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# Eeng224 Circuit II, Course Information

Instructor: Mustafa Kemal Uyguroğlu, Room No: EE 134, Office Tel: 630 1433

Office Hours: Wednesday 09:30–10:20, Friday 09:30–10:20 (Otherwise: Anytime I am available in my
office)
Course Webpage: http://opencourses.emu.edu.tr/course/view.php?id=12&notifyeditingon=1
Lecture Notes : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Bilgekul

Lab Assistant:

Textbook: C. K. Alexander and M. N. O. Sadiku, Electric Circuits, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill.

Midterm 1 Exam
: % 30

Final Examination
: % 40
HW & Quizzes
: % 15
Lab Work
: % 15

Prerequisite: EENG223 Circuit Theory I

Attendance Requirements: Students must attend all the lab sessions. Students are also expected to
attend the lectures.

Make-up Policy: Students missing an examination should provide a valid excuse within three days following the
examination they missed. No separate make-up exams are administered for midterm and final exams. Re-sit examination

NG POLICY: Any student who has an overall failing grade, and who has failed to attend the lectures regularly (min 80%)
will be given the NG grade.

EENG224

‹#›

 Apply what is learnt to phase-shifters and AC bridges.Chapter 9 Sinusoids and Phasors Chapter Objectives:  Understand the concepts of sinusoids and phasors.  Apply phasors to circuit elements.  Introduce the concepts of impedance and admittance.  Learn about impedance combinations. EENG224 ‹#› .

denoted by the lowercase letters (v1. T EENG224 ‹#› . denoted by the uppercase letters Vm. v2).  Peak amplitude: The maximum value of the waveform as measured from its average (or mean) value.  Instantaneous value: The magnitude of a waveform at any instant of time.  Cycle: The portion of a waveform contained in one period of time.  Frequency: (Hertz) the number of cycles that occur in 1 s f 1 T  The sinusoidal waveform is the only alternating waveform whose shape is unaffected by the response characteristics of R. L.Alternating (AC) Waveforms  The term alternating indicates only that the waveform alternates between two prescribed levels in a set time sequence.  Period (T): The time interval between successive repetitions of a periodic waveform. and C elements.

2 T or 2 f EENG224 ‹#› . The radians subtended in this time interval are 2π.  The time required to complete one revolution is equal to the period (T) of the sinusoidal waveform.Sinusoids  The sinusoidal wave form can be derived from the length of the vertical projection of a radius vector rotating in a uniform circular motion about a fixed point. called the angular velocity. the angle α obtained using α = t is usually in radians. Vm sin Vm cos  The velocity with which the radius vector rotates about the center. can be determined from the following equation:  The angular velocity ( ) is: t  Since ( ) is typically provided in radians per second.

the greater the value of t ).  For a particular angular velocity (fixed ). the longer the radius vector is permitted to rotate (that is.  The equation α = t states that the angle α through which the rotating vector will pass is determined by the angular velocity of the rotating vector and the length of time the vector rotates. the greater will be the number of degrees or radians through which the vector will pass. The general format of a sine wave can also be as: Vm sin( t ) EENG224 ‹#› .Sinusoids  The basic mathematical format for the sinusoidal waveform is: Vmsinα  Vm is the peak value of the waveform and α is the unit of measure for the horizontal axis.

• Vm is the AMPLITUDE of the sinusoid.Sinusoids  A SINUSOID is a signal that has the form of the sine or cosine function. T Period (a) As a function of t. • f is the FREQUENCY in Hertz. (b) As a function of t . EENG224 ‹#› . 2 f and f 1 T • T is the period in seconds.  Sketch of Vmsin t. • is the ANGULAR FREQUENCY in radians/s.  The sinusoidal current is referred to as AC. Circuits driven by AC sources are referred to as AC Circuits.

they are out of phase. for all t and for all integers n. f 1 Hz T 2 f  Only two sinusoidal values with the same frequency can be compared by their amplitude and phase difference. EENG224 ‹#› . they are in phase.Phase of Sinusoids  A periodic function is one that satisfies v(t) = v(t + nT). if phase difference is not zero.  If phase difference is zero.

When determining the phase measurement we first note that each sinusoidal function has the same frequency.  Since the full period represents a cycle of 360°. permitting the use of either waveform to determine the period.Phase of Sinusoids  The terms lead and lag are used to indicate the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms of the same frequency plotted on the same set of axes.  The cosine curve is said to lead the sine curve by 90 .  90 is referred to as the phase angle between the two waveforms.  The sine curve is said to lag the cosine curve by 90 . the following ratio can be formed: EENG224 ‹#› .

EENG224 ‹#› .Phase of Sinusoids  Consider the sinusoidal voltage having phase φ. • v2 LEADS v1 by v(t ) Vm sin( t ) phase φ. • v1 LAGS v2 by phase φ. • v1 and v2 are out of phase.

increased losses in the transformer core due to eddy current and hysteresis losses. and skin effect phenomena. can be smaller in size if supplied with a higher voltage.  The fundamental equation for transformer design is that the size of the transformer is inversely proportional to frequency. permitting the use of smaller conductors. found in common home appliances and throughout the industrial community.(120 V at 60 Hz) versus (220 V at 50 Hz) AC  In North and South America the most common available ac supply is 120 V at 60 Hz.  A 50 HZ transformer must be larger than a 60 Hz (17% larger) sinusoidal voltage having phase φ. while in Europe and the Eastern countries it is 220 V at 50 Hz.  Larger voltages (such as 220 V) raise safety issues beyond those of 120 V. EENG224 ‹#› .  The effect of frequency on the size of transformers and the role it plays in the generation and distribution of power was also a factor.  Technically there is no noticeable difference between 50 and 60 cycles per second (Hz).  Motors and power supplies.  Higher frequencies result in concerns about arcing.  Higher voltages result in lower current for the same demand.

Trigonometric Identities  Sine and cosine form conversions. sin( A B ) cos( A B ) sin( t Graphically relating sine and cosine functions. sin A cos B cos A sin B cos A cos B sin A sin B 180 ) sin t cos( t 180 ) sin( t 90 ) cos( t 90 ) cos t cos t sin t A cos t Where B sin t C= A 2 B2 and cos( t 90 ) sin t C cos( t =tan -1 ) B A sin( t 180 ) sin t EENG224 ‹#› .

Voltage v1 leads. Determine equations for both voltages. Prepare a phasor diagram using v1 as reference. EENG224 ‹#› . Each major vertical division represents 20 V and each major division on the horizontal (time) scale represents 20 ms.Figure shows a pair of waveforms v1 and v2 on an oscilloscope.

Using current as the reference. and voltage lags. sketch the phasor diagram and the corresponding waveforms.EXERCISE  Voltage and current are out of phase by 40°. EENG224 ‹#› .