 1 1+x 2 b b+2y Circle D 2 sin 1 8 1- ) D2 2 D sin 1 .13) where V is the mean velocity of flow.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS V = C RS (6. C is the Chezy’s discharge coefficient. Manning in 1889 proposed an equation which was developed into. (v − V ) C = 2 log V 8g y + 0.88 y0 (6.

because they can occur at the same specific head. equation the following relationship can be written.21.20 with respect to y and setting it equal to zero and rearranging to yield: q = gy 3c (6. As a matter of fact. Es = y + V2 2g (6. etc. and the relative roughness have an influence on the magnitude of Manning’s n. Thus the depth of flow for the minimum value of the specific head H is equal to the critical depth yc . the shape of the channel.19 can be plotted to show how the specific energy Es varies with the depth of flow y for progressively increasing values of discharges per unit width: q1. regardless of slope of channel. For nonrectangular channels the equation for critical velocity Vc is. In other words. the Reynolds number.18) This relationship indicates that the Chezy’s discharge coefficient is a function of the Manning’s coefficient and the hydraulic radius. or depth of flow.19 to 6. each of these factors causes n to vary to some extent.5) shows that two different depths can exist with a given specific head H and discharge q. yc = 2 Es 3 (6. 6. Equation 6. q2.17) By comparing this equation with the Chezy’s R1 / 6 n (6.2. depending only upon the boundary conditions of the channel. however. These depths are termed alternate depths.19) For a rectangular channel: Es = y + q2 2gy 2 (6.Chapter 6 . Es is the specific energy and q is discharge per unit width of the channel. In a rectangular channel. At one depth the velocity is high and at the other depth the velocity is low. q3. This diagram (Figure 6. 6-8 March 2009 . The Manning’s n was developed empirically as a coefficient which remained approximately a constant for a given boundary condition. C= (6.22) where Vc is the critical velocity.1.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 1 V = R 2 / 3 S1 / 2 n where n is the Manning’s roughness coefficient. as shown in Figure 6.21) From Equations 6. the critical depth can be evaluated by differentiating Equation 6. but independent of each other.20) where.3 Specific Energy The following specific energy equation is a very useful tool in analysing the flow in open channels.5. It can be shown that this minimum specific head corresponds to the condition of a critical flow. Also of significance is the fact that there is a minimum value of specific head for a given discharge. size of channel.

1.1 Gradually Varied Flow When the cross sections of flow in an open channel varies gradually along the channel so that the resulting changes in velocity take place very slowly and thus the accelerative effects are negligible.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Vc = gA c K eB c (6. the resulting curve forms a specific discharge diagram. In one the changing conditions extend over a long distance. This curve indicates a maximum discharge qmax. 6.2.2. the cross section and top width of the critical flow. with respect to y and setting dq/dy = 0 it can be shown that this maximum discharge occurs at the critical-flow condition and is equal to.20 is plotted as a function of the depth of flow y for a constant specific Energy Es.4 E Specific Energy Diagram Specific Discharge When the discharge q in Equation 6. In the other the change may take place abruptly and the transition is thus confined to a short distance and this is designated as rapidly varied flow. The water surface of a gradually varied flow is called the flow profile or commonly known as the backwater curve. respectively. and Ke is the energy-flux correction coefficient.24) Steady Varied Flow There are two types of non-uniform flow. March 2009 6-9 .23) where Ac and Bc are. y=E y 2 v1 2g Subcritical flow y1 y1 > y c Alternate depths 2 vc yc yc 2g y1 y2 y1 Supercritical flow y 2 <y c 45° E Figure 6.5 6.2 (6. the flow is known as gradually varied flow.2. 3 ⎛2 ⎞ qmax = g ⎜ E s ⎟ = gy 3c ⎝3 ⎠ 6. By differentiating q in Equation 6.Chapter 6 . and this is called gradually varied flow.2.20.

− q2 C2 y 3 = dy ⎛⎜ q2 1− 3 dx ⎜⎝ gy 2 ⎞ ⎟− q ⎟ C2 Y 3 ⎠ o o (6.27) The gradient of total head dH/dx can be set equal to the negative of the slope obtained from the Chezy’s equation.30) If the change in the Chezy’s C is not great from one point to another along the channel. dH Q 2 dA dy dz =− + + dx gA 3 dx dx dx (6. q2/g = yc3. Equation 6. Equation 6.31 it is possible to classify the various flow profiles.28) Furthermore. The subscript “o” represents the uniform-flow condition. or S = (Q/A)2/C2R. and A is the cross section of the flow. 1 − (n / n o ) (y o / y ) dy = So 3 dx 1 − (y c / y ) 2 10 / 3 (6. dy q2 / C 2o y 3o − q2 / C 2 y 3 = 3 dx 1−(y e / y ) (6. However. H =Ke Q2 V2 + y + z =Ke +y+z 2g 2gA 2 (6. and the bed slope is equal to dz/dx = . the ratio Co/C can be considered equal to 1.28 can be rearranged to solve explicitly for dy/dx.27 then becomes. where B is the top width of the cross section of flow.So for uniform-flow conditions. In order to analyse these profiles.30 to yield. so that Q/B = q equal to the discharge per unit width and the hydraulic radius R = A/B = y.25 can be differentiated with respect to x to obtain. the total head H at a channel section can be expressed as. which is the rate of change of the depth of flow with respect to the distance along the channel (Eq. There are several types of flow profiles. a wide rectangular channel can be assumed.Chapter 6 .25) where Ke is the energy-flux correction coefficient. the Manning’s n is usually more nearly constant from section to section.31) Using Equation 6. Q is the discharge. z is the elevation of the channel bed above some arbitrary datum.0. 6-10 March 2009 .29) which simplifies to: 1 − (C o / C ) (y o / y ) dy = So 3 dx 1 − (y C / y ) 2 3 (6. which may occur in open channels. dH Q 2B dy dy dz =− + + dx gA 3 dx dx dx (6.29).26) Let dA = Bdy. however. such as change in slope or cross-sectional shape or an obstruction or from an unbalance between the forces of resistance to retard the flow and the forces of gravity tending to accelerate the flow. y is the depth of flow. Then. 6. Hence Equation 6. so that Equation 6. assuming Ke = 1.17 can be used in Equation 6. Since the variation of these terms with distance x along the channel is desired.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Changes in cross section of the flow may result either from a change in geometry of the channel. For simplicity.(Q/Ao)2/Co2Ro = .

If both yc /y and yo /y are greater than 1.0.0. an S profile exists. March 2009 6-11 . When yo /yc > 1.26 it can be shown that ΔH/ΔL = So – S or. and A2. Hence: 1 − (y o / y ) dy = So 3 dx 1 − (y c / y ) 10 / 3 (6. such as M2. a C profile exists. a step method. the bed slope may be mild.0. If dy/dx is positive. H3 and A3. when yo /yc = 1. For practical purposes. Typical characteristics of a few common water surface profiles are given in Table 6. n/no. or C profiles. If So = 0. S2.31 it can be seen that the slope dy/dx depends upon So. the depth is increasing downstream. For a channel of length ΔL which is sufficiently short so that the water surface can be approximated by a straight line. it is assumed that n/no = 1. steep.0. and if it is negative. In the following analysis. From Equation 6. S1 and C1. then it is type 2.0. A further classification of flow profiles depends upon the ratios yc /y and yo /y. however. or critical and the corresponding flow profiles are M profiles. Table 6. it may be taken as sufficiently accurate for the purpose of this analysis. If the bed slope So is negative. When So > 0. an M profile exists.32) The slope of the channel serves as the primary means of classification. If both yc /y and yo /y are less than 1. Although this assumption is not justified for all conditions.0. C3.32 a mathematical relation can be obtained to represent the surface profile of a gradually varied flow. S3. By geometry or from Equation 6.Chapter 6 . H2. for example. S profiles. the bed rises in the direction of flow.2 y:yo:yc Type Symbol Mild So > 0 So > 0 So > 0 y > yo > yc yo > y > yc yo > yc > y 1 2 3 M1 M2 M3 Critical So > 0 So > 0 So > 0 y > yo = yc y < yo = yc y > yc > yo 1 3 1 C1 C3 S1 So > 0 So > 0 yc > y > yo yc > yo > y 2 3 S2 S3 Horizontal So = 0 So = 0 y > yc yc > y 2 3 H2 H3 Adverse So < 0 So < 0 y > yc yc > y 2 3 A2 A3 Class Steep (ii) Characteristics of Flow Profiles Bed Slope Computation of Backwater Curves By integrating Equation 6. yo /y and yc /y. depending upon the ratio of yo /yc . then the profile is designated as type 1. described below is widely used. and when yo /yc < 1. M1. the depth is decreasing downstream. the bed slope is horizontal and the profiles over it are H profiles. then the profile is type 3. such as M3. and the flow profiles over it are known as A profiles.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS (i) Classification of Flow Profiles The analysis of flow profiles depends first upon the sign of dy/dx.2. This slope is called an adverse slope. If the depth y is between the normal depth yo and the critical depth yc .

2. the average energy gradient. Substituting these quantities and the channel slope So in Equation 6. Rapidly varied flow usually involves wave phenomena. Thus. From a given discharge and channel conditions. produces abrupt changes in depth and velocity over very short distances.35) March 2009 . the entire flow profile or backwater curve can be determined. It should be noted that the step computation should be carried upstream if the flow is tranquil and downstream if the flow is rapid. Non-uniform flow can also be unsteady. The pertinent depth equation for a rectangular channel section is: ( y2 ⎡ = 0. The energy gradient at a channel section can be computed by the Manning’s equation as S = Q2n2/(AR2/3)2.3 Hydraulic Jump The hydraulic jump is a rapidly varied flow phenomenon in which flow in a channel changes abruptly from rapid/supercritical flow at a relatively shallow depth (less than yc) to tranquil/subcritical flow at a greater depth (greater than yc).5⎢ 1 + 8Fr2 y1 ⎣ ) 1/2 ⎤ − 1⎥ ⎦ (6. the computation tends inevitably to make the result diverge from the correct flow profile. the depth of flow at the beginning section should be given or assumed. which preclude the use of uniform flow formulas. or beneath a sluice gate.33. the location of the jump is important because of the potential of unexpected surcharges or channel scour. S = -dH/dx. The hydraulic jump may be employed as a mechanism for the dissipation of excess energy.33 by steps from one end of a reach to the other. For a comprehensive treatment of the computation of flow profiles see Chow (1959). on the other hand. as in the passage of a flow peak or flood wave through an agricultural drain or man-made canal. the length of the reach is computed. the energy loss HL dissipated by the jump is often an important design consideration.Chapter 6 .HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS ΔL = ΔH So − S (6. The step method is characterised by dividing the channel into short reaches and applying Equation 6. the analysis of hydraulic jumps usually has three objectives. By repeating the computation for the subsequent reaches. This can be determined by searching for pipe/channel elements where the flow is supercritical upstream and subcritical downstream.33.6). If carried in the wrong direction. which are the initial and sequent depths. Third. as where a steep conveyance enters a larger conveyance at a junction. Secondly. while the depth after the jump is known as the sequent depth. the specific heads at the two end sections and their difference ΔH and the energy slope at the two end sections and their average are computed. First. So is the slope of the channel bed. 6. The depth before the jump is called initial depth.33) where H is the specific head. The energy lost in the jump.2. The average of the energy gradients at the two end sections of the reach is used for S in Equation 6. through a hydraulic jump. 6. To start the computation. HL is obtained by subtracting the specific energy at section 2 from that at section 1 along the drain: HL = H1 − H2 = 6-12 (y 2 − y1 ) 4y1 y 2 3 (6.34) in which Fr is the Froude Number at the upstream section. The hydraulic jump may be used to avoid scour of earthen channels. respectively (Figure 6.2 Rapidly Varied Flow Rapidly varied flow. as in the case of flow over an emergency spillway. it is important to compute the two depths. y1 and y2 . and S0 = -dz/dx.2.2.

36) Q = Total Discharge F r = Froude Number. The unsteady flow through any conveyance can be gradually varied or rapidly varied. an oscillating jump occurs when 2.E2 = Energy Loss in Jump E2 = Energy Leaving Jump y 1 . 6. y2 = Sequent Depths E1. Length of hydraulic jump in horizontal rectangular channel can be calculated as follows: ⎛F −1⎞ L j = 220y1 tanh⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ 22 ⎠ (6.5.7. y3 = Alternate Depths E2 = y2 + q = Discharge per meter width 2 V2 2g 2 2 1 30 Depth y2 y2 V1 y1 V1 2g C y3 y2 B 20 yj 10 0 Lj E1= y1 - O 10 A 20 30 40 Fr = 1 yc y1 Energy Hydraulic Jump on Horizontal Floor Figure 6.5<Fr<9.5<Fr<4. a weak jump occurs when 1.5.Chapter 6 . The continuity equation for gradually varied unsteady flow in a free surface channel can be written as given in Eq.2. According to Chaudhry (1993). and an undular jump occurs when 1<Fr<1. Unsteady uniform flow is very rare in an open channel.5<Fr<9.6 Gradually Varied Unsteady Flow 6. a strong jump occurs when Fr>9. The curvature of the wave profile in a gradually varied unsteady flow is mild and the change in water depth with respect to time is gradual (Figure 6.40. a steady jump occurs when 4.( V1 / g y1 W = Width of Channel ) E 1 = Energy Entering Jump y j = Height of Jump y c = Critical Depths y 1 .7<Fr<2. the best jumps occur when 4.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS According to Chow (1959). dx Water surface after dt T dA Initial water surface Figure 6.3 Unsteady Flow When the flow varies with time the situation is called unsteady flow.7 March 2009 ∂yy dt t dt ∂t y 0 Waterbody for the Continuity Equation of Gradually Varied Flow 6-13 .7).

Vw = ( A 2 y 2 − A 1 y 1 )g + V1 A 1 (1 − A 1 / A 2 ) (6. kinematic wave equation is valid and applied in which the inflow.9 6-14 (b) Section A-A Elements of Overland Flow to Channel (DID.9).1 y2 VW V1 y1 W A 1 y1 Rapidly Varied Unsteady Flow Overland Flow For overland flow (Figure 6.8 6. q is the total flow and b is the width of the overland flow α and m can be derived under laminar or turbulent flow conditions L A Water Input. The absolute wave velocity (Vw) can be calculated by applying Newton’s second law of motion and it is given in Eq. 1955): 2q ∂y ∂q = (i − f ) + L + b ∂t ∂x (6.2. f is the infiltration rate. Velocity of the mass of water between the gate and propagating wave front increases from V1 to V2 and the momentum increases accordingly.3.37. 2000) March 2009 . as shown in Figure 6. respectively (Lighthill and Whitham.39) Where i is the water input. The solution of these overland flow problems is thus contained in the following continuity and momentum equations.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS One of the most common cases of occurring rapidly varied unsteady flow is due to sudden opening of a gate in the open channel. free surface slope and inertia terms of the momentum equation are all negligible in comparison to those of bottom slope and friction.38) q = αy m (6.37) 1 2 Gate h V2 W A 2 y2 Figure 6.Chapter 6 . there will be fluctuations in depth and roughness such that the flow regime may vary from laminar to turbulent.8. For a typical land surface. 6. f ΔX q (a) Plan Figure 6. i A Agricultural Runoff b qL qL Infiltration.

March 2009 6-15 .43) where. Boundary and initial conditions apply only to solution of the continuity equation.41) For flow in vegetated drain/small stream. 6. The continuity equation for small stream can be written as: ∂A ∂Q = (i − f )(b + 2δy ) + 2qL + ∂t ∂x (6. Therefore the velocity distribution changes from section to section. Q is discharge and δy is slope.2.2 Open Channel Flow In channel flow both the inertia and pressure forces are important and if inflow terms are negligible and for a wide channel/shallow water the following equations govern: Continuity equation: D ∂V ∂y ∂y +V + =0 ∂x ∂x ∂t (6. 6. 6. 6. Water flows in a shallow pond usually predominant in horizontal plane and variation of velocity and density in vertical direction are small enough to be neglected.3. thus Froude Number can be greater than or less than unity. thus.1 Laminar Flow Newton’s law of viscosity can be used to evaluate shear stress in terms of velocity of flow through a pressurised conduit having laminar flow. continuous along the stream axis.42) where. 6.43) can be derived from the Newton’s law to calculate head loss in the pipe due to friction in laminar flow region. generally. hf is the friction loss. changes in water surface profile will be caused only by changes in local flow rate and will be transmitted in the direction in which a kinematic wave propagates.7). Momentum equation: τ ∂y ∂V ∂V +V + g = − 0 + gθ ∂t ∂x ∂x ρy (6.3. are rainfall.3 Flow through Ponds Small water bodies where ratio of depth over horizontal dimension is much less than 1.0 are considered shallow and they are subject to circulation created by inflow-outflow. A is the cross sectional area and T is the top width of the channel (Figure 6.3 PRESSURISED FLOW Flow in pressurised conduits.2. It is. therefore.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS The dynamic uniformity of this approach precludes solution which exhibit changes in surface profile due to dynamic variations.Chapter 6 . At the upstream end of a pipe there is a region of flow development in which the boundary layer is developing and the flow is technically varied (non-uniform).40) where. 2000).3. adequate to adopt the depth averaged (vertically integrated) two-dimensional dynamic equations to solve the field problems (DID. involves a combination of laminar or turbulent flow over smooth or rough surfaces. hf = 32VLμ ρgD 2 (6. f is the friction factor. A is flow cross-section. Hagen-Poiseuille formula (Eq. the class of channelised flows to which the only significant inputs. infiltration and overland flow. D=A/T.

Re and e/D is called Moody diagram (Figure 6. which is given in Equation 6. it gives increasingly inaccurate results as the shape of conduit differs more and more from circular.000 the flow is laminar and f = 64/Re. For laminar flow.14 − 2 log ⎜ + ⎜D R f e f ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (6.2 Turbulent Flow Darcy-Weisbach formula (Eq. can be solved by Moody diagram if the hydraulic radius equivalent to that of a circular pipe (R = D/4) is used.0055⎢1 + ⎜ + ⎢ ⎜⎝ D Re ⎣ 6-16 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (6. Re is unimportant and then f depends on e/D alone.000 to approximately Re = 3. For turbulent flow.44) can be used to calculate the friction loss in a pipe during the turbulent flow.500 indicates an indefinite transition for flow to change from laminar to turbulent. 6. 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS When Re is less than 2. The region between Re = 2. the relative roughness is unimportant and hence f depends on Re alone.10). a trapezoid. This equation can be used to calculate very good results for commercial pipes. 6.01.8 (6. In this diagram the roughness e for various pipe materials and inside coatings is given (Chow. this use of hydraulic radius gives reasonably accurate results. the laminar sublayer is penetrated by roughness elements and the flow becomes turbulent. the above two equations can be combined to produce the following semi-empirical form. Moody also presented an explicit formula for f.000< Re< 107 and for e/D < 0.44 may also be applied to uniform and nearly uniform flows in open channel (Chow.000e 10 6 f = 0. The average value of the range of e should be used unless additional information gives reason to use the smaller or larger values of the range.44) The value of friction factor (f) depends upon the Reynolds number and the relative roughness e/D.47) Pipes having a noncircular cross section but a simple geometrical shape.14 e (6. ⎡ ⎛ 20. 1959). where e is the average size of the roughness element.Chapter 6 .48) March 2009 . For laminar flow or for turbulent flow with a smooth surface. hf = fL V 2 x D 2g (6. For turbulent flow. When Re increases. which is known as the Colebrook-White equation (Eq.35 = 1.46) For the transition from smooth to rough surface.3. or an ellipse which does not differ markedly from circular. Equation 6. the resistance coefficient can be estimated from the following von Kármán-Prandtl equations: For turbulent boundary layer over smooth surface: 1 f ( = 2 log R e ) f − 0. however. ⎛ e 9. such as a rectangle.47). 1959).48. This equation can predict f up to ±5% for 4.45) For turbulent boundary layer over rough surface: 1 f = 2 log D + 1. The graphical relationship between f. For a rough boundary.

Figure 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS March 2009 6-17 .10 Moody Diagram Chapter 6 .

A provides entry and exit loss coefficients Ke to be applied to the velocity head.3. The pressure head change is convenient for use in HHGL calculations (DID. The design charts in Appendix 6.3. etc. The two figures are likely to be different because of different pipe diameters and flow rates upstream and downstream.1 Junctions The pressure head loss is a function of the velocity head (V2/2g) of the flow in the conduit downstream of the junction. ΔP/γ = pressure head change at a junction (m) Ku = pressure change coefficient (dimensionless) Note that Equation 6. • angle of change of direction. 2000).50 gives the pressure head change.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6.3. • pipe diameters. h e = K e × V02 / 2g (6. bend or junction as follows: 2 h s = K × Vo / 2g where.Chapter 6 .51) where. 6-18 March 2009 .3 Head Losses Losses due to obstructions.3. 6. • relative diameter of obstruction. an allowance for head loss should be made.3.49) hs = head loss at structure (m) K = pressure change coefficient (dimensionless) V0 = velocity of flow in the downstream pipe (m/s) Pressure change coefficients K (sometimes referred to as structure loss coefficients) are dependent on many factors. not the energy change. 6.3. for example: • junction structure geometry.2 Inlets and Outlets Where the inlet structure is an endwall (with or without wingwalls) to a pipe or culvert. thus: ΔP = K u × V 2 / 2g γ (6.3.3 Bends Under certain circumstances it may be permissible to deflect the pipeline (either at the joints or using precast mitred sections) to obviate the cost of junction structures and to satisfy functional requirements. bends or junctions in pipelines may be expressed as a function of the velocity of flow in the pipe immediately downstream of the obstruction. (6. he = head loss at entry or exit (m) Ke = entry or exit loss coefficient V0 = velocity in pipe (m/s) 6.50) where. • bend radius.

A. V in the downstream pipe. Designers should be aware that the pressure change coefficient and therefore the head loss at the junction may be different for the main line and the branch line.A.4 Obstructions or Penetration An obstruction or penetration in a pipeline may be caused by a transverse (or near transverse) crossing of the pipe by a service or conduit. 2000) March 2009 6-19 . Pressure change coefficients for junctions with branch line connections should be determined from the design charts in Appendix 6. Design Chart 6.52) where. h p = K p × V 2 / 2g (6. DU DO QU QO D Q L L Figure 6. To facilitate the removal of debris.3.11.3. hp = head loss at penetration (m) Kp = pressure change coefficient of penetration Where a manhole is provided at an obstruction or penetration it is necessary to add the structure loss and the loss due to the obstruction or penetration based upon the velocity. a manhole should be provided at the obstruction or penetration. such obstruction should be avoided as they are likely sources of blockage by debris and damage to the service. energy loss is a function of the velocity head and may be expressed as: h b = K b × V 2 / 2g The (6.5 Branch Lines without a Structure Where branch connections are unavoidable. The pressure change coefficient KP at the penetration is a function of the blockage ratio. with variables shown in Figure 6.11 Branch Line for Pipe System (DID. Note that the head loss due to the bend is additional to the friction loss for the reach of pipe being considered. 6. 6.A4 in Appendix 6.Chapter 6 . which is then applied to the velocity head.A should be used to derive the pressure change coefficient.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Where pipelines are deflected an allowance for energy loss in the bends should be made. Where possible. hb = head loss through bend (m) Kb = bend loss coefficient Values of bend loss coefficients for gradual and mitred bends are given in the design charts in Appendix 6.53) where.3. appropriate allowance for head loss at the junction should be made.3.

the form losses caused by pressure resistance may be of major importance. need to be installed as part of a temporary arrangement in a system being modified or upgraded. 1 1 2 (a) At a sudden enlargement 1 1 2 (b) At a sudden contraction Figure 6. and each of the others involves both shear and pressure resistance to make up the form losses.13): Va2 pa V2 p + + za = b + b + zb + hL 2g γ 2g γ (6. For instance a compound pipe may consist of an entrance.55) hL 45 (bend loss) + h f 5 (pipe loss) + hL 57 (gradual expansion loss) + hL 67 (exit loss) Each of the losses must be determined by the methods already discussed.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6. a sudden contraction. a gradual expansion. a bend. an outlet and pipes of different diameters. They may. Each of these items involves a head loss.7 Compound Pipes The principles presented in all the forgoing discussion can be used in combination to solve problems involving compound pipe.A. a sudden expansion.6 Expansion and Contractions Sudden expansion or contractions in pipelines should normally be avoided. These form losses are sometimes called minor losses.3.3.12 Sudden Expansion and Contraction (DID.3. For shorter pipe however. then hL is the sum of all the losses: hL (total loss) = hL 01 (entrance loss) + h f1 (pipe loss) + hL12 (expansion loss) + h f 2 (pipe loss) + hL 23 (contraction loss) + h f 3 (pipe loss) + hL 3 (manhole loss) + h f 4 (pipe loss) + (6. 6. or in a relief drainage scheme. and then added together to get hL.44 is large compared to K. 2000) The pressure change due to the expansion or contraction can be derived using the energy loss coefficients determined from the design charts in Appendix 6. The straight pipe involves friction resistance. however. The entrance loss coefficient should be applied to the absolute value of the difference between the two velocity heads.Chapter 6 . a manhole. Expansions and contractions (Figure 6. The energy equation may be written for sections a and b (Figure 6.54) If the upstream inlet is chosen as section a and the downstream reservoir as b. Such a term represents the true situations literally when the pipeline is relatively long and the friction loss coefficient f (L/D) in Equation 6. 6-20 March 2009 .3.12) also can occur at the outlet and inlet of a pipe drainage system.

13 Energy Diagram for Compound Pipe (DID.3. 2000) There are three different flow conditions for the continuity equation.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS h L01 hf2 hf1 2 V /2g h L12 p 0 h L23 hf3 h L34 Velocity Head h f5 h L45 Piezometric Head 1 hL h4 h f6 Manhole 3 2 4 5 z 6 7 Main Branch z=0 Datum Figure 6.14 Branched Pipelines (DID. 6. so that the piezometric head line for pipe b slopes downward to the right and Qa = Qb + Qc flow from pipes a and b into pipe c. as shown by broken lines. A B Inlet a b Pj .4 Varied Pipe Flow In varied (non-uniform) flow the changes in velocity result in a change in momentum flux.3.Qb + Qa Junction c + Qc C Reservoir Figure 6. so that the piezometric head line for pipe b is horizontal and Qa = Qc while Qb = 0.14) can be considered as the water-surface elevations in three inlets/reservoirs.8 Branched Pipes In the case of a branched pipe system the flow into the junction must equal the flow out of the junction. b and c (in Figure 6. with no flow in pipe b.Chapter 6 . which is accomplished only by pressures against the fluid in addition to the pressures. Furthermore the piezometric head at the junction is common for all three pipes. The three piezometric readings at a. so that the piezometric head line for pipe b slopes downward to the left and Qa + Qb = Qc flow from pipe a into pipe c.3. any one of which may be applicable for a given problem. 2000) 6. Each flow condition depends upon the slope of the hydraulic gradient as follows: • • • flow from pipe a into pipes b and c. since the velocity head is considered as insignificant in these problems when compared with the head losses due to boundary resistance. which would be March 2009 6-21 .

v L Figure 6.57. zones of separation and secondary flow frequently result. Since the foregoing changes in velocity and the resulting head losses are caused by non-uniform distribution of pressures on the boundary. and V is mean velocity of flow.44) and assuming that the losses occurs mainly due to friction and head loss due to velocity at the nozzle outlet.3. The form losses can be expressed as: hL = K V2 2g (6. a tapered mouthpiece which is fixed at the outlet end of a pipe to increase the exit velocity of water. the losses are termed structural/form losses because of pressure resistance and the associated changes (usually increases) in shear resistance.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS associated with uniform flow. Such high velocity is required to spray the water to a long distance or height (Figure 6. Hence head losses hL result. then velocity of water at the tip of the nozzle can be calculated from Eq.5. 2gH v= 1+ (6. The small opening of the nozzle converts the pressure into velocity (kinetic) head at the exit point.15 Spraying Water through Nozzle D.16) can be calculated using Darcy-Weisbach formula (Equation 6. and this consequently increases the shear and the turbulence at the expense of the piezometric head.16 A Typical Nozzle 6-22 March 2009 .56) where K is called the form-loss coefficient. usually. If the lost head of water is H.3. 6. 6.1 Velocity through a Nozzle Velocity at the tip of the nozzle (Figure 6. d and D are the nozzle and pipe diameters.Chapter 6 . Figure 6. When such changes in velocity occur.5 Nozzle Flow A nozzle is. V d.15). 6.57) 4 fLd2 D3 where.

⎡ 4 fLd2 v 2 ⎤ P = γQ ⎢H − x ⎥ 2g ⎥⎦ D3 ⎢⎣ (6. where u is the velocity of fluid (Figure 6.59) Pressure Surge Sudden change in discharge in pressurised flow system can result in pressure surge (water hammer) which propagate from the source in the forward (for pump) or backward (for valve) direction.3.58) Diameter of a nozzle to transfer maximum amount of power can be determined by differentiating P with respect to d and equating to zero (0).2 Power Transmission through a Nozzle Flow through a nozzle can be used to transfer power from one place to another.17). Equation 6.5. if the velocity of flow is reduced suddenly by a control valve at any downstream point then the rate of change of momentum will be.Chapter 6 . Now.3. For the sake of simplicity. Such water hammer may cause significant damage to the hydraulic structures and machines if appropriate measures are not taken to reduce pressure surge in fast flowing conduits. sudden closer of gates and valves and sprinkler irrigation systems.62) 6-23 . Therefore.60) surge pressure line static pressure line F = pA hydraulic gradient (a) Pipeline system hL rl h p (b) Surge pressure at valve Figure 6.6 1/4 (6.58.57 can be modified to calculate power transmission P (in kW) by Eq. The resulting equation is ⎛ D5 ⎞ ⎟ d=⎜ ⎜ 8fL ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6.. 6.61) (6. dM du = ρAL dt dt (6. The most common occurrence of water hammer in an irrigation and drainage system are operation of pumps.17 Surge for Incompressible Fluid (Andrew et al. F = δpA = ρAL du dt δp L du = δh = ρg g dt March 2009 (6. if the fluid is assumed to be incompressible mass of liquid in a pipeline of length L will be ρAL and the momentum will be ρALu. 2004) So the force (F) exerted by the valve will be equal to the area of the valve plate (A) times the instantaneous increase in pressure (δp) due to the surge in the pipeline.

