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The project assigned was “to identify the reasons for inconsistent sales of little
hearts.” Which includes the study of consumer behaviour and retailer survey in
To understand the project properly we should know about the marketing
research and about the market share i.e. what does exactly it means.
What is marketing research and consumer behaviour?
Marketing research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and
public to the marketer through information used to identify and define marketing
opportunities and problems generate refine and evaluates marketing action,
monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of marketing as a
process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these
issues, designs the method for collecting information manages and implements
the data collection process analyzes and communicates the findings and their
American Marketing Association
Official definitions of marketing research


Consumer behaviour studies how individuals, groups and organizations select,
buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their
needs and desires.
Consumer behaviour can be also defined as the behaviour that a consumer
exhibits before buying the products; it includes the kind of search that a
consumer made about the product. While using the product, includes when
where and how the consumer is using the product. And after using the product,
includes post sale facilities e.g. service, repairs.
Understanding consumers and “knowing consumers” are never simple.
Consumers may state their needs and wants but act otherwise.
Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the
customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Research has
shown that consumer behavior is difficult to predict, even for experts in the
field. customer behaviour analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of
the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of
the customer or buyer.
A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship
management, personalisation, customisation and one-to-one marketing. Social
functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.


With the 116 years at the forefront of industry in India, the wadia group today is
broadly diversified in several diversified industries that covers textiles,
chemicals, petrochemicals, plantations foods, electronic, light engineering,
health laminates, real estates, education, consultancy.
The Wadia Group is one of the oldest conglomerates of corporate India. It was
founded by Sir Lovji Nusserwanjee Wadia in 1736. Lovji Wadia secured
contracts with the British East India Company to build ships and docks in
Bombay in 1736. This, and subsequent efforts, would result in Bombay
becoming a strategic port for the British colonial undertakings in Asia. The
Bombay dry-dock, the first dry-dock in Asia, was built by Lovji and his brother
Sorabji in 1750.
The Wadia group now consists of three independently listed companies on the
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). These include:[clarification needed]
1. A GoAir aircraft at Bengaluru International Airport, with pink colors.
2. Bombay Dyeing – The textile flagship of India.
3. Bombay Realty - Handles the land management and development of
Wadia Group land ownings..[4]
4. Britannia Industries – A company famous for its Britannia and Tiger
brands of biscuit, which are popular throughout the country. Britannia has
an estimated 38% market share.
Consistently the group of companies has become market leader in the field,
which they have entered.


Building the strong fundamentals has form the basic growth of each company. EDUCATION  Neville Wadia Institute of management studies& research. CONSULTANCY ARCHITECTURE  Gherzi Eastern ltd. Two of the groups Bombay Dying and Bombay Burma have declared uninterrupted dividend for over a hundred years.  Medical Microtechonologies ltd. Pune.  D.  Cusrow Wadia Institute of technology Pune.  Instruments orthopedics. 4 . despite several recession in the industry.  Modern Education Society’s College of Engineering. making them the pick of Indian bourses.The group has come to known forits sound and prudent financial track record. Pune.  Virtual Education Network. Pune.G RRuparl College Mumbai.  Nowrosjee Wadia College of arts & science.  New Law College. HEALTH  Dental Products of India ltd. Mumbai.



7 .

In 1975.  Extensive all India distribution network over 600.CHAPTER 2 COMPANY PROFILE BRITANNIA INDUSTRIES LTD.000 out lets. PROFILE Figure 2. the biscuit market continued to grow… and Britannia grew along with it.1: Britannia Logo  Largest manufacture of biscuits in India product range include breads and cakes . 8 .  The company was making equally dynamic strides. making it among the most wide spread in the industry.  As time moved on.  Exporter of various kinds of products. Britannia is the largest food processing company in Indian food processing industry.  Four production units with over 4367 employees.One of the best brand. the Britannia Biscuit Company took over the distribution of biscuits from Parry's who till now distributed Britannia biscuits in India.

Everybody loves munching on biscuits." The word 'Biscuit' is derived from the Latin words 'Bis' (meaning 'twice') and 'Coctus' (meaning cooked or baked). 1 HISTORY OF BISCUITS Figure 3. hard and thin wafers which. thus. The word 'Biscotti' is also the generic term for cookies in Italian.2. As people started to explore the globe. Soft or crunchy.budo they know how biscuits began? The history of biscuits can be traced back to a recipe created by the Roman chef Apicius. were ideal food to store. Hard track biscuits (earliest version of the biscotti and present-day crackers) were part of the staple diet of English and American sailors for many 9 . in which "a thick paste of fine wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate. biscuits became the ideal travelling food since they stayed fresh for long periods. because of their low water content. Back then. witnessed the boom of biscuits when these were sealed in airtight containers to last for months at a time. biscuits were unleavened. then served with honey and pepper.2 :BRITANNIA’S DAY DEC 7-1918 Sweet or salty. Simple or exotic. When it had dried and hardened it was cut up and then fried until crisp. The seafaring age.

sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water. managed through a series of 'guilds' or professional associations. the amount and quality of biscuits baked were also carefully monitored. As technology improved during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. Scotch and Dutch immigrants originally brought the first cookies to the United States and they were called teacakes. baking was a carefully controlled profession."plunkets"and"crybabies". the countries which led this seafaring charge. During the 17th and 18th Centuries in Europe. and history bears testimony to that. Today. Interestingly. This led to the development of manufactured cookies. Cookies in America were also called by such names ass "jumbles". became available and a profusion of cookie recipes occurred. people agree on one thing nothing beats the biscuit! Some interesting facts on the origin of other forms of biscuits: The recipe for 10 .centuries. such as those in Western Europe. To become a baker. In fact. the essential ingredients of biscuits haven't changed . Chemical leavening agents. are the ones where biscuits are most popular even today. and finally master 'soft' wheat flour (which contains less protein than the flour used to bake bread) sugar. though they are known by different names the world over. They were often flavoured with nothing more than the finest butter. Biscotti is said to have been a favourite of Christopher Columbus who discovered America! Making good biscuits is quite an art. as time has passed and despite more varieties becoming available.working through the ranks of apprentice. one had to complete years of apprenticeship . and fats. journeyman. the price of sugar and flour dropped. such as baking soda. The English. such as butter and oil. Not only this.

sponge biscuits. sponge fingers. Peter the Great of Russia seems to have enjoyed an oval-shaped cookie called "lady fingers" The macaroon .oval shaped cookies (that are also known as boudoir biscuits.seems to have originated in an Italian monastery in 1792 during the French Revolution. SPRING-hurl-lee. 11 . They are made from a simple egg. These cookies are made with a leavening agent called mmonium carbonate and baking. Naples biscuits and Savoy biscuits) has changed little in 900 years and dates back to the house of Savoy in the 11th century France. have been traditional Christmas cookies in Austria and Bavaria for centuries. flour and sugar dough and are usually rectangular in shape.a small round cookie with crisp crust and a soft interior .

and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Britannia has expanded captive manufacturing facilities and has modernized and upgraded its facilities in the last five years. This led to several inefficiencies at the operating level. During the ’50s and’ 60s. the world's second largest Dairy Company. Group Danone and Nusli Wadia took over Pillai’s holdings. Ghee. Butter. was born. Dairy whitener and flavored milk products. It was equally recognized for its innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagan Match was voted India's most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India's most successful product launch. which later passed on to the Associated Biscuits International (ABI) a UK based company. In 1977. Later. Britannia adopted a strategy of engaging contract packers (CP) in the small scale sector. It has also forayed into the Dairy Business with the launch of Cheese. In 2002. In 1924. Britannia expanded operations to Mumbai. In April ’97. and The Economic Times pegged Britannia India's 12 2 ndMost . the Government dereserved the biscuit sector from small scale. Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of India's biggest brands and the pre-eminent food brand of the country. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph. Exports of sea foods started in the ’70s. Forbes Global rated Britannia 'One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World'. a well known European food company. 2 HISTORY OF BRITANNIA INDUSTRIES Britannia was incorporated in 1918 as Britannia Biscuits Co Ltd in Calcutta. acquired ABI. Pea Frean UK acquired a controlling stake. Nabisco. the Government reserved the industry for small scale sector. thus acquiring controlling stake in Britannia. a Singapore based NRI businessman along with the Group DANONE acquired Asian operations of Nabisco. J M Pillai.2. which constrained Britannia's growth. Britannia's New Business Division formed a joint venture with Fonterra. In 1987. Ltd. Delhi and Chennai. In 1989.

The company's offerings are spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese. Britannia's fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards. Today.TrustedBrand. more than a century after those tentative first steps. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India's one billion populations and a strong management at the helm means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. and that miniscule initial investment has grown by leaps and bounds to crores of rupees in wealth for Britannia's shareholders. And millions of consumers will savor the results. happily ever after 13 .

