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INSTITUTE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY ISLAMABAD

ME 242Thermodynamics-II
Group # 01
Submitted By:
Name

Reg No.

Aamir Rafiq
(130501037)
Muhammad Ali Zia
(130501038)
M. Umair Saleem

(130501040)

Mansoob Bukhari
(120501039)
BE-MECH-02
Submitted to:
Sir, Shaban
Date: February 09, 2015

DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Thermodynamics -II Project
1 | Page

. 6 Hydrogen generating plant.................... 6 Town Water storage............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Objective........ 4 Condenser........................................ 7 Real Problems Occurring in the Plant (at BQTPS).............................................................................. 5 Transmission line... 6 Fuel Storage............................................................. 3 Boilers................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Thermodynamics -II Project 2 | Page ..............Table of Contents Back Ground.......................................................... 5 220KV Switch Gear.............................................................. 3 Turbines.................................................................... 4 Generators.................................................... 5 Water treatment plant................................................................................................................................................... 7 Statistical Data of the Plant...........................................................................................................................................................................................................

which supplies KESC catchment areas. which are served by Karachi Electric Supply Corporation Ltd. and in fiscal 1989/1990 (1989/7~1990/6) and fiscal 1990/1991 (1990/7~1991/6) installed generation capacity fell short of peak demand.Back Ground At the beginning of the 1985s. located approximately 50km to the east of Karachi. the abolition of foreign exchange controls and policies to promote foreign investment. The project also involved the provision of high voltage transmission lines (220KV × 2. this project was to add a sixth generating unit (210MW) to the facilities at BQTPS. was forecast to have a similar effect on power demand for industrial uses. in combination with the activation of private investment. In order to handle these additional load requirements and the shortfalls in supply. maximum load demand for power in Karachi and surrounding areas. Whilst the easing of regulations relating to trading policies. The increase rate for maximum load demand was predicted to exceed 9% in and after fiscal 1991/1992 as the result of sweeping increases in the demand for power for household and industrial uses. was expected to result in the reemergence of supply shortages in and after fiscal 1993/1994. Thermodynamics -II Project 3 | Page . despite the fact that a third generating unit was scheduled to become operational at Bin Qasim Thermal Power Station (BQTPS) in fiscal 1992/1993. by way of plant expansion. projected suspension of operations at the seriously deteriorated West Wharf thermal power plant and the Karachi nuclear power plant. 35km) as part of the planned transmission circuit system in order to strengthen the supply system within the catchment area. was increasing year on year. In contrast. (KESC). and the leveling off of installed generation capacity. Electrification of agricultural villages and the dissemination of domestic electrical appliances were projected to yield sizable increases in household demand for power. from a supply perspective. the construction of a thermal power station powered by imported heavy oil was urgently necessary. Objective In order to resolve the projected shortfalls in supply within KESC jurisdictional areas in and after fiscal 1993/1994.

• Natural circulation • Single reheat • Steam: 680T/H.07bar • Manufacturer • Unit # 1.IP-7.525C • Back pressure :0.2.5 & 6 .2. LP-2X5 • Unit 3 & 4: HP-9. Thermodynamics -II Project 4 | Page .5 & 6 .145 bar 530 0C • Naturel gas /HFO fired • Manufacturer • Unit # 1.LP-2x6 • Steam condition : 140 bar.5 & 6:HP-8. Hitachi +Babcock japan • Unit # 3 & 4.Turbines • Capacity : 210 MW • Tandem compound double flow • Stages • Unit 1. ANSALDO Italy Boilers • ELAPSO type single drum.2. Hitachi Japan • Unit # 3 & 4. deutche + Babcock Germany Boiler Efficiency Formula. IP-6.