δp = f(du/dt). p+ p (a) Instant of valve closure c = celerity of shock wave x (= tc ) p p+ p uo u=0 t = x/c (where t = tim after closure) shock wave (b) Passage of shock wave p+ p u=0 t = L/c (c) Fluid compressed throughout pipe c p p+ p uo L/c < t < 2L/c (d) Decompression -uo t = 2L/c (e) Fluid decompressed throughout pipe p .p u=0 t = 3L/c (f) Negative pressure throughout pipe Figure 6.18 Propagation of Shockwave through a Pipeline (Andrew et al. i.Chapter 6 . the pressure surge travels linearly with distance and propagate upstream of the valve. increase in pressure depends on the rate at which the valve is closed. For incompressible liquids.e. 2004) 6-24 March 2009 .HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS As L is constant in a pipe network.

(6. which are sufficiently rigid (incompressible. These losses need to be considered appropriately to determine the head losses at various points of the pipe network. Proper selection of such valve would minimise the problems associated with surge and water hammer in pressurised pipe network. unsteady.63) δp = cρu o The effect of surge pressure can be minimised by closing the valve slowly. Parmakian (1963) and Wylie and Streeter (1995).Chapter 6 . qi qi hLi hLi (a) Loop Network (b) Nodal Network Figure 6. exit. 6. unconfined and purged).19 Typical Simple Pipe Networks 6.19) can be solved by applying the energy balance and continuity equation for flow. such as entrance. expansions. Depending on the moisture condition.1 Darcy’s Law Darcy’s law was founded based on saturated sand column experiment. etc. valves.4 GROUNDWATER FLOW Hydraulics for groundwater is more complex compared to the open channel and pressurised flow system.4. flow and other hydraulic parameters of a complex pipe network (low or high pressure).HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS The shockwave generated due to water hammer is shown in Figure 6. transient. as shown in Figure 6. The hydraulics of groundwater also depends on the type of aquifer (confined. Surge protection valves are available in the market. 6. the increase in pressure due to water hammer can be calculated using Eq. which again varies with the temperature. parallel and branched pipelines of various sizes.3. 1856). Detail information on the surge in closed conduits can be available in the works done by Fox (1989). contractions. the hydraulics are different and can be classified as saturated. etc. c) of sound through air. Losses occurs at various locations of the piping system. steady. It is also assumed that the shock wave propagates at the speed (celerity. Simple pipe networks (as shown in Figure 6.63. unsaturated (vadose zone). Hardy-Cross (1936) method or computer software (Creasy. Under steady condition/macroscopic section specific discharge or Darcy’s velocity/Darcy’s flux: March 2009 6-25 . bends. The maximum cavitation will occur when the closure time (t) is less then 2L/c.18. where L is the distance from the source of water hammer or surge. 6. 1982) can be used to quickly determine the pressure. Assuming water is compressible to some extent and it flows through conduits. application of mass balance theory and momentum equation.20a (Darcy. compared to water). the pipe network of an irrigation and drainage system can consists of series.7 Hydraulics for Pipe Network Depending on the distribution and collection system. Groundwater movement within various aquifers depends on the permeability (K) of the media.

To define the actual flow velocity. saturated or unsaturated and steady or transient The hydraulic head or fluid potential h = z + ψ is basic to an understanding of porous media flow and is a classical formulation of energy conservation or Bernoulli’s equation. Referring to Figure 6. one must consider the microstructure of the material. Darcy’s law is valid for porous media flow in any direction. just as for steady flow in conveyances.66) where n = porosity.65) where.20 Parameters for Darcy’s Law and Darcy Manometer Microscopic or pore velocity: vn = V n (6. 1 .HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Δh Δl V =K (6. h .Chapter 6 .67) This equation is applicable for steady saturated or unsaturated flows.20b. total discharge (flow) through the column would be: Q = AK Δh Δl (6. 6-26 March 2009 . This indicates that for a sand with a porosity of 33 %. vn = 3V. A = cross-sectional area of flow (m2) V = Darcy’s velocity (mm/hr) K = hydraulic conductivity (m/hr) Δh/Δl = hydraulic gradient Δl = distance (m) Q h . the total head would be: H=z+ ψ + V2 2g (6.64) Assuming laminar flow. l 2 z2 z1 h2 h1 Q Cross Section A z Datum z=0 Datum (a) Experimental Setup for Darcy’s Law (b) Darcy Manometer Figure 6.

70) or in independent variable θ it is: ∂ ⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ∂θ +K⎟= ⎜D ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ∂t (6. and K = K(θ). 1979) Darcy’s flux for steady vertical unsaturated flow in isotropic media is: V = − K (ψ) 6.69) where C(ψ) is the specific moisture capacity ∂θ/∂ψ In one-dimensional form (z-direction) the Equation 6.68) Transient Flow For general three-dimensional flow in an elemental control volume the equation of continuity gives (Richards.21 Parameters for Steady Unsaturated Flow (Freeze and Cherry. In unsaturated flow both moisture content θ and hydraulic conductivity K are functions of ψ.69 reduces to: ∂ ∂z ⎡ ∂ψ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞⎤ + 1 ⎟⎥ = C(ψ ) ⎢K (ψ )⎜ ∂ z ∂t ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ (6. 1931): ∂ψ ⎤ ∂ ⎡ ⎢K (ψ ) ∂x ⎥ + ∂y ⎣ ⎦ ∂ψ = C(ψ ) ∂t ∂ ∂x ⎡ ∂ψ ⎤ ∂ ⎡ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞⎤ + 1 ⎟⎥ ⎢K (ψ ) ⎥ + ⎢K (ψ )⎜ ∂ ∂ ∂ y z z ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6.Chapter 6 . θ = θ(ψ).1 Steady Flow In vadose zone it reflects that the water is held in media pores under surface-tension forces with pressure head ψ < 0 and termed as suction head or negative (-ve) pressure head.2 ∂(ψ + z) ∂z (6.4.2 Unsaturated Flow 6.71) where D is the soil water diffusivity. h +ve 0 h1 1 h2 Saturated A Pressure Head. March 2009 6-27 .4.2. K = K(ψ).21a). 0 +ve -ve Unsaturated 1 A Tension-Saturated h2 2 h3 Datum 3 (a) Tensiometer Variables (b) Variation of Pressure and Hydraulic Head Figure 6. K(∂ψ/∂θ) or K(ψ)/C(ψ).2. Measurement of suction head is obtained using tensiometers (Figure 6. h1 1 2 =0 2 h3 3 3 Direction of Water Flow Hydraulic Head.4.

22 Saturated Groundwater Flow 6-28 March 2009 .4. in steady or transient conditions.74) K.1 Steady Flow The following equation is derived for steady shallow infiltration that has achieved saturated conditions in a homogeneous porous column (Figure 6.73 is nonlinear because of h∂h/∂x and for possible solution it is linearised into h2.y.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6. forming the following PDE: ∂ 2h2 ∂x 2 where T R S K = = = = + ∂ 2h2 + ∂y 2 2R S ∂h 2 = K T ∂t (6.22b).72) where. The watertable or the aquifer storage capability to react with the designed infiltration/recharge magnitude can be analysed using the following nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) in general two-dimensional form (Boussinesq.Chapter 6 .4.2 Unsteady Flow Infiltration or groundwater movement.3.22a): q1 − 2 ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎛P ⎞ ⎜⎜ + Z1 ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ 2 + Z 2 ⎟⎟ γ ⎠ ⎝ γ ⎠ = AK ⎝ Z1 − Z 2 (6.h (Transmissivity) infiltration/recharge rate storativity or specific yield Sy saturated conductivity Recharge Source h P1 R 1 K t+ P2 q Z1 t Phreatic Aquifer 2 Z2 Datum (a) Steady Flow t h (x.3. into underlying unconfined (phreatic) aquifers can have impact on the watertable (Figure 6.3 Saturated Flow 6. 6.4.S Impermeable Base (b) Unsteady Flow Figure 6. 1904): ∂ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ∂h ⎜⎜ Kh ⎟⎟ + R = S ⎜ Kh ⎟ + ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂t (6. q = flow and A = cross-sectional area of flow.t) K.73) The Equation 6.

The physical situation of the well hydraulics in an unconfined aquifer is schematically shown in Figure 6. unconfined aquifer is the most relevant for watertable management and. Solution of the equation (6. the flow is assumed to be radial with a horizontal watertable.Chapter 6 .77) 2L Water table h1 L h2 Impermeable membrance Figure 6. flow for unit width will be (from Eq.4. q ' =K (h12 − h 22 ) (6. 1979).24. The model is important for use in the planning of subsurface drainage facilities especially in watertable management schemes. dy dl q = Kyy (6. coupling unsaturated-saturated equations. q' = q L ∫ 0 dL = K h1 ∫h y dy (6. The yield and permeability of an unconfined aquifer can be determined by performing a pumping test from a well with observation wells similar to that done for the confined aquifers. 6. The flow rate can be calculated following the relationship given in Equation 6.4.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS The Equation 6. However. analytical or numerical. therefore.81.6 Unconfined Well Flow Hydraulics Hydraulic of radial flow is important in the analysis and design of aquifer yield for irrigation water from wells. area A will be equal to depth y.23. is useful in comprehensive unconfined aquifer modelling system for a regional irrigation scheme.4.76) 2 Integration over h2 to h1 results in the following relationship.77 is valid for impermeable or clay horizontal base. So. Freeze (1971) described the integrated mathematical model using unsaturated and saturated flow equations. In this case.5 Unconfined Aquifer Flow Darcy’s law also can be applied for unconfined or phreatic aquifers.4 Combined Flow An integrated flow. 6.23 Hydraulic Nature of Unconfined (Phreatic) Aquifer 6. March 2009 6-29 . is usually achieved based on Dupuit Forcheimer assumptions.74). 6. which is shown in Figure 6. hydraulics of unconfined well is discussed here. upward or downward. In practical situation sometime however the base is semipermeable or leaky and in such case leakage flow.75) Total flow for the whole width considered will be.68). which is known as Dupuit equation. Assuming area varies along the path of flow and for unit width. be incorporated into the equation. Hydraulics of pumping wells are well established and applicable to both unconfined and confined aquifers under steady or transient conditions (Bear.

Chapter 6 .25). The flow of saltwater intrusion is limited to coastal areas.79) Aquifers can be multi-layered. which provide better results compared to manual calculation..24 Schematic of an Unconfined Aquifer Drawdown 6. To prevent salt water intrusion.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Q=Kπ (h12 − h 22 ) ln(r1 / r2 ) (6. saltwater intrusion proceeds inland. The models are based on 3-D or 2-D numerical equations.80) March 2009 . hs = γf hf (γ s − γ f ) (6. The interface of fresh and salt water approximately varies by 40d from the sea level. as shown in Figure 6. 1997). is produced by the pump. Pumping of fresh water from a coastal aquifer reduces the water pressure and intensifies the effect..78) r2 r1 r Water table before pumping dh curve Drawdown cureve during pumping d r Observation wells h h2 h1 Test well Impermeable layer Figure 6.25. extensive monitoring schemes and numerical models are used to assess how much water can be pumped without causing such effects. unfit for irrigation. drawing salt water into new areas. The governing equations are given by. 1985). Then saltwater.4. in some cases reaching the pumped well (Figure 6. for which the salt water movement is simulated by approximate equations for fresh-saltwater interface (Inouchi et al. Interface of the salt water intrusion (depth of saline water from soil surface) can be determined by the simple equation given below. when d is the depth of fresh watertable above the sea level (Martin et al.7 Watertable Management in Coastal Areas It is a groundwater hydraulic process by which salt water (from the sea) flows inland towards a freshwater aquifer. This phenomenon is caused due to rapid groundwater withdrawal for coastal irrigation or due to less flow from the river and through the soils. γ (Q + I) S ∂η eff ∂ ∂η eff ∂ ∂η eff (k x ) + (k y )− s w = d ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y (λ s − γ f )d 2 6-30 (6. When freshwater levels drop.

γf and γs are densities of fresh and salt waters. η eff = γ s (η − H* ) (ξ / d) 2 1 + − (λ s − γ f )d 2 2 (6.83) G =ξ/d ⎛γ H* = d + ⎜⎜ f ⎝ γs ⎞ ⎟⎟ (H − d) ⎠ (6. ξ is the thickness of saltwater layer. d and n are the storage coefficients. Qw and I are combined pumping and leakage amounts of fresh and saltwater. H is the height of the sea level. Qs and Is are pumping and leakage amounts of saltwater. porosity of the aquifer.25 Example of Saltwater Intrusion Process March 2009 6-31 . thickness. η piezometric head.81) in which S. Water table hf Sea level Zon Hs s e of diffu sion Saltwater h s (int erfa ce) P f Fresh water Fresh water Well Water table Cone of depression Sea level Fresh water Cone of ascension Salt water intrusion Figure 6. (6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS γ s (Q w + I) ∂G ∂ ⎡ ∂ ⎧ eff 1 ∂ ⎡ ∂ ⎧ eff 1 2 ⎫⎤ 2 ⎫⎤ = ⎨η − (1 − G} ⎬⎥ + ⎨(η − (1 − G) ⎬⎥ ⎢K x G ⎢k y G 2 ∂t ∂x ⎣ ∂x ⎩ ∂y ⎩ 2 2 (λ s − γ f )d ⎭⎦ ∂y ⎣ ⎭⎦ − γs (λ s − γ f ) d 2 (Q s + I) (6. ks and ky are hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer in x and y directions.84) where.Chapter 6 .82) where. Effective piezometric head (ηeff) is defined by.

Chapter 6 . and that mainly due to concentration gradient is called diffusion. as shown by the vertical dotted line in Figure 6. the substance will be carried to a greater distance near the centre than near the walls. Let us assume that at time to. the relative concentration at the outlet of the constituent front will first appear at time t1. or nuclear transformation. while others move slower.26(b). as shown in Figure 6. laminar flow through a pipe. The velocity distribution in this flow at a cross section is parabolic.e. solid particles or other materials. due to dispersion and diffusion. The mass of diffusing constituent per unit time passing through a given cross section in a stationary fluid is proportional to the concentration gradient. Thus.26(d). it will appear as shown in Figure 6. In order to illustrate these concepts. 6. Due to mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. Due to higher flow velocity at the centre of the pipe. which is defined as the mass of substance per unit volume of water.86) March 2009 .85) where. The time variation of C/Co will plot as a step function. may be contaminants.26a). Let the flow velocity be U and let the concentration of a constituent be initially zero. Let a substance be introduced across the pipe cross section. Let us designate the concentration at any location in the pipe by C. These substances. C/Co. In order to plot the results in nondimensional form.5 POLLUTANT TRANSPORT In order to investigate environmental concerns. the material will be dispersed due to non-uniform velocity distribution (Figure 6. we shall first define commonly used terms and then present the equation of transport of a constituent as well as particulate settling in a fluid. referred to as constituents. let us consider steady uniform flow through a pipe. F = mass flux per unit time per unit area D = diffusion coefficient C = constituent concentration dC/dx = concentration gradient Fick’s law is based on molecular transport and states that a substance tends to equalise its distribution. artificial tracers.. let us consider uniform. is not absorbed or adsorbed. If the constituent is conservative and there is no dispersion and diffusion. The motion. settlement and retention of various substances in surface water and porous media. Dispersion caused entirely by the motion of the fluid is referred to as mechanical dispersion. some of the constituent particles move faster than the average flow velocity.5. The transport of a constituent due to bulk motion of the fluid is called advection. If we plot the relative concentration at different times as the front moves through the pipe. we introduce at the upstream end of the pipe a constituent such that concentration Co is maintained at the pipe entrance. biological. and does not undergo chemical. However. then the constituent will propagate as plug flow. A constituent is said to be conservative if it does not decay. diffusion and dispersion. This is known as Fick’s First Law and may be expressed as: F=−D dC dx (6. it flows from a zone of high concentration to a zone of low concentration. i. we will use relative concentration. In this section. The advection equation for a conservative substance may be written as: ∂C ∂C +U =O ∂t ∂x 6-32 (6. specialists are usually called upon to study the transport.26(c).1 Definitions The amount of substance in water is specified by the concentration C.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6. pollutants. To illustrate different processes. spreading and settling of a mass may be due to advection. The spreading of the constituent and its resulting dilution is due to hydrodynamic dispersion.

e. Net rate of change of mass of constituent March 2009 = efflux of constituent out of the element influx of constituent into the element + loss or gain of constituent due to reactions 6-33 . 1979) Governing Equations It is necessary for the constituent within an elemental volume to satisfy the law of conservation of mass. t (b) Breakthrough 1 First Appearance C/Co 0 With Dispersion Effect t1 t2 Time.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS in which U = mean fluid velocity. The Peclet number is the ratio of diffusion to advection over the characteristic length L. t (c) 1 C/Co 0 X (d) Figure 6.. i.5. A small Peclet number indicates that the transport of a substance is mainly due to diffusion (Liggett.26 6. Continuous Inflow of Constituent at Co after to Outflow at C after t Flow X (a) 1 C/Co 0 to Time.2 Dispersion in One-dimensional Flow (Freeze and Cherry. 1994).Chapter 6 .

94) March 2009 . α L = 0.92) α T = 0.89) in which h = flow depth. The equation for two-dimension is: ∂HC ∂HUxC ∂HUyC ∂2C ∂2C + + = HDx 2 + HDy 2 ± ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x 6-34 ∑HR (6.: DL = αL V (6. along with the fact that partitioning may take place in porous media due to the presence of solid particles. Note that this form of mass conservation is valid for transport in pipes. Ro = pipe radius u* = shear velocity For dispersion in free surface flow condition. open channel. The main difference is in the manner in which the dispersion is quantified in each system.93u∗h (6. i. The U. 6. 1975): D = 10. the following equation (Holly. This equation is called advection-dispersion equation. The dispersion coefficient D for pressurised flow may be determined from the following equation (Holly.1x r (6.S.88) where. ponds and porous media.90) DT =αTV (6. 1985) may be used to estimate D: D = 5.87) In which R is the reaction rate and S is the source term.93) where xr is the transport distance from the source. 1986).e.S.91) in which αL and αT are the longitudinal and transverse dispersivities and V is the seepage velocity.1 R o u* (6.33α L (6. which requires consideration of flow patterns and hydraulic routing.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS We may combine the different transport processes to obtain the following general equation for onedimensional flow: ∂C ∂C ∂ ⎛ ∂C ⎞ +U = ⎜ D ⎟ + RC + S ∂t ∂x ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ (6. one speaks of longitudinal and transverse dispersion.Chapter 6 . As the hydraulics in a pond is significant along the three directions the flow and mass transport equation must be solved in two or three-dimensions.5. In porous media. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency suggests the following expressions (U.3 Transport Hydraulics in Ponds A significant amount of pollutants are removed in ponds or lakes.

This procedure is solved together with Continuity Equation and Momentum Equation. Infiltration drives contamination into the soil through the vadose zone which extends from the ground surface to the watertable and then past the watertable to the groundwater zone in which the chemicals may be transported laterally for distances of thousands of feet or meters. For protection of public health and the environment. The presence of air in the soil complicates not only water flow but also flow of immiscible fluids such as hydrocarbons which may vaporise. In some cases losses through adsorption of the contamination on the soil. Finally.96d) are depth-averaged velocity components and n is the Manning’s roughness Transport Hydraulics in Porous Media As rainfall percolates into the soil.96c) (6.Chapter 6 . Understanding these factors helps in identifying proper agricultural runoff disposal sites and determining suitable remediation methods for contaminated sites. R is a reactive term and for particulate pollutants (e. term R is determined by settling or deposition process.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS in which Dx and Dy are dispersion coefficients in longitudinal and transverse directions. chemical or biological processes may prevent the contamination from reaching the watertable. it is desirable to enhance losses and retardation of contamination in the soil.direction: ∂ζ ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 1 +u + v +g + τbx − ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ρHx ρHx ⎡ ∂Hτ xx ∂Hτ xy ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥=0 ∂y ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ∂x (6. these factors determine the appropriate mathematical models to predict transport and fate of chemicals in the unsaturated zone.96a) In y . total suspended sediments.95) In x .4 (6. it carries with it dissolved chemicals from pollutants accumulated on the land surface. ∂ζ ∂uH ∂vH + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y (6. degradation by micro-organisms.96b) where. March 2009 6-35 . organic nutrients and heavy metals). volatilisation to the atmosphere.5. H = h+ζ h = still water depth ζ = free surface displacement τ bx and τ by are bottom shear stresses in which it is generally assumed that: τ bx = τ by = ρ g n2 u u2 + v 2 H1x / 3 ρ g n2 v u2 + v 2 H1y / 3 where. u and v coefficient 6.direction: ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 1 ⎡ ∂Hτ xy ∂Hτ yy ⎤ ∂ζ +u + v +g + τby − + ⎢ ⎥=0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ρHy ρHy ⎣⎢ ∂y ∂y ⎦⎥ (6.g. or through other physical. particularly groundwater. These factors determine the ability of the soil to adsorb and degrade pollutants (the soils’ assimilative capacity) and whether chemicals are likely to accumulate within the soil profile or leach through the profile and contaminate groundwater.

Chapter 6 .5. Kd is the sorption constant and b is a real exponent. As the irrigation excess water and runoff spread into the larger groundwater system.97) where t z C S θ ρ D υ = = = = = = = = time (T) the distance (L) the solute concentration in the liquid phase (M.L-3) the sorbed concentration (M. C is the solute concentration (M. construction and maintenance of agricultural irrigation and drainage system. dispersion of the constituent 3.L-3). as two materials (solid particle and water) are involved. 6. Erosion and scouring in the conveyance system undermine the structural integrity of the system and increases the cost of operation and maintenance of the network. is identical except that effective porosity (ne) is used instead of water content (θ).5. 6. advection of the constituent with the water flowing through the media 2. the one-dimensional transport equation of saturated media can be extended to two-dimension and three-dimension for practical uses.21 requires the knowledge of ∂S/∂t or S in terms of C as given in the Freundlich isotherm often used to characterise adsorption equilibrium: S = K dC b (6.L-3) the volumetric water content (L3. Although the mechanism of sediment transport through the open and closed conveyance systems is very complex. 6-36 March 2009 .HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Similarly the movement of dissolved constituents in unsaturated and saturated media is affected by three factors: 1.T-1) the pore water velocity (L.4.L-3) the bulk density of the porous medium (M.L-3) a dispersion coefficient (L2.D 2 − θ .6 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT THROUGH BASIN Sediment transport through the irrigation and drainage network is a critical issue in tropical and humid farmlands. The solution of Equation 6. the basic hydraulics related to the sediment transport need to be understood and taken care of by the technical persons involved in design.4.1 Unsaturated Media The vertical convective dispersive equation that describes solute transport in unsaturated soils under steady state water flow can be expressed as: θ ∂C ∂S ∂ 2C ∂C +ρ = θ . sources and sinks of the constituent within the volume such as chemical reactions or adsorption onto the solid matrix Mathematical models of solute transport are based on mass-balance equations that describe these factors. υ ∂t ∂t ∂z ∂z (6.T-1).98) where S is the sorbed concentration (M.2 Saturated Media The governing transport equation in saturated media under similar conditions. 0 < b < 1. 6.L-3).

Particles settle as separate elements with little or no interaction among them. μ is the dynamic viscosity and Vo is the terminal velocity of the sphere. Soil particles settle through water under the influence of gravity and follow one of three modes of settling: 1. The general drag equation for flow around a sediment particle is: FD = C D AρVo2 2 (6. When combined with Equation 6. March 2009 6A-37 . Table 6.5 24/Re Disk perpendicular to flow <0. The theoretical terminal or fall velocity Vo of a spherical or nearly spherical particle in a water is calculated by the following equation: V0 = 6.6/Re Circular cylinder <0. This type of settling is usually found in waters with relatively low solids concentrations and is called free or ideal settling. CD is a drag coefficient. Movement of the sediment particle will start once the drag force (FD) is higher than the weight of the particle.1 8π/Re (2. When the Reynolds number is very small. which has been proved by experiment to be accurate. (2) at all points on a sphere the longitudinal components of shear drag and pressure drag are combined to produce the same value of unit total drag over the entire surface of the sphere. the flow about a submerged object is laminar and the shape of the object is of secondary importance in regard to the drag as compared with the size of the object.101) Settling Theory The primary technology for removal of soil particles is through settling or sedimentation.0 – lnRe) Object For the easiness of calculation. A is the projected cross-sectional area of the object in the direction of flow.3. say.2 (ρ s − ρ w )gD 2 18μ (6. Under laboratory quiescent conditions. Re < 0.1 13.99 this equation will produce the drag coefficient for a sphere as listed in Table 6. Sedimentation occurs when particles have a greater density than the surrounding liquid.5 20.100) where d is the diameter of the spherical particle. of the total drag. and Vo is the velocity of the ambient fluid. or: FD = πd2 3μVo = 3π dμ Vo d (6.3 Drag Coefficients for Laminar Flow Range of Re Value of CD Sphere <0. it is possible to settle out very small particles. For purely laminar flow around a sphere.6.4/Re Disk parallel to flow <0.99) where FD is the drag.3.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 6. Stokes developed a theory. and (3) the total drag on the sphere is equal to the product of the surface area of the sphere and the unit total drag. The drag coefficients for various objects in laminar flow are shown in Table 6.Chapter 6 . and the velocity of flow. The theory involves the following: (1) The shear drag is two-thirds and the pressure is one-third. 2003). sediment particles are generally considered as spherical in shape. ρ is the density of the fluid.6. the viscosity of the fluid.1 Theory of Sediment Movement Flow around a submerged particle develops two basic types of resistance or drag: shear drag and pressure drag. the smallest practical settling size in the field is around 0.01 mm (Metcalf & Eddy.5.

can be found in other references (Hazen.Chapter 6 . or irregular lumps which settle more slowly than round particles. 6-38 March 2009 .103b) The settling velocity is directly proportional to the square of the particle diameter and the difference in the densities between particle and fluid.34 (6. It also assumes round soil particles and relatively uniform specific gravities. suspended particles are often rods. particles will start to interact and hinder settling.3 Sediment Removal in Settling Basin The design of sediment basins assumes free or ideal settling. The Newton’s and Stoke’s laws are often used to quantify the sedimentation process. More information on sedimentation theory.102) where. At some concentration higher than in free settling. Settling velocities of round soil particles can be calculated and plotted for a range of particle sizes and water temperatures. and drag coefficient of the particle The drag coefficient.000 Cd = 24 + Re 3 Re + 0. will depend on whether the flow around the particle is laminar or turbulent and is a function of the Reynolds Number.10 mm. The drag coefficient can be approximated using the following equations: For turbulent flow. Instead of falling freely. Re. This type of settling is often aided by the addition of chemicals which pull particles together.103a) For laminar flow. disks. the settling velocity can be calculated as a function of particle diameter. In reality. This is called zone settling. for the purposes of agricultural runoff quality control. Vs d rp rv g Cd = = = = = = settling velocity of the particle diameter of the particle density of the particle density of the fluid acceleration of gravity. For spherical particles falling through a liquid.rv 3 C drv ) (6. the generalised assumptions are adequate. However. The larger resulting particles settle at a faster rate. Independent particles coalesce or clump together during sedimentation.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 2. Variations in parent material can result in small particles with mass greater than that of larger particles. If the dynamic viscosity of the water and the density of the particles are known. Re ≤ 1. 1 ≤ Re ≤ 10. Cd. Newton suggested the following formula to define their maximum settling velocity: Vs = ( 4 dg rp . Vs can be measured in the laboratory using a standard settling cylinder/tube. the particles will settle as a group. Stoke’s law is applicable to particles having an equivalent spherical diameter of up to 0. 6. 3.6. including Stokes’ and Newton’s laws.0 Cd = 24 Re (6. 1904).

This water may be: • driven out as the weight of more particles is added to the top of the mass • drained slowly at the bottom of the mass through capillary action as particles shift and settle.Chapter 6 ..27. Considerable water can be trapped among the particles. The time (mean hydraulic residence time) for the particle to traverse the length of the basin will be: th = L (Q / WD ) (Horizontally) (6. or • evaporated when the overlying layer of water is removed The efficiency (η) of a sedimentation basin or trap is measured as the proportion of the incoming pollutant load retained in the trap. and length (L). the smallest particle to be captured will fall to the storage zone just before or as it reaches the outlet zone. and setting the transit and falling times equal gives the following surface area of the basin: A= W ×L = March 2009 Q Vs (6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Once particles have settled to the bottom of a basin. 2000) In a properly designed basin.105) 6A-39 .104b) W Q P Pa th Vs D Outlet Outlet Zone Zone Q / WD of Pa rtic le Riser Riser Outlet Outlet 'P' Settling Settling Zone Zone Storage Zone Zone Storage L Figure 6. In Figure 6. width (W). It is assumed that a ‘plug flow’ in the basin i. 6. A particle will travel horizontally with the water through the basin and will fall at a vertical velocity Vs in accordance with Stoke's Law.104a) The time for the particle to fall to the storage zone will be: tv = D Vs (Vertically) (6.27 Ideal Sediment Basin (DID. Thus th = tv . it is assumed that soil particles have a uniform density.6. they may be resting on other particles or be separated from them by electrostatic repulsion. a flow (Q) enters a basin of settling depth (D).1 Ideal Settling Basin A simple model of an ideal sediment basin illustrates the fundamentals of basin design. uniform flow in one direction.e.3. For simplicity.