By 1910. On the operations front. It was equally recognised for its innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagaan Match was voted India's most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India's most successful product launch. and Britannia New Zealand 14 . In 1999. Britannia's business was flourishing. As time moved on. firmly establishing the Indianness of the firm. In the subsequent public issue of 1978. the company was making equally dynamic strides. In 1975. Britannia mechanised its operations. the company unveiled its new corporate identity . But. it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use imported gas ovens. with the advent of electricity. it celebrated its Platinum Jubilee. In 2002. In 1997. Think Better" . and in 1921. the Government reposed its trust in Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of "service biscuits" to the armed forces. the "Britannia Khao.and made its first foray into the dairy products market."Eat Healthy. The following year. more importantly. the biscuit market continued to grow… and Britannia grew along with it. Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value. World Cup Jao" promotion further fortified the affinity consumers had with 'Brand Britannia'. As a result. the Britannia Biscuit Company took over the distribution of biscuits from Parry's who till now distributed Britannia biscuits in India. Indian shareholding crossed 60%. the world's second largest Dairy Company. Britannia Biscuit Company was re-christened Britannia Industries Limited (BIL). 3 COMPANY OVERVIEW The beginnings might have been humble-the dreams were anything but. In 1992. Britannia's New Business Division formed a joint venture with Fonterra. during the tragic World War II. Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of India's biggest brands and the pre-eminent food brand of the country.2.

was born. Forbes Global rated Britannia 'One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World'. Ltd. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India's one billion population and a strong management at helP means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation. and The Economic Times pegged Britannia India's 2nd Most Trusted Brand. Today. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph. and that miniscule initial investment has grown by leaps and bounds to crores of rupees in wealth for Britannia's shareholders. Britannia's fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards. The company's offerings are spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese.Foods Pvt. 15 . more than a century after those tentative first steps.

In addition. Oat soluble fiber (beta glucan) helps control blood cholesterol by binding some of the cholesterol in the digestive tract Oat soluble fiber helps keep you feeling fuller for longer periods of time 16 . helps control blood cholesterol and helps you feel satisfied and active for longer. the oat fiber lowers rise in blood sugar. They are tasty.3 BRITANNIA OAT COOKIES For the first time in India we have Britannia NutriChoice 'Diabetic Friendly' Essentials specially designed for people with diabetes.  Benefits NutriChoice Diabetic Friendly Oat Cookies contain a unique combination of soluble and insoluble fibers that are reported to delay glucose absorption preventing extreme swings in blood sugar levels.2. BRITANNIA NUTRI CHOICE OAT COOKIES:- Figure 2. 4 OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTS 1. crunchy and convenient option for those mid-meal pangs. Britannia NutriChoice Oat Cookies are scientifically created to suit the special lifestyle and nutrition needs of diabetics to manage extreme swings in blood sugar. There's no longer a need to avoid snacks or go hungry while traveling or at work.

Made with 50% whole-wheat and packed with added fibre (10% of our daily dietary needs). Figure 2.At least with the new and improved NutriChoice Digestive Biscuit. along with inadequate sleep and frequently eating-out. these delightfully biscuits. VEG CAKES:Britannia Veg Cakes is every vegetarian's dream come true! 100% vegetarian cake with all the softness and delight a cake should have. convenient snack to enjoy any time. 24/7 we are engrossed in our busy schedules.2. skipping meals. stuffed with real fruit bits. missing walks. NUTRI CHOICE DIGESTIVE BISCUIT:Nothing can be more difficult than making small efforts in our daily life towards healthy and active living. Figure 2. Every slice is soft and fluffy.4 BRITANNIA VEG CAKES 3. Add to this zero cholesterol and a 3 month shelf life and you have a healthy. all take a heavy toll on our health. to give you a cake that is truly delicious.5 NUTRICHOICE BISCUITS 17 . we have one less thing to worry about. anywhere. down to the last slice.

It is the marketing approach to accomplish the bread objective of the marketing plan. offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with other or otherwise it is the process of planning and executing the conception. goods.5 LITERATURE REVIEW 1) MARKETING:It is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtainwhat they need and what through creating. It acquired interest in Britannia Industries in 1989 and acquired 18 .2. Groupe Danone is one of the leading players in the world in bakery products business. promotion and distribution of ideas. services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. The various processes are given below:1) Selecting largest market segement 2) Positioning 3) Product 4) Place 5) Promotion 6) Research and development 7) Marketing research 3) PARENT GROUP Britannia's controlling stake is jointly with Groupe Danone and Nusli Wadia. pricing. 2) MARKETING STRATEGY It is a set of objectives and policies that leads the company’s marketing efforts.

granites and software.500 distributors.200 towns with the help of 2.controlling stake in 1993.6 Foods major . BIL.000 retail outlets in 2. 19 . cheese and ghee markets. taking competition head on with Parle which is the leader in this segment. with interests mainly in textiles and petrochemicals 2. The association with Groupe DANONE has been a good technological support to BIL. The company is aggressively expanding its network with a bias towards the rural markets.Nusli Wadia group is one of the leading industrial houses in the country. has a major advantage of the interest taken by the French collaborator . Britannia enjoys a prominent position in the industry. The company is jointly controlled by Groupe DANONE of France. edible oils.Britannia Industries (BIL). The company has also diversified within dairy and bakery products to enter the butter.Britannia is the market leader in the 1. Nusli Wadia is one of the leading industrial houses in the country.In October 1999. it has trimmed down its wide product portfolio and began to focus on value-added instead of low-margin products. The company divested a range of unrelated business interests in soya bean extraction.Groupe DANONE. It mainly caters to the premium segment. Over the last couple of years. the company has issued bonus shares in the ratio of 1:2. The company rationalized its products portfolio by reducing the products from 35 to around 25. With the launch of Tiger brand.. export of cashew nuts and shrimp. which is holding 22% stake and Nulsi Wadia group. This is one of the leading producer of biscuits and other bakery products. it has taken a plunge in the low-end category. Groupe DANONE is one of the leading players in bakery products business. Britannia has built an enviable retail distribution network which services 400.2-million tonne Indian biscuits industry with a 60% share.

to its existing dairy-based drinks portfolio which includes the `ZipSip' brand of flavoured milk. Font Vella and Aquaprima among others.Britannia constantly expands its product portfolio to achieve its vision of converting every third Indian into its consumer. The mineral water segment in India is growing at around 50% annually and is dominated by Bisleri and Bailley. the Chef Device and several other trademarks owned by Quality . the company added two new products -. DANONE India. The move comes close on the heels of DANONE launching its own mineral water brand. 20 . In Dec. In order to appeal to the younger generation. has acquired the trade mark "QUALITY". Ferrarelle Badoit. through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary. in the ethnic food segment. Evian. the company introduced a new range of traditional `namkeens' in Mumbai called Britannia Snacks. Britannia dropped its plans to enter the mineral water segment. Groupe DANONE is globally the second-largest producer of mineral water in the world with brands such as Evian. in India. Volvic. The new range includes seven varieties of traditional namkeens like 'Bikaner ki Bhujia' and 'Rajasthani Alu Bhujia' in a price range of between Rs 5 and Rs 20. Recently.BIL. 2000.Sweet Lassi and Milkman Cold Coffee -.

Map 2. 7 PLANT LOCATIONS Britannia's plants are located in the 4 major metro cities – 1) Kolkata 2) Mumbai 3) Delhi 4) Chennai A large part of products are also outsourced from third party producers.2. Modern Dairy at Carnal in Haryana) and Thacker Dairy Products at Howrah in West Bengal.1 PLANT LOCATIONS 21 . Maharashtra.Dynamics’ Dairy based in Baramati. Dairy products are out sourced from three producers .

juice corners etc. Weakest part of little hearts is its supply. 2. 1. 3. It does not have any close competitor. 2. Little hearts is the only product of its kind.2. In the region of Delhi there are number of shopping centers still under construction and some are to be constructed in future. 22 . Other strength includes its popularity among children’s and peoples of all age group.  OPPORTUNITIES 1. In Delhi market areas there is a lot of scope for new retail outlet activation in the retail segment like groceries stores. 2. Moreover some of the retailers reports of not getting the schemes with little hearts.  WEAKNESS 1. The major strength of Britannia’s little hearts is its uniqueness.8 SWOT ANALYSIS  STRENGTHS. Introduction of little hearts in four new flavors provides the consumers different tastes that can be consumed at different occasions. The supply of little hearts is not good retailer’s report of not getting supply for two to three months.

9 BUSINESS 23 .  THREATS 1. Due to poor supply many retailers are not satisfied with the company and they are shifting to other products. The replacement policy of company is not so good as compared to other companies such as Priya Gold. So New places such as p[petrol pumps should be discovered. As little Hearts is the product of impulse purchase category and consumed while people are on picnics.3. 2. Which makes the retailers to keep small stock of Britannia? 2.

