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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"[1]) is the activity of conveying information through the exchange
of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of
information between two or a group of person.One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives
from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may
be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and
may occur through spoken or other modes.”[2]Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver
doesn't have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can
occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of
communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.
2. The transmission of data from one computer to another, or from one device to another. A communications device, therefore, is
any machine that assists data transmission. For example, modems, cables, and ports are all communications devices.
Communications software refers to programs that make it possible to transmit data.
The sender also known as the encoder decides on the message to be sent, the best/most effective way that it can be sent. All of this is
done bearing the receiver in mind. In a word, it is his/her job to conceptualize.
The sender may want to ask him/herself questions like: What words will I use? Do I need signs or pictures?
The medium is the immediate form which a message takes. For example, a message may be communicated in the form of a letter, in
the form of an email or face to face in the form of a speech.
The channel is that which is responsible for the delivery of the chosen message form. For example post office, internet, radio.
The receiver or the decoder is responsible for extracting/decoding meaning from the message. The receiver is also responsible for
providing feedback to the sender. In a word, it is his/her job to INTERPRET.
This is important as it determines whether or not the decoder grasped the intended meaning and whether communication was
Communication does not take place in a vacuum. The context of any communication act is the environment surrounding it. This
includes, among other things, place, time, event, and attitudes of sender and receiver.
7. NOISE (also called interference)
This is any factor that inhibits the conveyance of a message. That is, anything that gets in the way of the message being accurately
received, interpreted and responded to. Noise may be internal or external. A student worrying about an incomplete assignment may
not be attentive in class (internal noise) or the sounds of heavy rain on a galvanized roof may inhibit the reading of a storybook to
second graders (external noise).
The communication process is dynamic, continuous, irreversible, and contextual. It is not possible to participate in any element of
the process without acknowledging the existence and functioning of the other elements.4. Feedback is essential in communication
so as to know whether the recipient has understood the message in the same terms as intended by the sender and whether he agrees
to that message or not.
5.cyclical. the effective communication is a cyclic and continuous process. Communication can be considered to be effective when
the receiver understands the message sent by the sender and gives a feedback to the sender. Effective communication also ensures
that the message sent by the sender is not distorted in any manner while it is transmitted. Effective communication as shown in the
figure above conveys us that, it is initiated from the sender and ends at the sender too indicating that effective communication is a
cyclic and continuous process.
7. Verbal communication.This is the most common of the many types of communication that we all have been using for so long.
Verbal means you talk to each other. Uttering words and phrases and sentences is considered a verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication.Non speaking, no words uttered, no noise type of communication; this is how a non-verbal

[1]  Writing (by hand.g. Communication channels are the medium chosen to convey the message from sender to receiver. If you do not have the ability to speak and communicate by the use of your mouth and tongue. issues concerning the useful nature of communicating with oneself and problems concerning communication with non-sentient entities such as computers have made some argue that this definition is too narrow. 1) INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION. assist in problem solving. in addition it produces a record that can be used later again. as "dialogue is the foundation for all discourse. It will help you tell others of what is in your thoughts and let them understand by reading your writings. It communicates with you as you look at it and tells you what to do and where to go. reading aloud. An example would be looking on a locator or directory. texts." Intrapersonal communication can encompass:  Day-dreaming  Nocturnal dreaming. etc.)INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONInterpersonal communication is defined by communication scholars in numerous ways. of body motions. Communication channels can be categorized into two main categories: Direct and Indirect . or with a wordprocessor. on top of thinking. Intrapersonal communication is the active internal involvement of the individual in symbolic processing of messages. gestures. and the extent to which it occurs varies from person to person.  Making gestures while thinking: the additional activity. may again increase concentration. the additional activities of speaking and hearing (in the third case of hearing again) what one thinks. May it be a temporary illness that made you lost your speech. of writing and reading back may again increase self-understanding ("How do I know what I mean until I see what I say?") and concentration. the paper and the pen will help you. interpreting maps.Writing is also another of the types of language use or thought internal to the communicator. signs.g. receiver." 2.) one's thoughts or observations: the additional activities. It aids ordering one's thoughts. The time when there should be concern is when talking to oneself occurs outside of socially acceptable situations. You can write anything that you want to say. have a shared history. In Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry. and symbols  Interpreting non-verbal communication (see Albert Mehrabian) e. providing feedback to him or herself in an ongoing internal process. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver. Copying text to aid memorizing also falls in this category.From the term itself. This is normally used when one is not capable to speak. including and especially lucid dreaming  Speaking aloud (talking to oneself). though most definitions involve participants who are interdependent on one another.g. it is those types of communication that is relayed to you visually. repeating what one hears. You use your visuals to communicate with the map or the visual ad that you see to let you know where you should go. Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson argue that intrapersonal communication is indeed a special case of interpersonal communication. and assist memory.  Sense-making (see Karl Weick) e. and feedback loop. or it can be a long term sickness that will need you to learn to communicate without the use of speech. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender. reads or hears may increase concentration and retention. Written communication. Although successful communication is generally defined as being between two or more individuals.communication is defined. This is considered normal. e. on top of thinking. 8. "My stomach is telling me it's time for lunch. eye contact  Communication between body parts. Visual communication.

