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Different Types of

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Induced Stress
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION

Machine components transmit forces and motion from one point to
another. The transmission of force can be envisioned as a flow or force
distribution that can be further visualized by isolating internal surfaces
within the component. Force distributed over a surface leads to the
concept of stress, stress components, and stress transformations (Mohr’s
circle) for all possible surfaces at a point.
Stresses and strains: When any solid body is subjected to external
forces, resisting forces are set up within the body. These internal forces
per unit area are called unit stresses. The stress is tensile where the
force tends to elongate fibers in the member collinear with the stress,
compressive where the force tends to shorten fibers in the member
collinear with the stress, and shear where the forces in the member tend
to make adjacent planes in the member slide relative to each other. It is
evident that elements of area in the member may be subjected to a force
which has components both parallel and perpendicular to the area such
that the stresses at the area may be both shear and tension or
compression.
The forces acting on a body cause changes in the geometry of the
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body; these changes increase as the forces increase. These changes in
the geometry or shape of the body are called deformations or strains; if
measured on a body of unit dimension or per unit length of the body,
they are called unit strains.
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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In engineering
practice, the machine parts are subjected to various
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
forces which
may bePENINSULA
due to either oneSTATE
or more of
the following:
BATAAN
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

MECHANICAL
Energy
transmitted, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Weight of machine,
Frictional resistances,
Inertia of reciprocating parts,
Change of temperature, and
Lack of balance of moving parts.

LOAD
It is defined as any external force acting upon a machine part. The
following four types of the load are important from the subject point of
view:
1. Dead or steady load. A load is said to be a dead or steady load,
when it does not change in magnitude or direction.
2. Live or variable load. A load is said to be a live or variable load,
when it changes continually.
3. Suddenly applied or shock loads. A load is said to be a suddenly
applied or shock load, when it is suddenly applied or removed.
4. Impact load. A load is said to be an impact load, when it is applied
with some
Engineering Stress
When some external system of forces or loads acts on a body, the
internal forces (equal and opposite) are set up at various sections of the
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body, which resist the external forces. This internal force per unit area at
any section of the body is known as unit stress or simply a stress. It is
denoted by a Greek letter sigma ( σ ). Mathematically,

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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stress , σR=F
/A
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Where:MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

F: load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section;

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

A: cross-sectional area (perpendicular to the force) before application of
the load.
In S.I. units, the stress is usually expressed in Pascal (Pa) such that
1 Pa = 1 N/m2. In actual practice, we use bigger units of stress i.e.
megapascal (MPa) and gigapascal (GPa), such that
1 MPa=1 x 10

6

1GPa=1 x 109

N
N
=1
2
m
mm 2
N 1 kN
=
m2 mm2

Engineering Strain
When a system of forces or loads acts on a body, it undergoes
some deformation. This deformation per unit length is known as unit
strain or simply a strain. It is denoted by a Greek letter epsilon (ε).
Mathematically,
strain , ε=

δ
L

Where:
δ

= Change in length of the body

L = Original length of the body.
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Essence of Designing
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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1. Know
your Material
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
Types of Material
BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
 Ductile
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
 OF
High
Resistance against
Deformation
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
 Basically Soft
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
 High Resistance
to Impact Load
 Define Yield Point
 Fails by Sliding, Necking or Yielding

 Brittle
 Low Resistance against Deformation
 Basically Hard
 Low Resistance to Impact Load
 No define Yield Point
 Fails by Fracture
 Carbon Content
 Wrought Iron = 0 - 0.08%
 Low Carbon Steel = 0.04 - 0.30%
 Medium Carbon Steel = 0.30 - 0.60%
 High Carbon Steel = 0.60 - 1.70%
 Cast Iron = 1.70 - 4.50%

2. Know Your Strength of Material

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Fig 2.1 Stress-Strain Diagram for Ductile Specimen
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig 2.2 Stress-Strain Diagram for Brittle Specimen

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Fig 2.3 Properties on Stress-Strain Curve
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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certain characteristics or properties of the material should be known. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . The elongation is measured by determining the amounts that two reference points on the specimen are moved apart by the action of the machine. it is necessary to know how the material will function in service.4 The Elastic Line Stress is directly proportional to Strain ( σ ∝ϵ ) Stress-Strain Diagram In designing various parts of a machine. The load is applied and measured by a testing machine. The original distance between the two reference points is known as gauge length. The strain is determined by dividing the elongation values by the gauge length. The mechanical properties mostly used in mechanical engineering practice are commonly determined from a standard tensile test. This test consists of gradually loading a standard specimen of a material and noting the corresponding values of load and elongation until the specimen fractures. The stress is determined by dividing the load values by the original cross-sectional area of the Page 147 specimen.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fig 2. For this. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.

the stressOFand corresponding strain are used to draw MAIN CAMPUS PROVINCE BATAAN .REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY The values of .a the various properties of the material are discussed below: Fig 2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE the stress-strain diagram of the material tested.a: Stress-strain diagram for mild steel under tensile test Page 147 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . A stress-strain diagram MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT for mild steel under tensile test is shown in Fig 2.4.4.

