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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies
Foreign Literature
In sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other
people and thus is the most basic human action, although it can play a part in diagnosis of
disorders such as the autism spectrum disorders. According to moral values, human behavior
may also depend upon the common, usual, unusual, acceptable or unacceptable behavior of
others (Hergenhahn, 2005).Research on academic achievement of young students, provides no
reliable

and

consistent

indication

concerning the extent of creativity, age and gender on academic achievement (Komarraju, Karau,
and Schmeck, 2008).
Kovalic (2008), convey that there is another critically important aspect of classroom
instruction that impacts engagement and it involves understanding the hard wiring of gender.
This work emphasized that girls and boys are different; they learn differently, they play
differently, they fight differently, they see the world differently, they hear differently, and they
express their emotions differently. The author posits that this is because girl’s and boys‘ brains
are wired differently. For instance, in the classroom, girls are more likely to do their homework

while boys tend to be more responsive when focusing on the problem only with little or no eye contact. Girls tend to regard shouting out answers as silly and complain that the ‖ right answer ‖ focuses on small details instead of the big picture. 2012). According to Pytel (2006). and intention when asking for help. and that this behavior pattern show up early in the life of the student. When they have to work as a team to answer a question. having the teacher like them is not a necessity. Furthermore. need to find the homework assignment meaningful to them. Small group learning tends to work for girls because they are more comfortable asking the teacher for help if they need it. chances are he won‘t ask for help and may even become rowdy to get attention. tone. Boys. they collaborate and work hard not to let the rest of the team down. If a boy gets stuck. moderate stress improves boy’s performance on tests and degrades girl’s performance.even if the assignment does not interest them because they want the teacher to like them. Girls are also observed to be responsive to voice. Also. competition and timeconstrained tasks draw boy’s attention. . Social expectations and informal influences when children are young are the reason behind the classroom gender differences between boys and girls (Ennis. struggling in school resulting to failing in classes isone of the reasons why students tend to drop out. They are involved in relational aggression which includes behaviors intended to damage friendships. on the other hand.

Morrison and Robbins. 2002). and have trouble interacting with their peers.Amicable behavior encourages classroom learning indirectly by facilitating . interest and engagement in class activities. these negative behaviors can persist and appear to be fairly stable over time (Akey. Kane. distractibility. Researchers suggest that students who exhibit maladaptive behaviors throughout the early years of school are more likely to gravitate to other students engaging in negative behaviors. while negative behaviors such as inattention. Newell. withdrawn or aggressive behaviors had low academic performance in the elementary grades. 2006. and withdrawn behaviors have been associated with negative academic outcomes (Akey. Hulya (2004) found that students who exhibited inattentive. 2004).. Teachers are also a common source of information about students who are being assessed for academic and behavioral problems (Barriga. 2006.Foreign Studies Teachers with special education training and experience who spend large portions of the school day with their students may be particularly well suited to rate problem behaviors that are believed to interfere with academic performance. Barriga et al. 2002). Doran. face academic failure. Without intervention. Positive behaviors such as compliance with classroom rules and expectations. and mastery of subject matter have been associated with positive academic outcomes .

the weak or anxious attachments formed by infants in poverty become the basis for full-blown insecurity during the early childhood years. achieved significantly higher scores than boys in Mathematics and Science subjects and that gender differences in academic achievements are became more apparent at secondary level. 2004) and.. and Midgley. Ismail and Awang (2008) indicated that girls in Malaysia andSingapore boys. all of which lead to decreased sensitivity toward the infant (van Ijzendoorn et al. Many low-SES children face emotional and social instability. later. Academic achievement was more in girls than in Additionally.achievement-oriented behavior. poor school performance and behavior on the child's part. 2004)‘s study there was a significant difference between boys and girls. and inadequate health care. The study shows the average of academic achievement in girls was more than in boys. in impoverished families there tends to be a higher prevalence of such adverse factors as teen motherhood. depression. 2001). 2002) also found the significant different in academic achievement of boys and girls. Very young children require healthy learning and exploration for optimal brain development. (Nori. Teacher perceptions have been shown to be good predictors of academic achievement (Friedel. Marachi. 2002. Unfortunately. According to (Mehr Afza.Hamre and Pianta. . Typically.

Milroy. 2006) found out that children's social behavior can promote or undermine their learning. Students at high risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioral difficulties were over two and half times more likely to be rated at low academic performance relative to students rated at low risk of such difficulties.26 percentage points and raises a student‘s own reading test score by 0. that the academic performance of aboriginal students under study is substantially lower in the presence of an emotional or behavioral difficulty.The study. and their academic performance may have implications for their social behavior. "Contemporaneous and Longitudinal Associations Between Social Behavior and Literacy Achievement in a Sample of Low-Income Elementary School Children. . even when academic success is the primary goal. Dalby. The study demonstrates the importance of attending to children's social skills in preschool and the early grades of elementary school. Lawrence. Blair. De Maio and Cox(2005) found out. Findings of a study by Cortes et al (2012) revealed that for students enrolled in regular English classes.0222 student-level standard deviations. an additional non-disruptive student in attendance increases the probability of passing English by 7. Silburn. Griffin. 2006" (Miles and Stipek. Mitrou. According to the study's findings. on the other hand. children who were rated as relatively aggressive in the early grades were also rated as relatively aggressive in the later grades. Zubrick.

and interdependence (Bernardo. What he is and what he knows is not genetically transmitted. . seeking separateness and independence from others. Garcia (2004) avers that individuals behave according to certain patterns of behavior which are in conformity with their culture and that ordinarily. as such. values and motives. spontaneous and non-routinary. acts that are unplanned. behavior shows regularity and recurrence. a blank tablet. man is born ―tabula rasa‖. the emphasis is on relatedness. there are members of groups or societies that exhibit un-patterned behavior. the more habitual. In contrast. repetitive modes that characterizes people‘s daily lives. it is believed that in Eastern cultures. However. abilities. the Western conception of self is of an individual who is separate. the author stated that different cultures have different behavior patterns.Local Literature Generally. behavior that is moving away from what is expected. connectedness.1998). Dayan and Tan. Moreover. autonomous and atomized. made up of a set of discrete traits. at some other time. but rather socially acquired.