6. with little wasted motion of particles and laminar flow of the water. Quiescent conditions.106) where dm is the basin mean depth. the pipe conveyance can easily be designed as self cleansing systems. temperature and wind. Turbulent condition will lower basin efficiency (Hazen. travel in apparently random currents and swirls. The trap efficiency η of an ideal basin is: η= Vs t h dm (6.6. Much of the literature discusses about the sediment transport and settling in open channel and reservoirs/settling basin. the maximum efficiency of the basin is 64 %. 1973). is summarised in Equation 6. scour. Several factors affect performance.107: Ph = 100 (1 − e −1.Chapter 6 . riser design. sediment transport through pipes and closed conduits are not discussed here.02 mm particle and 64 % of the particles on this site are greater than or equal to 0. On the other hand.0548LUs / qh ) (6. However. L Ph qh Us = = = = basin length (m) percentage of sediment deposited in any given hour hourly discharge per unit width (m2/s) fall velocity of sediment particle (m/s) The trapping efficiency of a basin is a function of the particle size distribution of the inflowing sediment. approximate the ideal sediment basin. Assuming ideal settling conditions. Therefore. Suspended load consists of the particles those are very fine in nature. Therefore. which is not a serious issue pertaining to the conveyance of irrigation and agricultural through pipe conveyance. 6-40 March 2009 . where reduction in flow velocities. turbulence. a basin’s surface area must be increased above the theoretical value of Q/Vs . surcharged condition and existence of numerous pits causes sedimentation problem. it is only approximated. 1904 and the US Bureau of Reclamation. The recommended sizing method which is based on the work of Einstein (1965). Turbulence in a basin is travel by water and particles in other than a straight line between inlet and outlet. 6. i. The only practical way to increase this efficiency is to increase surface area of the basin.e. To operate efficiently under turbulent conditions.7 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT THROUGH CONVEYANCE Sediment transport through a conveyance (either free surface or pressurised flow system) occurs in terms of suspended load and bed load. if a sediment basin on a site is designed to capture the 0. the main effect of sediment load in the pressurised conveyance system mainly causes increased head loss and abrasion of the pipe material.107) where. Total load can be calculated by adding suspended to the bed load. In the case of pipe system the theories are mainly available for sewerage systems. For example. all particles of size equal to or larger than those of the design particle will be retained in the basin. bottom.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS We now have an ideal basin sized for removal of certain particles. ideal basin efficiency corresponds to the percent of soil equal to or larger than the design particle size. they include short circui1ting.02 mm.2 Real Settling Basin The ideal basin is never constructed.3.

6. the concentration of suspended load at any depth can be calculated by. which needs appropriate attention during the planning. ⎛1⎞ φ = 40⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ψ⎠ 6.113. assuming that the sediment concentration C varies. transport parameter (Φ) is a function of shear intensity (ψ). and equilibrium condition exists.4 for a clear fluid R = Hydraulic radius of the river section March 2009 6A-41 . Lined channels are less prone to erosion and deposition of sediments as higher flushing velocity can be applied to keep them self cleansing system. ⎡y ⎛ Y − y C = ⎢ r ⎜⎜ C r ⎢⎣ y ⎝ Y − y r ⎛ U s a=⎜ ⎜ K gRS o ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎠⎦⎥ a ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (6..2 3 (6. Equating the upward and downward transport rate of particles at equilibrium condition equal to zero. 1998).109) The value of Φ can be estimated by Eq.. 6.112) where. the erosion and deposition of sediments are common in erodible channels. 2004 and Raudkivi.111) (6.108) ρ w μRS o where Dp is the particle mean size (in mm) and So is the bed slope (in fraction).Chapter 6 . as shown in Figure 6. except for the manhole or pits where the sediments tend to settle due to reduced velocity.1 Bed Load Transport Einstein’s empirical equation is a popular formula used to estimate bed load through an irrigation or drainage channel.7. usually taken as 0. 1950).HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Various theories are available for the estimation of sediment transport and deposition in a lined or unlined conveyance system (Nalluri and Featherstone.04 (Rouse. where. ψ= (ρ s − ρ w )D p (6. However. 2001.7.110) Suspended Load Transport The Prandtl model of turbulence (Andrew et al.28. According to his theory. C = Sediment concentration Y = Water depth yr = Reference height from the channel bed Cr = Reference concentration at depth yr Us = Fall velocity of a sediment particle K = Assumed constant. 2004) can be used as a basis for a suspended sediment load model. Andrew et al. which is valid for Φ > 0. design and construction phases of an agricultural irrigation and drainage system. The bed load (m3/ms) can be estimated by qb = φ (ρ s − ρ w )gD p3 ρw (6.

C Y Particles sweptupward upwardby by flow flow Particles swept c+ δc C C+ uu -. Acker and White established transitional relationship to account for the intermediate particle sizes besides the course particles (bed load) and fine particles (suspended load). Fgr (a particle mobility number which is a function of shear stress/immersed weight of particles) and Dgr (relationship between immersed weight of particles and viscous force). Dp = Typical particle size Dm = Hydraulic mean depth V = Average velocity (Q/A) 6-42 March 2009 .3 Typical Schematic Model for Suspension of Solid Particles Total Load Transport Although total sediment load can be calculated by adding the individual estimated values of bed load and suspended load.Chapter 6 .28 6. 1 Dgr ⎧ ⎡ ρs ⎤ ⎫3 − 1⎥ ⎪ ⎪ g⎢ ⎪ ρ ⎦⎪ = Dp ⎨ ⎣ w ⎬ 2 ν ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (6. They proposed dimensionless quantities. Ggr (a sediment transport parameter based on stream power).7.113) 1−n Fgr = (gRSo )n ⎛ρ ⎞ gDp ⎜⎜ s − 1 ⎟⎟ ρ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ V ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 10Dm ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ 32 log⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Dp ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ (6.115) where.114) n m ⎞ ⎛ Fgr q s D m ⎛⎜ gRS o ⎞⎟ ⎟ ⎜ G gr = =C −1 ⎟ ⎜ A gr qD p ⎜ V ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ (6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS + δu uu + u c . which is given below. the practitioners prefer to use different methods to directly estimate the total transport of sediment load through the channel.δc C.δu u yr Figure 6. Ackers and White formula is well known for the estimation of total sediment load. Among a few formulae.

46 March 2009 6A-43 . for coarse grains n = 0 and for transitional sizes n=f(logDgr). Agr = 0.78.83/Dgr Agr = 0.23/√Dgr LogC = 2. For fine grains n = 1. Agr and C varies as follows: i) For Dgr > 60 (coarse sediment with D50 > 2mm) ii) For 1 < Dgr < 60 (transitional and fine sediment with D50 in the range of 0.06 – 2.56 logDgr M = 1.79 logDgr – 0.0 mm) N = 0.14 + 0.Chapter 6 .HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS The value of n is related to Dgr.67 + 6.98 (logDgr)2 -3.025 N = 1 – 0. m = 1. m.17 and C = 0. The value of n.

McGraw-Hill Book Company.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS REFERENCES Andrew C. 229. Vol. McGraw-Hill Book Company. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Freeze R. (1985). Novak P. Three-dimensional. New York.M. Richards L. Saturated-unsaturated Flow in a Groundwater Basin . Taylor & Francis Group. (1985). (1993). Japan. Treatment. Metcalf & Eddy Inc. Fluid Mechanics. Sec. Rouse.A. Vol.Chapter 6 . Bear J.T. and Whitham G. Design of Small Dams. John M. Journal de Mathematiques pures et Appliquees. Ministry of Agriculture. Chow V. Proc. Disposal. Fort Collins.A. (50 series). Fourth Edition. Urban stormwater management manual for Malaysia. Wiley. Washington DC. 45(2): 100-11. H. (1979). Lighthill M. Balkema. Open Channel Flow. (1959). 281-316. The regional unsteady interface between freshwater and saltwater in a confined coastal aquifer. Chaudhry. A. Rotterdam. Prentice-Hall Inc. Nalluri C. Inc. pp. Environmental Protection Agency.A. (1950). Groundwater. and Cherry J. Limnol.A. (1979).A. UK. and Martin B (2004). Prentice-Hall. Blackwell Science. J. Sec. Holly F.M. New York. 347-366.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1973). (1994). London. Malaysia.J. (1931).).H. Dispersion in Rivers and Coastal Waters–1.S. (1955). Spon Press. Soc. Collection. Two-Dimensional Mass Dispersion in Rivers. 318-333. 78. (2003). Vol.. (1998). U.. Washington DC.E. Water Resources Research. New York. Open Channel Hydraulics. (1904).H. Freeze R. U. Liggett J. Inouchi K. Loose boundary hydraulics. EPA-625/3-76-006. (1975). pp. Physical Principles and Dispersion Equations . pp. Boussinesq J. 6-44 March 2009 . McGraw-Hill Book Company. Physics. and Featherstone R. Hydraulics in civil and environmental engineering. X. Colorado. Engineering Hydraulics (editor). DID (2000). Wastewater Engineering. Department of Irrigation and Drainage. (1971). 7. In Developments in Hydraulic Engineering – 3. 1. Roy.. New York. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. U. Hydraulic Paper No. Transient. Kishi Y and Kakinuma T. Civil engineering hydraulics.B.. Vol. Capillary Conduction of Liquids through Porous Mediums. EPA (1976). (2001). New York.. Hydraulics of Groundwater. On Kinematic Waves I.. 1. 18. 4th Ed. 4th Ed. Recherches Theoriques sur I’ecoulement des Nappes d’eau Infiltrees dans le Sol et sur le Debit des Sources . pp.S.S. M. London and New York. Raudkivi A. Colorado State University. Erosion and Sediment Control Surface Mining in the Eastern U. Flood Movement in Long Rivers. Holly F. (ed.

5 Mitred to conform to fill slope 0.2 Wingwalls at 10° to 25° to barrel 0.2 Square edge 0.A1 March 2009 0.2 Mitered to conforming to fill slope 0.Chapter 6 .5 Hooded inlet projecting from headwall See note 1 Corrugated Metal Pipe Projecting from fill (no headwall) 0.5 Reinforced Concrete Box Headwall parallel to embankment (no wingwalls) Square edged on 3 edges 0.5 Rounded on 3 edges to radius of 1/12 barrel dimension 0.7 End section conforming to fill slope 0. socket end (groove end) 0.5 Rounded (radius = D/12) 0.7 End section conforming to fill slope 0.A1 Design Charts Type of Structure and Design of Entrance Coefficient Ke Concrete Pipe Projecting from fill. square cut end 0.4 Crown edge rounded to radius 1/12 barrel dimension 0.5 Headwall or headwall and wingwalls: Socket end of pipe (groove end) 0.2 Projecting from fill.5 Square edged at crown Wingwalls parallel (extension of sides) Square edged at crown Design Chart 6.7 Entrance Loss Coefficients 6A-1 .9 Headwall or headwall and wingwall square edge 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS APPENDIX 6.2 Wingwalls at 30° to 75° to barrel Square edged at crown 0.

5° single mitred bend 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Type Kb 90° double mitred bend 0.47 60° double mitred bend 0.34 22.Chapter 6 .A3 6-2 Bend Loss Coefficients Pressure Loss Coefficient at Mitred Fittings March 2009 .A2 Type Kb 90° double mitred bend 0.327) Design Chart 6.34 22.12 Source: ARR-1977 (p.5° single mitred bend 0.25 45° single mitred bend 0.47 60° double mitred bend 0.12 Design Chart 6.25 45° single mitred bend 0.

A4 March 2009 80 o 90 o 100o Degrees Penetration Loss Coefficients 6A-3 .3 D r/D = 2 Loss Coefficient 0.Chapter 6 .1 0.0 0o 20 o 40 o 60 o Deflection Angle in Design Chart 6.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Radius of Curvature (r) 0.2 r/D > 6 0.

5 3.4 0.0 0.3 0.2 D 1.5 -0.9 1.0 7.0 5.2 D h cL c d 1.0 0.4 -0.4 0.0 0.4 0.9 s ue d Val D 0.2 0.10 0.0 0 KU 0 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.7 7 0.8 0.7 0.0 h cL c d Head Loss & Pressure Change Coefficient ( Kp ) 1.3 0.6 0. KL A L /A o or (D L /Do ) 2 0.7 0.0 Design Chart 6.6 0.65 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.1 O 0.1 0.9 1.5 0.0 10. 8 0.55 0.6 0.1 0.8 1.6 0.6 1.9 U o 90 O 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 100.0 Flow Ratio Q L /Q o A L /A o or (D L /D o ) 2 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 Blockage Ratio 1.4 0.0 2.0 0.8 1.4 0.6 0.0 6.7 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.Chapter 6 .3 0.6 0.0 8.3 0.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 Flow ratio Q L /Q o Pressure Loss Coefficients at Branch Lines March 2009 .0 0.0 4.5 0.3 (hc) D 1.8 1. 0.2 U o 90 0.4 0.8 0.7 2.2 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.2 0.A5 6-4 0.01 Blockage Ratio 0.0 9.4 0. 0.5 0.0 1.1 0.4 8 0.2 0.8 0.

1 0.8 d 0.A6 March 2009 Expansion and Contraction Loss Coefficients 6A-5 .6 0.3 d D Sudden Contraction 0.Chapter 6 .4 0.4 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.9 Sudden Enlargement 0.7 D 0.5 0.6 Energy Loss Coefficient C U 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 Expansion & Contraction Ratio d/D Design Chart 6.

5 1.5 1.5 1.9 0.0 1.7 0.9 1.6 0.5 S/D o = 2.0 1.7 D u /Do 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Qg /Qo = 0.50 2.0 1.7 0.8 Qg /Qo = 0.4 S/Do = 3.0 0.5 0.00 Ku 1.4 Qg /Qo = 0.8 0.8 D u /Do 0.4 Du Qo Qu S/Do = 4.8 0.6 0.5 Qg /Qo = 0.6 Qg /Qo = 0.6 0.6 0.50 1.5 0.8 D u /D o 0.6 0.0 0.2 1.9 1.2 2.8 S/D o = 2.4 1.7 0.0 Ku 1.0 Ku Ku 2.0 0.00 Qg /Qo = 0.5 0.6 1.A7 Head Loss Chart for Entry Pit 6-6 March 2009 .00 Qg /Qo = 0.2 1.Chapter 6 .0 0.9 0.0 ELEVATION Qg HGL S HGL Qu Design Chart 6.0 1.0 D u /Do 2.6 0.6 Ku 1.2 1.5 1.00 2.50 Qg /Qo = 0.9 1.00 Qg /Qo = 0.50 2.7 0.8 0.50 2.8 1.8 S/Do = 1.0 D u /Do PLAN Do 1.0 Qg /Qo = 0.

10 0.40 0.20 Q g /Qo 0. Vo2 2g HGL Do 2 Qu (K u>0) Qo ELEVATION 0.Chapter 6 .6 0.0 Diameter Ratio Du /Do Design Chart 6. Vo 2g Do Qu Qo NEGATIVE PRESSURE HEAD CHANGE (K u<0) -5 0.8 0.00 0 -1 Ku PLAN -2 -3 Qg HGL HGL Du -4 S V ELEVATION 2 P =WSE=K u.30 1 0.9 1.7 0.5 0.A8 March 2009 Head Loss Chart for Pit with 0° 6A-7 .50 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Qg V HGL Du S P =WSE=K u .

1.A9 6A-8 Qg CURVE B Head Loss Chart for Pit with 90° deflection March 2009 .45 0 5 4 0.30 0 0. 60 0 1.5 0 3 . 80 0 1. .00 2 2 1 0 2.20 7 0. 00 1.Chapter 6 .4 .0 Pivot Point for HGL at Obvert 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Measure H/Do From Here Submergence Ratio (S/D o ) Do Do Qg Do CURVE A Design Chart 6. 10 20 0.15 Vo2 2 gD o H Q o= Qg Do 0.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS 8 Qg 0. Vo2 2g HGL Curve B 3 Outflow in Same Direction as Inflow Curve B Outfall at 90° to Inflow 40 1.35 0 0 0.25 6 h g = K g .5 .7 0 Kg S 0.8 .90 1. 6 0 0.

C and D have the same elevations. 100 L/s 20 L/s 1000 m A B 1000 m 1000 m D C 1000 m 40 L/s 40 L/S Figure 6.93 0.00 0.0233 2..0233 C-D 0 0 0 A-D -40 -0. 2004) for finding hf from q and d.00 0. C and D if the pressure head at A is 70 m and A.B1 Simple Network for Pressurised Flow March 2009 6A-9 . 2004).B1 Design Example on Pressurised Flow Network Problem: For the pipe loop shown in Figure 6.03mm (Adapted from Andrew et al.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS APPENDIX 6. Solution: a) It is convenient for hand solution to use a tabular layout in conjunction with the Hydraulic Research Station (HRS) charts or Tables (Andrew et al. Find the discharges in all pipes in the loop. Initial trial (assume values for q).0799 ∑ Note that the “positive clockwise” sign convention for q and hL. B. Table 6. The pressure heads at points B.0333 B-C +40 +0.B1 is located at the top of a small hill.B1 Calculation for First Trial Pipe q (L/s) hL (m) hL/q A-B +60 +2.Chapter 6 ..93 0. All pipes are 300 mm in diameter with roughness 0.

1.48 = 68.42m As a Check PC /ρg=PD /ρg .0846 δq=0.5 +0.0175 C-D -12.5) Table 6.0301 ∑ +0. Ignoring velocity heads and recalling that elevation are the same at A.0096 A-D -52.7 m PC /ρg=PB/ρg .hL(A-D) = 70 .12.48 0. B.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Apply factor δq= 2/2(0.hL(B-C) = 68. Note: The example is given to demonstrate manual calculation for a simple pipe network.12 0. computer softwares should be used. this solution is sufficiently accurate for practical purpose. For the design and analysis of complex pipe networks.12 Comparing with the estimate (PC/ρg=68.0799) = -12.58=68.22m PD /ρg=PA/ρg .0846)=-0.7 .B1 Calculation for First Trial Pipe q (L/s) hL (m) hL/q A-B +47.22 ) the difference is equal to ∑hL (the closing error).3 = 68.5 +1.1.08 0.58 0.0274 B-C +27.0.hL(D-C) = 68. C and D apply the energy equation.5 -0.hL(A-B)= 70 .0. (b) To find the pressure heads (P/ρg) at B.5 L/s As δq =-0.08/2(0. C and D PB /ρg=PA/ρg . 6A-10 March 2009 .5 -1.5 L/s Second trial (new discharge = q .42 .5 L/s which is very small.3 0.Chapter 6 .

0 = 6.000 KN/m2 Following the cycle of events in Figure 6. 2004).0 m/s. What is the magnitude of the surge pressure generated by a sudden and complete valve closure? Also calculate the time required for the shock wave to create negative pressure at the valve. Water is initially flowing along the pipe at a mean velocity of 4. March 2009 6A-11 .63. at the valve the increase in pressure will be maintained while the decompression wave returns to the valve at time of. Solution: Increase in pressure is estimated from Eq. δp = cρu = 1500 x 1000 x 4. t = 2L/c = (2 x 6000)/15000 = 8 sec.Chapter 6 .C1 Design Example on Pressure Surge Problem: A valve is placed at the downstream end of a 6 km long pipe line.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS APPENDIX 6. Assume celerity of sound as 1500 m/s and density of water is 1000 kg/m3 (Adapted from Andrew et al.18 (a to f).. 6.

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Part B Planning Chapter 7 .Computer Applications .

2 Importance of Computer Models and Software..1.5..6 IrriCAD Pro………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-7 7.1.5....3 Public Domain or Commercial Software …………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………… 7-8 7.3...Chapter 7 . 7-6 7...4..4 WinSRFR 2.4.2 CLIMWAT……………………………………………………………………………………………7-5 7.2..1 Basic Principles ………………………………………………………………………………………………..1..1 Planning Level……………………………………………………………………………………..4..2 Software Selection.. 7-6 7.1. 7-7 7..4.1 SIRMOD III ………………………………………………………………………………………..1.4.………..5 Quality Level……………………………………………………………………………………… 7-4 7.……………………………………………………………7-8 7. 7-3 7..1. 7-2 7.2 SURDEV …………………………………………………………………………………………….COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Table of Contents Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-i List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-iii 7......2..3.7-1 7..7 DRIPD…………………………………..………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………… 7-8 7.... 7-2 7...1.1 …………………………………………………………………………………….... MICROS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-8 7..4...3 LANDDRAIN………………………………………………………………………………………..... 7-9 7.3.……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1...2..1 Classification Schemes.4..5.5...1 Planning Software…….5 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS APPLICATION..3 CUP…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-5 7..2..3......5 SPRINKMOD ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7-7 7...4. 7-4 7...5 CSUID ………………………………………………………………………………………………..4..4 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLICATION ………………………………...4.4 Quantity Level…………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-6 7.1.2 Analysis and Design Level ……………………………………………………………………7-3 7. 7-1 7.3.2 EnDrain …………………………………………………………………………………………….4.…………………………………………………………………………………………....1 WellDrainW ………………………………………………………………………………………..2.. 7-6 7.2 Design Software…………………. 7-3 7. 7-9 7.1. 7-8 7.3 FIDO v2 …………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………….2.. 7-2 7..3.………………………………………………………………………… 7-9 March 2009 7-i .2.1 Planning and Design Software..3 Training Needs ……………………………………………….1 INTRODUCTION....4....3 OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE SOFTWARE..3.....2.3 Operation and Management Level ………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………… 7-4 7...7-4 7..2.8 FERGON……………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-1 7. 7-4 7.. 7-2 7.4..1.2 Agro-hydrology Models ………. 7-5 7.2... 7-3 7. 7-8 7...4..………………………………………………….4.4..2 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER MODELS AND SOFTWARE.1..4 WaSim……………………………………………………………………………………………….7-5 7..……………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………..1 CROPWAT………………………………………………………………………………………….2.. 7-4 7.

7-17 7. 7A-1 APPENDIX CAD and GIS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….B: Worked Examples………………………………………………………………………………….8. 7-16 7..7. 7-10 7. 7-14 7.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7.2 SIC ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-14 7. 7-11 7.5.1 Importance of ICT Application ………………………………………………………………………… 7-16 7.4 NETAFIM™ Hydro-Calc ……………………………………………………………………………………7-13 7..7-14 7. 7-12 7.2 MODFLOW–Surfact Flow …………………………………………………………………….0………………………………………………………………………………………….6 HYDRAULICS APPLICATION………………………………………………………………………………………..B-2: Simulation of Subsurface Drainage System Design Information Using Drainmod Software ……………………………………………………………………………….A: List of Computer Modeling Software …………………………………………………………. 7-16 7.6 HEC-RAS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-13 7...1 CanalMan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. AgStar …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-15 7. 7A-11 7-ii March 2009 .B-1: Simulation of Irrigation Supply for a Canal-based Irrigation System ……………… 7A-5 7.9 PumpBaseTM 2..3.4 Web-based Technology……………………………………………………………………….3 Salinity Prediction Models…………. 7-17 7.5.0……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-14 7.7-16 7.6.7 FLOW PRO …………………………………………………………………………………………………….6.3.2 DRAINSAL ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-12 7. 7-19 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-20 APPENDIX 7. 7-13 7...…………………………………………………………………… 7-9 7.Chapter 7 .3 WinFlume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….5.5 WADISO ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-13 7.6.8. 7-12 7. 7-15 7.6.8..3 WATSUIT ………………………………………………………………………………………….8.……….6..6.6..……………………………………………………………………… 7-12 7.3.8 OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………….5.3.3 ICT Tools and Software…………………………………………………………………………………….6.1 SALTMOD ………………………………………………………………………………………….1 GIS and DSS.8 HYDROFLOW 2.10 HydroCAD……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2.3 SWAP ……………………………………………………………………………………………….1 LandCad(R) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-15 7.8.………………………………………………………………………………………7-17 7.2 IrriWise™ Manager …………………………………………………………………………….2.7 DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTS PREPARATION……………………………………………………. 7A-5 7. 7-15 7..3 SCADA ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-18 7. 7-12 ICT in Operation and Management…………………………………………………………………….1 DRAINMOD …………………. 7-12 7.

and Phreatic or Saturated Zone 7-11 7-3 IrriWiseTM – A powerful Management Tool 7-18 7-4 Components of SCADA System 7-18 March 2009 7-iii .Chapter 7 . C. Water Table.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS List Of Figures Figure Description Page 7-1 Schematic Diagram of the Simulated Water Management System Using DRAINMOD 7-10 7-2 Cross-section Depicting the Vadose Zone.

Chapter 7 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (This page is deliberately left blank) 7-iv March 2009 .

simpler methods may provide sufficient information for developing a control strategy. the computer softwares are grouped according to their field of application. March 2009 7-1 . to use and understand. However. agricultural consultants. The risk of using a more complex (and presumably "better") model is that it requires more expertise. No software is provided but ample references are made to public sources where the programs and other software can be procured. have meant that the benefits of computer application can be extended to areas that previously have been impractical.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. the simplest method that provides the desired analysis should be used. data availability and limitations. • While modelling generally yields more information. Many models and software have been developed during the past three decades in all aspects of agriculture. plant dynamics and soils. The objective of this Chapter is to familiarize users with the application of available computer software for planning. the availability of computer software and hardware and the skills required to use these tools. An engineer with access to computer facilities should normally choose one of these tools according to the design objectives and the available resources. In this Chapter. design and evaluation of irrigation and drainage systems and preparation of technical reports and drawings. Application of models requires a thorough understanding of: • • • • • • 7. maintenance and management of irrigation and drainage systems. Nowadays. data. Advances in modelling and simulation methodology. In addition. it should be borne in mind that proper use of such a new method or tool requires a good knowledge of the detailed operations that the model or software can perform. Basic Principles The following basic principles apply to all forms of computer modelling: • All computer models require site-specific information to be supplied by the user. operation. 7. chemical and biological processes.2. computer models are indispensable tools for irrigation and drainage professionals in the planning.1 the role of the models in the overall management and decision-making process and the questions to be answered by the modeling exercises. model calibration and verification techniques. and others involved in design and operation of agricultural systems will find this informative. concurrent with dramatic increases in computer capabilities and reductions in computer hardware costs. through to detailed parameters for physical. computational techniques for solving the equations. etc. The generic characteristics and a few well-known specific applications are also described. This may range from relatively simple data such as rainfall or drainage system data. In general. The Chapter discusses and recommends potential computer models and software for engineers. application of two computer softwares is demonstrated in planning and designing of irrigation and drainage systems.1 INTRODUCTION Irrigated agriculture is a complex system that requires a multi-disciplinary knowledge of water movement. the real-world processes being modeled and the capabilities and limitations of methods for representing these processes with mathematical equations. design. support. decision-makers and managers of irrigation projects. with a consequent higher probability of misapplication.Chapter 7 .2 APPLICATION OF COMPUTER MODELS AND SOFTWARE Computer application in the field has grown significantly with recent advances in computer hardware and software.

while other models remain static and are eventually abandoned.2 Importance of Computer Models and Software Designing irrigation and drainage systems that have the potential to be operated effectively and efficiently is a complex task. designing systems for irrigated agriculture. maintenance. 7-2 March 2009 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS • If water quality problems are being considered. 7. environmental and social problems. analysis and design to operation that can be used for classifying software. modelling is not a good substitute for data collection. however. Computer models play a fundamental role for simulation of various processes in addressing a range of irrigation and drainage planning.1 Classification Schemes Several classification schemes can be developed for models and software. Quality processes are very difficult to simulate accurately and they generally incorporate many heuristic procedures that require extensive data and calibration. operation. Computer models allow some forms of simulations that could rarely be performed manually. It should always be borne in mind however. If abatement strategies can be developed without the simulation of water quality parameters.or under-sizing. Models input data requirements enable researchers to properly plan data collection procedures of field experiments. on-farm irrigation system design. it still may not be necessary to simulate quality processes since most control strategies are based on hydrologic or hydraulic considerations. Field testing of different alternatives required in proper planning and designing a system is usually prohibitively expensive and time consuming.3 Training Needs An often-quoted proverb with computer applications is 'garbage in. It is essential to understand that incorrect application of a computer model can lead to totally misleading results. newly emerging technologies are being increasingly integrated into irrigation and agricultural drainage systems. This is likely to result in more accurate designs.2. engineers. “Computer Models in Irrigation and Drainage" are indispensable decision-making tools for governmental and non-governmental researchers.3. The analytical power of computer method gives major advantages over manual techniques. and integrated with other models and support software.3 OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE SOFTWARE 7. 7. rehabilitation and improvement of irrigation and drainage systems. hydrology and other relevant technical background although the depth of training required varies considerably. All computer models and software require some skill and knowledge such as hydraulics. to differentiate the type and versatility of various models. However. and to evaluate alternative management practices are numerous. It is important to recognize. It requires a wide range of temporal and spatially distributed information and contributions from a range of professions. planning. the capabilities of computer application have been playing central roles in the remarkable success irrigation and drainage systems in agriculture. performance assessment. Computer codes developed over the past 30 years to simulate the different processes encountered. that models discussed in this Chapter do not extend data but rather generate simulated numbers that should never be assumed to be the same as data collected in the field.Chapter 7 . water resources planning and management. garbage out'. Models sometimes may be used to extrapolate beyond the measured data record. Computer models are traditionally used to reduce trial time and costs of the fieldwork as well as for evaluation and design of those systems.2. Therefore. One way of looking at modelling is to consider that there are several levels of the process/application from planning. Indeed. Some models are being continuously refined. Model development is dynamic and ongoing. the overall modelling program will be greatly simplified. upgraded. that use of measured data is usually preferable to the use of simulated data. with cost savings by avoiding over. consultants and managers for the design. 7. In addition.