It is defined as the stress developed in the material without any permanent set. the plastic stage will reach i. Hence there are two yield points Page 147 C and D. immediately after yielding commences. At this point. the material yields before the load and there is an appreciable strain without any increase in stress. Note: Since the above two limits are very close to each other. It is thus obvious. that Hooke's law holds good up to point A and it is known as proportional limit.e. 2. the strain increases at a faster rate with any increase in the stress until the point C is reached. In case of mild steel. Cdiagram ITY OF BALANGA OF ENGINEERING AND straightCOLLEGE line. The stress corresponding to yield point is known as yield point stress. we seeOFfrom the that C-2100 from origin to A is a MAIN CAMPUS . 3. the material will not be able to recover its original size and shape. This point is known as elastic limit. It is defined as that stress at which the stress-strain curve begins to deviate from the straight line. Proportional limit. This means that the material has elastic properties up to the point B. The points C and D are called the upper and lower yield points respectively. It may be noted that even if the load is increased beyond point A up to the point B. therefore. the material will regain its shape and size when the load is removed. it will be seen that a small load drops to D. A little consideration will show that beyond point B. If the material is stressed beyond point B. PROVINCE BATAAN . which represents that theARCHITECTURE stress is proportional to strain. on the removal of the load. Yield point. DEPARTMENT Beyond pointMECHANICAL A. Elastic limit. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . for all practical purposes these are taken to be equal. the curve ENGINEERING slightly deviates from the straight line.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY 1.

then the true stress-strain curve will C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .4. it causes the specimen suddenly to fail at F. At D. ARCHITECTURE The gradual increase in the strain (or length) of the specimen is followed MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT with the uniform reduction of its cross-sectional area. reduced until the specimen breaks away at point F. As the formation of a neck takes place at E which reduces the cross-sectional area. Ultimate stress. The stress is. After the specimen has reached the ultimate stress. The stress corresponding to point F is known as breaking stress. is transformed largely into heat and the specimen becomes hot. Note: The breaking stress (i. therefore. 5. which decreases the cross-sectional area of the specimen. A little consideration will show that the stress (or load) necessary to break away the specimen. If for each value of the strain between E Page 147 and F. which attains its maximum value. a neck is formed. stress at F which is less than at E) appears to be somewhat misleading. It is defined as the largest stress obtained by dividing the largest value of the load reached in a test to the original cross-sectional area of the test piece. The work done. COLLEGE The stressOF (orENGINEERING load) goes onAND increasing till the point E is reached. the tensile load is divided by the reduced cross-sectional area at the narrowest part of the neck. than those between A PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. the specimen regains some strength and higher REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES values BATAAN of stresses are required for higher strains.e. is known as ultimate stress. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 and D. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. is less than the maximum stress. At E. the stress. during stretching the specimen. Breaking stress.

CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 specimen.e. It is the difference between the original cross-sectional area and cross-sectional area at the neck (i. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. to EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES calculate strains on the basis of original cross-sectional area of the BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. modulus of compression. However. Modulus of Elasticity. compression modulus. it is an established practice. where the fracture takes place). This difference is expressed as percentage of the original cross-sectional area. Also known as bulk modulus. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 6.follow R the dotted line EG. modulus of volume elasticity. Percentage reduction in area. E= σ ε Page 147 Derivation: σ 1. Slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region.0 E= ε C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . hydrostatic modulus. E The ratio of the compressive or tensile force applied to a substance per unit surface area to the change in volume of the substance per unit volume.

1 REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. It may be noted that Hooke's law holds good for tension as well as compression. units. who first established it by experiments in 1678. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 F δ COLLEGE =E OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE 1.3 If σ ∴ δ= FL AE is given: 1. Where: E is a constant of proportionality known as Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity. In S. GN/m2 or kN/mm2. Page 147 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .σ =Eε 1. it is usually expressed in GPa i.4 δ= σL E Hooke’s Law it is name after Robert Hooke. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. The following table shows the values of modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus (E) for the materials commonly used in engineering practice.2 A L () MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 1.I.e.

PROVINCE OF Modulus of C-2100 elasticity BATAAN. For example.1 Values of E for the commonly used engineering Materials REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY Material MAIN CAMPUS . propeller shaft and connecting rods are examples of components subjected to several types of loads. The failures of such components are broadly classified into two groups-elastic failure and yielding and fracture. a power screw is subjected to torsional moment as well as axial force. CITY OF BALANGA (E) COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE in GPai.e GN/m2 or MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT kN/mm2 Steel and Nickel Wrought iron Cast iron Copper Brass Aluminum Timber 200 to 220 190 to 200 100 to 160 90 to 110 80 to 90 60 to 80 10 Theories of Elastic Failure There are number of machine components. Page 147 unfit to perform its function satisfactorily. which makes the machine component. combined stresses are induced. torsional moment induces torsional shear stress. while bending moment causes bending stresses in transmission shaft.Table 2. Elastic failure results in excessive elastic deformation. which are subjected to several types of loads simultaneously. For example. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Similarly an overhang crank is subjected to bending and torsional moments. Crankshaft. while fracture results in breaking the component into two or more pieces. The bolts of the bracket are subjected to forces that cause tensile stress and shear stress. Yielding results in excessive plastic deformation after the yield point is reached.

In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT practice. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 conditions. the specimen is axially loaded on tension. ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation. irrespective of the nature stresses induced in the component due to complex loads Basic Designing Equation Safe or Allowable or working design stress Failure Causing Stress Applied = to the member due to the load Basis is Strength of Material as Basis is Nominal Stress Tested Formula based on Loading Page 147 Design Strength = Induced Strength For Good Design: Applied Factor of Safety C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .The design of machine parts subjected to combine loads should be REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES related BATAAN to experimentally determined STATE propertiesUNIVERSITY of material under similar PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. It is not subjected to either bending moment or torsional moment or a combination of loads. However. the data obtained in the tension test can be used to determine the dimensions of the component. They include yield strength. In the tension test. it is not possible conduct such tests for different COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ANDto ARCHITECTURE possible combinations of loads and obtain mechanical properties. Theories of elastic failure provide a relationship between the strength of machine component subjected to complex state of stresses with the mechanical properties obtained in tension test. the mechanical properties are obtained from a simple tension test. With the help of these theories.