38bn. Britannia has introduced and developed a full line of brands in all segments of the biscuit market. 24 . Britannia has a 40% volume share and 48% value market share in the organized biscuit market.000 tons for biscuits. Production in FY01 was 59657 tons against 62034 tons in FY00.6 VARIETIES OF BISCUITS Over the years. Biscuit sales in value terms registered a 13.214 tons of biscuits registering a volume growth of 11% yoy. Biscuits (82. The company sold 214.7% of turnover):. The company's Tiger range of glucose biscuits has been a runaway success. In salty-sweet segment Parley’s Krackjack and Britannia’s Fifty-Fifty compete very closely. The company presently has an installed capacity of 111. enabling the company to expand its presence in the largest gluco category of the biscuit market.Revenues from biscuit were Rs11.07bn in FY01. Over 70% of biscuits sold are outsourced by the company . Bread and Cake & Rusk. Dairy products contribute to 10% of Britannia’s annual turnover of Rs13. Bakery products account for 90% of the revenues and include Biscuits. Figure 2.Britannia core businesses constitute of Bakery and Dairy products.2% yoy growth.

Jim-Jam and Checkers.6% of turnover):-Britannia’s bread business has been gradually degrading year after year.4% .7 BRITANNIA BREADS Dairy Products (9.6% of turnover in FY01. Snacks.7% of turnover in FY00. The company sold 42450 tons of bread in FY01. New flavors like Milkman Cold Coffee and Milkman Lassie have been launched in flavored drinks besides Milkman Chocolate Milk and Milkman Strawberry Milk. Milkbikis. Thin Arrowroot. Good Day. Dairy product sales were Rs1. Bread (4. Bourbon.Britannia’s other major brands include Marie. The company has re-launched all its dairy products under the Milkman brand name. During FY01 the company sold 13039 tons of dairy 25 . Bread sales at Rs420mn accounted for just 4. Figure 2. butter and ghee are the other products sold under the Milkman brand. under the health positioning.8% if turnover):. Modern Dairy in Haryana and Thacker Dairy Products in West Bengal. Britannia outsources its dairy products from Dynamics’ Dairy in Maharashtra. Nutri-Choice etc. Coconut Crunches. It has also launched biscuits like Vita Marigold. against 5. Pure Magic. Cheese. a volume de-growth of 9.3bn in FY01. Nice.The company's diversification into dairy business has been fairly successful. dairy whitener.

9 BRITANNIA CAKES & RUSK 26 .products.6% yoy with sales of 3082 tons. In value terms.Cake and Rusk sales were Rs271mn (2% of sales) in FY01. a 50% yoy growth over 8820 tons sold in FY00. Figure 2.8 BRITANNIA DAIRY PRODUCTS Dynamics’ Dairy in FY01. Volume growth was 2.3mn in the equit Figure 2. Britannia hopes to gain from the R&D support as well as access to the international product portfolio of the JV partner.The Dairy business is proposed to be divested into a Joint Venture with the New Zealand Dairy Board’s Fonterra Cooperative. sales grew by 12% yoy.. Britannia has invested Rs58. Cake & Rusk (2% of turnover) :.

rest assured that kids will look forward to munching these crunchy. The premium packaging. besides appealing to kids. the favourite growth partner of Kids.Juicy Apple. milky biscuits which even helps in their development.10 NEW PRODUCTS 1. have yet another reason to celebrate! Britannia Treat launches the amazingly yummy Treat Fruit Rollz!! These tasty soft rolls are filled with real fruits and provide a healthy yet mouth-watering treat to the kids. Treat Fruit Rollz : All kids who have relished the yummy creamy treasures of Britannia Treat in exciting flavors. will just have to take a look at Milk Bikis. Recently re-launched in its existing Southern & Eastern markets. Tangy Orange and Delicious Dates! 27 . proven to aid mental and physical development in growing kids. Fruit Rollz comes in four masti fruit flavours . the new biscuit prompts the ‘Kid’s will love it’ reaction amongst mothers. So. and extended across India. New Britannia Milk Bikis : Milk Bikis. The milk goodness in the recipe is now enhanced with SMART NUTRIENTS – 4 vital vitamins. also ensures that the biscuits remain fresh and crisp.2. adults won’t be far behind in reaching out for a pack! 2. the new Milk Bikis is all set to add excitement and appeal to ‘nutritious’ food. whether its breakfast time or snack time at school. now brings greater value and delight to all with its new product and pack design. iron and iodine. Strawberry Surprise. With a unique and attractive honeycomb design and an enhanced product experience. Whoever said that ‘good food’ needs to look ‘dull and boring’. And yes.

which provides the same sweetness as any other biscuit. Keeping up with Britannia's platform of 'taste bhi. without the added calories of sugar." derived from sugar. This range is available in 3 delicious variants namely Litetime. We are sure that you will be pleasantly delighted with its great taste and equally surprised to know that it has no added sugar." NutriChoice SugarOut is the most novel product range to have been introduced in the market. Britannia has chosen to represent these biscuits with "No Added Sugar" claim. while keeping the Moms assured about the goodness provided by the fruit filling. Don't be taken for a ride when you read "Sugar Free" label on many biscuit packs marketed in India or abroad. as there is no added sugar in the processing of NutriChoice SugarOut. NutriChoice SugarOut : Sounds like yesterday when people commented that healthy foods meant "compromising on the taste. Even with 100% no-added sugar. This is because NutriChoice SugarOut is sweetened with "Sucralose. and yet contains no added sugar. It is also relevant for consumers with sugar related ailments. So go on and treat yourself to the lip-smacking snack! 3. health bhi'. Fruit Rollz is indeed a yummy snacking option for kids. targeted towards all health sensitive people. The product is not just sweet but tastes great.Want to know a little secret? They make the best tiffin treats! So during snack time what better than to munch on the delicious and healthy Fruit Rollz and discover the yummy fruit flavor from within the shells. and Orange cream. 28 . wheatcereals in biscuits have their own natural sugar content. Chocolate cream.

4. Because Britannia NutriChoice 5 Grain biscuits are made from 5 carefully chosen healthy cereals (Oats that help reduce bad cholesterol. At the same time most of us agree that good nutrition cannot come from one kind of food alone. R&D in Britannia has spent considerable time to develop this nutritious and delightful snack for children. A Rs. Tiger Banana : Britannia is committed to help secure every child's right to Growth & Development through good food everyday. Ragi a good source of both Calcium as well as Fibre. or eating unappetizing foods over that extra oil-dripping samosa. being available in convenient packs priced at Rs. and Wheat that provides wholesome energy).10.4 pack has as much IRON ZOR as that in 1 kg of Banana. Corn which promotes heart health.TIGER BANANA . IRON ZOR helps make mind sharper and body stronger.2. Whether it is missing that extra hour of sleep over early morning exercise.power packed with IRON ZOR & and with the delightful taste of banana. Think Better '. 29 . Purposefully taking forward the credo of 'Eat Healthy. Rs. Britannia NutriChoice 5 Grain Biscuits are a perfect answer to those looking for healthy eating options without as much making a compromise on taste. Britannia Tiger Banana packed with IRON ZOR and goodness of Banana is accessible to all. These biscuits are delicately sweetened with natural honey. and come in a unique large oval shape.4 and Rs. or convenience. but from a healthy combination / assortment of several healthy ingredients put together. we have launched a new variant under our power brand TIGER . Rice low in fat. NutriChoice 5 Grain : Most consumers believe that to in order to stay healthy one needs to make certain compromises on some good things in life. or health. 5.

that make it an ideal hunger butter for those in-between meals time hunger. so that one is never far away from pacifying hunger on the move.It is this large size and the healthy combination of the ingredients. Created for everyone who makes a New Year resolution to become healthy and does not follow through on it. The Health Starter Kit contains a range of healthy biscutis .Britannia Nutrichoice launches a New Year pack . It also has a one week free pass to Talalkars gym that entitles every consumer to one week free trial of any Talwalkars (TBVF ltd) gym across the country.the Nutrichoice Health Starter Kit . Nutrichoice 5 Grain and Nutrichoice Nature Spice Cracker. or succumb to those unhealthy evening snacks.1 pack each of Nutrichoice Hi-Fiber Digestive. Britannia NutriChoice 5 Grain biscuit pack contains several small single serve pocket meals packs. 6. 30 . Nutrichoice Health Starter Kit : 2010 . In addition to this the pack also contains a Fit Sip Sipper and a fitness chart. you can relish the goodness of health with Britannia NutriChoice 5 Grain biscuits. All this for only Rs 100. So whenever you miss your breakfast.


or in some cases. Britannia has tasted the sweet taste of success. 32 . In 1997.that was an intelligent piece of information!) Figure 2. the name! It is so different and unusual for a pack of Dracula and Frankenstein melt. With Little Hearts. And in 2003. these biscuits are heart shaped. As the name suggests. two variants called Little Hearts Chocolate and Little Hearts Sesame were rolled out with a campaign "Dil sabka actually sweet hai". the 'Direct Dil Se' campaign encouraged youngsters to openly express their feelings. A completely unique product. (Okay may bring out the child in you.12 LITTLE HEARTS It was very recently that Britannia introduced Little Hearts to India.2. Little Hearts.10 BRITANNIA LITTLE HEARTS The first thing that strikes you is of course.. The launch message introduced a special taste experience that made the unlikeliest characters . Little Hearts was launched in 1993 and targeted the growing youth segment. the romantic in you. it was the first time biscuits were retailed in pouch packs like potato wafers.