3. The operational rules and performance of these devices can be simulated using appropriate computer software in order to optimize their operation rules and design. Important division of models is into deterministic and stochastic types. Values for field application efficiencies. adjust for contributions from rainfall and allow for rotational and/or physical capacity constraints of the system. Knowledge of areas planted. Design models must be capable of performing realistic simulation of crop water simulation.3 Operation and Management Level Effective decision support tools to assist managers to schedule and monitor water releases at the main system level must be able to operate in an environment where much of the operations data will not be reliably available or completely accurate.1. almost always.Chapter 7 . Operational control facilities/structures are devices that function to ensure that scheduled volumes are actually delivered. readily available water.2 Analysis and Design Level At the analysis/design level. In practice many models use a mixture of the two techniques. watertable and salinity.3. the detailed analysis of an existing system. Deterministic models attempt to consider a definite law of certainty but not any law of probability.3. hydraulic and possibly. Quantifying demands at the field level must account for losses in the tertiary system and main canal network. Developing an irrigation and drainage plan requires knowledge of measuring and monitoring procedures. 7. Many models are available for reasonably accurate prediction of agro-hydrological components as well as hydraulic simulation. (b) Empirical Models Empirical models are based on empirical formulae or relationship.1. be imprecise. and use a range of irrigation and information management software. and computerized irrigation systems.1. soil-plant-water relationships. methods and techniques of irrigation. or system improvements is investigated. water quality phenomena. the chance of occurrence of the variable is considered thus introducing the concept of probability. develop plans and reports. the crop mix and dates of planting will. produces the output variables. interpret statistical data and measurements. mathematical models are conceived based on the consideration of physical processes.4 Quantity Level Quantity modelling is relatively well understood. seepage and percolation losses and conveyance losses at all levels in the canal network will be estimated. It requires the ability to compile and analyze complex information.1. March 2009 7-3 . The general philosophy is that the irrigation system shall be designed and operated to make beneficial use of water and is also necessary to prevent excessive irrigation and subsequent negative impact on the irrigated lands. striving to control and stabilize a hydraulic network where farmer activities do not always complement their actions.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. occasionally supported by limited field validation.3. 7. which when subjected to input variables. to derive a workable schedule of releases. Stochastic model is time dependent while probabilistic model is time independent. In the stochastic model.1 Planning Level Planning is the process of compiling information and using whether information to develop an irrigation and drainage plan for a new or rehabilitation and/or upgrading of irrigation and drainage system where this is needed. hydrologic. proposed system. irrigation system options. 7. Both stochastic and deterministic models can be sub-classified as: (a) Conceptual Models In conceptual models.

This can be a valuable planning tool. 1998) with even the most recent simulation-models suffering from complex operation.3.3 Does the software achieve the objectives? Does the software satisfy the defined criteria? Is the software applicable within the context of interests? Does it address the needs? Are the organizations and institutions capable to adapt with the software? have enough resources (financial. many application softwares are available in the Website. agronomists and irrigation engineers to carry out standard calculations for evapotranspiration and crop water use studies.1.4.1.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. A summary of some of the currently available software and their procurement is given in Appendix 7. unreliability.1 7. designing and management. Nowadays. Public domain software can be freely copied and distributed. this technology is yet to be adopted at the farm level (Raine and Walker. modelling without measured calibration and verification data can still be used to assess the relative effect of control strategies. drought effects and efficiency of irrigation practices. and more specifically the design and management of irrigation schemes. and only when requisite calibration and verification data are available. economic and institutional input data. Its main functions are to calculate reference evapotranspiration. It allows the development of recommendations for improved irrigation practices. which are widely used in irrigation and agricultural drainage field. The software selection process solely depends on technical.1 Planning Software CROPWAT CROPWAT is a decision support system developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO.A. 7. are available in the market. The interest here is limited to representing the planning and design of irrigation and agricultural drainage and related systems with mathematical formulations which are solved using a computer. operation and maintenance and management of irrigation and drainage systems are the identifying technical alternatives that are feasible to apply to greater interests. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLICATION Irrigation software provides an accessible tool to train the irrigator and to optimise management and design practices. 7. and a requirement for excessive input data leading to extensive field measurement.4.2 Software Selection Models are used in essentially every area of irrigation and agricultural drainage planning.5 Quality Level Quality modelling is quite different.4. Nevertheless.3. crop water requirements and crop irrigation requirements in order to develop irrigation schedules under various management conditions and scheme water supply and to evaluate rain-fed production. The general conclusion is that modelling of quality parameters should be performed only when really necessary. Users can access to website for detail information about a particular item. copyrights or patents apply. The software selection criteria for planning. CROPWAT is meant as a practical tool to help agro-meteorologists. the planning of 7-4 March 2009 .Chapter 7 . The popular commercially available software packages. 7. However. The selection of proper software depends on: • • • • • • • 7. skilled manpower. and no distribution restrictions. design.3. institutional organization) to sustain the software uses? Is the software applicable under the physical conditions of the project area? Public Domain or Commercial Software A computer program is in the public domain when its development has been supported through public funds. They vary greatly in their capabilities and limitations and must be carefully selected and used by knowledgeable professionals.

and irrigation frequency are used with rainfall and ETc data to calculate a daily water balance and determine effective rainfall and ETaw. seepage. weather data. drainage designs and water management practices) and environmental scenarios (e. and then it uses a curve fitting technique to drive one year of daily weather and ETo data from monthly data. The GUI for CSUID is a combination of window. The model is fully interactive and is provided with a graphic user interface (GUI). The major applications are: Soil water balance simulation. crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and evapotranspiration of applied water (ETaw). and irrigation. the program accounts for rainfall.5 CSUID The Colorado State University Irrigation and Drainage Model (CSUID) is used for the design and management of conjunctive irrigation and drainage systems (Garcia et. The reference evapotranspiration has been calculated for all stations according the Penman Monteith method. calculation of irrigation requirements.g. menu. It outputs a wide range of tables and charts that are useful for irrigation planning. which is a seasonal estimate of the irrigation water requirement for evapotranspiration of a crop minus any water supplied by effective rainfall and effective seepage. Soil waterholding characteristics. CUP computes ETo using the daily PenmanMonteith equation.g.3 CUP CUP (Consumptive Use Program) is a user-friendly Excel application program. soil types. and icon selection designed to allow movement quickly and easily through the March 2009 7-5 . and the assessment of production under rain-fed conditions or deficit irrigation. mean daily relative humidity. The application also can be used to study the impact of climate change on evapotranspiration and irrigation water needs. sunshine hours.Chapter 7 . al. and immaturity factors for estimating crop evapotranspiration. In addition to using monthly climate data.2 CLIMWAT CLIMWAT is a climatic database to be used in combination with the computer program CROPWAT and allows the ready calculation of crop water requirements.4. testing of water management scenarios. watertable simulation in drained and undrained environments and evaluating the medium-term salinity build-up in the soil under different water management systems.4.1. In addition.1. Standard crop data are included in the program and climatic data can be obtained for 144 countries through the CLIMWAT database. By using newly improved methods. The climatological data included are maximum and minimum temperature. 7. It was developed to help growers and water agencies to determine their crop coefficient (Kc). the program uses daily measured weather data to estimate daily soil water balances for surfaces that account for ET losses and water contributions from rainfall. WaSim DRAINSPACE module can be used to design drain spacing and WaSim ET module is provided to calculate reference evapotranspiration from weather station data. CLIMWAT is published as Irrigation and Drainage paper No 49 in 1994. irrigation supply and irrigation scheduling for various crops for a range of climatological stations worldwide. drainage and salinity management.4.1. The CLIMWAT database includes data from a total of 3262 meteorological stations from 144 countries. cover crops. ETaw information is needed to determine the demand side of water requirements. wind speed.4 WaSim WaSim is a computer-based training package for irrigation. which is equal to the seasonal cumulative ETc minus the effective rainfall. Calculations of daily crop water requirements and irrigation requirements are carried out with inputs of climatic and crop data. 1995). 7. 7. The development of irrigation schedules and evaluation of rain-fed and irrigation practices are based on a daily soil-water balance using various options for water supply and irrigation management conditions. effective rooting depths. precipitation and calculated values for reference evapotranspiration and effective rainfall. WaSim simulates the soil water salinity relationships in response to different management strategies (e.1. Scheme water supply is calculated according to the cropping pattern provided. 7.4. and cropping patterns).COMPUTER APPLICATIONS irrigation schedules under varying water supply conditions.

and design capabilities for border. depth from the ground surface. The SIRMOD III software runs on Windows Platform and is available on CD media or can be downloaded directly from Utah State University. FIDO also incorporates a database allowing seasonal trends and variations in performance to be monitored. a simple user interface and extensive graphical output.2. editing.4.3 FIDO v2 FIDO (Furrow Irrigation Design Optimiser) is a decision support system for the design and management of furrow irrigation. and soil moisture deficit. drainage effluent in collectors.4. It integrates an optimisation engine with a proven hydrodynamic simulation-model to allow automatic determination of design and management parameters as well as prediction of infiltration and roughness parameters.Chapter 7 .4.2. Different irrigation and drainage scenarios (drain spacing. and furrow irrigation. March 2009 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS model. The software package provides simulation. 7. and irrigation frequency) can be easily formulated for sensitivity analysis. FURDEV for furrows and BORDEV for borders. The management submodel consists of a description of management activities influencing the state of the root zone. 7. operate and evaluate the three surface irrigation systems. irrigation duration. Walker and Skogenboe (1987) and Walker (1989) reported all of these algorithms.2 SURDEV SURDEV-package is a WINDOWS-based computer package that allows the users to simulate surface irrigation. These systems can be studied under either continuous or surge flow operations. or kinematic-wave algorithms which can be used to select an optimal combination of sizing and operational parameters that maximize application efficiency. The simulation of the hydraulics of surface irrigation systems at the field level uses hydrodynamic. salinity level. or viewing easier and faster with editing tools that allow the uses to graphically specify the data. The evaluation algorithms utilize the "two-point solution" of the "inverse" problem allowing the computation of infiltration parameters from the input of advance data. It consists of three programs: BASDEV for basins. BASDEV has been developed by International Land Resources Institute (ILRI).2 7. degree of water logging. The software package can be used to design. The design algorithms utilize a standard volume balance procedure.4. 7. irrigation depth. flow into the drains. FURDEV and BORDEV have been jointly developed by ILRI and International Land and Water Management (ILWM). It provides the user with a way of qualitatively and quantitatively describing the performance of the irrigation and drainage system from the results of water and solute transport simulations.1 Design Software SIRMOD III SIRMOD III is a multi-lingual version of Utah State University's comprehensive surface irrigation software package. zero-inertia. An optimization engine has been integrated with the simulation-model to both determine the design and management parameters and to calibrate the model. The GUI makes tasks of data entry. calibration and optimization operations inclusion of a response surface generator for any combination of two parameters and objective function inclusion of a relational database to allow seasonal trends and variations to be monitored. The objectives of FIDO include: • • • • • • • 7-6 accurate simulation of all phases of an irrigation event under a range of design and management conditions the ability to calibrate the model using a range of parameters and input data so as to minimize field measurement requirements the ability to automatically determine the optimum design or management strategy for a range of parameters and objective functions robustness of the DSS for all simulation. The input data requirements are minimized through calibration by estimating the semiempirical infiltration parameters and/or the Manning n from more readily measured field-variables such as irrigation advance and/or runoff.2. basin. evaluation.

flow control nozzles. Not in detail but main components are provided for user to grasp in designing irrigation systems.Chapter 7 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. pressure regulators.4.I. New features include: surface irrigation design and operations for furrow based fields. Software (IrriCAD Pro developers) since January 2006 to enhance and develop "IrriCAD Pro" to a superior level demanded by all the top irrigation designers worldwide. stand alone design facility which removes most of the tedious aspects of design. At present Netafim globally utilizes "IrriCAD Pro" as its premier design software and represents one of the largest users worldwide. IrriCAD Pro is a totally integrated. Details of the new enhancement of the software can be obtained website. The major components are: SRFR . parallel pipes. WinSRFR is the successor to irrigation modeling software developed over the past 20 years by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service. The project management window of WinSRFR is displayed.6 IrriCAD Pro IrriCAD Pro (Irrigation Design Software) is the next generation in powerful pressurized irrigation design Software. hand line. This user-friendly software combines features from water distribution models together with important characteristics of irrigation models and is capable of describing hydraulics of most pressurized irrigation systems. and uneven topography. looped mainlines. Netafim has been working with A. The package provides an opportunity to maintain a high level of client service. solid set. The layout of an irrigation system can be drawn on the screen. and operational analysis. IrriCAD Pro provides the quick and easy solution for a design and drawing package that supplies the consultant with a detailed plan and bill of materials to meet this demand.1 WinSRFR is an integrated hydraulic analysis application for surface irrigation systems that combines a simulation engine with tools for irrigation system evaluation. By clicking on lines and shapes data can be entered and edited. multiple pumping stations and water sources. additional MerriamKeller based irrigation event analysis functions and an updated SRFR simulation engine.E. SPRINKMOD© calculates pressure and discharge distributions along laterals and mainlines. The software is able to simulate wheel line. March 2009 7-7 .5 SPRINKMOD The SPRINKMOD© software is intended to be used to simulate pressure and discharges along existing or newly designed sprinkler irrigation systems. IrriCAD Pro is a significant design tool in today’s competitive and ever changing market.2.4.Level-Basin irrigation design and operations • • • Design Basin Field Operate Basin Irrigation Simulate Basin Irrigation BORDER .Sloping-Border irrigation design and operations • • • Design Border Field Operate Border Irrigation Simulate a Border Irrigation 7. Results can be displayed in tables and charts that can be sent to text files or to a printer. It combines accuracy with the ability to provide optimal irrigation solutions. It offers substantial benefits to designers of all types of pressurised irrigation systems. border and furrow irrigation • • • Design Furrow Field Evaluate Furrow Irrigation Simulate Furrow Irrigation BASIN . design.4.2. centre pivot and linear move laterals.2. changes in nozzle size.One dimensional simulation of basin. yet still allows the designer to make important decisions. 7. and can evaluate the effects of booster pumps.4 WinSRFR 2.

operation and maintenance instead of the laborious conventional method. New Delhi. MICROS Software MICROS was developed using Visual BASIC 6. Inadequate availability and high cost of liquid fertilizers restrict their use among the farmers. Fertigation is a complex process and requires the estimation of: • • • • • • 7.8 irrigation water requirement capacity of drip main line number of drippers and laterals capacity of sub-main and lateral pipes diameter of lateral pipe diameter of main and sub main pipe and size of pumping unit. hydraulic head.5 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS APPLICATION Computer applications are widely used throughout the drainage planning.1 Planning and Design Software WellDrainW The WellDrainW computer program calculates the drainage discharge. Micro sprinkler thus.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. India.4.0 for the design and evaluation of Microsprinkler systems at Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC). including their solubility. New Delhi. IARI.1. India. design. Micro sprinklers permit larger lateral spacing resulting in the reduced cost of the system. DRIPD consists of eight basic elements that help to estimate: • • • • • • • 7. India. 7. The only difference was the effective area irrigated by each microsprinkler based on its water spread in place and considering the plant spacing in drip irrigation system. 7. The use of the commercially available granular fertilizers poses a few problems. The procedure adopted in the development of the software was similar to that adopted and described in case of a drip system.4. Drainage engineers and professionals should therefore be familiar which both methodologies and use them interactively. Potassium and Phosphorous nutrients of the crop nutrient concentration in irrigation water capacity of fertilizer tank injection rate and efficient utilization of fertilizers. It is user friendly and interactive software namely.5. vertical drainage) and shows the curvature of the 7-8 March 2009 . tubewells.1 7.2. The computer programs on the other hand provide insights which conventional methods do not provide. Many of the conventional methods have now been replaced by new methodologies and concepts along with tremendous development of computer programs. IARI.5.4. IARI. or spacing between pumped wells (open dug wells.9 irrigation water requirement drip system capacity requirement of Nitrogen. are considered superior over drip irrigation systems particularly in case of closely spaced field crops.Chapter 7 .2. FERGON FERGON for designing fertigation system has been developed at Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC). DRIPD (Drip Irrigation Design) was developed in Visual Basic to design the drip irrigation system. Different fertilizers have different solubility.2.7 DRIPD DRIPD for designing drip irrigation system has been developed at Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC). Therefore experiments to determine solubility of commonly used granular fertilizers were conducted as a part of the present study. New Delhi. in the effective implementation of fertigation process.

7. The computations are needed for the design of subsurface drainage systems of rainfed or irrigated agricultural land and soil salinity control.1). It has been used to analyze the hydrology of certain types of wetlands and to determine whether the wetland hydrologic criterion is satisfied for drained or partially drained sites.2 EnDrain The EnDrain computer program calculates the drainage discharge. The well spacing calculations are based on the traditional concepts of the Darcy’s law and water balance or mass conservation equations. hydraulic head. 3D and Profile Viewing capabilities of LANDRAIN.2 Agro-hydrology Models Models are now available which can reliably simulate the soil moisture. watertable management systems) approach is a method presently available for the complete analysis and design of a subirrigation and subsurface drainage system (Figure 7. The latest version combines the original DRAINMOD hydrology model nitrogen sub-model and salinity sub-model into a Windows based program. evaluation and scenario assessment purposes.5. and cost per unit for each pipe size.3 LANDDRAIN LANDRAIN is a computer program which assists the designer of a tiled pipe drainage system to quickly and successfully layout the network.Chapter 7 .1.2. The DRAINMOD model uses computerized simulations of a watertable control system based upon past long-term weather records (rainfall and temperature) and on-site soil parameters. Historical records are used for calibration and validation and the calibrated models can then be used for a wide range of prediction.1.5. salinity and watertable regimes expected to prevail under given climate. pipe installation details. The model was designed for use in humid regions. The model is also used to determine the hydraulic capacity of systems for land treatment of wastewater. Comprehensive output tables provide all burial and flow constraints. and its routine application is limited to those regions. The drain spacing calculations are based on the concept of the energy balance of groundwater flow. diagnose and remedy any potential depth or slope problems with the preliminary network as proposed.1 DRAINMOD The DRAINMOD (Drainage. The last two layers can also have different horizontal and vertical hydraulic permeability (anisotropy). The program allows easy access of topographical data and its powerful editing. 7. bury the network. 7. The model predicts the effects of drainage and associated water management practices on watertable depths. The program allows for the presence of three different soil layers with different hydraulic conductivity and permeability: one layer above and two below drain level. Rapid contour mapping facilitates the layout of the proposed drainage network using easy layout procedures for defining the drainage network. It has flexible flow calculation and pipe sizing capabilities. The three models most widely used for drainage and watertable management purpose are DRAINMOD.5. The new version includes a graphical user March 2009 7-9 . The wells may be partially or fully penetrating the aquifer. MODFLOW-SURFACT FLOW and SWAP. the soil water regime and crop yields. Graphic burial procedures (of the network) enables to rapidly find. total network costs.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS watertable. Powerful layout tools provides to analyze the new network and to match up with an existing network. land use and water management conditions. The model has been successfully tested and applied in wide variety of geographical and soils conditions. or spacing between parallel subsurface drains: pipe/tile drains or open ditches.5. with or without entrance resistance and shows the curve of the watertable. Powerful assistance is rendered to the users by the unique 2-D. determines the required pipe grades and size the pipe. The computations are needed for the design of subsurface drainage systems by open wells or tube-wells of rainfed or irrigated agricultural land and soil salinity control. 7.

The logical structure and layout of the Visual MODFLOW Pro interface provides users step-by-step necessary guidance to build a groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-SURFACT FLOW allows modeling of unsaturated zone modeling to effectively predict flow within the unsaturated zone. It is public domain software. hydrology. MODFLOW (Groundwater. In addition.2. The Richards equation is often used to mathematically describe the flow of water. particularly hydrogeology. and is of importance to agriculture. running simulations as well as displaying model outputs. The enhancement of MODFLOW through a GIS interface has recently been developed at the USGS (1998). excess and deficit water and soil salinity). specific yield. runoff. weather and management variables (rainfall. which is based partially on Darcy's law. quality and timing of irrigation water). and vertical flow components. susceptibility factors due to planting delay. the many powerful and easy-to-use graphical tools give all the flexibility need to assign complex property distributions. quantity. hydrogeology. It allows for accurate delineation and tracking of watertable position. generating and sharing input data.1 Schematic of the Simulated Watertable Management Using DRAINMOD 7. Evapotranspiration Irrigation and Rainfall Infiltration Drainage Runoff Water Table Upflux Deep Seepage Restrictive Layer Figure 7. taking into account flow in the unsaturated zone. z) cells • Creation of surface elevation model from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) or interpolation between known points • Creation of underlying layer elevations • Description of default soil hydraulic parameters: Hydraulic conductivity. irrigation. The process of building the input data file for a groundwater flow and/or transport model is often the most timeintensive and tedious task associated agricultural watertable management. porosity. Seasonal crop yield values accounting for wet. The output also include daily soil salinity profiles and lateral outflow salinity.2). rainfall.Chapter 7 . Integrating the latest methods for visualizing and managing projects. saturated hydraulic conductivity. and deep seepage. y. depth to impermeable layer and initial soil and groundwater salinities).5. The input data to DRAINMOD-S include several drainage system parameters (drain depth. lateral drain outflow. crop data (root depth function. specific storage March 2009 . and aquifer flow simulation) is the world leader groundwater modeling software. actual evapotranspiration.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS interface that allows easy preparation of input data sets. Monthly or yearly summaries of these hydrologic processes can be obtained. multiple pumping wells and steady-state or transient boundary conditions. and presenting modeling results. evapotranspiration. planting delay and salinity stresses can be obtained. pipe radius). drought. soil parameters (soil water characteristic curve. The model outputs include the daily results of watertable depth midway between drains.2 MODFLOW-SURFACT Flow MODFLOW-SURFACT Flow groundwater simulation software features many robust methods and enhanced simulation capabilities for handling complex saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow (Figure 7. infiltration. drain spacing. Movement of water within the vadose zone is studied within soil physics and hydrology. planting/harvesting dates of each crop in the rotation. delayed yield. The preparation of the MODFLOW groundwater model consists of the following basic tasks: 7-10 • Creation of three-dimensional model grid (x.

allowable depletion of readily available water in the root zone. The timing criteria include allowable daily stress. Hysteresis can also be taken into account. soil and groundwater pollution by salts and pesticides and crop water use and crop production studies. drainage head.Chapter 7 .5. • Definition of pumping rates and time-series. No flux boundaries. • Description of flux boundary conditions: Recharge and Evaporation at top layer. SWAP can also simulate spatial soil heterogeneity. The model capability includes design and monitoring of field irrigation and drainage systems. SWAP employs the Richards' equation for soil water movement in the soil matrix. river head. allowable depletion of totally available water in the root zone. The soil hydraulic functions are described by analytical expressions or by tabular values. SWAP contains three crop growth routines. Root water extraction at various depths in the root zone is calculated from potential transpiration. March 2009 7-11 . with a tabular flux-groundwater relationship. dry. Various methods can be used to simulate the potential and actual evapotranspiration rates. • Placement of pumping. Also various bottom boundary conditions of the soil profile (either in the unsaturated or saturated part of the soil) are possible. crop growth and surface water management can be simulated at sub-regional level. or with drainage equations (Hooghoudt 1940 and Ernst 1962). including the effect of salinity on crop growth. Field drainage can be calculated with a linear flux-groundwater level relationship. SWAP can be used for a wide range of research and practical applications in the field of agriculture. shrinking and swelling clay soils and water repellent soils.2 Cross-section Depicting Typical Groundwater System (Source: USGS. and critical pressure head or water content at a certain depth.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS • Description of flow boundary conditions: Constant head. root length density and possible reductions due to wet.2. 2008) 7. SWAP can simulate various solute transport processes to evaluate pesticide and salt transport. Vadose Zone Capillary Fringe Water Table Zone of Saturation r d wa t e g r ou n f o F l ow Figure 7. recharge or observation wells. The interaction between soil water balance. which integrates water flow. Irrigation can be prescribed at fixed times or scheduled according to a number of criteria. thus allowing for the evaluation of alternative application strategies. among others. water management and environmental problems.3 SWAP SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) is one of the most sophisticated agro-hydrological simulation software packages. solute and heat transport and crop growth. or saline conditions. surface water management. The top boundary condition is flexible (allowing for alternating conditions of shallow groundwater table and ponding).

and it can generate proposed operating schedules through a centralized automatic mode. More information is also listed at the Irrisoft website.2 DRAINSAL Kamra et.1 Salinity Prediction Models SALTMOD SALTMOD (Salinity Model) is computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture. with numerous options for canal system configuration. the depth of the watertable. soils and crop rotation schedules can be simulated.3 7.5. 7. Structure settings and discharges can be specified through time graphs entered before a simulation.Chapter 7 . SALTMOD can also be used to calculate the depth of the groundwater table and the drain discharge at the long term.3. however. 7. they can be changed at any time during a simulation. structure settings can be generated through "gate scheduling". water management options.3 WATSUIT All the models described above only to predict the salt concentration (EC-values) but not the composition of the (1994) developed DRAINSAL at the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) in India.3. dispersion and linear adsorption. groundwater and drainage water. It is highly interactive and includes integrated data editing capabilities. of the drainage and mixed irrigation water. including the use of ground water for irrigation. and these can be easily selected and calibrated through the model interface. the average salt concentration of the different soil reservoirs. using different hydrologic conditions. 7. to study the effect of long-term use of poor quality waters and to estimate the rates and salinity as well the seasonal/annual volume and the salt load of drainage effluent.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. ditches or wells for irrigation.3. and output of results. and the use of subsurface drainage water from pipe drains. The model can be used to simulate canal operations in a manual mode.5. This two-dimensional. hydraulic simulations. varying water management options. as well as some indicators of irrigation efficiency and sufficiency. finite element model provides long-term predictions of the soil salinity conditions and the effluent salinity in a subsurface drained soil. The model can be downloaded from the ILRI website.5. Sodicity and toxic-solute concentration. The model can be used to analyse drainage design criteria for salinity control. Various hydrologic conditions. The water management options include irrigation. Several common local gate automation schemes are also included in the model. does not fully take into account all composition changes and evaluation on the basis of a simulated composition of the soil solution would be preferable. and local gate automation algorithms can be applied. Relevant user information can be obtained from the CSSRI institute. 7-12 March 2009 .6 HYDRAULICS APPLICATION 7. and several cropping rotation schedules. The WATSUIT model developed by the US Soil Salinity Laboratory. and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands. The simulation in the unsaturated and saturated zones is based on the growing fundamental laws but also includes the effects of convective supports.5. This evaluation. The output consists of the seasonal average depth of the watertable. Riverside California predicts the salinity.1 CanalMan CanalMan was developed for performing hydraulic simulations of unsteady flow in branching canal networks. SALTMOD is used to simulate different water-management options impact on soil salinity and the salt contents of groundwater and drainage effluent in irrigated agricultural land. The output of SALTMOD is given for each season of any year during any number of years as specified by the user. The calculations are based on water and salt balances. The model can also be modified to predict the losses of nutrients and trace elements to the drains. drainage. Sodicity hazards under these conditions may be evaluated based on the composition of the irrigation water.6.