5 BATAAN Graphical PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. Fig 2.6 Graphical illustration of stress-strain on brittle specimen Page 147 DESIGN STRENGTH = STRENGTH OF MATERIAL FACTOR OF SAFETY For Axially.loaded member: C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . PROVINCE OF BATAAN. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT on illustration stress-strain ductile specimen .REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Fig 2.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Mathematically. as the ratio of the maximum stress to the working stress.σ For Ductile material Fs PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES σ = y BATAAN d MAIN CAMPUS. the factor of safety is based upon the yield point stress. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. or degradation. Safety factors are often calculated using detailed analysis because comprehensive testing is impractical on many projects. also known as safety factor. such as bridges and buildings. Essentially. It is defined. Many systems are purposefully built much stronger than needed for normal usage to allow for emergency situations. but the structure's ability to carry load must be determined to a reasonable accuracy. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE σu σ d = ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT For brittle material F s Factor of Safety Factor of safety. misuse. is a term describing the structural capacity of a system beyond the expected loads or actual loads. where the yield point is clearly defined. In such cases. mild steel. unexpected loads. how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load.g. in general. Factor of Safety= maximum stress working∨design stress Page 147 In case of ductile materials e.

The extent of simplifying assumptions. Note: The above relations for factor of safety are for static loading. The reliability of test results and accuracy of application of these results to actual machine parts. Before selecting a proper factor of safety. Therefore. 2. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . type of stress. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 yield point stress Factor COLLEGE of Safety= OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE working∨design stress MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT In case of brittle materials e. the yield point is not well defined as for ductile materials. The certainty as to exact mode of failure. general service conditions and shape of the parts. a design engineer should consider the following points: 1. Factor of safety = ultimate stress working∨design stress This relation may also be used for ductile materials. 4. cast iron. Selection of Factor of Safety The selection of a proper factor of safety to be used in designing any machine component depends upon a number of considerations. The reliability of applied load. such as the material.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. 5. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. 3. mode of manufacture. the factor of safety for brittle materials is based on ultimate stress.g. The reliability of the properties of the material and change of these Page 147 properties during service.

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY The extent of loss of life if failure occurs. 9.0 .0 .2 Basic Factor of Safety BASIC YIELD BASIC ULTIMATE 1.0 Steady Loads 2.0 .5 . Table 2.0 Moderate Shock 3. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 The extent OF of loss of propertyAND if failure occurs.0 1.6.2.8.0 3.16.0 6. The values of factor of safety based on ultimate strength for different materials and type of load are given in the following table. The extent of localized stresses.8. 7.0 6.3 Values of Factor of Safety Material Steady Live Load Shock Cast iron Wrought iron Soft material and load 5 to 6 4 6 8 to 12 7 9 Load 16 to 20 16 to 15 15 alloys Leather 9 12 15 Page 147 Timber 7 10 to 15 20 Summary of Design Stress C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .0 3. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES The extent of initial stresses set up during manufacture.4.0 Heavy Shock Table 2. The high factor of safety results in unnecessary risk of failure.4.0 .0 12.0 . COLLEGE ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Each of the above factors must be carefully considered and evaluated. 8. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. MAIN CAMPUS.

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Page 147 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . PROVINCE OF BATAAN.

000.cross-sectional area 2 δ 4 FL πD 2 E .4 Units and Conversions σt SI 1 MPa FPS 145. Check Strength Failure for Good Design 2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Members Subjected to Direct Tensile Loads Failure Profile:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 1.00 MKS 0. Fibers are elongated beyond its deformation limit (deformation failure) Design Steps: 1.the elongation F – tensile Force E – modulus of elasticity d= √ 4 FL πδE 1. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. Table 2. if δ is not specified: Page 147 Base your design on pure strength only.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. Fibers are elongated beyond its strength (strength failure) 2. Check deformation failure if τ /σ limit in δ specified used Hooke’s Law: σ ∝ϵ δ= FL AE While: A= δ= πD 4 Where: A .001 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .0377 CGS 10.

CITY N 2 m UNIVERSITY 0 Ba OF BALANGA C-2100 F COLLEGE1OF N ENGINEERING 0. the intensity of the axial force.9 (a). Generally.22481 100000 AND ARCHITECTURE dyne lb 1 kg s2 A 1 m MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT f 1 m 2 10. F1  Tensile Stress ( σ t = A ⊥ ¿ Tensile Stress is the stress state leading to expansion. then the stress induced at any section of the body is known as tensile stress as shown in Fig. the force per unit area and is denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma).. Direct Axial Loads (F⊥ A) The strength against an axially loaded member of a structure is assessed on the magnitude of stress. A little consideration will show that due to the tensile load. the length of a material tends to increase in the direction of the force / stress while the volume of the material stays constant. 2.2808 ft 100 cm 1m Induced Stresses or Stresses Caused by Loading 1. When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pulls Page 147 P (also called tensile load) as shown in Fig.2808 ft 100 cm 1m L 1m 3.9 (b). there will be a decrease in cross-sectional area and an C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . that is. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. 2.psi REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE MAIN CAMPUS. tensile stress occurs when a material is subjected to pulling or stretching force. i.e.7639 ft 2 10000 cm 2 2 δ 1m 3.