Little hearts comes in four different flavours.
 Choco
 Classic
 Orange
 Sesame
You open the pack and the one thing you cannot miss seeing in these biscuits is
the fantastic finishing. It is a superb example of high tech engineering. The
upper part looks more tanned and more polished. But the biscuit is not over
baked. If we say that the basic mould must be browner, then the rest of the
biscuit defies that theory. The swirling lines on the biscuit are very


Next comes the taste. The taste is sweetish, with a tinge of saltiness. The blend is
so subtle that you just cannot resist drooling over it. Fantastic stuff!
One packet of these sugar coated biscuits is priced at Rs.10, and contains
approximately thirty piece.


“Eat Healthy. Think Better. Buy Britannia”
The 80-year-old biscuit king is reinventing itself. Britannia now wants to
become a foods giant, with the newly-added tag of health and nutrition. What's
more, with a clever formula of prices and products, it is targeting every segment
of the Indian market.
Who does not know Britannia Rules! During period of A day before the World
Cup Of Cricket 1999 began in England on May 14, 1999, one of Britannia
Industries' senior-most marketing managers was spotted at Mumbai's Sahara
International Airport-escorting a gaggle of excited children, all of them sporting
Britannia caps, Britannia T-shirts, and other assorted Britannia paraphernalia.
No, he wasn't test-positioning yet another brand of biscuits on a group of
unsuspecting young 'uns in an airport lounge. Those kids were actually some of
the 100 mega-winners of the Britannia Khao, World Cup Jao contest, being
flown off on charters to Old Blighty to watch the World Cup at Britannia's
expense. See Cricket. Sleep Cricket. Eat Only Britannia (sic!) so we can say
that, this session is more powerful to catch the customer.
The marketing strategies for any company are not about a fixed concept. Rather
it is full of new challenges every day, and the companies must respond to it very

positively. The market process is applicable to more than goods and services.
Anything related to market including ideas, events, policies, prices and
personalities comes under market strategy. However it is important to emphasize
opportunity in the market through market strategy.

The following strategies are basically adopted by Britannia in order to capture a
good market share.

1. A strong quality of the product and customer satisfaction:
General customers are basically concerned about the quality of product rather
than the price of the product. In our survey wefound that basically people are
first looking for the quality. If good quality is there in the product then they are
only looking for the price. But if the quality is not satisfactory they even don’t
looking about the pricing of the product. In this regard Britannia always
maintained much more importance over there product quality. That’s why they
are among the very successful brand of today.

2. A growing relationship with customer and customer retention:
Now-a- days a good relation with the customer is very important for
organization. Sale is totally depending on the relation with the customers.
Customer's retention is also a major aspect for growing business. It means keep
the old customer and try to make new customer. Britannia‟s customer
relationship management is very strong which is one of the major causes of
selling of their product continuously.

3. Focus on competitor’s activity:
Every organization should must be careful about it's competitors step, because
they can disturb the growing sales process of the organization. Continuous
watching over competitor’s strategies and development help Britannia a lot.

4. A growing emphasis on global thinking and local marketing
Companies are increasing by pursuing market beyond their borders. When they
enter other countries they must follow the tradition of that country and also they
make plan for local market that which type of product has more demand and
how can it run in the market.


A growing emphasis on global thinking and local marketing

Companies are increasing by pursuing market beyond their borders. When they
enter other countries they must follow the tradition of that country and also they
make plan for local market that which type of product has more demand and
how can it run in the market. For Britannia different variation in their product
depending over various locations and the economic status of the people is being
very much helpful for the company.

6. Promotional Strategy
Under the market strategy promotional idea is very important. Organization
provides some schemes or rebates to retailers or consumers. They make
advertisement according to convenient of the people and the feature of the
product. Sometimes Britannia comers to market with new offerings and of
course with cost benefits to the customers. Giving discounts over bulk purchase
also comes under this strategy.








Targeting, positioning and Competitors analysis.
The Marketing Mix Starategies of Britannia Industries covers the segmentation,
targeting , positioning of the Company. it gives the positioning of its competitors
along with itself in the below diagram.
 Age Group: Different products for different age groups. Fro eg. Tiger &
Treat for kids, Little hearts for youths, Good Day for elder ones, Nutrichoice for diabetic patients.
 Niche Snacking segment: For those individuals who are on the go, the
company introduced small packs.
 Occasions: Britannia’s Shubh Kaamnayein is for special occasions like
 Parle: where the entire market share is there but profit margin for
distributor is 4% and for retailers it is 10%.
 Full Market Coverage: Britannia follows full market coverage pattern of
target market selection.
 It has differentiated marketing segment pattern i.e. it operates in several
market segments and design different products for each.
 Parle: Selective market specialization strategy.


Britannia positions itself as a healthy and nutritious alternative. As the project was to identify the reasons for inconsistent sales of little hearts. The question arises why company need this kind of project.3 DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF BRITANNIA Britannia has 4 production or manufacturing outlets which are in Delhi Calcutta Chennai Rudrapur in Uttaranchal Gwalior which are owned by Britannia and employees more than 4400 people Besides its self owned units Britannia also uses the facility of more than 60 contract points for biscuits breads cakes etc where in the labour used for manufacturing is not owned by Britannia but the technology and raw materials are provided by Britannia itself In this project we are analyzing the distribution network for Britannia biscuits for Delhi The first rung in the distribution network for Britannia is the transport of the goods from the manufacturing plants in Delhi to the 2 CFA s carrying and forwarding agents located at Neb Sarai and the other one at Mundka mother depot.POSITIONING  With Eat Healthy. 3. Think Better. which includes the study of consumer behaviour and retailer survey. The CFA maintain the inventory on behalf of the company and when the goods are supplied from Britannia to the CFA s it is not considered a sale but a transfer and therefore there is no change in ownership CFA gets commission on the basis of transaction ie on no of boxes held in the inventory CFA has to bear labour cost and his godown cost The cost of transport from the company to CFA is born 38 . The main harms to the company from inconsistent sales.

One of the reason that Britannia uses the facility for CFA is that because of its wide spread sales all over India and with one production unit not manufacturing all the variety itself so through the channel CFA Britannia manages to save a lot of behalf of not having to pay central sales tax 4 So therefore for example if 50 50 is manufactured only in Calcutta than it can be sent to the CFA in Delhi as well as other state CFA without having to pay 4 Britannia itself And the cost of transport from the CFA to distributor is also borne by Britannia only. The areas for the Distributors are divided in such a manner to prevent overlapping if overlapping is found then penalty ranging from Rs11000 Rs 39 . The second rung in the distribution network for Britannia are the authorized distributors and authorized wholesalers as termed by a company rep In total there are 54 authorized distributors in Delhi and NCR Britannia does not incorporate stockist in its distribution network because of the large number of distributors already present in the network which are sufficient to cover the wide regions Distributors have their own sales force labour transportation facility Each salesperson allowed covering max of 40 outlets every day. Distributor’s salesperson is the one who takes orders from the retailer and wholesaler He goes once a week to all the retailers and wholesalers in his territory to take the orders and gives that order to the distributor Distributor assesses his stock situation and all short stock is ordered to the CFA keeping in mind the minimum order limits. The reason is that it is felt that it is not within human capacity to cover more than 40 outlets a day and if done so then the salesperson might be exhausted enough and not spend enough time on each counter required by him for building up relations with the shopkeeper.

The distributor is also given a certain amount of monthly sales target by Britannia The cost of transport from the distributor to the retailer wholesaler is borne by the distributor itself Distributors sell mainly in cash and it is very rare to have credit sales and that also for those who have a long term relationship with the distributor The margin for the authorized distributor is of approximately 455 and after expenses like labor transportation etc he is left with a margin of 2225. In case of selling to wholesaler distributor passes on 1 of his margin to the wholesaler This is done by giving the wholesaler a discount on the billing rate Billing rate is the rate at which the distributor sells to the retailer To illustrate this better we can take this example Suppose the distributor obtains a packet of Britannia 50 50 from the CFA at a price of Rs 585 so now for selling it to the wholesaler he will add only a 4 margin and pass the 1 of his margin to the wholesaler that is 585 458.21000 can be charged to that particular distributor Max 04 of the total invoice bill of the distributor is allowed as replacement by the company. etc. Practically this is done by giving the wholesaler a discount of 1 on the billing rate i e 6 around 6 paisa And in case of selling to the retailer the distributor will take a complete 5 and sell to retailer at 5 of 5 Rs 61. 40 . The third channel member is the wholesaler The wholesalers are supplied directly by the distributor He gets the discounts as well as the schemes The wholesaler not only keeps the other competing biscuits brands but also complementary products like chips namkeens etc the wholesalers are basically located in places like chawri bazaar kharibaoli sadar bazaar and other local wholesale markets like janakpuri wholesale market uttamnagar wholesale market.