It consists of such factors as: physical Milieu Balance of interpersonal communication The Johari window model focuses on the balance of interpersonal communication. controllable body movements (such as that made by a traffic police to control traffic at an intersection). green means go etc). It also includes such vague terms as "gut feeling". and not under direct control of the sender. alarms etc. Interpersonal communication encompasses:  Speech communication  Nonverbal communication  Unconscious communication  summarizing  paraphrasing  listening  questioning  Initiating: Declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner  Turn-taking: Managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener Having good interpersonal communication skills support such processes as:  parenting  intimate relationship  management  selling  counseling . Context refers to the interrelated condition of communication.channels of communication. Channels means mode of communicating the messages. In this category are the verbal and non-verbal channels of communication.). such as written communication or spoken communication. such as certain overt facial expressions. color (red for danger. "hunches" or "premonitions". Direct channels are those that are obvious and can be easily recognized by the receiver. Participants is the communicators who are both senders and receivers. sound (sirens. Non-verbal communication channels are those that do not require silly words. Indirect channels are those channels that are usually recognized subliminally or subconsciously by the receiver. This includes kinesics or body language. that reflects the inner emotions and motivations rather than the actual delivered message. They are also under direct control of the sender. Verbal communication channels are those that use words in some manner.

biases. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction. Common gestures include waving.Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Advocates use it to promote social causes. 1. Paralinguistics. arm-crossing. Haptics/Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. Psychological noise results from preconceived notions we bring to conversations. situational factors. we can easily become blinded to their original message.Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures. personality characteristics and level of familiarity. Politicians use it to get elected.Looking. which is mentoring in groups  conflict management Interpersonal communication is the subject of a number of disciplines in the field of psychology. 4.Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication.It's at the heart of our economy. pointing. On the other hand.) GROUP COMMUNICATION. persuasion and information. Harry Harlow's classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. inflection and pitch. and leg-crossing. sympathy and other emotions. When we come into a conversation with ideas about what the other person is going to say and why. 10. staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970's. For example. Small group communication generally takes place in a context that mixes interpersonal communication interactions with social clustering. including hostility. interest and attraction. and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts.. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures. Gestures. the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Proxemics. familiarity. 4. and we must simply strive to recognize that it exists and take those distractions into account when we converse with others. such as racial stereotypes. especially after the publication of Julius Fast's book Body Language. i. 9.People often refer to their need for "personal space. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Facial Expression. reputations. the facial expressions for happiness. Studios use it to promote their films. the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. Most of the time psychological noise is impossible to free ourselves from. 7. research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed. Physiological noise is any physiological issue that interferes with communication. It's a field built on ideas and images. . This includes factors such as tone of voice. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. the encoder. loudness. Eye Gaze. Semantic. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions.e. listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. notably Transactional analysis. Touch can be used to communicate affection. if you have a migraine.Examples of physical noise include: others talking in the background. or cannot understand clearly. 3.refers to the nature of communication that occurs in groups that are between 3 and 12 individuals.) PUBLIC COMMUNICATION. 3. and politics. For example. It occurs when the sender of the message use a word or a phrase that we dont know the meaning or which we use differently than the speaker does.Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. When said in a strong tone of voice. Body Language and Posture. anger and fear are similar throughout the world. it may be difficult to speak to others or listen to them when they speak to you. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms. a startling noise and acknowledging someone outside of the conversation. background music. When people encounter people or things that they like. society. No policy or product can succeed without a smart message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways. and assumptions.This is noise caused by the sender. coaching  mentoring and co-mentoring. 2." which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. Businesses use it to burnish their image. strategy and tactics. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. 5. sadness. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture. the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet. Physical noise is any external or environmental stimulus that distracts us from receiving the intended message sent by a communicator . This type of noise occurs when grammar or technical language is used that the receiver (the decoder) cannot understand. 6.

hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. .8. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions.Our choice of color. judgments and interpretations. clothing. Just think of all the subtle judgements you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers. These first impressions are important. Appearance.