The ratio of the increase in length to REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES the original length is known as tensile strain.10 (b). Adjacent parts of the material tend to press against each other through a typical stress plane. 2.UNIVERSITY BATAAN PENINSULA STATE MAIN CAMPUS.increase in length of the body. 2. A little consideration will show that due to the compressive load.9 Tensile stress and strain. then the stress induced at any section of the body is known as compressive stress as shown in Fig. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fig. The ratio of the decrease in length to the original length is known as Page 147 compressive strain.10(a). When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pushes P (also called compressive load) as shown in Fig. there will be an increase in cross-sectional area and a decrease in length of the body. F2 σ = ¿ c  Compressive Stress ( A⊥ Compressive stress is the reverse of tensile stress. 2. Compressive stress is the stress on materials that leads to a smaller volume. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .

10 Compressive stress and strain. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. Transverse Load (F⊥ Neutral Axis) Transverse loading is type of applied force perpendicular to the longitudinal axis line.11  Shearing Stress: τ= F A When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite forces acting tangentially across the resisting section. It has compressive strains and internal tensile resulting in curvature change. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 2. 2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Fig. 2. as a result of which the body tends to shear off the section. This loading cause objects to bend and gets deflected from the original point of contact. Fig. The corresponding strain is known as shear strain and it is measured by the angular deformation accompanying the Page 147 shear stress. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. then the stress induced is called shear stress.

Considering two plates connected by the two cover plates as shown in Fig.13 (a). 2. 2.13 (b). Notes: C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .12 (b). It may be noted that when the tangential force is resisted by one cross-section of the rivet (or when shearing takes place at one cross-section of the rivet). It may be noted that when the tangential force is resisted by two cross-sections of the rivet (or when the shearing takes place at two cross-sections of the rivet).13. In this case. then the rivets are said to be in double shear. the tangential force P tends to shear off the rivet at one cross-section as shown in Fig.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. 2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fig. then the rivets are said to be in single shear. the tangential force P tends to shear off the rivet at two cross-sections as shown in Fig. 2. In this case. Double shearing of a riveted joint. Considering a body consisting of two plates connected by a rivet as shown in Fig. 2.12 (a). 2. Page 147 Fig.12 Single shearing of a riveted joint.

in which a rod specimen having either a circular or rectangular cross-section is bent until fracture using a three point flexural test technique. while EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES theBATAAN butt joints with double cover plates are UNIVERSITY in double shear.14 Bending C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .1. PENINSULA STATE 2. PROVINCE the area OF BATAAN involved . Page 147 Figure 2. The transverse bending test is most frequently employed. . then the area to be sheared. In M case AIN Cof AMPUS shear. P = A × τu = π d × t × τu where τu = Ultimate shear strength of the material of the plate. When theMECHANICAL holes are to be punched or drilled in the metal plates. If a hole of diameter ‘d’ is to be punched in a metal plate of thickness ‘t’. The flexural strength represents the highest stress experienced within the material at its moment of rupture.  Load converted as the moment (Flexural or Bending stress) Flexural strength is defined as a material's ability to resist deformation under load. All Rlap joints and single cover butt joints are in single shear. 3. A= π d×t and the maximum shear resistance of the tool or the force required to punch a hole. then ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT the tools used to perform the operations must overcome the ultimate shearing resistance of the material to be cut. CITYisOFparallel BALANGA to C-2100 the external force COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE applied.

Materials which are said to be "elastic" become distorted when they are compressed. This stress-strain relation exists only up to a certain load. At midspan. or bent. the top of the beam would be the location at which the maximum compression occurs in the beam due to contraction in the top fibers. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bending stress is the normal stress that is induced at a point in a body subjected to loads that cause it to bend. Flexural theory states that most materials will exhibit linearplastic behavior. they will respond to an applied load by deflecting in accordance to Hooke's Law. The bottom of the beam would experience maximum tension due to the elongation in the bottom fibers. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . bending moments are induced in the beam. i. stretched. This behavior is due to the forces that different parts of a member exert on each other when a structure is subjected to loads. subjected to a concentrated transverse load P at midspan would exhibit vertical deflection (and start to curve) due to bending caused by the two Page 147 reaction loads at the supports.e.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. A simply supported beam of length L. Hooke's Law states that deformation of an object under loading is proportional to the magnitude of the load. When a load is applied perpendicular to the length of a beam (with two supports on each end). and will return to their original shape and form when the load is removed. after which the material will undergo some irretrievable deformation.

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES  Torque or Twisting Moment STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN PENINSULA M AIN C AMPUS . P ROVINCE OF B CITY OF due BALANGA C-2100 Torsion is the twisting ofATAAN an . In COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE sections perpendicular to the torque axis.object to an applied torque. the resultant shear MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT stress in this section is perpendicular to the radius.15 Twisting Moment Bearing stress Page 147 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Fig 2.

the shear stress is directly proportional to shear strain. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. Mathematically C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Fig 2. knuckle joints. Bearing stress is the stress cause by a force which is perpendicular to the resisting area (Ab). S b= P b Pb = Ab LD Where: Sb = Bearing Stress Pb = Perpendicular force to the resisting area Ab = resisting area (projected area) perpendicular to the force Page 147 Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity It has been found experimentally that within the elastic limit. The bearing stress is taken into account in the design of riveted joints. cotter joints. etc.REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.16 Bearing Stress In a Riveted Joint A localized compressive stress at the surface of contact between two members of a machine part that are relatively at rest is known as bearing stress or crushing stress. It is the contact pressure between two separate bo0dies.

known as shear modulus or modulus of rigidity. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .5 Values of C for the commonly used materials Modulus of Rigidity (C) in Material GPa i. This stress is known as the working stress or design stress. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. It is also denoted by N or G.e. It is also known as safe or allowable stress. The following table shows the values of modulus of rigidity (C) for the materials in everyday use. φ = Shear strain. and = Constant of proportionality. φ∨OF =C φ BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.τ THE PHILIPPINES REPUBLIC τ ∝ φ∨τ=C . it is desirable to keep the stress Page 147 lower than the maximum or ultimate stress at which failure of the material takes place. GN/m2 or Steel Wrought iron Cast iron Copper Brass Timber kN/mm2 80 to 100 80 to 90 40 to 50 30 to 50 30 to 50 10 Working Stress When designing machine parts. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Where: C MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT τ = Shear stress. Table 2.