This phenomenon is known as undercutting 41 . One of the very interesting things that we noticed in the dealings of the wholesalers was a pricing technique called undercutting that was used by the wholesalers Under this the wholesaler who gets 115 discount or margin from the distributor keeps only a 051 margin with himself and forwards the rest of 051 margin to the retailer.  He meets the turnover obligations. And also any additional scheme that the distributor passes on to the wholesaler is passed by the wholesaler to the retailer either partially or fully in terms of price reductions Since the retailer gets an additional 1 discount from the wholesaler he prefers buying it from the wholesaler rather than buying from the distributor at the normal billing rate.. Taking the above example the wholesaler gets the packet of 50 50 for Rs 6. Huge margins are passed on to the wholesalers when the distributor is in need of cash to make payments to the co to get further stock The wholesalers demands higher margins because they pay in cash huge amounts and hence charge opportunity cost of that money or the interest Distributor does that because of two reasons :  He needs cash to make payments to the company before ordering new stock his stock gets sold and hence.08 from the distributor and adds his 1 and sells to the retailer at 14.The margin for the wholesaler is the 1 2 passed to him by the distributor He gets this margin because of his bulk purchases This margin can vary depending on the quantity purchased by the wholesaler and his bargaining power that depends on how critical he is for the company This margin can well go up to 2 5 of the billing rate in some cases.

The fourth and the most important link of the distribution network is the retailer The retailers get their supply either from the distributor or the wholesaler This distinction comes due to the size of the retailer The big established retailers are provided with the supplies by the distributors It is a downward flow They place their order with the distributor and are then supplied once a week or twice a week depending on their orders and their turnovers.7 42 .14 and now he adds his 14 margin and sells to the final consumer for Rs. Company sometimes tackles this situation by giving some additional schemes to the retailers that are not given to the wholesaler hence prompting the retailer to buy from the company salesman rather than the wholesaler. Whereas the small retailers pan hawker etc go to the wholesalers and buy small quantity s from them and this is an upward flow and not belonging to the original distribution flow which is downward moving The retailer sells at a margin of minimum 12 and maximum 22 on one piece.20 The final consumer now gets this pack of 50 50 for Rs. Loreal s solution to wholesaler s undercutting was that it started supplying only to the retailers at the billing rate and ceased the supply to the wholesaler’ the wholesaler This kind of situation is worse for the company salesman because he cannot get orders at the billing rate from the retailer. Taking the above example again suppose the retailer gets a packet of 50 50 from the distributor for Rs.

Under this network the CFA is the same like the one for the company s main distribution network but generally there is a separate distributor appointed who caters only to these super stores and institutions He takes care of these institutions and the price charged is different for them This distribution network is called the modern trade chain In the modern trade chain like the modern bazaar the margins of the store are determined on the basis of the shelf space they allocate for the Britannia and where exactly is this shelf space allocated like at the entry of the store in the range of the eyes or in the upper most or the lower most shelf The bargaining power of the store is also determined by the quantity of the order and the fame of the store.5 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT : 43 . Display commission or margins is a major source of revenue for the modern bazaars Since the modern bazaars do not buy quantity in bulk vis a vis wholesalers and have a high turnover they require a regular and frequent supply Due to this reason the company generally assigns the task of supplying to them using separate distribution network But sometimes the same distributors that are supplying through the normal channel can also be used when the demand expected is not significant to assign a separate channel Britannia s Weaknesses.4 MODERN TRADE CHAIN : Today apart from the normal small retailer there is a trend of food super stores like big bazaar that keep almost each food item apart from others These superstores can not be covered by the usual distribution network Therefore there is a separate distribution network that covers these super stores institutions like colleges schools hospitals railway stations etc. 3.3.

The company can benefit from proper inventory management by using this CRS system The stocks to the distributor who needs particular variety can be supplied to him from the other distributor s godown who has excess stock of that particular variety of biscuits Hence saving on the time and cost and preventing revenue losses simultaneously. 44 . It was found that there was a delay in production cycle and all the varieties does not reach on time with mother depots which leads to loss of revenue Less variety with the retailers.Britannia has a large variety of biscuits and this variety brings with it the problem of inventory management Britannia does not give its salespersons PDA s and the distributors are also not too tech savvy vis a vis the Hindustan Lever Distributors Due to this various problems arise which lead to situation of stock outs with the distributors and CFA s It leads to bulging costs of the company which has to provide all the necessary requirements of distributor from the CFA that could have been met from another distributor. Improvement in distribution channel Continuous Replenishment System CRS should be brought in so that when distributors enters his closing and opening stock of each variety then automatically company will come to know which variety has to be supplied to each distributor According to norms set by the company distributor has to keep minimum quantity of each variety This system will help in saving time reduce order taking mistakes and reduce dependence on manpower At present this system is only partially used as some distributors still place their orders with company on telephone or to Territory sales in charge This will also help in proper inventory management by this system mother depots will easily come to know the requirement of each variety depending upon distributor sales.

The retailers only keep a selected stock of biscuits with them only the ones which command a high demand Biscuits are a product that requires high trial and this cannot be possible if the variety is not available at the nearby retailer. Company should induce the distributor by giving him good incentives in order to push all the varieties Along with that company should take further initiatives to popularize different varieties. They should ensure that the retailer keeps as much variety as possible and include in the kitty less popular biscuits like nicetime milkbikies etc.  No Periodic Meetings with Distributors : It was found that distributors meeting with company members rarely takes place More frequent meetings should be held which will help in knowing the need of retailers and hence customers need  STRENGTH : Their strong distribution channel that gives them wide market coverage Availability of Britannia biscuits everywhere from small pan shop to big bazaar vast market coverage by distributors makes its distribution channel stronger This uniqueness would also help in distributing newly launched product new category like if Britannia ventures into production of toiletries as both products are non durable and they need market penetration by its distribution channel which Britannia already has Strong relationship with distributors and the retailers that can be leveraged upon at the time of introduction of new products: DISTRIBUTOR CARRYING AND FORWARDING AGENT FACTORY OUTLET WHOLESALER 45 .

but not so for the category in India. the brand’s efforts is only getting recognised more each passing day. The change has worked – with its millions of Indian consumers. who are getting more health-conscious by the day. 6 STRATEGIES TO MAKE OFFERINGS It has been two years since Britannia Industries started marketing its products with the new slogan ‘Zindagi mein life’. From making its products trans fat-free (it is the only biscuit maker in India which has done so) to increasingly dabbling with newer categories like bread. Do you agree? 46 .3. dairy and rusk (the company still earns 90% of its revenues from biscuit sales). who leads the ‘health’ marketing initiatives for the company. but an important one for someone like Anuradha Narasimhan. In an interview with 4Ps B&M.. You claim that there is no real competition to Britannia in the health & wellness category in India. big bet on innovation on the Nutrichoice brand platform. even when you compare Britannia’s menu with that of its competitors’. trusting its promise of health and accepting innovations from the company. the brand stands out as a healthier snacking opportunity – common knowledge. Category Director – Health & Wellness. [No wonder Bill Gates counted Britannia’s fortified products amongst the 8 initiatives that he called examples of ‘Creative Capitalism’. believing in the brand. the new marketing initiatives adopted by her. Britannia Industries Ltd. a calm Narasimhan talks about her latest. and the emerging trends in health & wellness category in India.] Forget the punchline. This absence of an adequate number of brands is something positive for your company.

I believe that consumer awareness and health products will only grow with more brands entering the market.500 crore. If you talk about biscuits. there is no real competition to the Britannia brand in the Indian market today. What is the biggest one that you face today? The number one challenge in the Health & Wellness category is to be able to make our offerings relevant and ‘everyday’ in the lives of our consumers. However.15. The good news is that there are several health brands who are trying to cash-in on the opportunity and this is just the beginning.15 trillion by 2015. there is low awareness or inertia to move over to something healthier. and we’re both ready & happy about it. And given this. According to report by FICCI and Technopak. So. challenges in a nascent industry are natural. Does that trouble you? The health & wellness category in India is very diverse and includes categories spanning from health drinks to dairy to health biscuits to breakfast cereals.000-3. do not bother us. Second. the product category itself is a Rs. That outcome appears encouraging. Given that.3.Despite the quick growth that the health category in India is experiencing. And we do believe 47 . One. There is much talk about Britannia primarily being a biscuit-maker with a quieter presence in other categories. It is roughly estimated between Rs. because we had a first mover advantage. yes. The problem is two-fold. facts like Britannia commands 70% of the biscuit market or that a large part of our revenues come from this huge category. it is still at a very nascent stage. we will have competition. to tackle these challenges. the category will grow.000 crore-a-year earning category. So. the Indian food industry is estimated to grow to Rs. consumer barriers exist both in terms of taste and enjoyability of health-related products. what we are doing is try and ensure that our products are not only great to taste but also relevant for our consumers.