0. Generators • 248MVA • PF. 28-30C • Designed Vacuum . 4. 0.1 M/s • Filtration of seawater through coarse.Condenser • Once through seawater cooled • 2 condensers per unit having 18.07bar • Water velocity inside tubes: 2.4. fine.2.2 mm thickness & 9 meter length. • Designed seawater temp. Hitachi Japan • Unit # 3 & 4. 5 & 6 Water cooled :Unit # 1&2 Hydrogen Cooled : Unit # 3. travelling band screens and debris filters.5&6 Manufacturer • Unit # 1. seawater flow through each part.000 CM/Hr.5 & 6 .85 • Terminal Voltage: • • • Stator: • • • 21 KV: Unit # 1&2 18KV : Unit #3. • Cu-Nickel Alloy Tubes having 1-1. Ercole + Marelli Italy 220KV Switch Gear • SFG gas insulated & Air Operated • Double bus Bar • 6 Generator Breakers • 4 feeders to pipri west grid station Thermodynamics -II Project 5 | Page .

capacity • Compression and filling station to fill cylinder at 140 bar Emergency diesel generators • 5 diesel generators sets having 1.2 & 3 are directly connected to pepri west grid station • Line # 4 is connected to pepri west grid station through ICI loop inloop out grid station • Line # 5 & 6 are connected to korangi west grid station Water treatment plant • 6 streams of de-mineralizers of 40 t/h production each • 3300CM de-mineralized water storage capacity • 2 condensate polishers • Waste water neutralization system • Regeneration & Neutralization chemicals • Caustic soda & sulfuric acid • Condensate & cooling water conditioning chemicals • Ammonia.6 KV common auxiliary bus bar • To facilitate safe shutdown operation in case of black out conditions Thermodynamics -II Project 6 | Page .6 KV terminal voltage connected at 6.23 CM/Hr.75 MW capacity each at 6.• 2 feeders to korangi East Grid station • 3 breakers for feedback to 220/6.6 KV start up transformers • 1 bus Coupler breaker Transmission line • The power is transmitted through 6 no overhead 220KV transmission lines • Line # 1. hydrazine hydrate & tri sodium phosphate Hydrogen generating plant • 2 Electro hydrolyser of 6.05 & 6.

Fuel Storage • Hfo capacity : 120.000 • 1 x 25.000 CM • -2 x 10.000 CM • 3 x 25.000 CM (bonded to custom for receipt of oil from PSO ) • LDO: 2 x 500 CM Town Water storage • 4 x 3000 CM underground basins for town water storage • Supply from KWSB through 12 inches line • Supply from steel mills through 8 inch line Statistical Data of the Plant Thermodynamics -II Project 7 | Page .

Figure 1 Operating conditions for all generating units at BQTPS Figure 2 Simplified T-s diagram of steam/water Thermodynamics -II Project 8 | Page .

Figure 3 Detailed T-s diagram of the boiler steam/water heating process Process Flow Diagram Thermodynamics -II Project 9 | Page .

Thermodynamics -II Project 10 | P a g e .T_S diagram for Brayton Cycle & Rankine Cycle.

Figure 4 T-S Diagram Figure 5 T-S Diagram The gas turbine efficiency is 32. o pump trip when temperature is high o when oil level is low o when lubrication oil temperature is high o if drain valve is opened mistakenly o when suction valve is not open o when level is high or low at derator tank Efficiency decreases if combustion is not taken proper then much fuel is required Efficiency decreases whenever there is leakages in the steam line Efficiency decreases whenever boiler tubes leaked because water makeup get filled Unit trip o When both BFP trips Thermodynamics -II Project 11 | P a g e .3% and over all Efficency after rankine is 45% Real Problems Occurring in the Plant (at BQTPS)      The boiler feed pump trip when o the water level is high and when low.

6 temperature high then unit trip o When CP pump trip o When feed water level high or low Problems occurs when the open and close system temperature is high Thermodynamics -II Project 12 | P a g e . o If vacuum is not controlled o Vacuum get low or high o When CWP pump trip then o When Hp heater 5.