COLLEGE OFmore ENGINEERING ANDfunction ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DERIVATION OF FORMULA  For Tensile Stress: σt= F1 A⊥ Where: σt . and they no perform their satisfactory. Some REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES machine parts are said to fail when they have UNIVERSITY plastic deformation set in BATAAN PENINSULA STATE MAIN CAMPUS. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.tensile stress A – cross-sectional area F – External force or load  For Compressive Stress: σc= F A⊥ Where: Page 147 σc . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 them.compressive stress A – cross-sectional area F – axial compressive force acting on a body C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .Note: By failure it is not meant actual breaking of the material.

PROVINCE OF BATAAN. Where: τ – shearing stress A – resisting area τ= F 2 A . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE  For Transverse Load: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT F τ= A . (for double shear) F – tangential force  For Flexural Stress: Mc σ= I Where: σ .REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.bending stress M – moment about the neutral axis C – perpendicular distance to the neutral axis I – second moment of area about the neutral axis Page 147  For Twisting Moment: C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .

PROVINCE OF BATAAN.radial distance of point from center of section J – polar moment of inertia SAMPLE PROBLEMS Compressive Stress 1. J MAIN CAMPUS. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE T –AND torque MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT R . Given: F=210 kN Di=180 mm σ c =50 MPa Solution: Page 147 Solving for the Area of the column: σ c= F A C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . A column supports a compressive load of 200kN. Determine the outside diameter of column if inside diameter is 170 mm and compressive stress of 40MPa.Where: T (r ) τ – STATE τ= BATAAN PENINSULA UNIVERSITY shearing stress .

If the allowable working stress in steel in compression is 135MPa.18113 m=181. then the minimum outside diameter of the cylinder required to safely support the load is: Given: t=35 mm F=6800 kN S=135 MPa Page 147 Solution: Solving for the area of the hollow steel cylinder: C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF−3ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE 2 A=5 x 25 m MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Solving for the Outside Diameter of the column: From: A= π ( D 2−Di2 ) 4 o π x 25−3 m2= [ D o2−( 0.13 mm 2. A short hollow steel cylinder with a wall thickness of 35mm is to carry a compression load applied uniformly on the end of 6800kN.210 kN A REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES 40000 kPa= BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.180 m )2 ] 5 4 Do=0. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.

CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE 6800000 N A ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MECHANICAL 138 MPa= A=49275.36 mm2 = A= π D o2−Di2 ) ( 4 π Do2−( Do −70 mm )2 ] [ 4 62739.1357 mm Tensile Stress C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .36 mm2 Solving for the outside Diameter of the hollow steel cylinder: Since: D i=Do −2t D i=Do −2 ( 35 mm ) D i=Do −70 mm Thus. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.34 mm2= Do2−D o2 +140 mm Do−4900 mm2 Page 147 Do=483.F A REPUBLIC σ c =OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. From: 49275.

1. if it is to transmit a maximum torque of 760 in-lbs. Use factor of safety 4.lb Dshaft =4 ∈¿ S=30000 psi Factor of Safety=4 Solution: F= F= T r 760∈. lb 4∈. S= T A Page 147 where : π 2 A= d 4 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Given: T =760∈. Determine the minimum mean diameter of a taper pin for use to fix REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES a lever to a shaft. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 theCOLLEGE shaft diameter is 4 inchesAND andARCHITECTURE the material allowable stress is OF ENGINEERING 30000 psi. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. 4 F=760lbs . BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.

lb π 2 d BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY 4 MAIN CAMPUS. find the thickness of the tube. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.5618 mm MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 2. A hallow steel tube is used to carry a tensile load of 400kN at a stress of 130MPa.08 x 10−3 m2 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .0323∈. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 REPUBLIC 30000= OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE d=0.=4.760∈. If outside diameter is 10 times the tube thickness. Given: T =400 kN S=130 MPa D o=10 t Solution: Solving for Area of the steel: s= T A Page 147 130000 kPa= 400 kN A A=3.

08 x 10 m = π (10 t )2−( 8 t )2 ] [ 4 3. Given: D=80 mm C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . find its projected area in mm2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Do=Di +2 t 10 t=Di+ 2t Di=8 t Since Area of steel & Inside Diameter is now given. A journal bearing with a diameter of 80mm is subjected to a load of 5500N while rotating at 200 rpm. Solve for the thickness of the tube: From: A= π D o2−Di2 ) ( 4 −3 2 −3 2 3. Di : BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.0104 m=10. If its coefficient of friction is 0.REPUBLIC THE PHILIPPINES Solving forOFInside Diameter.5.92 x 10 m =36 t 2 t=0.02 Page 147 and L/D = 2. PROVINCE Do=10 t OF BATAAN.4319 mm Bearing Stress 1.

CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Coefficient of Friction=0.5 80 mm L=200 mm Solving for the Projected Area: A=D x L A=80 mm ( 200 mm ) A=16000 mm 2 3. Compute the bearing capacity Page 147 of the rivet connection if the allowable bearing stress is 210MPa. A lap joint consists of steel plate 250mm by 18mm in thickness is connected by 4-20mm diameter rivets.02 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT L =2.5 D Solution: From: L =2.5 D L =2. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.F=5500 N REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY N=200 rpm MAIN CAMPUS. Given: L=250 mm C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .

t=18 mm REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY d=4−20 mm MAIN CAMPUS.00144 m2 Then: 210000 kPa= F 2 0. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE S b=210 MPa MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Solution: From: S b= F A Where: A=4 ( d x t ) A=4 ( 0.020 m x 0.4 kN =302400 N Page 147 Flexural or Bending Stress C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . PROVINCE OF BATAAN.018 m ) A=0.00144 m F=302.

CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 theCOLLEGE beam OF weight is neglected.3MPa and BATAAN UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. A R simply supported timber beam is 60mm by 300mm in crossEPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES section and 5mPENINSULA long. If the fiber STATE stress is not to exceed 8.3 MPa Solution: For rectangular beam: M =SZ Where: Z =section modulus of rectangularbeam Z= bh 6 2 Page 147 ( 60 mm )( 300 mm )2 Z= 6 Z =900000 mm3 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Given: b=60 mm h=300 mm L=5 m S=8.1. find the maximum mid-span ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE concentrated load that the beam can support if the 200 mm MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT dimension is vertically oriented. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.

Given : σf = 250 psi F = 2000 lb Page 147 D = 4 in L=? Solution : C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . if the diameter of the gear is 4 in. PROVINCE MAIN CAMPUS OF BATAAN. Calculate the actual length of the shaft.3 MPa ) ( 900000 mm3 ) M =7470000 N ∙ m=7470 kN ∙ m For simply supported beam: M= 7470 PL 4 kN ∙ m= P (5 m) 4 P=5976 kN 2. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT M =( 8.Thus. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY M =SZ. The gear reducer of a shaft has a flexural stress of 250 psi and a force acting unit which is 2000 lb.

513 in Shear Stress 1. If the ultimate shearing strength of a steel plate is 3000 Mpa.32 M 3 πD PENINSULA REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES σf = BATAAN MAIN CAMPUS. What force is necessary to punch a 25 mm diameter hole in 8 mm thick plate? Page 147 Given: Ss = 3000 Mpa t = 8 mm C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE WhereMECHANICAL : ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT M= FL 4 σf = 32 FL π 4 D3 32 ( 2000 ) L π ( 4 ) (4 )3 = 250 psi = 32 ( 2500 ) L 3 4 π ( 4) L = 2. PROVINCE OF STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN.

PROVINCE OF BATAAN. 1 t= ∈.9556 kN 2. 8 S s =60000 psi c=80000 psi Solution: Solving for the shearing area during punching: Page 147 From: A=π D t C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .D = 25 mm REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY Solution: M AIN CAMPUS. What force is necessary to punch a 1 inch hole in a 1/8 inch steel plate if the ultimate shearing stress is 60000psi and the ultimate compressive stress is 80000psi? Given: D=1∈. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Ss= F A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT F = Ss x A F = 3000 N/mm2 (π)(25mm)(8mm) F = 1884.

A 3 inches shaft is subjected to 3kN-m torque. Given: 1m =0. PROVINCE OF BATAAN.562 lbs Torsional stress 1.3926 ¿ Thus. Ss = F A 2 0. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 MAIN C8AMPUS COLLEGE A=π ¿OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 2 A=0.281 ft 1 ft D=3∈. x ¿ 12∈¿ x Page 147 T =3 kN ∙ m Solution: Using the shaft stress formula: C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .1∈¿ ¿ BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY 1 ∈¿ .3926∈¿ 60000 psi= F ¿ F=23 . Find the stress developed.0762 m 3.

function of A two variables whose second partial derivatives give the stress components of a body subjected to plain strain. Airy stress biharmonic function. Page 147 Allowable Adhesive strength. 532 MPa Ter min A Adhesion. Adhesive such attract as bond. The The maximum force per unit area strength of an adhesive bond. that may be safely applied to a usually measured as a force solid. stress. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE SS= 16 ( 3 kN ∙ m ) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT π ( 0. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 .0762 m)3 S S =34 . Intimate sticking of metal surfaces compressive under stresses by formulation of metallic bonds. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. dipole The forces bonds which adhesives and base materials to each other. required to separate two objects of standard bonded area by either shear or tensile stress.16 T 3 πD BATAAN REPUBLIC S S =OF THE PHILIPPINES PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS.

tensile or longitudinal stress developed in a beam in response to curvature Anelasticity. it is the load on a bearing surface divided by its area. The quality Breaking load. A stress BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. The determining the stresses and strain in an infinite body. The stress of a material which resists forces which. An internal alternately compressive MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT acts in opposite directions. Deviation from a proportional induced by an external force. A graphical parallel to the tension when the method of representing coplanar sides forces of the sample are and stress restricted so that there is no alphabetical letters. simple tension stress applied to a material to the resulting strain Bow’s notation. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 produced in a material by forces AND ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING which are such that each force Bending stress. relationship between stress and strain. lateral deformation. Also known as bearing stress. Boussinesq’s problem of problem. Biaxial stress. The ratio of a perpendicular principal stresses.or deflect in the direction in REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Alternating stress. The condition in which there are three mutually Axial modulus. Page 147 Bending Strength. system of concurrent force. PROVINCE OF which the load is applied. when steadily applied to from causing a member to bend C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. solution stresses of using in the or in determining the resultant of a B Bearing pressure.