However. The success of NutriChoice lies in Product first. So you mean that Britannia is very serious about the health & wellness category as a whole? Certainly. Till date. today. What mix of marketing really made the brand? The biscuits category is growing annually by 15% and the health biscuits category at about 30%. What is the rationale behind the brand extension? We realised that salty snacking is another desire-plus-consumption point for Indians. purely on account of value delivery and differentiation that Britannia has and will continue to deliver through the quality of its products and marketing. In January. our focus is to grow the overall health & wellness category. Our consumers experience the difference. Of course. If I can predict the future. you introduced two new products – NutriChoice Multigrain Thins & NutriChoice Multigrain Roasty. While on one hand. a portfolio of differentiated brands that are trusted by consumers. we will continue to grow faster than overall category. has been the right formula for us. And this will continue to fuel our growth in future as well. And health & wellness has been an important engine of growth for us. and a strong focus on operational excellence and efficiency. they have realised that these 48 .that launches like NutriChoice Multigrain Thins and Multigrain Roasty should help us increase our share in the biscuit category. consumers want these snacks. Britannia Nutrichoice has become a best-seller in the health biscuits category. this needs to be supported by a great presence at the Point of Purchase and a communication strategy that generates a widespread interest in healthy eating habits and leads to trial and adoption by many. Traditional Indian namkeens are now a part of our lives. So it is a lucrative space to be in. Britannia’s topline has grown by around 20% over the past 3-4 years. on the other.

49 . A steep rise in marketing activity and ad-spends have been noticed post these two new launches. NutriChoice Multigrain Thins and NutriChoice Multigrain Roasty have been launched keeping this need in mind. One is already seeing proof of this. we realise that the launches need the support of ads and marketing. Britannia’s strategy has been to build brands and that applies to these two new launches as well. Our goal at the end of the campaign is to carry forward the conversation on healthy snacking. Is that right? Every new launch needs incremental support depending on ambition and objectives. Experiments in this category will continue. to promote NutriChoice Multigrain Thins. What according to you are the emerging trends in the health & wellness category in India? As lifestyles get more hectic. look at how oats has entered the middle-class households in Southern India and the metros.are fried and unhealthy. Over the years. Look at how the categories of breakfast cereals and juices are growing. we even ran a teaser campaign on the Internet called ‘Hunt for the True Snexy’. Also. the trend of marrying convenience with health and enjoyment will continue to grow. And though only NutriChoice Multigrain Thins has been launched pan-India [NutriChoice Multigrain Roasty is being test-launched only in select cities of North & West India]. For example. and the meaning of main meals become more and more diffused.

Prepared a questionnaire for consumer survey and few questions for retailer survey. Collection of the Data and analysis. Discussion of the Questionnaire with the sales manager. Presentation of the results in front of the sales manager.7 Flow chart of various activities performed in a sequential manner to do the project efficiently.3. 50 .

10. For making the decision 4. interviews. or the type that best suits your purpose 4. Leads to discovery and inventions. poll. Give credibility to a claim or belief 2. Development of an approach to the problem. questionnaires. Help the writer to spot the result of the data analysis without going through the works of interpreting the research analysis 4. Help one to know the research paper rubric grading for the assignment 5. etc 2. The first one is frequently called “bottom up” approach. most scientific discoveries happened through this pattern 6.2 Steps In Research Methodology : 1.CHAPTER 4 RESARCH METHODOGLOGY 4. survey. 9. Gather the information from libraries. validity of research 3. internet. descriptive etc helps to give answers to research queries. Under objectives for research approach are often meant inductive and deductive approaches. The use of statistical analysis like ANOVA. Give the readers an idea on what devises are good for a particular data. journals. market analysis. 8. as it works 51 . Subject the samples to statistical analysis like questionnaire. like the one above 7. Present the result in a comprehensive form for readers to read and understand. To develop a research design for formulation of the approach. Make a sample design for classification 3. 1 The objectives of research methodology: 1.

a problem is first clearly defined and represented (modeled) as a set of mathematical equations. Deductive approach starts with some general idea and then focus on the specific notion. 3 The scope of research methodology are as follows:1. Operational research: Application of mathematical (quantitative) techniques to decision making. inventory control. monitor marketing performance. and improve understanding of marketing as a process. In OR. It is then subjected to rigorous computer analysis to yield a solution (or a better solution) which is tested and re-tested against real-life situations until an optimum solution is found. OR applies different approaches to different types of problems: dynamic programming. As a rule. 2. Inductive reasoning is applied to consider inductive arguments. customer and public to the marketer through informationinformation used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems. refine and evaluate marketing actions. forecasting and simulation techniques such as Monte Carlo method are used in situations of high uncertainty such as market trends. Marketting research: Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer. and in determining economic reorder quantity. Deductive reasoning is applied for rules. 4. this way of reasoning involves some degree of uncertainty. generate.moving from specific observations to broader ideas or generalizations. and traffic 52 . laws and accepted principles. next period's sales revenue. linear programming. and critical path method are used in handling complex information in allocation of resources.

4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA 53 . the most widely used Operational Research techniques. The approach taken is to model the behaviour of individual elements within the system. Simulation research: The use of a mathematical model to recreate a situation. 4. He formed the belief that the impression. The renowned psychiatrist Dr. An unconscious mental state means a state which. though actually unconscious was conscious before and hence may become conscious again. so that the likelihood of various outcomes can be more accurately estimated.3. He specialized in the treatment of illness based on long buried trauma. Sigmund Freud was pioneer in this field. 4. It was the ‘depth interview'. which makes it one of 5. often using random sampling to generate realistic variability. He was of the view that all such impression buried in the sub-conscious mind had to be dredged out in order that persons could understand what it was that made him so. the “beneath the skin” approach. Motivational research: Motivation research consists of the use of indirect methods. often repeatedly. sights and desires that were suppressed into the unconscious mind had a direct and important influence on our behavior. Simulation is a very flexible modelling approach.

Sources of data primary data collection method: Interviews: Interviews are one-on-one or small group question and answer sessions. On the other hand.1. Interviews: 1.Disadvantages are that the response rate is not as high as the face-to. Surveys: Surveys are a form of questioning that is more rigid than interviews and that involve larger groups of people. Example of a controlled environment are experimental research where certain variables are being controlled by the researcher. Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone on the planet who hasa telephone. Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are involved time consuming and expensive.They also allow the researcher to clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate.The sample may be biased to the extent that people without phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences. data collected through observation or questionnaire survey in a natural setting are examples data obtained in an uncontrolled environment. PRIMARY DATA: Primary data are also known as raw data.(Leedy and Ormrod. 54 . Data are collected from the original source in a controlled or an uncontrolled environment. Interviews will provide a lot of information from a small number of people and are useful when you want to get an expert or knowledgeable opinion on a subject. seek follow-up information.face interview but cosiderably higher than the mailed questionnaire. Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential partiocipants and therefor gain their cooperation. 2001) 2. Surveys will provide a limited amount of information from a large group of people and are useful when you want to learn what a larger population thinks.These interviews yield highest response rates in survey research.

But they also have drawbacks.Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample. Types of questions: 1.These devices help simplify and quantify people's behaviors and attitudes. and the respondent answers it in his or her own words.Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer.Questionnaires: Paper-pencil-questionnaires: These can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. present or true or vice versa. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed.People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous.Either the researcher or survey participant simply checks whether each item on the list is observed.Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses.A rating scale is more useful when a behavior needs to be evaluated on a continuum. Such questions usually 55 . This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. Questionnaires often make use of Checklist and rating scales. Open ended questions: Unstructured question in which (unlike in a multiple choice question) possible answers are not suggested.A checklist is a list of behaviors.characteristics.or other entities that te researcher is looking for.They are also known as Likert scales. Web based questionnaires: A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research.

begin with a how. and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them. Observation can take the place in a laboratory setting or in a natural setting. motives and practices of those being researched.there are some weaknesses associated with observation method as shown below: 1. the researcher in a participative observation involves fully with the people being observed. with the objective of trying to understand the values. The researcher in non-participative observation does not involve in the activities of the people being observed. what. namely non-participative observation and participative observation. Observations: Observations involve taking organized notes about occurrences in the world. 2. The method used in this project is ‘CLOSE ENDED QUESTIONS’. or locales and are useful when you want to learn more about an event without the biased viewpoint of an interview. However. Also called closed-ended question. Multiple choice questions are closed questions. Close ended questions: That provides a set of answers from which the respondent must choose. objects. and anything worth recording. where. The main advantage of observation as compared to questionnaire survey is you can obtain richer and more in-depth information. events. He or she merely record whatever happens among the people . Observations provide you insight about specific people. On the one hand. what is the reasonable price for this item?") and provide qualitative instead of quantitative information. You can able to catch phenomena. characteristics. when. Cannot control variables in the natural setting 56 . and why (such as "What factors you take into account when buying a vehicle?" or "In your opinion. Generally there are two ways to conduct observation. Observation is a process of recording the behaviour patterns of people. activities and other things impossible to detect by questionnaire survey . including their actions and their behaviour.

