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2.

24 explain the potential dangers of electrostatic charges, egg when
Fuelling aircraft and tankers
When a large electrostatic charge builds up it can create a spark. When refuelling vehicles the
fuel rubbing along the pipe can cause an electrostatic charge, if this sparks if could ignite the
fuel causing a fire or explosion. (This can be avoided if the charge is brought to earth by a
wire attached to the plain or tanker).
When charge jumps across an air gap it causes a spark.
The spark can ignite (set fire to)
Flammable liquids, vapours and powders in pipes.
How can Fuel Flowing through a Pipe cause an Explosion?
Care must be taken to avoid sparks when putting fuel in
Cars or aircraft. The fuel itself is an insulator (a hydrocarbon)
And charge can be transferred as the fuel flows through
A pipe if the pipe is also an insulator. The transfer of charge
Happens because there is friction between the fuel and
The pipe. As the nozzle (the end) of the pipe is brought
Close to the fuel tank, a spark can jump between the two
Igniting the fuel. This can cause a serious explosion,
Particularly with aircraft which are filled at a very high speed.
The spark can be avoided if the pipe nozzle
Is made to conduct by connecting an earthling strap to it
And so any charge can be safely conducted away.
An earthling strap connects the pipe to the ground (the Earth).
In addition, a cable can connect the pipe to the fuel tank,
So that there can be no difference in charge between them.
How can Powder Flowing through a Pipe cause an Explosion?
There is a very similar situation with powders in pipes.
If the powder is an insulator then charge is transferred
Between the pipe and the powder in the same way
As fuel in pipes (see above). A spark can ignite a powder
Just like it can ignite a flammable liquid or vapour.
A powder can burn very quickly because it has a very
Large surface area and this can cause an explosion.
The way to avoid an explosion is the same as above.
Use an earthling strap between the pipe and the earth
And any charge can be safely conducted away.
2.25 explain some uses of electrostatic charges, egg in photocopiers and
Inkjet printers.
There are some events in which having two objects of opposite charge is very useful. An
example of this is in photocopiers and inkjet printers where the ink is given a charge, and the
parts of the paper where its wanted is given the opposite charge, so that the ink is
automatically attracted to the right parts of the paper.
Defibrillators
A defibrillator is a machine that can be used by paramedics to restart your heart if it stops.
Two paddles with insulated handles are charged from a high voltage supply. They're put in
good electrical contact with the patient’s chest. It's important that no one else gets a shock,
which is why the paddles have insulating handles and the operator tells any one nearby to
'stand clear' before charge is passed through the patient to make the heart contract.
Electrostatic dust precipitators
Smoke is produced when fossil fuels burn. Smoke is made of tiny solid particles, such as
carbon. To remove these particles from the waste gases an electrostatic precipitator is used.
Smoke particles pick up a negative charge as they pass the negatively charged metal grid.
These smoke particles are attracted to positively charged collecting plates
1.Smoke particles pick up a negative charge.
2.Smoke particles are attracted to the collecting plates.
3.Collecting plates are knocked to remove the smoke particles.
Paint spraying
Car manufacturers can save money by using charged paint spray guns. They work because
like charges repel and unlike charges attract. The spray gun is charged positively, which

causes every paint particle to become positively charged. Like charges repel and the paint
particles spread out. The object to be painted is given a negative charge and so attracts the
paint particles. The advantages of using this system are that less paint is wasted, the object
receives an even coat and the paint covers awkward ‘shadow’ surfaces that the operator
cannot see.
3.23 understand the difference between analogue and digital signals

Comparison chart
Analog

Digital

Analog signal is a continuous
Signal signal which represents physical
measurements.

Digital signals are discrete time signals
generated by digital modulation.

Waves Denoted by sine waves

Denoted by square waves

Uses continuous range of values to
represent information

Uses discrete or discontinuous values to
represent information

Example

Human voice in air, analog
electronic devices.

Computers, CDs, DVDs, and other digital
electronic devices.

Technology

Analog technology records
waveforms as they are.

Samples analog waveforms into a limited
set of numbers and records them.

Representation

Subjected to deterioration by noise
Data
during transmission and write/read
transmissions
cycle.
Response to More likely to get affected reducing
Noise accuracy
Flexibility

Analog hardware is not flexible.

Can be used in analog devices only.
Uses Best suited for audio and video
transmission.
Applications Thermometer, Radio, Telephones
Analog signal processing can be
done in real time and consumes less
Bandwidth
bandwidth.
Memory Stored in the form of wave signal
Power

Analog instrument draws large
power

Cost Low cost and portable
Impedance Low

Can be noise-immune without
deterioration during transmission and
write/read cycle.
Less affected since noise response are
analog in nature
Digital hardware is flexible in
implementation.
Best suited for Computing and digital
electronics.
PCs, PDAs
There is no guarantee that digital signal
processing can be done in real time and
consumes more bandwidth to carry out the
same information.
Stored in the form of binary bit
Digital instrument draws only negligible
power
Cost is high and not easily portable
High order of 100 mega ohm

Analog
Analog instruments usually have a
scale which is cramped at lower
Errors
end and give considerable
observational errors.

Digital
Digital instruments are free from
observational errors like parallax and
approximation errors.

Analogue
The amplitude and/or frequency constantly vary.

Digital
Consists of pulses with two states: on; off

3.24 describe the advantages of using digital signals rather than
Analogue signals
The term noise means the random signals picked up by waves. Radios may crackle or
internet may loses connection. This effects analogue signals badly as each time it is amplified
the noise also gets amplified, this alters the signal making it hard or impossible to identify as
the original signal.
In digital signals any noise picked up is likely to be of a smaller amplitude than that if the on
state, this means something receiving it will ignore the noise as it is neither on nor off, this
makes them less likely to be distorted.
Information today is being increasingly transmitted using digital signals. The amount of
information transmitted or stored is measured in bytes.
Bytes are given the symbol B.
1 kilobyte (1KB) = 1,000 bytes.
1 Megabyte (1MB) = 1,000 KB = 1,000,000 bytes.
1 Gigabyte (1GB) = 1,000 MB = 1,000,000 KB
= 1,000,000,000 bytes.
A higher quality transmission requires a larger number of bytes.
What are the Advantages of Digital Signals?
Digital signals have advantages over analogue signals.

The advantages of digital signals are increased capacity, better quality and the signals can
be stored and processed by computers.
Increased capacity means that more information can be sent by digital signals than analogue
signals in the same time, using the same optical fibre or carrier wave.
3.25 describe how digital signals can carry more information
Digital signals are capable of carrying more information than analogue signals because digital
signals make use of the bandwidth more efficiently by closely approximating the original
analogue signal. Digital signals are capable of carrying more information than analogue
signals because digital signals make use of the bandwidth more efficiently by closely
approximating the original analogue signal. The parts of the signal that do not carry any
information are thrown out thus saving the bandwidth from being used needlessly. Also,
depending on the coding process, digital signals are much more efficient at filtering out noise
than are analogue signals, which do not filter out noise at all thus saving even more
bandwidth. The process of approximating the analogue signal in digital signal processing is
called quantization.