tension. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . function components of the as linear stress components. Page 147 Cohesive strength. Any one stress. and other COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Breaking strength. Any stress that Hooke’s law used to express develops in a casting due to strain geometry and casting shrinkage. Bending or twisting structural with C A stresses member direct in a combined tension or compression. Forces tending STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. Hypothetically the stress causing Compressibility. Any strain that result from cooling of a casting Compliance constant.a structural member is just REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES sufficient to break orPENINSULA rupture it. or shear. resulting from MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT low or rupture from a tension force. Fore exerted by the crippling load stretch. Buckling stress. cement. BATAAN MAIN CAMPUS. Cold Breaking stress. The ability materials of a material to resist breaking temperature. PROVINCE OF Cold stress. The stress required to fracture a material whether by compression. Casting strain. of the components of the relationship in the generalized Casting stress. The property of tensile fracture without plastic a substance or material capable of deformation. Combined stresses. CITY OF to BALANGA C-2100 deform steel. pulling operation on extruded plastic filaments in which little or no heat is used: improve tensile properties.

pressure. Compression Creep. Creep stress limit. A time dependent strain strength. Creep strength. Buckling or collapse caused by compressive force.being reduced in volume by REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES application of pressure. A stress which causes an elastic body to without exceeding a specified quantity of creep. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . a withstand The given in a maximum material can given time Page 147 Compressive stress. shorten in the direction of the applied load. The Compression modulus.000 hour. BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Bulk modulus of elasticity. Stress resulting STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. at a will given cause a material to rupture in a given member. at a given temperature will result in creep rate of 1% The maximum compressive stress a material can withstand without failure. deformation within 100. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 from uneven contraction during COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE cooling of metals and ceramics MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT Compression. other of solid caused by stress. Compression failure. time. temperature. PROVINCE OF Cooling stress. Creep rupture strength. beam or A structural member which is subjected to compressive stress. Reduction ENGINEERING in due to uneven temperature volume of a substance due to distribution. The stress which. Compressive stress which.

uncertainties Deformation. E Deformation curve. metallurgical or shrinkage and expansions due to moisture change. A permissible stress. stress machine part or structural member may be subjected. PROVINCE OF load to maximum permissible load that can be safely STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. OFby ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT D Damaging Design stress. Minimum unit stress for a given material and use that will cause damage to the member and make it unfit for its expected length of service. The portion of the total stress that differs from an isostatic pressure. A curve Elastic body. A solid body for showing relationship which the additional deformation between stress and load on a produced by an increment of the Page 147 structure. on a structure. A safety factor based on the ratio of ultimate Elastic buckling. stress completely disappears when the increment is removed. An abrupt increase in lateral deflection of a C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . or or transformations. The REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES compressive stress required to a BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Design factor. Deviatonic stress. thermal contraction. it difference is hydrostatic equal between to the the total stress and spherical stress. Any alteration of caused maximum or other turn out unfavorably. CITY OF placed BALANGA C-2100 cause a COLLEGE solid to fail fracture. shape or dimension of a body by expansion chemical stresses. to which a which is large enough to prevent failure in case the loads exceed expected values.Crushing strength.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . centroidal surface of a beam Elastic when stress a solid can sustain without the transverse loads limit. shape property material and size under action or opposing forces. The point of a removed.column Rat a critical load while EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES the stresses acting on the BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Failure STATE BATAAN. body force. The condition of an elastic body in Elastoplasticity. body to recover its original size ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE and shape after a stress is MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Elastic center. Elastic recovery. in which it exhibits both stresses and externally applied elastic and plastic properties. Elastic The maximum permanent deformation. CITY OF of a BALANGA C-2100 column COLLEGE are whollyOF elastic. PROVINCE OF ElasticUNIVERSITY failure. but Elastic The curve. participating systems the whereby a solid same the as changes its shape after is collision before. deformation. of the The curved longitudinal recovers its original structure when the forces are removed. The fraction Reversible alteration of the form of a given deformation of a solid or dimension of a solid body which behaves elastically. The state of a substance subjected to a stress Page 147 which each volume element of greater than its elastic limit but the body is in equilibrium under not so great as to cause it to the combined effect of elastic rapture. under stress or strain. beam in the plane of the kinetic energies of translation of the Elasticity. Elastic equilibrium. acting on it produced wholly undergoing elastic stresses.

PROVINCE OF Erection stress.Elongation. A twisting moment which acting alone would produce in a circular shaft a shear stress of the same Factor of safety. Condition caused by collapse. appliance or hoisting rope and the safe permissible load on it. Also known as fatigue limit the maximum stress that will not cause failure when the force is reverse indefinitely. Failure. ENGINEERING thermal expansion. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 due to COLLEGE stress in OF tension or to AND ARCHITECTURE member during construction. C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Equivalent bending moment. F MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Endurance Limit. Fatigue limit. The internal force exerted on a structural STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. The fractional REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES increaseBATAAN in a materials length PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. The ratio between the breaking load on a member. A bending moment which acting alone would produce in a circular shaft a normal stress of the same magnitude maximum normal as the stress produced by a given bending moment and a given twisting moment acting simultaneously. The ratio of a moment acting simultaneously fatigue limits or fatigue strength to the static tensile strength. break or bending so that a structure or structural element can no longer fulfill its purpose. The maximum stress a material can endure for an infinite number of stress Page 147 magnitude as the shear stress cycle without breaking. produced by a given twisting moment and a given bending Fatigue ratio. The number of applied repeated stress cycles a material can endure before failure. Equivalent twisting moment. Failure fatigue.