Accounting resources.These are what information you are getting from operational reports. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses. Internal Sources . They can give an idea of how a particular thing is working 4. 2. 2.  Internal Sources of Data: If available. Sales Force Report.These are people who are heading the various departments. The secondary data can be obtained through 1.It gives information about the sale of a product.These are outside the organization. internal secondary data may be obtained with less time. focus group interviews. The information provided is of outside the organization.2. is data collected by someone other than the user. They give information about internal factors. 2. External Sources . depth interview. organisational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. case studies. Researcher own values and ethics might affect his objectivity and give rise to observer bias 3.  Sources of Secondary Data: While primary data can be collected through questionnaires. In addition. Internal Experts. effort and money than the external secondary data.These are within the organization. they may also be more pertinent to the situation at hand since they are from within the organization. Secondary Data: Secondary data. Miscellaneous Reports. Failure to observe some activities due to distractions. 57 . 3.This gives so much information which can be used by the marketing researcher. experimentation and observation. The internal sources include 1.

picnic spots. For retailer survey whole Delhi was divided into four parts and data was collected equally from these parts. For the consumers survey a questionnaire was prepared and data collected from various shopping malls. Retailer survey is carried out in whole Delhi. SAMPLE SIZE: The consumer survey of 150 consumers and 200 retailers is done. Tilak nagar. the marketer should extend the search to external secondary data sources. The retailer survey was based on simple conversation with the retailers about the problems with little hearts. Whole data is primary as well as secondary. 3. Moti nagar.  External Sources of Data: External Sources are sources which are outside the company in a larger environment. 4. Collection of external data is more difficult because the data have much greater variety and the sources are much more numerous.If the data available within the organization are unsuitable or inadequate. Rajouri garden.5 Sample Size and Area All the data presented here is collected directly from the consumers & retailers survey. 58 . SAMPLE AREA: The whole survey was taken in Delhi. The area where the whole survey was taken are: 1. and houses are visited. 2.

Preet vihar 9. Kirti nagar 5.4. Karol bagh 6. Rohini 8. Lajpat nagar 59 . Canaught place 7.

A. 60 .Table 6. Consumer survey (Study of consumer behavior).K Puram sector 5.1 Retailers Surveyed Number of retailers Place Moti nagar Tilak nagar Rajori garden Kirti nagar Karol bagh Rohani sector 8 Rohani sector 12 Pritam pura Central market Ashok vihar R. surveyed 12 5 8 10 9 8 10 7 15 10 15 8 & 12 Lakshmi nagar Preet vihar Lajpat nagar Moti bagh South Extension Pashchim vihar Model town 1 & 2 Salimar garden Nariana 15 8 12 10 7 10 12 8 9 CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Factors responsible for inconsistent sale of little hearts are analyzed under the following heads.

B. A brand is essentially a seller’s promise to consistently deliver a specific set of features. Consumer behavior is unpredictable it can be predicted if we know the eating habits of the consumers. while using the product and after using the product. 61 . or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. 1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumer behavior is the behavior that a consumer exhibits before buying a product. experiences. The best brands convey a warranty of quality. 5. symbol. or organizations and the processes they use to select.2 BRAND AWARENESS A Brand is a name. To study the consumer behavior for little hearts following points are studied. So consumer behavior plays important role in influencing the demand of a product. 5. secure. Retailer survey. Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals. services. sign. term. or a combination of them. groups. benefits and services to the buyers. intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. and dispose of products.

then the sales increase consistently with addition of new consumers. Table 5.25% were not. 150 were found aware of little hearts.3 DATA ANALYSIS 1.75% people were aware of little hearts and only 6.1 Survey of 150 Consumers Regular 64 consumers Occasional 86 Consumers Total consumers 150 surveyed 62 .To study the brand awareness for little hearts. From the above analyses we can say that little hearts have good brand awareness. To study the kind of consumers for little hearts whether regular or occasional survey of 150 consumers is done and following data is recorded. The sale of a product is very much influenced by the frequency of consumption of that product. 5. FREQUENCY OF CONSUMPTION OF LITTLE HEARTS. That means 93. 160 people were asked that whether they know about little hearts or not? Out of 160 people surveyed. If the frequency of consumption is regular.

People find it expensive so it cannot be consumed regularly. 3. It is the only source that motivates a consumer to purchase a particular product.33% this causes inconsistent sales. People do not have the habit of consuming biscuits daily. Out of 150 consumers surveyed 63 .100 80 60 40 20 0 regular consumers occasional consumers Graph 5. 2. People avoid sweetness because of fear of health problems.66% and occasional consumers are 57. 2.1 Survey of 150 Consumers As the regular consumers of little hearts are only 42. Reasons for higher occasional consumer purchase for little hearts are: 1. So here an attempt is made to find out the most effective media for little hearts.INFORMATION SOURCE FOR LITTLE HEARTS In biscuits industry the demand of a product very much depends on advertisement.

2 Information Source For Little Hearts 64 .Table 5.


So from the above analysis we can say that TV & boards are playing important role in promoting little hearts.6% through Boards. 92% consumers are motivated through TV advertisements. 3% through both Retailers and TV ads.3% are through Retailers. 4. 66 . 3.1% through TV & Boards.1 Information Source For Little Hearts TV Plays an important role in promoting little hearts. and 2.Figure 5.

whether they purchase little hearts for there family or not. 67 .RELATION BETWEEN DEMAND FOR LITTLE HEARTS AND CONSUMER AGE. To study the target age for Little Hearts a question was asked. 24% said do not purchase for family. If yes then which age group demands more for little hearts. Figure 5. Out of 150consumers surveyed: 76% said Yes purchase for family.2 BRITANNIA LITTLE HEARTS Every product has a target age group consumers and it is positioned according to that.3.

they purchase little hearts for following age group. who purchase little hearts for their family.PURCHASE FOR FAMILY Graph 5.2 PURCHASE FOR FAMILY Out of 76%.4.3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE AGE GROUP NO (YEARS) 5-10 PEOPLE 48 10-18 50 18-25 14 25 ONWARDS 2 68 OF . Table 5.

3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE From the above analysis it can be said that jointly 5-18 (5-10 & 10-18) is the target age group for little hearts.Graph 5. So the advertisement and promotional activities should be according to this age group. 69 .

5. 56% views little hearts as biscuits & 88 consumers i. 44%views little hearts as chips.LITTLE HEARTS AS BISCUITS OR SNACKS LIKE CHIPS? Little Hearts is a product whose packing.e.3 LITTLE HEARTS AS BISCUITS OR SNACKS LIKE CHIPS? 70 . Out of 150 consumers surveyed 112 consumers i. shape and crunchiness makes it look like chips. biscuits chips Figure 5. When people were asked how they view little hearts as biscuit or chips? the following results were recorded. size.e.

4 KIND OF PURCHASE FOR LITTLE HEARTS So from the above analysis we can say that little hearts is more in impulse purchase category .4 KIND OF PURCHASE FOR LITTLE HEARTS Figure 5. what kind of purchase they make of little hearts? Following results were recorded. 71 .KIND OF PURCHASE FOR LITTLE HEARTS To study the purchase category of little heats whether planned or impulse a question was asked in the questionnaire that . PLANED 69 PURCHASERS IMPULSIVE 81 PURCHASERS TOTAL 150 Table 7.6. as we know products of impulse purchase category needs very heavy advertisement.

has recorded no change consumption of little hearts.5 Change in the Consumption of Little Herats Graph 5. 72 .4 Change in the Consumption of Little Herats So we find that the majority of consumers 62%. Out of 150 consumers surveyed:No Change Increased Decreased 93 38 19 Table 5.CHANGE IN THE CONSUMPTION OF THE LITTLE HEARTS. When people were asked whether they have recorded any change in their consumption of little hearts by last 3-4 months or not. Following results were recorded.7. Only 25% consumers as per survey have recorded increase and 13% consumers has recorded decrease in the consumption of little hearts.

Now day’s consumer simply asks the retailer for a sweet or salty biscuit. It is up to the retailer which product he offers.B. so the retailer is king in biscuit industry. due to Brand clutter there is very tough competition and very less product differentiation. RETAILERS SURVEY In biscuit industry. In retailer survey an attempt is made to study following issues  What motivates a retailer to sell little hearts?  Whether retailer push energy influence the demand of little hearts or not?  Problems faced by the retailers in selling little hearts? 73 . The consumer leaves his decision on the retailer.

Because little hearts are hanged with chips so they are close competitor of little hearts. free samples. 4 WHAT MOTIVATES A RETAILER TO SELL LITTLE HEARTS. 74 . Little hearts is providing various retailers time to time. The retailers compare little hearts with both biscuits and chips. Second main thingh that motivates a retailer is the schemes with the products.5. MARGIN SCHEMES PROPER SUPPLY CREDIT REPLACEMENT Higher margin is the most important thigh that a retailer seeks from a company. But the common factors they replied were following. For little hearts when this question was asked to the retailers. they suggest lot of factors. Commonly companies use to provide various retailers schemes to attract them to sell their product. There are a lot of factors that a retailer seeks from the company to sell a particular product. Now a day the scheme with little hearts is a free pack of little hearts with purchase of 18 packs. Same is in case of little hearts the retailers often seek for schemes. Generally the decision of a retailer to sell a particular product is dominated by the comparison of margin with other products of that kind. The most common schemes are some gift items. and discounts on bulk purchase.