7. WADISO provides for easy interfacing with other application software. The program performs steady state and time simulation analysis with the capability to optimize pipe.4 NETAFIM™ Hydro-Calc NETAFIM™ has developed the HydroCalc Irrigation Planning software for the irrigation community. which is based on well-established hydraulic theory. The steady state simulation portion computes flows and pressures in pipe networks under steady state conditions. low-cost. and custom design and calibration via the computer program. check valves. pump and tank sizes for planning purposes. engineers and researchers to quickly simulate a large number of hydraulic conditions at the design or management level. superior to any other available water distribution system modeling software. It has the ability to consider elevations.Chapter 7 . pressure reducing valves. The program accepts input interactively from the terminal via keywords. under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The optimization portion optimally sizes pipes in a water distribution system and selects optimal pipes for cleaning and lining. check drip tube flushing and valve head loss. flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems. The SIC model is an efficient tool allowing canal managers. An interface between the GIS and the WADISO database typically allows: • • • Updating and editing of the model characteristics and parameters Updating of water demands. WADISO consists of three major parts: steady state computer simulation.28) is a mathematical model which can simulate the hydraulic behaviour of most of the irrigation canals or rivers. The extended period simulation or time simulation computes pressure and flow distribution in pipe networks taking into consideration fluctuating tank water levels and varying water use patterns over time. These structures provide a practical.6. which is biggest microirrigation project in the country.6. eliminates the need for laboratory calibration. Typically the program used is to size the pipes in an expansion of an existing system.5 WADISO WADISO (Water Distribution System Analysis and Optimization) is a comprehensive application built for the analysis and optimal design of water distribution systems. This allows the design of structures that meet unique operational and site requirements. and allows post-construction calibration of structures using as-built dimensions. 7. and multiple supply points.6. and energy calculation. It is a simple and easy calculation tool to perform some basic hydraulic computations. All parts of the program can handle virtually and typical water distribution system and allow for the presence of pumps. and extended period simulation. 7.user to evaluate the performance of micro irrigation in-field components: Drip laterals and micro sprinklers Sub mains and manifolds.3 WinFlume WinFlume is a stand-alone Windows-based computer programme providing the capability to design and calibrate long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs. including most GIS applications. valves. or to improve the pressure condition in an existing condition by reinforcing the system through the cleaning of selected pipes or the addition of pipes parallel to existing pipes.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. with distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. dealer or end.6. These include the lowest head loss requirement of any critical flow device. specifically the ESRI shape file standard and REGIS/Autodesk World FEA format. if there is a link between the sales records and the GIS Updating reports on the analysis results directly from GIS. March 2009 7-13 . The use of HydroCalc allows the designer. This software was used to analyze hydraulic systems of MARDI Jelebu in Negeri Sembilan. WADISO offers some unique features. as well as water quality modeling.2 SIC The SIC (Simulation of Irrigation Canals) software (Version 4. optimization. main lines. The main purposes of the model are simulation of the hydraulic behaviour of irrigation canals and rivers.

6. 7. It quickly calculates flow and channel properties such as critical depth and slope. and prints graphical surface profile reports.6. Virtually any type of system element can be described from the wide variety of available elements available on HYDROFLOW's menus. • Communicates with HYDROFLOW for system curve development.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7. the system contains several hydraulic design features that can be invoked once the basic water surface profiles are computed. Hydraulic grade line plots are displayed in the workspace of solved systems so that suction and high-head conditions are easily observed. recirculating and gravity flow piping systems. (3) movable boundary sediment transport computations. pumps and tanks). Systems are built by dragging and dropping both individual and groups of elements onto the workspace. exports to Excel spreadsheets. It provides the following features: 7-14 • Complete pump curve database access and editing. 7. It allows depicting the most of the possible situations that arise in system design. steady-state pressures and flows. so that a collection of pumps and/or other elements can be brought into any design.6. Elements can be stretched and/or increased in image size for easier viewing. (2) unsteady flow simulation. In addition to the four river analysis components. Fly-over element inspection (placing the mouse cursor over elements) rapidly allows to identify the system components. and (4) water quality analysis. Summary of pump selection reports list all pumps suitable for a specific application.Chapter 7 . This is commercial software and inexpensive. PumpBase provides graphic output of pump performance.0 PumpBase™ helps to select the best pumps for fluid conveyance application. fixed head loss curves and custom friction coefficients. handles both sub critical and supercritical flow types and includes many useful tools for designing weirs. • Quick affinity law conversions for speed and trim. March 2009 . fittings. HYDROFLOW's new clipboard is available for mass storage.6. and much more using Manning's equation and numerical integration for state-of-the-art accuracy.8 HYDROFLOW 2. Flow Pro designs steady-state water surface profiles for open channels.7 FLOW PRO FLOW PRO (Open channel hydraulic design) is a powerful and accurate solution for common hydraulic design problems. HYDROFLOW models systems conveying any type of incompressible fluid and solves for the full-pipe. The clipboard can be saved separately from project data. Detailed reports are created that can be submitted to pump manufacturers and sales representative for further confirmation of proper application and price quotes.0 is a powerful software tool that assists piping system designers in the modeling and analysis of single source/single discharge. The HEC-RAS system contains four one-dimensional river analysis components for: (1) steady flow water surface profile computations. PumpBase's database contains thousands of curves from dozens of participating pump manufacturers.9 PumpBase™ 2. The Hazen-Williams equation is available for use with water systems and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is available for use with any type of incompressible fluid. The following is a description of the major capabilities of HEC-RAS. valves. and underflow gates. A key element is that all four components use a common geometric data representation and common geometric and hydraulic computation routines. Element head losses can be described using flow vs head loss curves. The models created with HYDROFLOW can consist of up to 10 parallels and hundreds of elements (pipes. normal depth. 7. These systems are widely used in irrigation applications among others. channel roughness.6 HEC-RAS HEC-RAS (Analyzes Networks of Natural and Man-made Channels) is designed to perform onedimensional hydraulic calculations for a full network of natural and constructed channels. Once a system's total dynamic head and flow are found. It helps engineers visualize design alternatives.0 HYDROFLOW 2. PumpBase™ can be used to find the best pump for your application. system and NPSHR curves by specifying up to 40 selection criteria. moving and copying of elements. orifices. hydraulic radius and wetted perimeter.

AutoCAD DWG and ESRI Shape AgStar Agstar offers a complete package of land-leveling tools for agricultural and irrigation purposes. March 2009 7-15 . Mikrofyn Visual Digger) Character-separated text files of any format. 7. • Automatic viscosity corrections to pump curves. from A4. circle-circle-calculation. line-linecalculation. This applies to the various types of situational drawings (topographic maps.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS • Extensive and editable liquid property database. and is fully 3D. volume calculation.g. wire registration. in all land survey tasks. with advanced possibilities Direct translation between e.7.10 HydroCAD HydroCAD is a Computer Aided Design tool used for modeling stormwater runoff. LandCad® can communicate with all types of GPS-equipment and total stations. • Efficiency and NPSHR curves are plotted on pump graphics. LandCad® is handling all types of user-friendly graphical land surveying.and 3D-transformation. LandCad® can translate data between CAD/GIS-data formats: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ • 7. LandCad® can handle UTM-coordinate system and local coordinate systems with and without deformation. HydroCAD provides a wide range of commonly used drainage calculations including: • • • • • • • • 7. 3D-visualization. cut/fill calculation. It carries a versatile suite of commands designed to simplify and speed up the professional surveyor's work.MIF (map data) and MID (database-information) ESRI Shape (map data) and dBase (database-information) 3D-Terrainmodel-formats for Machine Control for Excavators (e. value-adding connection between GPS-equipment/total stations at one hand. energy companies. including embedded storage chambers Easy management and reporting of multiple rainfall events Runs on any Windows PC . • User Project files save all selection information.7 SCS. Micro Station . GIS with database-connection. site maps etc). blocks etc.1 LandCad(R) LandCad® is used worldwide in surveying companies. colleges and universities.7. • Technical Bulletins/Dimensional Schematics available. HydroCAD is ideal for all types of drainage projects from small runoff studies to complex detention pond designs.g. The capabilities of this software can be usefull for planning and design of agricultural drainage systems. WMS/WFS-internet-maps and professional plotting. These drawings may be GIS and CAD software based. GIS and CAD can usually be easily scaled up and down to suit convenient use. and Geographical Information Systems at the other. longitudinal and cross sectional profiles of canals and various structures.No other CAD software required DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTS PREPARATION Most design drawings can be readily digitized and computer printed. SBUH runoff hydrographs Rational Method with automatic IDF curves Hydrograph routing through ponds & reaches Coupled ponds with tailwater Automatic hydraulics and culvert calculations Automatic pond storage calculations. NRCS. 7. all types of 2D. and as an intelligent. at state institutions. municipalities. layout maps.2 AutoCAD DWG and DXF with header A0-oversizeformat. by engineers and contractor companies.Chapter 7 . as well as reduce costs by minimizing the amount of dirt to move.DGN with cell-libraries MapInfo .6. • Liquid temperature rise calculations. • Both English and SI (metric) units.

ESRI GIS software has features that enable integration of CAD data. A host of other design parameters can be specified. of segregating different kinds of features into more easily managed layers.8 OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT 7. Agstar supports a wide range of GPS RTK receivers. and DWG files directly and in the same map display as GIS layers. typically one layer per feature type. and Trimble. such as color or line type.2 ICT in Operation and Management Modern agriculture is a large-scale water consumer. It is not an information system. allowing viewing and manipulating survey data in a wide variety of ways. Modern agriculture is a large-scale water consumer. or to search for the optimal slope. while preserving the natural resources and the quality of 7-16 March 2009 . GIS is database-oriented and thus tends to handle data in a single seamless database. the GIS can impose additional data quality by checking CAD attributes against the business rules for a GIS layer. can display CAD data in DGN. amount of dirt to import or export. The main product of a CAD system is a paper map. The set of drawing files can be a set of map tiles that share a common coordinate system but are physically disjointed. When converting data from CAD files. Sokkia.8. fixing geometric errors such as unclosed polygons and unconnected lines. ArcGIS symbolizes CAD data as defined in the CAD file.8. in a more precise way and in conformance with the crop's requirements. it contains many of the useful features of its predecessors. including cut/fill ratio. CAD standards do not always separate object systems by layer. sometimes enhanced with the use of a layer tag. which must adjust as well as possible its consumption in adequacy with its needs. which is useful if crowns in the field. including SurvCADD.1 Importance of ICT Application The need for greater water use efficiency and productivity has remained the main driver of many new innovative application of ICT that has rapidly been gaining momentum in irrigation and drainage management.Chapter 7 . Layers can have different data requirements and behaviors. 7. and then determine the optimal field design requiring the least amount of dirt moved. objects could be differentiated just as well by color or line style. In addition to its basic land survey and design commands. despite the differences in data models. GIS can use CAD data without conversion. Leica. GIS employs the concept of layering. Once converted. and constraints on the range of slopes to search. 7. GIS data automation tools can further "clean" data. 7. Agstar is the latest in a long line of powerful software survey tools produced by Carlson Software. • • • • GIS can control how the data is symbolized and use the CAD data in GIS analysis so long as the CAD data is added as simple point.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS For data collection. line. CAD layers are nothing more than an entity property. ArcGIS. Carlson Field. it includes many tools for map projections and for handling large data volumes. for example. including such popular brands as Navcom. and polygon features to a GIS layer. which must adjust as well as possible its consumption in adequacy with its needs. Ashtech.3 CAD and GIS CAD is drawing-based and manages data as drawing files or a set of drawing files. allowing to survey large fields with GPS. Agstar can also subdivide the field and assign different designs to each subdivision. Wireless networks and Web technologies enable to ensure the monitoring and the remote control of the irrigation equipment. CAD is well suited for design drawings. The field design tool can be set to a user-specified field slope. GIS allows the selection of CAD layers within a CAD file and allows adjustment of what features to display.7. while preserving the natural resources and the quality of the productions. Agstar handles both the survey and the design sides of land-leveling. and Carlson Survey. WF. Because GIS has always held the possibility of managing data over a wide geographic extent.

7. The system allows interactive selection of distributaries and on-line real time estimation of water demands in each distributary over the entire network. Application of the RIMIS is provided in Appendix 7-B1. and crop yield. 7. The farmer can. via the Internet. RIMIS is able to correctly estimate the available water resources for irrigation supply. 2006). GIS is widely using in irrigation and water resources management. Some of the IT strategies are remote sensing (RS). Advances in remote sensing. web-technologies and automatic control systems. 7. This program is currently being modifying to be upgraded from customized to standalone program considering with real-time data inputs.3. This will help irrigation managers to enhance decision-making in the management and operation of the irrigation system.8. The technologies used are adhoc wireless networks and Web technologies.8. The DSS dynamically links a field irrigation demand prediction model for the area irrigated by a distributary with a GIS of the canal network. It ensures equal sharing of water for the tail-end users. Geographical Information System (GIS).3 ICT Tools and Software Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer solutions to make possible a finer approach of the irrigation of the crop by facilitating the work of the farmers. ICT offer solutions to make possible a finer approach of the irrigation of the crop by facilitating the work of the farmers. The work exposed in this article shows the contribution of ICT to manage irrigation pivots in a farm.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS the productions.3. RIMIS dynamically links a field irrigation demand prediction model for the area irrigated by a canal network in GIS.Chapter 7 . The system can correctly The userinterface was developed using ArcObjects and Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming languages in ArcGIS software. continuously collected from field. Decision support systems (DSS).2 IrriWise™ Manager IrriWiseTM Powerful Management Tool (Figure 7. RIMIS can give information on the uniformity of water distribution and the shortfall or excess and what decisions to adopt for the next day. The system can effectively include spatial variability of soil. allocation and distribution of water.1 GIS and DSS Water is a scare resource and there is a growing importance in efficient use of water in agriculture. crop.3) enables to view and analyze real-time data. ensure the monitoring and the remote control of the irrigation equipment. in a more precise way and in conformance with the crop's requirements. graphs and tables in a comprehensible form. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based Decision Support System (DSS) enables the real time water demand estimation in distributaries and allocation. GIS and modeling offer irrigation managers a novel way for obtaining accurate spatial data on actual water use.8. and simulate the recommended irrigation supplies among tertiary canals that match the available discharge at the system head with the crop water demand for the actual field conditions. The modern GIS technique coupled with mathematical models has been incorporated with the spatially distributed information in irrigation water management. A typical example of of the GIS based customized software is called RIMIS (Rice Irrigation Management Information System) (Rowshon and Amin. A computerized system for equitable irrigation supply to the command areas based on river-fed fluctuating water availability was successfully developed for the Tanjung Karang Irrigation Scheme in Malaysia. The system helps to keep input and output databases always updated with respect to the real field conditions. The results are displayed on the computer screen together with colour-coded maps. water supply and environment in dealing with the complex problems of irrigation and water resources management. Remote Sensing and GIS techniques are currently widely used for monitoring irrigation water use and productivity. In Malaysia. Some of the scopes are: • • • • • Irrigation water management Integrated crop land inventory Crop yield estimation Monitoring and evaluation of irrigation system Management of drainage water. water demand. thereby providing better control over irrigation scheduling and March 2009 7-17 .

The system allows user to download data and provide real. Components of a SCADA System are composed of the following: (i) Field instrumentation (ii) Remote stations (iii) Communications network and (iv) Central monitoring station Communication Network Central Monitoring Station Communication Remote Station Figure 7.3 IrriWiseTM – A powerful Management Tool 7.time advice with fewer visits to the farm. carrying out necessary analysis and control. and then displaying this data on a number of operator screens.4 Components of SCADA System 7-18 March 2009 . Control may be automatic or can be initiated by operator commands. IrriWiseTM is easy to install. enabling easy data interpretation and improving real-time decisions.Chapter 7 .3 SCADA SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system refers to the combination of telemetry and data acquisition. and offers a reliable and affordable solution with a high return on the investment. reliability and simplicity. transferring it back to a central site. It consists of collecting information. Data is transmitted from the field units (transmitters) to the PC using a unique radio and data transfer technology that provides high performance. The SCADA system is used to monitor and control a plant or equipment.8. The data is presented in user-friendly software.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS production resources. Real-time flow measurement and monitoring are important components of modern SCADA systems used on irrigation delivery and drainage projects.3. IrriWiseTM Manager ensures better performance of the irrigation system and works in real time to achieve optimal results. simple to operate and maintain. Figure 7.

Vol. S. Kuala Lumpur. and Amin. Bijdragon tot de Kennis van Eenige Natuurkundige Groothen van den Grond. S.R. Effect of depth of impervious layer and adsorption on solute transport in tile-drained irrigated lands. 83-94. (1987).A. 137p. K. Rome.264. National Conference and Exhibition. 220. The Netherlands. and Skogerboe. Cited from Modern Land Drainage by Smedema et al. (1940).R. S. No.Chapter 7 .S. May. 2004.K. New Jeresy.. The paper presented in the 1st Asian Conference on Precision Agriculture. 19-21 May 1998. and Rao. Englewood Cliffs.K (1994). Prentice-Hall Inc. M. 155: 251. the Hage. and Walker. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 45. Kamra. W.B. Cited in Modern Land Drainage by Smedema et al. W. "Irrigation-drainage design and management model: Development". Irrigation Association of Australia. Garcia G. M.V. Walker. (1989). and Gates T.V. Italy. Groundwater storming in de verzadigde zone en hun berekeningen bij aanwezigheid van horizontale evenwijdige open leidingen.G.R. 515–707.B. Malaysia. L. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems. 1. Surface Irrigation: "Theory and Practice".COMPUTER APPLICATIONS REFERENCES Ernst. Hooghoudt. 2004. Manguerra H.. S. Rowshon. (2004) RIMIS: Rice Irrigation Management Information System for Precision Farming of Rice. 386 pp. (1962). (1995). (1998) A decision support tool for the design. Verslagen van Landbouwkundige Onederzoekingen 46(7).K.. Hydrology. Legend Hotel.R. ASCE. W. J.K. J. 7-20 March 2009 . Raine. of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.M. Singh. G. Walker. 121.F.. management and evaluation of surface irrigation systems.

email: Clemmens. Development and Management Service FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome. Utah 84322-4105 USA Email: bieusu@cc. Description CROPWAT for WINDOWS (Public Domain) Program Group & Software Name APPENDIX 7.usu. The list does not include all available software.usq.cfm?fuseac tion=software National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture (NCEA).html Software Engineering Division Biological & Irrigation Engineering Department Utah State University 4105 Old Main Hill Logan. Australia http://ncea. Crop irrigation http://www.1 (Public Domain) √ √ √ √ Irrigation - - - - Drainage - - - √ Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - Agricultural Land Management The Water Resources. Australia abases_cropwat.bie. USA List of Computer Modeling Software Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7A-1 . Crop water requirements. Italy Tel: +(39) 06 2009 Surface irrigation software package Design and management of furrow irrigation System SIRMOD III (Public Domain) FIDO v2: Furrow Irrigation Design Optimizer (Commercial) WinSRFR 2. USDA-ARS 21881 North Cardon Lane Maricopa AZ 85239. Suppliers Note: This list contains a summary and information on the computer modelling software referred in this Chapter. Fax: (39-06) 57056275.vweb1. Programs that are not listed may be equally or more suitable for particular applications. system evaluation and operational analysis for surface irrigation systems (Basin. and design and management of irrigation http://www. Albert J Water Management and Conservation Research. planning of irrigation scheduling. Furrow and Borders) Reference evapotranspiration.

edu http://www. 3026 Software Republic Sales Phone: (936) 372-9884 Fax: (936) 372-9869 Sales Email: sales@raincad.Netafim.A List of Computer Modeling Software (Contd. Box 260026 • Highlands Ranch. LLC P.) Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS March 2009 .edu/ http://www.A. BOX APPENDIX LAVERTON VIC 3028 Phone: 61 3 9369 8777 Fax: 61 3 9369 3865 Email: support@irricad.usu.irricad. Utah State University Logan.616. UT 84322-4105 USA. U. B. Biological and Irrigation Engineering.bie.E. Associate Professor of Civil Engineering.D.0 (Public Domain) SPRINKMOD (Public Domain) WinFlume Description IrriCAD Pro (Commercial) Program Group & Software Name √ √ √ - √ Irrigation - - - - - Drainage - - √ √ - Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - - Agricultural Land Management Suppliers Netafim Australia MELBOURNE . Portland State University http://www. Cook. • http://www.wrpllc.S. Fax 720.7A-2 Pressurized irrigation design system Open channel hydraulic design Microirrigation Water Management Sprinkler Simulation Model Design irrigation structure FLOW PRO (Commercial) Irricalc™ 3.C. Email : Web site : www.cfm?fuseac tion=software Water Resources Publications.O.0173 / 800.1971 e-mail: info@wrpllc.O. VIC. Co 80163-0026.HEAD OFFICE 213-217 FITZGERALD ROAD LAVERTON NORTH.

Nevada Software Engineering Division Biological & Irrigation Engineering Dept.swstechnology. Wayne Skaggs Biological & Agricultural Engineering 150 Weaver Labs North Carolina State University http://www.0 (Commercial) Description DRAINMOD 6. Analyzes Networks of Natural and Man-made Channels Advanced Pump Selection MODFLOWSURFACT FLOW (Commercial) GMS (Commercial) CanalMan (Public Domain) HEC-RAS (Public Domain) HYDROFLOW 2.usu.htm APPENDIX http://www. Suite B South Jordan. Utah State CA 95959 USA Fax: (530) 470-0996 Email: support@tahoesoft.A List of Computer Modeling Software (Contd. . Canada N2L 5J2 hec-ras/ EMS-i 1204 W. UT 84095-4612 http://www.cfm?fuseac tion=software Department of The Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) http://www. 460 Phillip Street .tahoesoft.Suite 101 Waterloo.0 (Public Domain) Program Group & Software Name - - - √ - - Irrigation - - - - - √ Drainage √ √ √ √ √ - Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - - Agricultural Land Management Suppliers nmod/ Schlumberger Water Services Waterloo Hydrogeologics. USA South Jordan Parkway.hec.usace. water table management systems Groundwater Modeling and Water Table Management Groundwater Modeling System Hydraulic simulations of unsteady flow in branching canal networks.March 2009 Drainage.ncsu. Ontario.) Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7A-3 .html Tahoe Design Software PO Box 187.

Cranfield campus Email: t.abconsultingcompany. KY 41056 http://www. http://www.gls.html A B Consulting Co.tahoesoft..carlsonsw.hess@cranfield.landcad.cranfield. USA Suppliers Tahoe Design Software PO Box 187 Nevada City.O.htm Carlson Nebraska. DK http://www. NH 03817 USA Fax: 603 – 323 7467 Email: sales@hydrocad. 7599.7A-4 - Land-leveling Tools for Agricultural and Irrigation Purposes Subsurface Drainage System Design Water Balance Model Stormwater Modeling AgStar (Commercial) WaSim (Public Domain) HydroCAD (Commercial) LANDDRAIN (Commercial) - Land surveying CAD-system LandCAD (Commercial) - √ - - Water Distribution System Analysis and Optimization WADISO (Commercial) - Irrigation Advanced Pump Selection Description PumpBase™ HydroCAD P.0 (Commercial) Program Group & Software Name - √ √ - - - - Drainage √ - - - - √ √ Hydrology/ Hydraulics - √ - √ √ - - Agricultural Land Management Tel: +44 (0)1234 750111 x2763 http://www. 102 W Second Box 477 Chocorua. List of Computer Modeling Software ( GLS Software (Pty) Inc Lincoln.html Email: Reader in Water Management Location: Building 53. PO Box 36/10163. Dr Tim Hess APPENDIX 7.) Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS March 2009 . CA 95959 USA Fax: (530) 470-0996 Email: support@tahoesoft.html Centre for Tropical Ecosystems Research. South Africa.hydrocad. Maysville. University of Aarhus.

GIS-based customized software will be used to simulate the daily irrigation supply for the scheme. By selection of the menu item “Open RIMIS”. To simulate daily irrigation deliveries for tertiary canals. the model incorporates allowable and design irrigation supply based on the actual water demand and available water resources for irrigation supply. Simulate the daily irrigation supply for the tertiary canals of the scheme. Figure 7B1-1 Irrigation Canal Network of Tanjung Karang Irrigation Scheme Procedures for Simulation of Irrigation Supply GIS-based customized software called Rice Irrigation Management System (RIMIS) is used to allocate the available irrigation water among tertiary canals. The paddy is grown two times mainly August to January (main or wet season) and February to July (off or dry season) in a year.Chapter 7 . RIMIS is developed using ArcObjects and Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming languages to structure the framework inside the powerful ArcGIS software.B-1 Simulation of Irrigation Supply for a Canal-based Irrigation System The Tanjung Karang Rice Irrigation Scheme is located at about 3025/ ~ 3045/ N latitude and 100058/ ~ 101015/ E longitude of the state of Selangor in Malaysia. Then water is conveyed into Tengi River and thence to the intake point of main canal at Tengi River Headwork (TRH). The system can correctly simulate and evaluate recommended irrigation supplies among tertiary canals by matching the available discharge at the system head with the actual water use pattern of the field conditions.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS APPENDIX 7. Step 1: Run the RIMIS Software On activation of ArcGIS Software. the menu “RIMIS” appears directly on the Menu Bar in the software window. The Bernam River is the only source for the irrigation supply diverted by Bernam River Headwork (BRH) into the feeder canal. Irrigation water is delivered directly from the main canal to tertiary canals through Constant Head Orifices (CHO). The total command area of the scheme is about 19. the program allows to view the March 2009 7A-5 . The detail feature of the irrigation distribution networks and irrigation compartments under each irrigation service areas for the scheme are illustrated in Figure 7B-1.848 ha. The scheme is divided into three irrigation service areas where water is delivered staggering by one month.

Chapter 7 . Figure 7B1-2 RIMIS Menu and Tanjung Karang Irrigation Scheme in ArcGIS. Figure 7B1-3 Rice Irrigation Management Information System (RIMIS) Step 2: Illustration of Simulation Procedures A step-by-step schematic flowchart as shown in Figure 7B1-4 describes the procedure to simulate irrigation supply for all tertiary canals as the season advances. RIMIS allows the irrigation manager to run the day-to-day irrigation management and operation activities. 7A-6 March 2009 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS dialog wizard of the RIMIS as shown in Figures 7B1-2 and 7B1-3.

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Start Start Season Selection Season Selection as as Season Progresses Season Progresses Net Irrigation Irrigation Areas Net Areas by ISA ISA FAO-Penman Monteith FAO-Penman Monteith Method (ETo) Method (ETo) Irrigation Day Irrigation and Period Period and RIMIS RIMIS ArcGIS-VBA ArcGIS-VBA Framework Framework Select Crop Select Crop Coefficient (kc) Coefficient (kc) "Dialog “Dialog Wizard" Wizard” Equitable Irrigation Irrigation Equitable Deliveries Deliveries Stochastic Stochastic Expected Expected Rainfall Rainfall (SER) (SER) Present and Present and Recommended Recommended Standing Water Standing WaterDepth Depth Water Analysis for for Water Balance Analysis Different Conditions Different Conditions Irrigation Delivery Irrigation Performance and Performance and Remedial Remedial Measures Measures Irrigation Water Irrigation Water Requirements by by ISA ISA Requirements Simulation of of Irrigation Irrigation Simulation Diversion for for Each Each Tertiary Tertiary Diversion Canal (Off take) and and Total Total Canal (Offtake) Required Required Supply Supply (Q (Qreq req)) Parameters Parameters Optimization Optimization Simulation of of Available Available Inflow Simulation Inflow for Irrigation Irrigation Supply for Supply in in the the Main Canal (Q ) Main Canal (Qav av) Is Is Q > Qav Qreq av > Q req No No Yes Yes Compute Supply for for Compute Allowable Allowable Supply Each TertiaryCanal Canal(Off (Offtake) Each Tertiary take) Compute Compute Desired Desired Supply Supply for for Each as Field Field EachTertiary Tertiary Canal Canal as Water Demand Demand Water Display Display Graph Graph Edit Edit Records Records Analysis Analysis Prepare Irrigation Prepare Irrigation Scheduling Scheduling Report Report Build Build Database Database Retrieve Records Records Retrieve Tabular Tabular Output Output Delete Delete Records Records Characterizing Irrigation Characterizing Irrigation Delivery Performance Delivery Performance End End Figure 7B1-4 Schematic Flowchart for Simulation of Irrigation Supplies for Tertiary Canals of the Tanjung Karang Irrigation Scheme March 2009 7A-7 .Chapter 7 .

Chapter 7 . Crop-coefficient (kc) and Irrigation Efficiency (IE). the recommended irrigation deliveries among tertiary canals are seen by clicking on the Command Button “Equitable Irrigation Supply” in Figure 7B1-5. the following inputs are required: Present Standing Water Depth (SW). Figure 7B1-5 Dialog Wizard for Recommended Irrigation Supply for Tertiary Canals. Afterwards. Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo). Seepage-Percolation (SP). 7A-8 March 2009 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Step 3: Required Inputs To run the program. the total recommended irrigation supply should not exceed the total available Supply i. The output window can be viewed instantly as shown in Figure 7B1-6. 17.21 m3/s shown in the Dialog Wizard. This condition together with tight gate control can ensure irrigation supply to the target service areas with the available irrigation water. Step 4: Run Module for Irrigation Deliveries for Tertiary Canal A dialog wizard shown in Figure 7B1-3 will appear by clicking on the Command Button “Recommended Tertiary Canal Supply” in Figure 7B1-5.21 m3/s) while updating inputs in the Dialog Wizard.21 < 18.. The recommended supply is simulated through the parameter optimization with respect to the available irrigation water and actual water demand pattern by the targeted areas. 17. The dialog wizard displays with required inputs and relevant information to allocate irrigation supply on 20 October 2003 for the main season.e. The total required discharge for the recommended supply is automatically computed and displayed in the Text Box (i. All input information is adjustable and the irrigation manager can update according to the actual field condition. Step 5: Recommended Irrigation Deliveries for Tertiary Canals To optimize the irrigation supply among tertiary canals for a particular day. Recommended Ponding Water Depth (SWmax or ASW).e. Expected Daily Rainfall (RF).

Figure 7B1-7 Recommended. Allowable and Design Irrigation Supply for the Tertiary Canals. 20 October 2008 in Main Season March 2009 7A-9 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Figure 7B1-6 Simulated Irrigation Supplies for Tertiary Canals with Respect to the Design Supply Step 6: Recommended Irrigation Deliveries for Tertiary Canals The recommended supply among tertiary canals with respect to the allowable and design or target supplies on the 20th October for the main season are shown in Figure 7B1-7.Chapter 7 .