grinding. The stress along one axis at a given value of strain that is required to produce plastic deformation. Fluid stress. The ability of a body to withstand hydrostatic stress. An ideal solid which obeys Hooke’s law exactly for all values of stress. Deformation of a substance which is proportional to force applied to it. The minimum tensile stress that will cause Hydrostatic fracture condition in which there are G stress. especially when fiber orientation is parallel with neutral axis. The stress-strain curve of a plastic material. The law that the stress of a solid is directly proportional to strain applied to it.Grinding REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES FatigueBATAAN strength. Flow stress. The equal compressive stresses or C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Hookean solid. Flow curve. Hydrostatic strength. PROVINCE OF stress. The tensile or compressive stress on the fibers of a fiber metal or other fibrous material. H Fiber stress. Residual tensile UNIVERSITY or compressive stress STATE BATAAN. Stress associated with plastic deformation in a solid material. Page 147 Fracture stress. CITY OF or BALANGA C-2100 maximum stress OF a material can AND ARCHITECTURE combination of both on the COLLEGE ENGINEERING endure for a given number of surface of a material due to MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT stress cycles without breaking. Hookean deformation. The PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Hooke’s law.

PROVINCE OF Internal stress. in contrast principal stresses. dependent on external stress. Mean stress. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT I Isostatic. the Page 147 strain of a solid when a stress is algebra mean of removed or reduced. structural The effect of restored after removal of force M Instantaneous recovery. Stress that result but from a pressure or gravitational before elastic buckling develops. Force acting Local on a solid which produced the discontinuity. Inelastic buckling. In a system stressed multiaxially. In photoelasticity studies of stress analyses to which represent the progressive change in principal-plane directions. Force per unit area imposed on a material by a sudden applied force. the three to creep recovery. deformation such that the origin intensified stress on a small size or shape of the solid are not portion of a structure. mean of the The algebraic maximum and C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . CITY OF stress is not BALANGA C-2100 on any plane. The immediate reduction in the Mean normal stress. and no shear stresses BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Impact stress. Sudden increase of deflection or twisting in a column when compressive L stress reaches the elastic limit Load stress. A systemUNIVERSITY within a solid that STATE BATAAN. Inelastic stress.equal tensile stresses in all REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES direction. load.

increment of some specified form of strains such as young Plasticity. Modulus of in which two of the principal stresses are always parallel to a given plane and are constant in Modulus of deformation. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Normal stress. PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY N MAIN CAMPUS. the normal direction. A state of stress elasticity.minimum values of a periodically REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES varying BATAAN stresses. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT component at a equivalent to the average stress across section involved and normal to the stress point in a structure which is perpendicular to the reference plane. reference plane. The property of a modulus or the shear modulus. solid body whereby it undergoes C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Membrane which is stress. Plastic deformation. PROVINCE OF BATAAN. The maximum stresses which a structural per unit area that a specimen subjected in service. The stress to torsion. Modulus The Stresses O of rupture in Operating stress. The modulus Plane stress. unit is can withstand without breaking P when its ends are twisted. as calculated from the breaking load under the consumption that the specimen is elastic until rupture takes place. Permanent change in shape or size of a solid body without The fracture resulting from Page 147 ratio of the increment of some application of sustained stress specified form of stress to the beyond the elastic limit. of elasticity of a material that deforms other than according to Hooke’s law.

CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Poisson’s ratio. trapped locked-up material as a result of things other than external loading such Primary stress. The return of a body parallel to the surface. material on the other side of the Page 147 surface with a force which is Recovery. Tangential stress of a surface pushes on the at the periphery of an opening. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT unit deformation. steady The force ratio acting of on the a C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Is the stress inherent. BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. Relief of stress in a lateral unit deformation to axial strained material due to creep. A stress in which the material on one side Radial stress. or repeated condition of equilibrium and is S not self-limiting. STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN. A normal or as cold working. Is the ability of metal to withstand forces thus following a number of twist. Residual stress. Principal stress. PROVINCE OF possibly over a considerably period of time. at body stress that exists within a which stress-strain curve deviates from a straight line. Is the ratio of a Relaxation. solid material which is under a stressing and electroplating.a permanent change in shape or REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES size when subjected to stress. Internal Proportional limit. heating shear stress component in a cooling. A stress occurring at right angles to a principal plane of stress R Shear strength. Shearing stress. etching. to its original dimension after it has been subjected to stress Stiffness.

BATAAN PENINSULA MAIN CAMPUS. The stress at which low or medium steel undergoes a marked elongation without an increase in load. Is the ability of metal Thermal stress. The load per unit of area. T Tensile strength. Torque. STATE UNIVERSITY BATAAN.deformable elastic medium to REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES the resulting displacement. Stress developed by a material bearing Unit stress. Page 147 cross product of a vector from some reference point to the point of acceleration of the force with the force itself. Also known Yield strength. The exerted force by a support on a stretching object. resisting the to change of separation. U compacting. For a single force. a tensile load. The force acting across response a unit area in a solid material temperature. some or all of its parts are not free to expand or contract in Stress. The stress at which the material exhibits a specified deviation proportionality of stress from and C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . Y Tension stress. rotation movement. Mechanical to stress induced in a body when MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT withstand loads without breaking down. PROVINCE OF as moment of force. or sliding that tends to be induced by external forces Uniaxial stress. the Yield point. A state of stress in which two of the three principal stresses is zero. CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE Strength.

BATAAN.strain. Also called total REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES extension. BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS. PROVINCE OF Young’s modulus. Page 147 C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s Page 147 . CITY OF BALANGA C-2100 The ratio of a COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND simple ARCHITECTURE tension stress applied to a Yield stress. The lowest stress MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT material to the resulting strain at which the extension of the tensile test piece increases parallel without increase in load.