75 . so they need credit facility. Replacement of the products with complaints is another factor that a retailer wants from a company. Small and even big retailers have some time problem in keeping stock of little hearts. As the sales of little hearts are not so good and retailers are not able to sell the stock for a longer period. Many times in case of packed food there are complaints of rat biting and brokered in which the retailer cannot be held responsible. it should be hanged at front and the supply should be regular. In case co little hearts. The retailers of little hearts have to invest a huge amount in keeping four flavors of little hearts. Another important thing that the retailer seeks is the credit facility. It is with little hearts the retailers have problems of air leakage and rat biting and they want replacement. as little hearts is in the category of impulse purchase.Proper supply is the thigh that retailers want.

So company must focus on increasing the demand.6%) reported poor margin. 76 .5 SURVEY RESULTS FOR MARGIN WITH LITTLE HEARTS Out of 200 retailers surveyed 163 (81. Graph 5.4%) reported that the margin is good with little hearts and 37(18.5 Survey results for margin with Little Hearts NOTE: Here we can find that the majority of retailers have reported that the margin is ok or good with little hearts. According to some retailers if the demand is good for a product then its margin do not matters.5.

Graph 5.5%) retailers has on time supply and rest 76 (38.5%) has very poor supply. 77 .5. From retailer survey it is analyzed that. most of them are facing this problem just after the separation of distributors for little hearts from other products of Britannia.6 Survey Results for Supply of Little Hearts NOTE:The retailers who have recorded poor supply of little hearts. only 124 (62. The supply of little hearts is not very good.6 SURVEY RESULTS FOR SUPPLY OF LITTLE HEARTS Regarding the supply of little hearts the results are not favorable to company.

Due to that many retailers stop selling little hearts. 1. the supply of little hearts was not proper. The retailers are getting the supply once in one or two months. The children’s are attracted towards these schemes and switch over to these products. After the separation of the distribution of little hearts from other products. 4. 3.5. The demand of little hearts was not so good before five to six months. 5. The third main reason for the slow down in the demand of little hearts would be poor distribution system of little hearts. 7 REASONS RESPONSIBLE FOR INCONSISTANT SALES OF LITTLE HEARTS. cheetos. 2. and other chips also affect the demand of little hearts. If the advertisement is regular and frequency is high then the demand is also high. This causes instant slump in the demand of little hearts. Introduction of new schemes with other products like kurkure. The demand of little hearts depends heavily on advertisement. 78 . ADVERTISEMENT DEPENDENT DEMAND. Higher impulsive and occasional purchase is also the reason for the up & downs in the sale of little hearts.

3.e. E. they purchase little hearts for following age group. Out of 150 consumers surveyed 112 consumers i. Total types of purchases made PLANED 69 PURCHASERS 79 . 44%views little hearts as chips.e. 24% said do not purchase for family. and 2. 3% through both Retailers and TV ads. 92% consumers are motivated through TV advertisements. who purchase little hearts for their family.As the regular consumers of little hearts are only 42. F. 4.66% and occasional consumers are 57. C. B.1% through TV & Boards. TV Plays an important role in promoting little hearts. Out of 150consumers surveyed: 76% said Yes purchase for family.CHAPTER 6 FINDINGS A.33% this causes inconsistent sales.6% through Boards. Out of 76%. D. 56% views little hearts as biscuits & 88 consumers i.3% are through Retailers.

Only 25% consumers as per survey have recorded increase and 13% consumers has recorded decrease in the consumption of little hearts. Regarding the supply of little hearts the results are not favorable to company.5%) retailers has on time supply and rest 76 (38. 80 . H.IMPULSIVE 81 PURCHASERS TOTAL 150 G. So we find that the majority of consumers 62%. has recorded no change consumption of little hearts.5%) has very poor supply. The supply of little hearts is not very good. only 124 (62.4%) reported that the margin is good with little hearts and 37(18.6%) reported poor margin. Out of 200 retailers surveyed 163 (81. From retailer survey it is analyzed that. I.

Human Biases of the respondents are there. 4. so the information collected may be inaccurate. Number of consumers and retailers survived may be inadequate to represent the whole scenario of Delhi market. Symantec difficulties are there . There is possibility of misunderstanding their view. 81 . Not every retailer & consumer have positive attitude towards the survey. 2. Similarly two different wordings of the same question will frequently produce quite different results. for eg: “Ego”. 5. 8. if not impossible. 6. Individual surveys generally cannot provide strong evidence of cause and effect. to state a given question in such a way that it will mean exactly same thing to each is difficult. Some of the respondents are unwilling to answer because they feel that such surveys are of no use.CHAPTER 6 LIMITATIONS 1. 7. 3. It is also possible that the respondent may answer according to what they think rather they do. The conclusions are drawn on the basis of response given by 200 retailers and 150 consumers.

82 . The areas such as Tilak Nagar. if adopted then the company may expect no further up and downs in the sales of little hearts and sales will definitely increase with consistency. Shalimar Garden. 1. such as Sabka Bazar. there is need to improve the distribution system of little hearts. Model Town. Shakti Nagar. The suppliers are ignoring small retail shops. Many retailers do not have regular supply. Haldiram chips are giving free fun book with one pack. 2. e. Some of the retailers have reported supply once in one . Ruffles are giving poco man inside the pack. It is noted that supply is mostly regular at shops with heavy investment and are placed at centre of good residential places. After the survey of 150 consumers & 200 retailers the conclusion comes out that. Sastri Nagar has very poor supply. So the most important thigh is to improve the supply in both small & large shops. So there is need to start some schemes for children to motivate them to purchase little hearts.  One golden polished locket in the shape of hearts inside the pack. For example with little hearts following schemes can be started: One pack of little hearts free for collecting 15 packs of little hearts.CHAPTER 7 SUGGESSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The suggestions. Little hearts is a product mostly liked by the children of 5-18 age group as per survey.two months.g. Apana bazaar. Such schemes form a habit in children to purchase a product.

3. Retailer push energy also works in promoting the sales of little hearts. Retailer is the king in the biscuit industry. 83 .D. 4. Pepsi is giving one bottle free on the purchase of one crate of 500 ml. 5. Attractive hangers or stands should be provided to the retailers so that they can easily put the bars of little hearts out side to increase in sales by increase in impulse purchase.g. So there is need to motivate the retailer through regular retailers schemes. Little Hearts has higher impulse purchase than planed so to increase in the planed purchase the frequency of advertisement should be increased. M. for e.H is giving special discount on the purchase of more than Rs 500.

company schemes make the differences and are the highest source of motivation after profit margin. 84 . There should be feeling of belonging to the company in inner of the retailers. The manufacturer should understand consumer behavior because retailers can’t help quality and price. Retailing demands the constaint push from the company. now time is to make a complete picture. Marketers need to use the advertising and brand building strategies to address the buyers and retail push to in different buyers. which determine the purchase of biscuit. While making a product a stock keeping unit of the shop retailers think about the gross margin return on investment and they promote the brand which provide them highest. There is a greater need to understand the retailer behavior considering them as a team working for the company may help them to be attached to the company. Setting values club for retailers so that they may exchange views with the company and help in understanding consumer behavior.CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION After going thick on the thing. They expect return in the form of profit margin. It is only up to dealers said it is demand they sell Britannia 42% agree that at retail shop it is brand popularity.

PERSONAL DETAILES Name Place: Age Profession Address 1. DO YOU CONSUME LITTLE HEARTS REGULARLY? IF NOT WHY? (a) YES (b) NO 85 . ARE YOU AWARE OF BRITANNIA LITTLE HEARTS? (a) YES (b) NO 2.CHAPTER 9 QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaire to study the consumer behavior for Britannia’s little hearts. HAVE YOU TRIED LITTLE HEARTS? (a) YES (b) NO 3.

ON WHAT OCCASIONS DO YOU LIKE TO CONSUME LITTLE HEARTS? (a) ______________________________________________ (b) ______________________________________________ (c) ______________________________________________ 86 . WHICH FLAVOUR OF LITTLE HEARTS YOU LIKE MOST? (a) CHOCO (b) ORANGE (C) CLASSIC (d) SESAME 5. HOW DO YOU COME TO KNOW ABOUT LITTLE HEARTS? (a) T V ADVERTISEMENT (b) BOARDS (c) RETAILERS (d) FRIENDS 6.4.

0000000000000000000000000 . HOW DO YOU FEEL OF SUBSTITUTING THE CONSUMPTION OF CHIPS WITH LITTLE HEARTS? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 10. HOW DO YOU VIEW LITTLE HEARTS AS? (a) BISCUIT (b) SNACK LIKE CHIPS. WHAT KIND OF PURCHASE DO YOU MAKE OF LITTLE HEARTS? (a) PLANNED (b) IMPULSE. 9.7. 87 . 8. (A) DO YOU PURCHASE LITTLE HEARTS FOR YOUR FAMILY? (a) YES (b) NO (c) .


13. WHAT KIND OF COMMENTS. YOUR COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 89 . EITHER FAVORABLE OR UN FAVORABLE DO YOU RECEIVE FROM THE RETAILERS WHEN YOU ASK FOR LITTLE HEARTS? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 14.