Figure 7B1-8 Volumetric Irrigation Distribution throughout the Scheme Note: RIMIS is also capable for using to determine the water demand for planning and design purpose. spatial variations of irrigation supply on 20 October 2008 for irrigation blocks under respective tertiary canals are shown in Figure 7B1-8. planning and operation & management activities in rice irrigation schemes from one platform. It is intended that the RIMIS will be extended for 8 large-scale irrigation schemes in Malaysia inside the one platform. The output dialog wizard allows plotting the recommended. allowable and design irrigation supply for an individual tertiary canal simply by clicking on the Command Button “Daily Supply for Each CHO” on the selection of items in ListBoxes under “Irrigation Supply by CHO” in Figure 7B1-6. In near future.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Step 7: Recommended Irrigation Deliveries for Tertiary Canals By selecting the item “Volumetric Irrigation Supply by Block” in ListBox from Figure 7B1-5.Chapter 7 . In this case user needs to feed right inputs. The new module will be developed for the planning and design of irrigation canal networks. The rainfall amount should be zero and crop evapotranspiration should be considered during the peak irrigation period. 7A-10 March 2009 . the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) will be able to apply it with real time information for the design.

The FORTRAN statements are provided to read the Weather files in the Help documents. The first line contains the station ID in columns 1-6. The Weather input screen displayed depends on the type of weather file specified in the project file. month. required design parameters and optimum drain spacing for the farm. There are two lines for each month.90 m and hydraulic conductivity of 1.B-2 Simulation of Subsurface Drainage System Design Information Using DRAINMOD Software The irrigation field has to be provided with subsurface drainage system. They can be accessed through Help Menu.58 cm/hr). Required Data Daily rainfall duration and amount Daily temperature Soil data Crop data Input Data Window Step 1: Preparation of DRAINMOD Inputs Weather information is entered through a screen accessed by selecting Weather from the Input Menu (Figure 7B2-1). DRAINMOD can also use files containing daily PET data. A new line is started whenever the month changes. March 2009 7A-11 . The detail guidelines for creating input data format are provided in the software. the year in columns 8-11. Simulate the watertable condition. the year in columns 8-11 and the month in columns 12-13.Chapter 7 .5 cm/day in the farm. Each line of data contains the station ID in columns 1-6.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS APPENDIX 7. The DRAINMOD input file for temperature consists of daily maximum and minimum air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit for each day. The field has total soil thickness of 2. temperature or PET files. and a six digit station identifier. Field crops will be grown in the farm. Assume the drainage coefficient is 2. Hints: Use your favourite editor to look at your rainfall.1 m/day (4. (a) Weather File Creator Window (b) Weather Parameter Editor Figure 7B2-1 Weather Inputs Creator and Editor Windows The rainfall files or the irrigation routine must be modified to ensure that the irrigation amounts and timing are correct for this application of the model. These are organized by year. and the month in columns 12-13. The remainder of the line contains the hourly rainfall amounts.

Then water management option is chosen and it gives different water management options for surface and subsurface water (Figure 7B2-4). they are fed into the DRAINMOD project file as shown in Figure 7B22. specify period of simulation and specify the water management options. select output options. Figure 7B2-2 Data Input Window The General Information screen is used to input the title of the simulation. It is chosen from the Window in Figure 7B2-2 simply by clicking on the option “Soil” and the appropriate file is browsed.Chapter 7 . It includes daily rainfall and temperature. Secondly. Two lines are available for inputting a title to identify the DRAINMOD input data set (Figure 7B2-3). soil data is needed. Figure 7B2-3 General Information Screen 7A-12 March 2009 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Step 2: Import Inputs After preparing the input files. weather data is needed. At first. which is chosen from the Window in Figure 7B2-2 simply by clicking on the option “Weather” and the appropriate files are browsed. Then crop input data file is entered for the simulation. Rainfall and temperature inputs are accessed through the Window like that Figure 7B2-2.

Chapter 7 . For field crops. a huge amount of data is required. In this reason. A typical configuration of drainage design specification using DRAINMOD is provided in the Figure 7B2-7. Using the actual field information. drain should be provided at the depth of 75 cm or more from the ground surface.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Figure 7B2-4 Water Management Option Step 3: Watertable Simulation To simulate watertable in the project area. Figure 7B2-5 Simulated Watertable in the Project Area Step 4: Optimum Drain Spacing Determination The trial and error method is followed to get the optimal drainage spacing. March 2009 7A-13 . When average watertable will be lower than the 75 cm for a particular condition then drain spacing can be considered as optimal. The drainage design window is shown in Figure 7B2-6. The simulated watertable of the project area is shown in Figure 7B2-5. a sample data was used to simulate the watertable. DRAINMOD gives a clear picture about the watertable condition and possible measures to be taken for the particular crop.

Chapter 7 .COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Figure 7B2-6 Drainage Design Window Figure 7B2-7 Optimum Drain Spacing using DRAINMOD 7A-14 March 2009 .

March 2009 Surface irrigation software package Design and management of furrow irrigation System SIRMOD III (Public Domain) FIDO v2: Furrow Irrigation Design Optimizer (Commercial) WinSRFR Suppliers Note: This list contains a summary and information on the computer modelling software referred in this Chapter. planning of irrigation scheduling. USA http://www.cfm?fuseac tion=software National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture (NCEA).edu http://www.fao.1 (Public Domain) √ √ √ √ Irrigation - - - - Drainage - - - √ Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - Agricultural Land Management The Water Resources. Crop water requirements.html Software Engineering Division Biological & Irrigation Engineering Department Utah State University 4105 Old Main Hill Logan. Furrow and Borders) Reference Clemmens. USDA-ARS 21881 North Cardon Lane Maricopa AZ 85239. system evaluation and operational analysis for surface irrigation systems (Basin. Albert J Water Management and Conservation Italy Tel: +(39) 06 57055541. Development and Management Service FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome. Programs that are not listed may be equally or more suitable for particular applications.A List of Computer Modeling Software Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7A-15 . abases_cropwat. Description CROPWAT for WINDOWS (Public Domain) Program Group & Software Name APPENDIX 7.bie. and design and management of irrigation schemes. email: Australia Queensland. Australia http://ncea.usq. Utah 84322-4105 USA Email: bieusu@cc. The list does not include all available software. Crop irrigation requirements. Fax: (39-06) http://www.vweb1.

A List of Computer Modeling Software ( http://www. LAVERTON VIC 3028 Phone: 61 3 9369 8777 Fax: 61 3 9369 3865 Email: support@irricad.873.0 (Public Domain) SPRINKMOD (Public Domain) WinFlume Description IrriCAD Pro (Commercial) Program Group & Software Name √ √ √ - √ Irrigation - - - - - Drainage - - √ √ - Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - - Agricultural Land Management Suppliers Netafim Australia MELBOURNE APPENDIX 7.cfm?fuseac tion=software Water Resources Publications.softwarerepublic. BOX 248. UT 84322-4105 USA. OFFICE 213-217 FITZGERALD ROAD LAVERTON NORTH.O.D.E. Associate Professor of Civil Engineering. Portland State University http://www. Utah State University http://www.Netafim. Web site : www. Cook.wrpllc. U.7A-16 Pressurized irrigation design system Open channel hydraulic design Microirrigation Water Management Sprinkler Simulation Model Design irrigation structure FLOW PRO (Commercial) Irricalc™ 3. Co 80163-0026.irricad. Biological and Irrigation • http://www. Email : allenric@cc.0173 / 800.) Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS March 2009 .usu.1971 e-mail: Software Republic Sales Phone: (936) 372-9884 Fax: (936) 372-9869 Sales Email: sales@raincad. Box 260026 • Highlands Ranch. 3026 P.bie. Fax 720.C. LLC P.usu.

mil/software/ hec-ras/hecras-hecras.bae.htm APPENDIX 7.) Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7A-17 .html Tahoe Design Software PO Box 187.March 2009 Drainage. http://www.tahoesoft. 460 Phillip Street . Inc.0 (Commercial) Description DRAINMOD 6.usace.cfm?fuseac tion=software Department of The Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) http://www. water table management systems Groundwater Modeling and Water Table Management Groundwater Modeling System Hydraulic simulations of unsteady flow in branching canal Software Engineering Division Biological & Irrigation Engineering nmod/ Schlumberger Water Services Waterloo Hydrogeologics. Wayne Skaggs Biological & Agricultural Engineering 150 Weaver Labs North Carolina State University http://www.A List of Computer Modeling Software ( EMS-i 1204 W. Nevada CA 95959 USA Fax: (530) 470-0996 Email: support@tahoesoft. Utah State University. UT 84095-4612 http://www.ems-i.bie.ncsu.0 (Public Domain) Program Group & Software Name - - - √ - - Irrigation - - - - - √ Drainage √ √ √ √ √ - Hydrology/ Hydraulics - - - - - Agricultural Land Management Suppliers . Analyzes Networks of Natural and Man-made Channels Advanced Pump Selection MODFLOWSURFACT FLOW (Commercial) GMS (Commercial) CanalMan (Public Domain) HEC-RAS (Public Domain) HYDROFLOW 2. South Jordan Parkway.swstechnology.Suite 101 Waterloo. Canada N2L 5J2 http://www. USA http://www. Suite B South Jordan.

co. KY 41056 erview.tahoesoft.htm Carlson GLS Software (Pty) Ltd.carlsonsw. 7599. http://www. 102 W Second St. NH 03817 USA Fax: 603 – 323 7467 Email: sales@hydrocad.O.html Email: info@abconsultingcompany.cranfield. USA http://www. Cranfield campus Email: t.hess@cranfield. Chapter 7 – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS March 2009 .html A B Consulting Suppliers Tahoe Design Software PO Box 187 Nevada City. 36/10163.abconsultingcompany. Stellenbosch.7A-18 - Land-leveling Tools for Agricultural and Irrigation Purposes Subsurface Drainage System Design Water Balance Model Stormwater Modeling AgStar (Commercial) WaSim (Public Domain) HydroCAD (Commercial) LANDDRAIN (Commercial) - Land surveying CAD-system LandCAD (Commercial) - √ - - Water Distribution System Analysis and Optimization WADISO (Commercial) - Irrigation Advanced Pump Selection Description PumpBase™ 2.. CA 95959 USA Fax: (530) 470-0996 Email: HydroCAD P. Inc List of Computer Modeling Software ( Inc. South Reader in Water Management Location: Building 53. University of Aarhus.html Centre for Tropical Ecosystems http://www. Box 477 Chocorua.0 (Commercial) Program Group & Software Name - √ √ - - - - Drainage √ - - - - √ √ Hydrology/ Hydraulics - √ - √ √ - - Agricultural Land Management http://www. PO Box Dr Tim Hess APPENDIX 7. DK Tel: +44 (0)1234 750111 x2763

3. no matter where the users are. In addition. thus overcoming the problem of availability. These applications are available at any time and place with an Internet connection. real-time irrigation management system is user-friendly platform which. The portal is accessible from the internet and gives the freedom to monitor the systems away from farm or office. Web-based. users can have direct access for regular weather updates and access to other important information. A web-based application with centralized knowledge and information management systems provides extended personalization and internationalization characteristics.COMPUTER APPLICATIONS 7.8.4 Web-based Technology The advent of the Internet and its related technologies provides opportunities for new applications and new ways of collaboration between groups of people having common interests. irrigation equipment status and water usage. provide information on location. March 2009 7-19 . gives the power to manage irrigation systems at convenience .Chapter 7 .no matter what brand. Web portal gives a quick view of every irrigation systems.

Part C Irrigation Design Chapter 8 .Water Intake Facilities .

1 Structures of Surface Water Intake ….3.2 Water Quantity Abstraction and Reliability…….1.3 Design Consideration ……………………………………………………………………….1.4 Small Diversion Intake Structures……. 8-iii 8.…………………………………………………………………………………… 8-4 8.………………………………………………… 8-4 8.3 Groundwater Intake.3.4.8-1 8..…………..2.3 Groundwater Intake………………………………………………………………………….3 Water Quality and Treatment………………………………………………………………………….6 Minimum Flow Requirement…………………………………………………………………………… 8-4 8.……………………………………………………………………………………. 8-6 8.3 Design Steps for Canal Head Regulator……………………………………………… 8-14 8.……………………………………………………………………………….1 River Intake…….2. 8-4 8.1 Intake Site Selection……………………………………………………………………………………… 8-3 8. 8-5 8.5 Small Capacity Pumped Intake Design……………………………………………….1 Common Irrigation Pumps……. 8-25…………………………………….3 Pumping Station…………………………………………..………………………………………………………… 8-24 8.4 Sediment Excluder…………………………………………………………………………… 8-21 Intake Aqueduct………………………………………………………………………………. INTRODUCTION.1. 8-6 8.2.2 Impoundment Intake………………………………………………………………………… 8-3 8.2.4 Debris and Sediment Trapping ………………………………………………………………………...2 Diversion Head Works Design Procedures………………………………………………………… 8-10 8.1 River Intake…….4.………………………………………………………… 8-25 8.3.3.. 8-i List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. River Bank and Intake Structure Protection………………………………………… 8-24 8.2 TYPES OF IRRIGATION INTAKE………………………………………………………………………………… 8-1 8.1.4 SURFACE WATER INTAKE DESIGN…………………………………………………………………………….4..3 Pumped Intake Design Procedures………………………………………………………………… 8-24 8.3.4..1 Gravity-fed River Intake……………………………………………………………………….4 Pump Design and Selection ……………………………………………………………… 8-26 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Table of Contents Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8-iii List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Canal Head Works……….1.3 PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS……………………………………………………………….1.2 Reservoir Outlet Works……………………………………………………………………… 8-6 8.……………………………………………………………………………………… 8-2 8.. 8-3 8.3.…………………………………………………………………… 8-6 8.2 Pumped River Intake……………………………………………………………………………8-1 8.2 Impoundment Intake. 8-3 8.Chapter 8 .…………………………………………………………………………………………………….8-30 March 2009 8-i .3.5 Intake Structures……..8-10 8.3.……………………………………………………………………………….4..1 Components of Diversion Head Works………………………………………………. 8-1 8..2.4. 8-4 8.4.…………………………………………………………. 8-9 8. 8-1 8.………………………………………………… 8-7 8.3.2 Components of Pumped Intake.2 Design Criteria for Diversion Head Works…………………………………………… 8-13 8. 8-2 8.4.

6 Well Development…………………………………………………………………………… 8-50 8.. 8-53 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Well Casings…………………………………………………………………………………… 8-42 8..3.……………………………………………………….4. 8-51 8.4.9 Power Requirements and Pump Selection..7 Pumping Test………………………………………………………………………………….4..1 Water Wells…. 8A-12 APPENDIX 8E Additional Pump Characteristics Curves……………………………………………………… 8A-13 APPENDIX 8F Worked Examples…………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………… 8-35 8..5.……………………….4.5 Annular Sealants or Cementing………………………………………………………… 8-50 8.5.6 Large Capacity Pumped Intake Design.5.5.4..5.5.4. 8A-10 APPENDIX 8D General Recommendations Well Materials and Strength………………………………. 8-39 Tubewell Design Procedures…………………………………………………………………………… 8-41 Surface Protection Structure……………………………………………………….……………. 8-51 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8.5 GROUNDWATER INTAKE DESIGN……………………………………………………………………………… 8-39 8.……. 8A-15 F-1 Design Canal Head Works…………………………………………………………………… 8A-15 F-2 Tubewell Design ………………………………………………………………………………. 8-46 8.Chapter 8 . 8-45 8. 8A-27 F-3 Design and Selection of Irrigation Pump……………………………………………….4.……………………………………………………. 8-39 Gravel Pack Design ………………..3 Well Screen …………………………….5.2 Understanding of Groundwater Formation……………………………………………………….5.3 Tubewell Components…………………………………………………………………………………… 8-40 8.. 8A-32 8-ii March 2009 .…………………………………………..4 Casing and Well Screen Materials……………………………………………………… 8-49 8. 8-56 APPENDIX 8A Water Quality Guidelines…………………………………………………………………………… 8A-1 APPENDIX 8B Pump Sump Design…………………………………………………………………………………… 8A-3 APPENDIX 8C Grain Size Distribution Analysis………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………….

3 Diameter and Thickness of the Housing Pipe of Tubewells 8-43 8.2 Recommended Minimum Diameters for Well Casings and Screens 8-42 8.4 Criteria for Selecting Gravel Pack Material 8-46 8.13 Centrifugal Pump Intake for Shallow Water Level 8-9 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES List of Tables Table Description Page 8.15 General Layout of Diversion Head Works 8-10 8.27 Downstream Block Protection 8-20 8.Chapter 8 .10 Diversions on River by Settling Basin 8-8 8.4 Groundwater Pumping for Irrigation Supplies 8-3 8.5 Different Methods for Surface Water Intake 8-5 8.8 Pumped Intake in Sg.12 Standard Centrifugal Pump Intake 8-9 8.16 A Canal Head Regulator Downstream of Convex Bend 8-11 8.19 Effect of Subsurface Flow below a Head Regulator or Barrage 8-14 8.2 Pumping Water from River into the Main Canal in Kerian Rice Irrigation Scheme 8-2 8.9 Diversions on River by Lagoon 8-7 8.21 Alignment of Head Regulator 8-14 8.17 Typical Sections of Weir and Barrage 8-11 8.20 Seepage Line Gradient Changes of a Head Regulator 8-14 8.26 Upstream Block Protection 8-20 8.3 Gravity-fed Irrigation Intake from Reservoir 8-2 8.5 Diameters and Weights of Screens 8-47 List of Figures Figure Description Page 8.1 Irrigation Water Intakes from River 8-1 8. Kerian for Large Scale Rice Irrigation Scheme 8-7 8.6 Gravity-fed Irrigation Water Intake Structures for Large Scale Irrigation Scheme 8-6 8.18 Sectional View of Fish Ladder 8-12 8.14 Centrifugal Pumped Intake for Deep Water Levels 8-9 8.28 Loose Stone Protection in Downstream 8-21 8.11 Gravity-fed with Slopping Trash Rack 8-8 8.29 Components of the Total Dynamic Head (TDH) for Surface Water 8-28 8.22 Typical Layout of Canal Head Regulator 8-15 8-23 Sectional View of Canal Head Regulator 8-15 8-24 Canal Head Regulator Section with Sediment Excluder 8-16 8-25 Head Regulator for Monlithic Trough Section 8-16 8.30 The Operating Point for a Given Centrifugal Pump and Water System 8-28 March 2009 8-iii .7 Gravity-fed Reservoir Intake Structure for Kerian Irrigation Scheme 8-6 8.1 A Chart for Desirable Pump Types Used for a Given Range of Flow Rates and TDH 8-26 8.

35 Vortex Cover 8-32 8.41 Components of Well 8-41 8.39 Self Cleaning Screens for Gravity Intake 8-34 8.45 Well Structure Protection 8-52 8.38 Drum Screen Constructions 8-34 8.47 Deep Well Turbine Pump Curve 8-54 8-iv March 2009 .33 Pump Submergence Requirements 8-30 8.34 Excavated Well Sump 8-31 8.43 A Well Design for Multiple Aquifers 8-44 8.Chapter 8 .40 Groundwater Occurrence and Flowpaths 8-40 8.44 Well in Pumping Condition 8-52 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8.32 Pump Intake Arrangements 8-30 8.37 Plywood Frame Screen Constructions 8-33 8.36 Intake from a Stream Using Well 8-32 8.46 Components of the Total Dynamic Head (TDH) for Groundwater Pumping System 8-53 8.42 Well Screen Installation in Shallow (Unconfined) and Deep (Confined) Aquifers 8-44 8.31 A Typical Pump Curve for a Horizontal Centrifugal Pump 8-29 8.

The construction of the intakes must be ensured that downstream water demands and aquatic resources will not be impacted.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8 8. namely from pond. supplying water into irrigation systems often requires diversions and intakes.1 Gravity-fed River Intake Irrigation schemes that take water directly from a river through some form of diversion structure is called gravity-fed intake or run-of-the -river intake. This Chapter provides design guidance on the more commonly used irrigation diversions and intake systems for application in Malaysia. reservoir and aquifer.1).1. low flow conditions.2. Hence. into the irrigation system. March 2009 8-1 . Feeder Canal Figure 8.1 River Intake Availability of water in a river is fluctuating and subjected to considerable variation in flow. They are as follows: 8.1. hydrology and hydraulics. The net abstraction or diversion is only estimated for irrigation supply after ensuring sufficient flow for downstream reach as well as fisheries.Chapter 8 . soil conditions. 8. the irrigation water source lies below the level of the irrigated fields. Then a pump must be used to supply water to the irrigation system (Figure 8. The design considerations include topography. river. Therefore.2). design discharge of the off-taking canal. high discharge irrigation pumping and centrifugal pump for pressurized irrigation systems. intake structures must be designed so that the required flow can be diverted directly or pumped at all times despite during extreme low flow. irrigation water transmission and distribution and socio-economic feasibility. The intake structure is built at the entry to the irrigation system.2 TYPES OF IRRIGATION INTAKE There are mainly three types of intakes used. quality and level.2 Pumped River Intake In some cases. A diversion headwork performs the tasks of diverting the river water to the canal as well as regulating the quantity of water entering the canal (Figure 8. There are several types of pumps but the most commonly used in irrigation is the axial or mixed flow pump for low head. water availability.2. It directs water from the original sources of supply.1 WATER INTAKE FACILITIES INTRODUCTION Farmers access irrigation water by gravity or pumping from surface or groundwater sources or having it delivered by an irrigation district or other water purveyor. 8.2.1 Irrigation Water Intakes from River 8.

it is often an economical alternative or supplement to surface water supplies. distribution of water and economic feasibility. water treatment works. irrigation water transmission and distribution and socio-economic feasibility.2.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Figure 8. assessment of groundwater yield. Main Canal Figure 8. Water from such schemes can usually be supplied by gravity and is generally of better quality than water abstracted directly from rivers.2 Impoundment Intake Impoundment intake involves the construction of a dam and creates a storage reservoir (Figure 8. Design considerations include water demand for irrigation scheme. hydrology and hydraulics. It provides timely irrigation leading to an increase in crop intensity and productivity (FAO.3). For earthen dams. storage draft relationship. 8-2 March 2009 . Groundwater is generally of better quality. The design considerations include topography.3 Groundwater Intake Groundwater for irrigation is abstracted by shallow or deep wells (Figure 8. The withdrawal of groundwater under safe yield condition should be maintained.3 Gravity-fed Irrigation Intake from Reservoir 8. well design. In the case of concrete or masonry dam. 2003). construction and development. transmission.2. draw-off pipes may be incorporated into the dam structure. pump must be used to withdraw water for the irrigation supply. water availability and quality. In case of pond and lake. groundwater hydraulics. soil conditions. Since it does not require the construction of costly storage reservoirs and long transmission lines.2 Pumping Water from River into the Main Canal in Kerian Rice Irrigation Scheme 8.Chapter 8 . water demands.4). it is considered as safe to use draw-off pipes due to the risk of fracture caused by differential settlement and the potentially damaging erosive effects of leaked water. but at small scale.

It should be located centre of the irrigation project as possible and/or close to irrigation project.1. Water quality must be taken into considerations. The location of the tubewells should not be within the radius of influence among multiple wells. but site appearance and sound attenuation should be also assessed. bank and intake toe protection if no better sites can be found The quality of water at the site shall be safe from pollution and the intrusion of saline water The site shall be of easy access and spacious so that future extensions and maintenance works can be accommodated The location of any existing or proposed diversion structures.3 Groundwater Intake Site will be selected based on good aquifer condition.2 Impoundment Intake The main elements of a storage scheme are the dam. the type of spillway as well as the reservoir storage capacity. March 2009 8-3 .1 Intake Site Selection 8.3.1. maintenance.3 PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 8.3. and emergency functions must be available at all times. the site should be so that the excess water of the reservoir can be spilled out to the located nearer to the natural drainage system. 2008) 8. social aspects and environmental aspects. rise or fall in the river bed level with a calm and gentle flow The site and its surrounding shall be of good geological formation and safe from landslides and scouring.3.1. The safe operation. In addition intake site should be closed to the irrigation canal as possible.1 River Intake Several important considerations affect planning and site selection for irrigation intakes. It involves the following considerations: • • • • • • The site shall be free from change of stream centre. However. spillway.4 Groundwater Pumping for Irrigation Supplies (Irrigation Wikipedia. the reservoir.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Figure 8.Chapter 8 . economic aspects.3. hydrology. 8. Therefore it has to decide the type of dam to be constructed. sites of poor geological formations may be used but piling. hydraulics. The site shall be provision of good road access so that construction and maintenance works can be performed easily. Hydraulic conditions will have primary importance in site selection. Planning for the elements of a storage scheme requires extensive data such as demand estimation. geology. For safety of the dam as well as outlet works. water treatment plant and/or flood mitigation works may affect the quantity of water to the intake The intake must also be able to operate reliably under high flow conditions and be able to tolerate the large flood events that occasionally occur 8. The choice of a site for an intake is an important part of the scheme.

Each design is unique and may take on many forms and variations. hydrologic and hydraulic conditions. There are no standard designs for intake structures.3 Water Quality and Treatment Water suitability for irrigation depends on the type of crop to be grown.A. If contaminants are present.4 Debris and Sediment Trapping Sediments and floating debris in irrigation water can cause malfunction of flow meters.3. including agricultural water demand. The total salt content gives a reasonably correct guideline of irrigation water qualities shown in Appendix 8. Physical contaminants include suspended debris. Algae and bacterial slimes are organic particles. information is required on its quality. intake structures are required. The enhancement of water quality is essential prior distributing irrigation water into conveyance systems for the quality crop production. However. and filtering are necessary for the microirrigation systems. and comparison of the future demands with the capacity of the available water resources.6 Minimum Flow Requirement Many irrigation systems in Malaysia utilize run-of-river intakes as a source of water. measuring devices. type of water source. 8. The type of water treatment will depend on crop tolerance and irrigation system. Water quality guidelines provide information on the type of water quality required for specific crop water uses. Sediment in the water supply can cause wear on pump impellers and sprinkler nozzles. water levels during flood. Water quality is typically separated into three basic categories: physical. and chemical. regulation of withdrawal and environmental conditions. any water with low salts concentration is suitable but this depends upon the crop and soil requirement. and gates in gated pipe. biological. water demand and project requirements. Settling basins of substantial size and cyclone sand separators can be used to reduce the size and cost of filtering systems. 8. especially when using sand media filters. 8-4 March 2009 . drought conditions. available water resources for irrigation supply. In response to growth in water supply demand. Water quality for agricultural uses should be technically and economically feasible.2 Water Quantity Abstraction and Reliability The amount of water that is allowed to be abstracted from the water sources is dependent on many factors. When irrigation water contains suspended sediment. size of irrigation scheme. It depends on site. The information requires on inventory of existing public and private water supplies and wastewater discharges. In general. the increased withdrawal will usually not significantly affect downstream flows. The type of intake selected depends on whether it is to be used for surface or groundwater abstraction.3.5 Intake Structures The flow of irrigation water in the main canals must always be under control. the type and concentration must be determined before irrigating to crops. and submerged aquatic plants. plugging of siphon tubes. Physical contaminants and organic particles can adversely affect some irrigation systems. screening. When determining water availability for irrigation.3. additional settling.3. irrigation method and agronomic practices.3. as opposed to using reservoirs which store water and regulate downstream flows. The existing water quality data are available in the related departments. During normal to high flow periods. the system may need to increase the water flow. 8. Debris can also accumulate within and potentially plug almost any water control structure. The suitability of water for irrigation is governed by its mineral constituents. For this purpose. 8. a projection of future demands. The irrigator must know the quality of water used for irrigation.Chapter 8 . water quality.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8. They help regulate the flow and deliver the correct amount of water to the conveyance and different branches of the irrigation system and onward to the irrigated fields. Therefore it is necessary to know the suitability of water before deploying for irrigation purposes. topography.

Vertical centrifugal pumps can be used with either surface or ground water sources. Abstraction must be possible at all times. March 2009 8-5 .5 Different Methods for Surface Water Intake Pumping plants are required when water must be lifted from the water source. The type of diversion depends on the size of the stream or river whether the irrigation system is gravity fed or pumped and the fishery usage. Gate U/S water level Sprinkler D/S water level Pipeline Pump Water level Outlet Offtaking canal Pump sump Ground surface (a) Gated Control Gravity Intake Pump Pipeline (b) Pump Located below Water Surface Motor Sprinkler Water level Pipeline Water level Ground surface Pump Pump sump (c) Pump Located above Water Surface (d) Vertical Centrifugal Pump for Surface Water Figure 8. Diversion structures are often used to divert water away from water sources into the irrigation system.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES during dry periods an expanded withdrawal has the potential to adversely affect water quality. 8. Horizontal centrifugal pumps are normally used with surface sources of water and springs.5).Chapter 8 . The different types of intake have already been adopted for abstracting water from rivers. The pump and power unit can be positioned above the water surface or in a dry pit below the water surface. It may be necessary to build a weir downstream of the intake location to ensure adequate water depth at the intake at all stages of river flow. hence the excavation extent may be considerable. The pump house floor level must be above maximum flood level. aquatic life. It is important to determine the influence of the weir on upstream water levels under flood conditions. whatever the level of water in the river. Vertical centrifugal pumps are more difficult to maintain but do not require priming since the pump is in submerged condition. and other instream uses of flowing water.4 SURFACE WATER INTAKE DESIGN The primary function of the intake structure is to permit withdrawal of water over a range of water levels. reservoirs and ponds in Malaysia (Figure 8. This is especially problematic for relatively large run-of-river withdrawals from relatively small streams.

Chapter 8 . Intake structures regulate or release water at a dictated rate into canals or pipelines impounded by a dam.3 Pumping Station Centrifugal pumps are the most commonly used types of pumps for withdrawing water for large scale irrigation supply from rivers (Figure 8.6a). (a) Head Regulator in Sg. Outlet Main canal (a) Outlet Structure (b) Bukit Merah Reservoir Figure 8.4. Normally when the river discharge is not sufficient to meet the maximum demand for irrigation supply. Gravity-fed Irrigation Intake Structures for Large Scale Irrigation Scheme 8.2 Reservoir Outlet Works A dam is constructed with intake structures and spillways for taking water from reservoir into irrigation canal (Figure 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8.1. To divert the water for irrigation supplies in the canal.7). A canal head works perform the tasks of diverting the river water to the canal as well as regulating the quantity of water entering the canal. the works constructed at the point of take-off are called the “Head Works”.4. Two irrigation structures are necessary to construct one across the river and the other at the head of the off-taking canal.8). the water level at 8-6 March 2009 . Control of the sediment entering the canal may also be a function of the headworks.1 Structures of Surface Water Intake 8.7 Gravity-fed Reservoir Intake Structure for Kerian Irrigation Scheme 8. Bernam Figure 8. Although the river flow is adequate. Spillways are provided for storage to release surplus water or floodwater that cannot be contained in the allotted storage space.6b). The structure constructed at the head of the canal is called “Head Regulator” (Figure 8. barrage or low head diversion dam is constructed across the river to divert the required irrigation supply into the offtaking canal (Figure 8.1 Canal Head Works Irrigation canals carry water from rivers or streams to the distributary canals.1. Muda (b) Barrage in Sg.

8 Pumped Intake in Sg. (a) Pumped Intake (b) Barrage Figure 8. If the topography is suitable. Settling basins are essential for diversions from rivers with high silt content.9 Diversions on River by Lagoon Figure 8. this problem can be solved by the constructing of structure across the river causing the water behind it to pond and thus raise the water level.10 shows a concrete settling basin with trash rack and intake pipe. The abstraction flowrate to a irrigation system is a function of following factors. Gabion weir 1/4 to 1/3 width of river Rip rap (piled rocks) Dredged area 10 W Gate and trash rack 2W Lagoon Floating boom W 5W W = width of canal Gabion weir 1/3 width of river Figure 8.4.Chapter 8 . The configuration of a settling basin depends on site specifics.1. A 90o diversion will allow less debris into the intake.15 m/s or slower to allow sand and silt to settle out.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES the suitable site may not be high enough at all times to provide the amount of inflow required into the intake. Settling basins should be at least 15 – 25 m in length and can be built by forming lagoons or canals. Figure 8.9 describes a method of diverting water to the irrigation intake. orifice or gate size and head of water at the weir. March 2009 8-7 .4 Small Diversion Intake Structures (a) Side Lagoon or Settling Basin Water is diverted into side canal or lagoon when difficulties are aroused to build diversion across the river. Intake design incorporates a stage discharge relationship between intake flow. Kerian for Large Scale Rice Irrigation Scheme 8. A typical example is the supplement irrigation supply through pumping for the Kerian Irrigation Scheme. The water velocity must be reduced to 0.

Water is abstracted either by gravity or pumping from the pond behind it. The maximum flow velocity at the intake should not be exceeded 0.7 H 0.11 shows a simple gravity-fed intake. Where high flow velocities occur. Shutoff valve Vent Slide gate Slide gate Trash rack Screen Flow Intake pipe Figure 8. Air vents must be installed on the pipeline close to the intake.30 m/s.3-0. Gravity-fed intakes should not be subjected to high flow velocities.6-0.11 Gravity-fed with Sloping Trash Rack 8-8 March 2009 .WATER INTAKE FACILITIES • • • • the design of the intake capacity the number of irrigation intakes feeding that system any operation of these intakes that adjusts their discharge the flow of water in the river which affects the head of water at the intake Rip rap Downstream Reinforced concrete Tie bars Slower moving water Stilling basin System intake valve Gabion weir Spillway Gabion weir Cleanout valve (a) Perspective Side Gate Trash Track H 0. Figure 8. the intake is recommended to be diverted from the source by directing the flow through ditch or small reservoir.4 H Tie Bars Intake Pipe (b) Elevation Figure 8.Chapter 8 .10 Diversions on River by Settling Basin (b) Gravity-fed Intake Structure This type of intake is suitable for small rivers with shallow flow.

13 Centrifugal Pump Intake for Shallow Water Level Flexible hose section Flexiblerubber Rubber Hose Section Float Float Screen Screen Figure 8.5 Intake Aqueduct Intake aqueducts will be required to convey water into the pump sump by open channel or conduits from rivers if the intake site is located far from the water source. Flexible rubber Flexible Rubber hose section Hose Section Cross Logs to Raise Intake Cross logs to raise intake screen Screen 30 cmbottom aboveof Bottom 30 cm above river of River Figure 8.Chapter 8 . March 2009 8-9 .12 Standard Centrifugal Pump Intake Flexible hoseHose section Flexiblerubber Rubber Section Screen Screen Figure 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES (c) Pumping Intake Structures A flexible rubber hose system (Figures 8.14 Centrifugal Pump Intake for Deep Water Levels 8.1.4. Intake aqueduct shall be of sufficient capacity to convey peak water demand for the irrigation supplies.12 to 8. An air tight connection must be maintained to prevent air from entering into the suction pipe. This water can be abstracted by gravity or pumped.14) allows the intake to adjust for different water elevations.

2 Diversion Head Works Design Procedures In Malaysia.Chapter 8 . If two canals take off on either side of the river.1 Components of Diversion Head Works A typical diversion head works plan for irrigation supply is shown in Figure 8. Especially during low flow season when the level of water in the river is very low to feed canal. Discharge capacity of the undersluices is kept based on the followings: • • • (b) Two times the maximum discharge in the offtake canal 20% of maximum flood discharge Maximum flow in dry season Canal Head Regulator The hydraulic structures provided at the head of the off-taking canal from a reservoir/river are termed as canal head regulator. undersluices would be necessary to provide on the both sides. March 2009 . These structures help to regulate flow into the canal as well as the water level in the river so that the canal would be enabled to draw the required amount of water with the available sufficient head. 8.2. The following are the components of the diversion head works: • • • • • • • • Undersluice portion Canal head regulator Weir/Barrage portion Divide wall Fish ladder/passage Piers and abutments Protection works River training works Guide bund Canal head regulator River flow Weir/barrage Canal Sediment excluder Under sluices Fish ladder Canal Sediment excluder Under sluices Divide wall Guide bund Figure 8. The purposes are as follows: • • 8-10 To regulate the irrigation supply in the canal To control the entry of silt in the canal. the diversion of water by canal head works is widely practiced to divert water from river to rice irrigation scheme.15.4. They are located at the same side of the offtake canal.4. The diversion head works comprises hydraulics structures that are provided at the head of the canal networks to supply water to the off taking canal. It scours silt deposited in front of canal regulator and control silt entry in the canal. the weirs/barrage play important role.15 General Layout of Diversion Head Works (a) Undersluices Undersluices are the gate controlled openings in the weir with crest at a low level.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES 8.

and separates the weir from the undersluice. Flow Upstream approach Axis of barrage Upstream convex bend Upstream Undersluice Impervious Floor Piers Axis of regulator Downstream approach Canal Figure 8. The head regulator should be located upstream as close to the diversion structure as possible and preferably at the end of the outer curve (convex bend). to minimize the sediment entry into the offtaking canal (Figure 8.16 A Canal Head Regulator Downstream of Convex Bend (c) Weir/Barrage The weir is a structure built across the river to raise the water level on the upstream side to ensure the required diversion of water to the canal.17 Typical Sections of Weir and Barrage (d) Divide Wall The divide wall is a masonry wall constructed perpendicular to the axis of the weir. Pond level Loose protection 1:3 Upstream cutoff Falling shutter Weir crest 1:5 Loose protection Intermediate cutoff Downstream cutoff (a) Weir Pond level Loose protection Vertical lift gate 1:5 Loose protection (b) Barrage Figure 8. The divide wall extends on the upstream side beyond the beginning of the canal head regulator and on the downstream side it extends up to the end of loose protection of March 2009 8-11 . if available.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES The location of canal head regulator is interlinked with the location of diversion work. in which case the work is known as a barrage. Typical sections of weir and barrage are shown in Figure 8. The raising of water level is carried out by providing a raised crest in the weir and with the help of shutters over the crest. the crest height is very small or even zero and the control is by means of gates.17.Chapter 8 . In some works.16).

Chapter 8 . while the velocity through them is kept more than about 1. The following river training works are generally provided on canal head works. a divide wall is essential to separate the two floors. The general requirements of fish ladder are: • The slope of the fish ladder should not be steeper than 1:10 and ensure current of velocity not exceeding 2 m/s. This helps in more silt deposition in the pocket and entry of clear water in to the canal. (e) Fish Ladder or Fish Passage Fish ladder is generally provided which is located adjacent to the divide wall near Undersluices because there is always some water in the river section. (h) Protection Works The floor of barrage is protected on the upstream as downstream by loose apron. Hence.5 m/s so as to be a self cleansing velocity for the sediment size encountered in the river. Divide Wall Baffles Figure 8. (g) Piers and Abutments Piers are provided at an interval of 10 – 20 m. navigation. The divide wall creates stilling pocket in front of canal head regulator. The top of the divide wall is kept at the crest level of the weir. A sectional view of fish ladder is shown in Figure 8. These works are constructed at the canal headworks and consisted of tunnels which prevent water from the bottom layers from entering the canal by discharging it to the downstream side through the undersluice. This can prevent the turbulent action.18 Sectional View of Fish Ladder (f) Sediment Excluder A canal taking off water from a river or any other channel draws a larger proportion of sediment compared to the proportion of water it draws. • The compartments of bays of the pass must be of such dimensions that the fish do not risk collision with the sides. the piers support bridge decking and working platform for the operation of gates.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES the undersluice. The excluder is provided adjacent to the canal head regulator. • The water supply should be enough at all times • The top and sides of a fishway should be above ordinary high water level. 8-12 March 2009 . Piers should be provided with separate foundations. Thus the discharge through the tunnels is kept around 20% of the canal full supply discharge. The divide wall is placed on the well foundation that is below the deepest scour depth. The floor level of the undersluice is generally kept lower than the floor level of the weir. This necessitates the provision for control of excess sediment entering the canal or extracting the excess sediment once it has entered the canal. guiding the flow or bank protection. Training works could be for various purposes such as flood control. sediment control. The design of excluders is based mostly on rules of thumb. (i) River Training Works River training includes all measures required to guide and regulate the flow of a river.18.

The dimensions fixed by hydraulic design through available empirical formulae are further refined by testing a scale model of the structure in a hydraulic model testing laboratory. March 2009 8-13 . The seeping water results in an upward pressure on the floor of the structure. In this section we shall discuss each of these hydraulic conditions for the main diversion structure of a head regulator to evaluate the forces generated by them. Khosla’s theory is used to solve this problem. specially the ones constructed in rivers or canals has to be based on both surface and subsurface flow considerations. The sub-surface flow below a head regulator/barrage causes two definite instability problems.Chapter 8 . This may continue upstream and form a cavity underneath the structure and result in the collapse of the structure. which is very rare in rivers and canals. (a) Hydraulic Design for Surface flow The water flowing over the structures may result in hydrostatic pressures on some parts of the structure. a part of the uplift forces due to seepage flow is negated by hydraulic pressure of the water on the downstream. The structural design uses the hydraulic forces expected from the given hydraulic parameters and produces a detailing that will keep the structure safe against those forces and loadings. • Uplift forces due to the sub soil pressure that tends to lift up the barrage raft floor.20. as listed below and illustrated in Figure 8. especially during floods. and Structural design. Also the flowing water. The first is due to subsurface flow conditions that occurs due to a water level difference on the upstream and down stream of a head regulator. The design of hydraulic structures. but would also exist during some cases of full flow conditions. For canal head regulators. Under the closed gates condition. All these have to be accounted in the design and come under the surface flow considerations. as shown in Figure 8. The hydraulic conditions of barrages are also quite similar. and • Upward rising seepage forces through the river bed just down stream of the solid apron causes sand particles to erupt upwards and tends to ‘piping’ failure of the foundation.2 Design Criteria for Diversion Head Works The detailed design of weir/barrage portion of diversion head works is beyond of the scope of this manual.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES • • • • Marginal bunds Guide bunds Spurs and Groynes 8. Seepage forces would be the most dominating for gates closed condition. Formation of a hydraulic jump is another possibility while talking of surface flow.2. where the various sections are analyzed for stresses under different loads and reinforcement or other structural details are worked out. to fix the overall dimensions and profiles of the structure.19. (b) Hydraulic Design for Subsurface flow Water can seep underneath the structure unless it is founded on solid rock. This uplift pressure needs to be accounted in the design. there are two different sets of hydraulic conditions.4. It may be noticed that during the flow conditions. can cause scour in the river bed upstream or downstream of the structure. Hydraulic grade line and exit gradient are required to determine for a given geometry of the structure. the downstream water depth is rather small. with seepage flow dominating during gate closed condition and free flow during gate open condition. The other is due to surface flow conditions which occur while the gates are open during floods. The design of any hydraulic structure comprises of two steps: • • Hydraulic design.

WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Low tail water level High pond level Possible location of sand piping due to upward rising seepage flow Downstream sheet pile Uplift pressure below raft floor Upstream sheet pile Direction of seepage flow due to difference in water levels on upstream and downstream Figure 8.L gradient Gate (fully opened) W.19 Effect of Subsurfa ce Flow below a Head Regulator or Barrage W. The various aspects of a canal head regulator’s design is discussed in this section. if necessary. however.L Flow Flow Head regulator (a) Steepest during Low Flow Head regulator Head regulator (b) Average during Medium Flow (c) Almost None during High Flood Figure 8.3 Design Steps for Canal Head Regulator It is very important that the design of the head regulator is made carefully for satisfactory hydraulic and structural performances.L Gate (closed) Seepage line gradient Gate (hafly opened) Seepage line Seepage line gradient W. (a) Location and Layout The canal head regulator should be properly aligned to reduce silt entry into the canal to avoid backflow and formation of stagnant zones in the pocket.21).21 Alignment of Head Regulator 8-14 March 2009 .2. Canal head regulator 90 ° to 11 0° Head works Figure 8.20 Seepage Line Gradient Changes of a Head Regulator 8.Chapter 8 . To achieve this. This may. be confirmed from physical model studies. the axis of canal head regulator should be positioned at an angle of 90o to 110o with respect to the axis of the diversion work (Figure 8.4.

23 Sectional View of Canal Head Regulator March 2009 8-15 .WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Site selection for the construction of weir should fulfill the following requirements: • • • • A narrow well defined channel with banks is the best Availability of suitable foundation material Ease of accessibility Minimum idle length of canal A typical layout of a canal head regulator is shown in Figure 8. Loose apron Axis of barrage Toe wall Sheet pile Block protection Crest Pier Axis of regulator Downstream sheet pile Slope 1:2 Inverted filter Wing wall supported on Loose apron backfill Canal Axis of head Toe wall Figure 8.24.Chapter 8 . A longitudinal section through the structure is shown in Figure 8.23 and one off-taking by the side of a sediment excluder is shown in Figure 8.22 Typical Layout of Canal Head Regulator High flood level Breast wall Gate Pond level Downstream canal bed Crest of canal head regulator Undersluice floor level Upstream cutoff Loose protection Canal Downstream cutoff Loose protection Figure 8.22.

a working platform across the head regulator has to be provided. (b) Hydraulic Design The hydraulic design of a canal head regulator consists of the following: • • • • • • • Fixation of pond level of the pool behind the barrage Fixation of crest level. The abutments of the head regulator themselves can be separated from its floor by longitudinal joints and seals or they can be made monolithic with the raft floor of the head regulator and the whole structure can be designed as a trough section (Figure 8. and Energy dissipation arrangements Above mentioned aspects are discussed in the following sections in detail: Pond Level: Pond level. though they are preferred for headworks having a relatively large difference in elevation between pond level and the canal full supply level which would ensure non-submergence of the radial gate’s trunnion pin.24 Canal Head Regulator Section with Sediment Excluder The head regulator can be constructed independent of the abutment separated from it by suitable joints and seals or it can be made monolithic with it. For the operation of the gates. Usually.Chapter 8 . The working head should include the head required for passing the designed discharge into the canal and the head losses in the regulator. In regions of high 8-16 March 2009 . etc Shape of approaches and other component parts Safety of the structure from surface flow condition Safety of the structure from sub-surface flow conditions. If under certain situations there is a limitation of pond level.25 Head Regulator for Monolithic Trough Section The regulation of water through a head regulator is provided usually by vertical lift gates. a road bridge is also provided across a head regulator for vehicular traffic or for inspection purposes and would be suitably connected by road to the bridge across the main barrage structure. in the under-sluice pocket. upstream of the canal head regulator should generally be obtained by adding the working head to the designed full supply level in the canal. requirement of breast wall. number and width of spans and height of gate openings.25) Abutment Pier Soil Raft Figure 8. the full supply level should be fixed by subtracting the working head from the pond level. However.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Trash groove Cement concrete lining Max pond level Gate groove Steel plate Steel lined Granite stone Pier foundation Stopping groove Granite facing Boulder set facing Pressure relief valve Figure 8. nowadays radial gates are also becoming common. width and shape of sill Fixation of waterway.

1) discharge (m3/s) width of the canal head regulator (m) number of end contractions head over the crest (m) coefficient depending upon the shape of the nose of piers Since H is the difference between the pond level and the head regulator crest level.01 For pointed nose piers: March 2009 8-17 . Crest Level and Width of the Waterway: The fixing up of the crest level and width of waterway are amongst the first steps towards the design of the head regulator. spanning between adjacent piers. In order to prevent spilling of water over the gates during floods. the width should be such that the full supply discharge of the canal can pass over the head regulator with this head over the crest. Each bay has gates to control the discharge. from the pond level to the high flood level. Lt = total waterway (m) Le = effective waterway (m) N = number of piers Kp = pier contraction coefficient Ka = abutment contraction coefficient He = head over crest (m) W = total width of all piers (m) Recommended values of Kp are as follows: For square nose piers with corners rounded with radius equal To about 0.Chapter 8 . normally 8 to 10m span. The total water way between the abutments including piers should be worked out from the following formula: Lt = Le + 2 (N Kp + Ka) He + W (8. the width provided is such that the canal may be able to draw its full supply discharge with about 50% of the working head H. The crest of the canal head regulator is kept above the sill level of the undersluice. Q = L = n = H = K = 3 2 (8. within a reasonable value. The gates. The width is divided suitably onto a number of bays. The difference between the two is also governed by the provision or otherwise of a sediment excluder at the headworks.02 For rounded nose piers: Kp = 0.2) Where.5 m may be added to the working head. generally of steel.. an RCC breast wall is provided.1 of the pier thickness Kp = 0. The discharge through the canal head regulator is determined by: Q = C ( L − K n H )H Where. which would otherwise have to extend upto the high flood level. and separated by piers. The height of gates is kept equal to the difference between the pond level and the head regulator crest level. In order to keep provision for future expansions etc.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES altitude where there is a possibility of ice formation. This is done so as to keep the height of the gates. a cover of ice of about 0. move in gate grooves provided in the piers.

as possible. Required Head Over Sill: The required head over the sill He for passing a discharge Q with the effective waterway Le should be determined from the following formula: 3 Q = CL e H e 2 (8.2 For rounded abutments with head walls at 90o to the direction of flow for 0. 4) discharge (m3/s) a coefficient (C= 0. The values of C should be determined by the model studies where values based on prototype observations on similar structures are not available. If a silt-excluder is provided. Q= Where. To obtain control on entry of silt into the canal it is desirable that the sill of head regulator should be kept as much higher than the sill of under sluices. The required head in this case may be computed by the following equation. Q = discharge (m3/s) C = a coefficient Le = effective waterway (m) He = required head over the crest for passing a discharge Q (m) The value of C may be taken as 0. conditions similar to sluice flow develop.3) Where. Kp = 0 Where.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Kp = 0 Recommended values of Ka are as follows: For square abutments with head walls at 90o to the direction of flow: Ka = 0.6 for preliminary design. r = abutment rounding radius Sill Level: Sill level should be fixed by subtracting from pond level.Chapter 8 .5He and head wall is placed not more than 45o to the direction of flow.15 He Kp = 0.6) effective waterway (m) total heads to the bottom of the orifice (m) total heads to the top of the orifice (m) March 2009 . the sill level of head regulator should be determined in conjunction with the design requirements of silt-excluder. commensurate with the economic waterway and the driving head available. The head over the sill required to pass the full supply discharge in the canal at a specified pond level. Q = C = Le = H1 = H2 = 8-18 3 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 3 C 2g × L e ⎜ H1 2 − H2 2 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ (8.5He ≤ r ≥ 0. When the outflow is controlled by partly open gates.1 For rounded abutments where r > 0.

Chapter 8 . They may be flared gradually to 0. the design depth of scour below the floor level (Figure 8. straight. • At the downstream side. Basin Dimensions and Appurtenances: These should be provided in accordance with Malaysian Standards Thickness of Floor on Sloping Glacis with Reference to Hydraulic Jump: The hydraulic jump profile should be plotted under different conditions of flow. 2 trash and stop logs subject to a minimum of He .26). Upstream of the impervious floor blocks and loose apron should be provided which should be similar to that provided in the corresponding weir or barrage. The length of the upstream block protection may be kept equal to a length D. the factors enumerated in this section should be determined.5m x 1. However. This will be taken as the unbalanced head for which safety of glacis floor should be ensured. The graded inverted filter should conform to the following design criteria: D15 of Filter D15 of Filter ≥5≥ D15 of Foundation D 85 of Foundation Where. cut-off should be provided and taken to the same depth as the cut-off stream of diversion work. the wing walls may be kept vertical up to the toe of glacis and beyond this. The splay may be of the order of 3:1 to 5:1.5m x 0.5:1. D15 and D85 mean the grain sizes than which the percentage indicated by the subscript is finer.9m are generally used in alluvial rivers. that is. parabolic or hyperbolic transitions should be provided as shown in Figures 8. The splay may be of the order of 1:1 to 3:1.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Width and Shape of Sill: Width of sill should be kept according to the requirements of the gates. The cement concrete blocks of size around 1. should be provided. • Wing walls should normally be kept vertical up to the end of the impervious floor beyond which they should be widen from vertical to the actual slope of the canal section.16 and 8. elliptical or hyperbolic transitions at shown in Figures 8. Average height of the jump trough should then be obtained by deducting the levels of the jump profile from corresponding hydraulic gradient line. Length and Thickness of Upstream and Downstream Loose Aprons: Just at the end of concrete floor on the downstream an inverted filter 1.20. (c) Shape of Approaches and Other Components Parts The followings are the guidelines for the shape of approaches and other component parts: (d) • At the upstream inlet a smooth entry should be ensured by providing circular. Safety of Structure on Permeable Foundation from Surface Flow Consideration In the case of regulators on permeable foundation. 3 The edges of sill should be rounded off with a radius equal to He. Depth of Upstream Cut-Off in Relation to Scour: On the upstream side of the head regulator. consisting of 600 to 900 mm deep concrete blocks with open gaps (100-150 mm to be suitably filled with coarse material) laid over 500 to 800 mm graded filter. In case of downstream non-erodible beds protective measures may not be necessary.19 and 8.5 to 2D long (D being the depth of scour below bed). As a rough guide the unbalanced head may be assumed to be (d1 – d2)/2 where dl and d2 are conjugate depths at the beginning and end of the hydraulic jump. March 2009 8-19 .21. The upstream face should generally be kept vertical and the downstream sloped at 2:1 or flatter.

when the riverbed down stream starts getting scoured at the commencement of a heavy flood.5 D Gravel pack in the gaps Downstream end sill Loose stone spawls Inverted filter Masonry Cutoff Wall Downstream sheet pile Figure 8. The length of the downstream block protection has to be approximately equal to 1. where D is the design depth of cover below the floor level.27 Downstream Block Protection Beyond the block protection on the upstream and down streams of a barrage located on alluvial foundation.26 Upstream Block Protection Downstream of the inverted filter. This layer of boulders is expected to fall below at an angle. 8-20 March 2009 . a layer of loose boulders or stones have to be laid.5D long consisting of either boulders of not less than 40 kg in weight or wire boulder crates should be provided so as to ensure a minimum thickness of 1 m in launched position.Chapter 8 . The boulder size should be at least 0. The length of river bed that has to be protected with loose stone blocks shall be around 1. where D is the depth of scour below average riverbed. 1. Where this length is substantial. the block protection with inverted filter may be provided in part of the length and block protection only with loose stone spawls in the remaining length as shown in Figure 8.5D.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Upstream Floor Flow Direction D Upstream Sheet Pile D Figure 8.27.28. loose apron 1. or launch.5D.3m and should not weigh less than 40kg. as shown in Figure 8.

Sediment exclusion becomes necessary where sediment entering the canal is harmful. It is a device constructed in the river bed in front of a canal head regulator to prevent. As a rough guide depth of downstream cut-off should not be less than (d/2 + 0.4 Sediment Excluder A sediment excluder is provided in some headworks to control the entry of excess sediment into the canal. sediment entering into the off taking canal. Total floor length can be decreased by increasing the depth of downstream cut-off and vice versa. This is generally achieved by constructing: March 2009 8-21 . corresponding to the condition of high flood level in the rivers upstream of head regulator and no water in the canal downstream of head regulator. upstream of the crest or length required from other considerations. Upstream of sill. and about 3 m extra. most of the sediment load causing silting up would be withdrawn. only nominal floor thickness of about 1 m should be provided.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Boulder protected Block protected Natural river bed (a) After Initial Laying Launching of boulder protection (b) After Scour of Downstream Riverbed Figure 8.2. The factors of safety of exit gradient for different types of soils should be as follows: Shingle Coarse sand Fine sand 4 to 5 5 to 6 6 to 7 Total Floor Length of Impervious Floor and Depth of Downstream Cut-Off: These two parameters are inter-related. 8. Exit Gradient at the End of Impervious Floor: It should be determined from accepted formulae and curves. A balance between the two should be arrived at on the basis of economic studies and other requirements. If depth of downstream cut-off so calculated is excessive. The excluder is provided adjacent to the canal head regulator. Depth of downstream cut-off should be worked out for this floor length to ensure safe exit gradient.4. (f) Thickness of Downstream Floor with Reference to Uplift Pressure Uplift pressures at key points on the floor should be determined from the accepted curves and formulae. it can be reduced in increasing upstream floor length.28 Loose Stone Protection in Downstream (e) Safety of Structure on Permeable Foundation from Subsurface Flow Considerations The factors enumerated should be considered in this section. as far as possible. specially in the lower half of the floor.5). if any. but increase in the depth of downstream cut-off should result in increase in the concentration of uplift pressures. Stream carries most of sediment load of coarser grade near the bottom. If these bottom layers are intercepted and removed before the water enters the canal. Minimum of total floor length required should be the sum of: • • • horizontal floor in the downstream from surface flow considerations length required to accommodate sloping glacis and crest.Chapter 8 . where d is the water depth in meter corresponding to full supply discharge.

It is usually one in case of sandy reaches and two in the case of rivers in shingle or boulder stage.25m for excluders on shingle or boulder beds. The tunnels should be suitably throttled laterally or vertically or both to produce accelerating velocities in the tunnels. Exit – All the tunnels outfall into the stilling basin through one or two undersluice bays of the weir or anicut next to the canal regulator. Transitions . The number of tunnels is determined by the available discharge for escapades. Generally a distance of about 12 m may be adequate. Size of tunnels . Outfall Channels: No separate outfall channel is required for the sediment excluders. In the case of shingle or boulder bed rivers a provision of some additional contrivance that is.Size of tunnels depends upon the number of tunnels. The tunnels should be suitably bell mouthed at the inlet to minimize entry losses and improve suction. and a curved channel with skimming weir towards the canal as shown in Figures 8.Chapter 8 .5m to 0. the major axis being in the direction of flow and two to three times the minor axis. Escapage discharge of 15 to 20 percent of canal discharge is generally required. which may be kept 3 m/s for the alluvial and 4.21 and 8. the convenience of a man for inspection and repairs should also be kept in view.75m working head is required for sediment excluders on sandy rivers and a minimum of 1. Bell mouthing should be done within the thickness of divide wall and may be done on any suitable elliptical curve. Usually four to six tunnels are provided. Design Criteria for Straight Channel Sediment Excluder The river approach plays an important part and it should be kept straight to the mouth of the tunnels as far as possible.22. maximum being at the exit end so that sediment material once extracted does not deposit anywhere in the tunnels.0m to 1. A minimum of 0. Control Structure: The excluder tunnels are operated by undersluice gates.The tunnel nearest to the head regulator has to be the same length of the regulator. self clearing velocity of flow required to be provided. Losses in Tunnels: These should comprise friction losses and losses at the bends and transitions and should be computed by the following formulae: Friction loss 8-22 March 2009 .The excluder tunnels are located in front of the canal head regulator and their alignment is generally kept parallel to the regulator.Straight tunnels should be preferred for the sediment excluders.The roof slab of the tunnels should be kept flush with sill of the canal regulators and the bed kept at the upstream floor level of weir/anicut/barrage.All transitions to piers in bell mouthing at top or sides should preferably be elliptical. approach conditions and length of the canal regulator. The following guidelines should be followed: • • • • • • • Location and number of tunnels . These should be regulated either for the tunnels to run full bore or to remain completely closed. Besides.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES • • (a) tunnel type sediment excluders suitably located in front of different bays of the head regulators.0 to 4. Escapage Discharge and Minimum Working Head: Seepage discharge is generally governed by sediment size and load. however if a bend becomes inevitable its radius may vary from 5 to 10 times the tunnel's width. Roof and bed of tunnels .5 m/s for the boulder stage river. and the discharge available for escapade. The consecutive tunnels should be spaced at such distances that the mouth of the one nearer to the head regulator comes within the suction zone of the succeeding tunnels and no dead zone is left between the two to permit sediment deposition. Spacing and bell mouthing of tunnels . Bend radius . a sort of guide wall in the stilling basin may become necessary to eliminate formation of big deposits there. Any change in the alignment. The extent of suction and distance between the mouths of the two tunnels should normally be determined by model studies. should be on smooth curves. if found necessary.

1 to 0. K = he = V1 = V2 = g = (b) (8. Water Requirement for Sluice Flow: A sluice flow of about 10 to 20 percent of the canal flow should be provided for sediment exclusion.8) coefficient which may vary from 0.134 S 1 2 (8.Chapter 8 .5) 3 head loss (m) Velocity (m/s) Length of tunnel (m) roughness coefficient hydraulic mean depth (m) Loss due to bend hb = f × V2 θ × 2g 180 (8. and river mobility Design Principle: Water surface in curved channel flow becomes super elevated (higher on the outside) and a spiral flow develops.6) ( 2r ) f = 0. Some factors relevant to such a design are: • • • • • river flow variability sediment transport rates in the river availability of water for sluicing purposes availability of head for sluicing purposes.124 + 3. The bottom current moves towards the inside of bend and the sediment will be moved away from the outside of the bend provided the current is sufficiently strong.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES hf = Where hf = V = L = n = R = V 2L n 2 R 4 (8.7) Where hb = head loss due to bend (m) f = friction factor g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) θ = angle of deviation in degrees S =width of tunnel (m) r = radius of bend along centre line of tunnel (m) Transitional loss due to change of velocity in expansion ⎛V 2 V 2 ⎞ he = K ⎜ 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2g 2g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Where.5 from gradual to abrupt transitions transitional loss due to change of velocity in expansion (m) velocity before the transition (m/s) velocity after the transition (m/s) acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Design Criteria for Curved Channel Sediment Excluder It is desirable to verify the hydraulic design of curved channel sediment excluder through model studies. March 2009 8-23 .

it is evident that planning and design of pumping facilities will have a great impact on the efficient management of water supply. The theoretical maximum height that water can be lifted using suction is 10 m. Centrifugal pumps are designed for either horizontal or vertical operation. The piles shall be arranged such that the logs would be diverted from the intake structure without affecting the flow into it. Steep banks may be protected by the use of steel sheet piles while gently sloping banks may be protected against scour by gabion mattresses filled with metal blocks or by pitched metal blocks. To preserve the curvature effect of the sluice. and propeller and booster pumps. Both pump and motor are suspended in the water. (b) Turbine Pumps Turbine pumps are adapted for use in cased wells or where the water surface is below the practical limits of a centrifugal pump. lakes. turbine. If the river at the intake site is subjected to changes in channel course or scouring. Brief description is given below: (a) Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal pumps are used to pump from reservoirs. water enters the pump through a screen located between the pump and motor. require less maintenance. Because the pump is located above the motor. The provision of R. piles are protruded from the river bed to a height slightly above the top of the intake structure.4. Since the intake for the turbine pump is continuously under water. submersible. Turbine pump efficiencies are greater than most centrifugal pumps.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Tail Water Level: The efficiency of the curved channel sediment excluder is strongly dependent upon tail water level. Submersible 8-24 March 2009 . easier to install and more accessible for inspection and maintenance than a vertical centrifugal.3 Pumped Intake Design Procedures Pumps are the most important equipment where irrigation supply is abstracted from low flowing surface water sources. They are usually more expensive than centrifugal pumps and more difficult to inspect and repair.4.Chapter 8 . 8.C.2. The caution is that the bearings are constantly under water. streams and shallow wells. river training and protection works upstream and downstream of the intake structure shall be provided to protect the intake structure and river bank. Failure of pumping facilities will hamper to provide sufficient water supply to meet crop water demand. Horizontal centrifugal pumps are the most common in irrigation systems.3. Submersible pumps can be selected to provide a wide range of flow rate and TDH (Total Dynamic Head) combinations. channel velocities should not be too low and hence depths of flow should not be too large. Vertical centrifugal pumps may be mounted so the impeller is under water at all times. Pumped intake can be divided into two major categories as: • • Pumped intake for small scale and/or pressurized irrigation systems Pumped intake for large scale irrigation 8. They are generally less costly.4.5 River Bank and Intake Structure Protection The intake structure shall be protected against damage by the logs. priming is not a concern. 8. Turbine pumps are also used with surface water systems.1 Common Irrigation Pumps Commonly used pumps for irrigation include centrifugal. (c) Submersible Pumps Submersible pumps are turbine pumps close-coupled to a submersible electric motor. Therefore. a higher level of maintenance may be required.

They come in two types. (d) Propeller Pumps Propeller pumps are used for low lift. By adding another stage. the most suitable pump is chosen from these pumps considering economic factors. head.25 = 10 m. The pump selected should provide the operating requirements of March 2009 8-25 . high flow rate conditions. Capacity. Centrifugal pumps are a good choice to pump water from lakes. Pump efficiency is usually given by manufacturers. 8.3. This will assure that as the pump wears. (e) Booster Pumps Booster pumps are used to increase the water pressure. heads from 10 to 12 m are obtainable. The pressure increase needed is 35 . Pump characteristics curves are a useful tool in the selection process.3. rivers and shallow wells.Chapter 8 .3 Design Considerations (a) General Considerations Pump selection is the process of choosing the most suitable pump for a particular irrigation system.2 Components of Pumped Intake The essential components that require to be considered in the preparation of the layout for the pumping station are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • Overflow weir and control gate structures Water level raising structure (Barrage/Weir when river flow is low) Storage reservoir (Optional) Screen Girt chamber Pump sump Inflow channel from the river to the main conveyance system Control panel and switchboard room Sub-station and/or generator room Access road and ramp.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES pumps more than 25 mm in diameter generally are costly than deep well turbines because the motors are more expensive.4. parking space 8. These pumps come with everything you need pre-assembled and ready to go.4. A single-stage propeller pump typically will lift water no more than 6 m. power. So the system requires adding a booster pump to create more pressure. The mixed-flow pump uses either semi-open or closed impellers similar to turbine pumps. All pump characteristics curves are related to the discharge. The performance requirements of the system must be specified and the pump type must be selected. and specific speed are parameters that describe a pump's performance. It is common practice to select a pump capable of producing higher head and larger flowrate (approximately 10%) than the design parameters. During the pump selection process. The suction head condition is less than 10 m. Alternate pumps that meet the requirements of the system also should be specified. axial flow and mixed flow. Normally. Therefore the required booster pump pressure is simply the desired pressure minus the existing pressure. only pumps having high efficiencies (above 70%) for the design discharge should be considered for a system. So a booster pump is needed that will produce 10 m of pressure at whatever flow rate the irrigation system requires. Selected pump shall provide the required system flowrate (Qs) and TDH and also operate at a high efficiency. required net positive suction head. They show the head and volume range of a given pump. efficiency. as well as the efficiencies at which the pump operates within this range. its performance will remain adequate. Let say your irrigation system needs 35 m to operate correctly but existing pressure is 25 m.

The size of the motors is related to the volume of water being pumped.32 Propeller > 315 > 0. (a) Pump Selection Criteria The most suitable pump is chosen based upon the pump characteristics curves supplied by the manufacturers. • • • • • • Head Flowrate Power Efficiency Net positive suction head (NPSH) Characteristic curves Table 8.1 can be used to narrow the selection of a pump type for a broad range of flow rates and total dynamic heads. (b) Provision for Chemical Pre-treatment According to the water quality standard for pressurized irrigation systems.02 Propeller Centrifugal 20 . turbines should not exceed 1800 rpm.4. Turbine and submersible pumps are used for well and high lift installation.4 Pump Design and Selection The heart of many irrigation systems is a pump.1 A Chart for Desirable Pump Types Used for a Given Range of Flow Rates and TDH Discharge Total Dynamic Head (TDH) L/s m3/s < 15 m 15 – 152 m > 152 m 20 < 0.315 0.3. The chemical most often is applied for this purpose is copper sulphate in doses ranging from 0.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES the irrigation system at or close to its best efficiency point (BEP). The selection of an irrigation water pump is based almost entirely on the relationship between pump efficiency and the total dynamic head (TDH) of the pump for a specific flow rate.Chapter 8 . The pumps in the system must be sized to deliver the quantities of water needed by each irrigator. This has been explained detailed in the respective Chapter 11.02 – 0. Turbines are generally used for total pressure requirements exceeding 150 m of total dynamic head. (b) Pump Performance Parameters The following parameters are essential to select the right pump using pump characteristics curves. Submersible pumps usually operate at 3600 rpm.12 mg/l to 0. chemical pre-treatment process is the good step to control the growth of microorganisms. A centrifugal pump should not be operated at less than 80% of its BEP. If the application needs to lift the water to the pump then a centrifugal pump will have to be used. 8.3 mg/l.32 Propeller Centrifugal Vertical Turbine Submersible Centrifugal Vertical Turbine Submersible Centrifugal Vertical Turbine Propeller Submersible Centrifugal Vertical Turbine Submersible Centrifugal Vertical Turbine Submersible Centrifugal Vertical Turbine 8-26 March 2009 . elevation changes. flow losses in pipe and the desired pressure at the ends of the pipe branches. The dose required is influenced by the water quality level. Wells exceeding 8 to 10 m in the depth should choose a turbine or submersible pump. Pump must be chosen for the particular conditions of head and discharge. For optimum life. This is not really required if water is supplied for paddy farming. The BEP of centrifugal pumps vary from 45% to 80% but consideration should be given to selecting pumps that have efficiencies of 65% or higher. These parameters are also the basis of the pump characteristic curve. Table 8.

It represents the friction losses between the entrance and discharge ends of the pump installation. first determine the flow rate. the total friction head and the pressure head. An explanation of these terms is given below and graphically shown in Figure 8.9) discharge capacity of the pump (L/s) area under crops (ha) depth of irrigation (cm) rotation period (days) duration of pumping (hrs/day) Step 2: Determine the static head (Hs) The static head is the vertical distance between the free water surface at the suction and discharge sides of the pump. Step 3: Determine the friction head (HF) The friction head depends on the flow rate. The rate of pumping depends upon area under different crops.10) Where. rotation period (interval between two successive irrigation of a crop) and the duration of pump operation.29. the pipe size and the pipe length. hence. Velocity head is calculated using the following equation: HV = 82550 Q2 D4 (8. Hv = velocity head (m) Q = pump capacity (L/s) D = diameter of the discharge pipe (mm) Step 6: Calculate the total dynamic head (TDH) The total dynamic head is the sum of the total static head.Chapter 8 . This is a very small amount of energy and is usually negligible when computing losses in an irrigation system. Step 5: Determine the velocity head (HV) Velocity head is the kinetic energy released when water is discharged at the end of the outlet. it is proportional to flow and cross sectional area of the outlet pipe.11) 8-27 . The steps to select a centrifugal pump are: Step 1: Determine the flow rate To size and select a centrifugal pump. Q = A = Y = R = T = AY RT (8.78 Where. There is an allowable limit to the suction head on a pump and the net positive suction head (NPSH) of a pump sets that limit. Hence the total dynamic head can be expressed as: TDH = HS + HF + HP + HV March 2009 (8. Velocity head is the energy of the water due to its velocity.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES (c) Pump Selection Procedures The flow rate depends on the physical characteristics of the system such as friction which depends on the length and size of the pipes and elevation difference which depends on difference of the pipe end discharge height and the water surface level. Mathematically rate of discharge of pump is: Q = 27. Step 4: Determine the pressure head (HP) Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems require pressure to operate. The cavitations start when the pressure drops below the vapour pressure. NPSH is a measure of the energy (pressure) in a liquid above the vapour pressure.

A headdischarge characteristic curve of the pump is used to determine the pump operating point (Figure 8. Once this point is determined brake horse power. The particular combination of head and discharge at which a pump is operating is called the pump operating point. A typical characteristic 8-28 March 2009 .29 Components of the Total Dynamic Head (TDH) for Surface Water (d) Pump Operating Point A centrifugal pump can operate at a combination of head and discharge points given by its H-Q curve.Chapter 8 . Each pump can add different amount of head to water depending on the flow rate.30). efficiency. and net positive suction head required for the pump can be obtained from the set of pump curves. TDH = HS = HF = HP = HV = total dynamic head (m) static head (m) friction head (m) pressure head (m) velocity head (m) Sprinkler Pressure Preasurehead head Total static head Lift Fr ict io n he ad Pressure Preasuregauge gage Suction Cantrifugalpump pump Centrifugal Figure 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Where. H-Q Pump Curve Operating Point Head (m) Operating Head Discharge of the Pump System Curve Capacity (l/min) Figure 8. The operating point is where the head discharge requirements of the system are equal to the head-discharge produced by the pump. The operating point is determined by the head and discharge requirement of the irrigation system.30 The Operating Point for a Given Centrifugal Pump and Water System (e) Pump Selection using Characteristics Curve Various curves allow direct selection of pumps when the system design conditions are known.

you can find the capacity that the pump will operate.5" SOLID PASSING . Now. then move horizontally to the kW input y-axis the appropriate value for motor input can be read. and pump efficiency vs.Chapter 8 . In like manner the pump efficiency can be read by keeping the flow constant once again. Next go back to the operating point. To determine the performance data at a particular point. From this point move horizontally to the left until you intersect the y-axis. capacity.30 the design point is 1220 L/min (320 GPM) and 6. capacity curve.4 kW and 53%. and net positive suction head all plotted over the capacity range of the pump. This is the point where the system head curve crosses the pump’s head vs. A typical pump curve is shown in Figure 8. at the determined flow rate.4" DISCHARGE 48 14 PUMP EFFICIENCY 44 12 40 10 38 9 32 HE A 28 8 D CA 8 24 50 40 7 PA CI TY 6 30 22 6 E URV AD C E H EM SYST 20 16 4 MOTO 12 2 R 5 4 8 2 4 1 0 US GALLONS LITERS 40 0 200 80 120 400 180 600 200 240 280 20 3. MOTOR INPUT (KW) PUMP EFF% METERS FEET The key thing to remember when reading a pump curve is all curves are based upon the principle of plotting data using the x and y axis. This will give you the head at which the pump will operate. efficiency. capacity. The power input and pump efficiency are 3. brake horsepower.31. first locate the operating point of the pump.4 3 INPUT 320 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 10 53 320 1200 800 1000 FLOW FOR MINUTE 360 1400 400 10 0 440 1600 480 1800 520 2000 Figure 8.80 m (22 ft) of TDH.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES curve shows the total head. capacity. With this in mind. All pump curves are plotted with the flow rate on the horizontal axis and the TDH on the vertical axis. the curves typically plotted are head vs. move vertically to the input power curve intersection. By moving vertically down to the x-axis. Therefore the constant between each curve is the capacity or x-axis.31 A Typical Pump Curve for a Horizontal Centrifugal Pump March 2009 8-29 . 2. power input vs. Pump manufacturers provide performance characteristics called pump characteristic curves. respectively. By using this method and Figure 8.

as shown in the Figure 8.33 Pump Submergence Requirements (Christiansen. WP = required power (KW) Q = pump discharge (L/s) TDH = total dynamic head (m) Pump manufacturers provide these relationships in the form of pump curves for their various pump designs and operating conditions. the power is often referred to as the water power (KW) can be determined using the formula below: WP = Q × TDH 102 (8. This ensures sands and sediments are not drawn up through the intake. The inlet must also be submerged enough to prevent a vortex from forming and causing the pump to draw in air.5 Small Capacity Pumped Intake Design The sufficient depth of water must be maintained both above and below the pump intake. 2006) 1000 17 15 12 5 0 75 10 0 600 400 SU 50 Submergence (mm) 800 N IO CT 5 PE PI A DI M ER ET m (m 200 ) 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Discharge Rate (L/s) Figure 8.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES (f) Power Requirement The system flowrate and total dynamic head must be known to determine the power requirement and pump horse power. The pump intake should clear the stream bed by a depth that is at least half the diameter of the suction pipe (Figure 8.33. 2006) 8-30 March 2009 . 8.3.32 Pump Intake Arrangements (Christiansen. Once the total dynamic head is defined.32).12) Where.Chapter 8 .4. The required depth of submergence is dependent on both the diameter of the suction pipe and the discharge rate. To Pump Suction pipe Water Surface Submergence D Stream bed Pump intake Bed Clearance > D/2 Figure 8.

A vortex cover is a circular plate placed horizontally just above the pump intake. The following formula can be used to determine the minimum water depth required over the top of the pipe. a sloped trash rack can be used to increase the area without increasing the height. H= Where.34 Excavated Well Sump Vortex Cover: If sufficient submergence is not obtainable a vortex cover can be used to prevent the pump from drawing air (Figure 8.Chapter 8 .30 m/s at the trash rack.35). If the height of the intake area (H) is limited. The excavation may be lined with rocks.30 m/s as follows: Q A tr = (8.14) v Where. H = Q = D = K = K × Q2 (8. concrete or a length of large diameter concrete pipe to provide a more permanent facility.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES (a) Intake Pipe Position The top of the intake pipe should be positioned to ensure that it is below the water surface at all times. The clear opening between the trash rack and the pipe inlet should be greater than twice the actual pipe diameter.34). The flow velocity at the intake should be limited to 0. Trash collection is then easily raked on the access platform for disposal.5 mm x 50 mm mounting bars with a 20 mm space between bars. March 2009 8-31 .13) D4 minimum submergence (cm) system flowrate (L/s) pipe diameter (cm) conversion factor [K = 1650 x 106 when Q in m3/s and D in cm] The rack bars should consist of 6. Ensure that the plate is submerged at all times when the pump is in operation. These wells require regular maintenance to remove deposits of silt and debris.5 mm x 25 mm steel bars welded to 6. The size of the trash track can be determined using the continuity equation when v = 0. The diameter of the plate should be at least five times that of the suction pipe. Q = system flowrate (m3/s) = size of the trash rack (m2) Atr (b) Suction Arrangements The following arrangements may be used to avoid pumping difficulties: Excavated well: A common method is the excavation of a well sump for the pump suction (Figure 8. Water surface p To Pum Natural bed level Pump intake Excavated well Figure 8.

Chapter 8 . Water flows to the well through a pipe and screen intake system (Figure 8.36 Intake from a Stream Using Well 8-32 March 2009 . but may be placed vertically. length and aperture (slot) size is determined by the: • • particle sizes of the stream bed material required pumping rate. The screen diameter. It should be buried deep enough to allow for the water level being drawn down when the pump is operating.36b).WATER INTAKE FACILITIES p To Pum 5D Water surface Stream bed Vortex cover D Pump intake Figure 8. This arrangement consists of a well adjacent to and below the level of the stream channel. To pump Water surface Foot valve Natural bed sand Screen intake Gravel filter (a) Vertical Well mp To pu Water surface Pump well Stream bed Screen intake Pump intake Gravel filter (b) Horizontal Well Figure 8.35 Vortex Cover Buried Intake: A buried intake can be provided as low maintenance solution where the river bed consists sand and gravel. The screens are the same as those used in irrigation bores to prevent sand from entering the bore and distribution system. (c) Screen Intake A screen intake should consist of a screen surrounded by a graded gravel filter.36a. The arrangement consists of a screen intake fitted as Figure 8. The screen intake is usually installed horizontally.

39 presents a relatively simple method to accomplish this. Figures 8. The detail recommendations can be obtained in the JKR manual. bronze.25 mm and open screen areas that are not less than 50% of the total screen area. it should be placed within a wire basket and/or filter cloth.37 and 8. Fisheries recommendations suggest screen mesh sizes with clear openings that do not exceed 0. Screens: When drawing water from rivers or lakes.Chapter 8 . the design of a screen intake should be carried out by experienced in the field.37 Plywood Frame Screen Constructions March 2009 8-33 . pipe Figure 8. aluminium. 5 cm x 5 cm painted framing covered with bronze screen Cap on end of pipe (8 mesh wire cloth with 6-8 mm dia wire) 50 c m 50 cm 20-25 mm removable plywood Flange 80 -1 Pump suction hose 00 cm 50-100 mm std. Where it is likely that the gravel filter will be disturbed during flooding. Manufacturers provide specifications for standard market grade wire mesh. stainless steel and other alloys. An irrigation system withdrawing water from a fish bearing river or lake must restrict the flow velocity through the screen to 3 cm/s.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES The gravel in the filter should be: • • • uniform in size rounded in shape at least 300 mm thick around the screen. a screen is often required to keep debris from entering the irrigation system. Screen can be constructed in a variety of shapes and sizes. Unless local conditions have shown that a particular arrangement works. This mesh wire cloth is available in brash. Figure 8. A gravity-fed intake often requires a large screening surface and one that is itself cleaning. The percentage of open area of the screen must be established and taken into account when calculating screen area required.38 provides details on constructing screens by using plywood or used oil drums as frames. A trash rack may be used to prevent large obstacles from damaging the screen.

Infiltration of fine material through the intake can occur during pumping immediately after construction of the intake.5 .15 cm sections uncut 9 Openings 2 approx 25 x 45 mm Figure 8.39 Self Cleaning Screens for Gravity Intake Precautions: It is essential that fine sands and sediments are prevented from entering the suction line.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Standard pipe Cut opening for pipe at top weld flanges top and bottom Bronze wire wrapping around drum Drum stiffener Leave 7.Chapter 8 . 8-34 March 2009 .38 Drum Screen Constructions Delivery i Screen Debris plate Access port to tank Baffle Tank overflow Debris overflow Access V l Settling tank Cleanout Irrigation intake Figure 8.

5 minutes. The minimum pump sump volume between start and stop levels shall be equal to a detention of 1. Even a well designed screen intake may. The river inflow hydrograph and stage-discharge relationship is required which can be developed from the hydrological historical records. However.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES To avoid this happening: • • • start pump before the delivery line is connected vary the pumping rate over a range of discharges keep pumping until the water clears of sediment. The designer must follow federal and/or state government regulations. = pumping rate (L/s) Qp 8. The hydraulic analysis of a pump station involves the interrelationship of two components: • the river inflow hydrograph • the discharge rate of the pumping system (a) Design Parameters The following pump and station parameters are required to design pumping station.6 Large Capacity Pumped Intake Design In Malaysia. become blocked by silt and organic matter. (e) Pump Sump Volumes Inflow into a pump sump must be greater than the design pumping rate. A study on water availability for irrigation diversion is to be carried out to ascertain the future need for irrigation demand. V = minimum sump volume between start and stop levels (m/s) T = cycle times in minutes (time between starts) which should be based on the recommended 10 to 15 starts per hour. screen and filter sizes should be as large as practicable to reduce the potential for blockages. • • • • • Maximum design head Design heads at rated pumping station capacity Capacity requirements Type of pump Estimated pump physical size March 2009 8-35 .3. If back-flushing is not possible.4. the large capacity pumping station is commonly installed for diverting water from river to irrigation canal of the rice irrigation scheme. (d) Suction Pipe Strainer Opening The strainer should be aluminium and have openings with an effective area of two times the bore of the inlet pipe. Adequate switching gear should be provided to shut down the pump in such an emergency. This section provides dimensions for the sump and station layout of the pump station for the large scale irrigation supply.15) Where.Chapter 8 . Fine material can also be drawn through the screen if there is a surge in the flow as happens when a delivery main ruptures or bursts. the minimum sump volume for one duty pump shall be determined from the following formula: V= T Qp 4 (8. over a long time. where the inflow is half the pumping rate which is the condition when the pump starts most frequently. The discharge of the pump station is often controlled by local regulations or physical factors. A back-flushing facility should be incorporated into the pumping arrangement to clear occasional blockages of the screen.

reliable diversion amount and the desirable pump size. The river flow must be higher than pumping rate to maintain the minimum flow requirement in the downstream side of the river. If a pumping installation is designed more than 10 hours daily. Therefore. Three would be the minimum number of pumps required. Once an estimated reliable flow is determined. the locality of installation and factor of safety desired. The equation 8. Step 4: Pump Operating Hours In the design of pumping systems. a detail hydrologic study is needed to determine the available water resources after remaining the minimum flow requirements at the downstream.Chapter 8 . The goal is to develop an economic balance between required diversion and pumping capacity. A stage-discharge relationship must be developed. additional duty pumps shall be provided in addition to standby pumps. This criterion is distinct from the duty pump which is dependent upon the number of hours of operation of the plant to produce the desired daily amount. the size and number of pumps can be determined for the design irrigation diversion rate.1 can be used to compute the required discharge capacity for the pumping station. The design irrigation discharge rate is determined based on the peak water demand for the scheme considering all losses and other requirements. Second approach is based on reliable water resources for irrigation supply. This depends on the demand created by the irrigation systems. head regulator structure (Figure 8. The maintaining of minimum flow in the river must be considered. Size and thus numbers of pumps may be controlled by physical constraints such as portable standby power. The flow of a river is quite irregular when considered over long time periods. Step 2: Stage Discharge Relationship The stage discharge relationship curve is essential to operate the pumping station. Some approximation is necessary to produce the first trial design. pumps should not be operated more than 10 hours continuously in a day. One approach is to select the pumping rate based on peak water demand by the irrigation scheme. 8-36 March 2009 . Step 3: Estimate Pumping Rate and Number of Pumps A trial and error approach is usually necessary for estimating the pumping rates based on reliable water resources and the required pumping rate to meet the peak period irrigation supply. The total pumping rate may be set by the peak irrigation demand. The number of standby pumps to be provided depends on the size of duty pumps. A wide range of combinations may produce an adequate design.9b) is constructed to augment the flow towards pumping station if river flow is low during low flow periods. This will help to estimate available volume of water to be pumped and how many pump could be operated for particular times. Step 1: Required Pumping Rate (Q) The first consideration in selection of a pump and design of a pumping plant must be the determination of the required discharge capacity. Sometimes.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES • • • • (b) Power required at the design points Pump speed Station Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) and pump NPSHR Sump dimensions Design Procedures The procedure for pump station design for large scale irrigation supply is illustrated in the following section. Continuous flow/stage forecasting is recommended to enable the operator to make decisions as to actions they may wish to take with regard to high or low flows.

Each type of pump has a unique performance curve that has been developed by the manufacturer.WATER INTAKE FACILITIES Step 5: Aqueducts Structure to Convey Water to the Pump Sump In some case. The following factors should be considered when design a pump sump: • pump sumps will ensure uniform and steady flow with maximum average velocities of about 0. the efficiency is reduced as the performance moves away from the eye of the performance curve. All designers should make a study of a pump performance curve. efficiency and energy requirements.Chapter 8 .3 m/sec for the approach to bell mouths • the kinetic energy associated with changes in level. step or a weir. because any pump can be fitted with various size impellers. More precisely. These performance curves are the basis for the pump curve plotted in the system head curves. a family of curves is shown for each pump. • horizontal sections of suction piping should have a slight upward slope to the pump to avoid air pockets with flange type joints being recommended • pump sumps should be reinforced concrete and designed to BS 8007. It can be seen that for either an increase or decrease in TDH. March 2009 8-37 . the power requirement also increases. The designer must ensure that the specified motor is adequate over the full range of TDH that will exist.6 m/sec for flow into a pumping station and less than 0. Any point on an individual performance curve identifies the performance of a pump for a specific Total Dynamic Head (TDH) that exists in the system. It also identifies the required power and the operation efficiency of the pump. The designer must study various manufacturers’ literature in order to establish reasonable relationships between total dynamic head. It should also be noted that as the TDH increases. Detailed design procedures are provided in Chapter 9 and Chapter 16. The designer must have specific information on the pumps available in order to be able to specify pumps needed for the pump station. should be streamlined to obviate flow separation near the intake section • areas where stagnant water occur should be filled in • pump sumps shall preferably be sized and arranged to allow each pump sump to be isolated for cleaning and maintenance without interrupting the normal abstraction of the station • the minimum number of sumps should be two • pump sumps shall be built as near the pumps as possible to shorten suction piping with minimum number of bends so as to reduce suction losses and may be jointed or separated from the intake structure • screens and grit chambers should be provided to ensure longer pump life • adequate lifting equipment should be provided to facilitate operation and maintenance. Step 6: Pump Sump Design The detail design procedure of the pump sump is given in Appendix 8B. It is desirable that the design point be as close to the eye as possible. The range of the pump performance should not extend into areas where substantially reduced efficiencies exist. Step 7: Trial Pumps and Pump Station Piping The designer must select a specific pump in order to establish the size of the discharge piping that will be needed. whether down a slope. This is done by using information either previously developed or established. aqueduct structure may need to be constructed to convey water into the pump sump if the water source is far. discharge. This study will also give the designer a good indication of discharge piping needed since pumps that produce the desired results will have a specific discharge pipe size. should be dissipated well away from the final approach to the pumps • obstructions such as supporting pillars.

This is very essential if water is supplied for microirrigation and sprinkler irrigation systems irrigation water is applied through small passage emitters and nozzles.16) The pump power output can be determined using the Eq. please see Section 8.4. Step 9: Design Operating Point The required operating point of the pump is determined by the intersection of the system curve and the pump curve (For detail.