You are on page 1of 2

Assessment: In Special and Inclusive Education

Salvia, John
ISBN-13: 9780547134376

Table of Contents
Part I: INTRODUCTION.
1. Introduction: The Context for Assessment in Schools and Current Practices. Assessment Defined. The Importance of
Assessment in School and Society. Types of Assessment Decisions Made by Educators. Screening Decisions: Are There
Unrecognized Problems? Progress Monitoring Decisions: Is the Student Making Adequate Progress? Instructional Planning
and Modification Decisions: What Can We Do to Enhance Competence and Build Capacity, and How Can We Do It?
Resource Allocation Decisions: Are Additional Resources Necessary? Eligibility for Special Education Services Decisions: Is
the Student Eligible for Special Education and Related Services? Program Evaluation: Are Instructional Programs Effective?
Accountability Decisions: Does What We Do Lead to Desired Outcomes? Important Things to Think About as You Read and
Study This Textbook. The Type of Decision Determines Type of Information Needed. Focus on Alterable Behaviors. Assess
Instruction Before Assessing Learners. Assessment Is Broader than Testing. Assessments Have Consequences. Not All
Assessments are Equal. Assessment Practices are Dynamic. Preparing to Learn About Assessment in Special and Inclusive
Education in Today's Schools. Good News.
2. Legal and Ethical Considerations in Assessment. Laws.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Major Assessment Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEA). The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. 2004 Reauthorization of IDEA. Ethical Considerations.
Beneficence. Recognition of the Boundaries of Professional Competence. Respect for the Dignity of Persons. Adherence to
Professional Standards on Assessment Test Security.
3. Test Scores and How to Use Them. Basic Quantitative Concepts. Scales of Measurement. Characteristics of Distributions.
Average Scores. Measures of Dispersion. Correlation. Scoring Student Performance. Objective Versus Subjective Scoring.
Summarizing Student Performance. Interpretation of Test Performance. Criterion-Referenced Interpretations. AchievementStandards. Referenced Interpretations. Norm-Referenced Interpretations. Norms Important Characteristics. Proportional
Representation. Number of Subjects. Age of Norms. Relevance of Norms.
4. Technical Adequacy. Reliability Error in Measurement. The Reliability Coefficient. Standard Error of Measurement.
Estimated True Scores. Confidence Intervals. Validity General Validity. Methods of Validating Test Inferences. Factors
Affecting General Validity. Responsibility for Valid Assessment.
5. Using Test Adaptations and Accommodations. Why Be Concerned About Testing Adaptations? Changes in Student
Population. Changes in Educational Standards. The Need for Accurate Measurement. It Is Required by Law. The Importance
of Promoting Test Accessibility. Concept of Universal Design. Universal Design Applications. Promote Better Testing for All.
Factors to Consider in Making Accommodation Decisions. Ability to Understand Assessment Stimuli. Ability to Respond to
Assessment Stimuli. Normative Comparisons. Exposure to the Curriculum Being Tested (Opportunity to Learn). Environmental
Considerations. Cultural Considerations. Linguistic Considerations. Categories of Testing Accommodations.
Recommendations for Making Accommodation Decisions During Eligibility Testing. Students with Disabilities.
Recommendations for Making Accommodation Decisions During Accountability Testing.
Part II: ASSESSMENT IN CLASSROOMS.
6. Assessing Behavior Through Observation. General Considerations. Live or Aided Observation. Obtrusive Versus
Unobtrusive Observation. Contrived Versus Naturalistic Observation. Defining Behavior. Measurable Characteristics of
Behavior. Sampling Behavior. Contexts. Times. Behaviors. Conducting Systematic Observations. Preparation. Data
Gathering. Data Summarization. Criteria for Evaluating Observed Performances.
7. Teacher-Made Measures of Achievement. Uses. Ascertain Skill Development. Monitor Instruction. Document Instructional
Problems. Make Summative Judgments. Dimensions of Academic Assessment Content Specificity Testing Frequency.
Testing Formats. Considerations in Preparing Tests. Selecting Specific Areas of the Curriculum. Writing Relevant Questions.
Organizing and Sequencing Items. Developing Formats for Presentation and Response Modes. Writing Directions for
Administration. Developing Systematic Procedures for Scoring Responses. Establishing Criteria to Interpret Student
Performance. Response Formats. Selection Formats. Supply Formats. Assessment in Core Achievement Areas. Reading.
Mathematics. Spelling. Written Language. Potential Sources of Difficulty in the Use of Teacher-Made Tests.
8. Managing Classroom Data on Response to Instruction. Preparing For and Managing Mandated Tests. Preparing For and
Managing Progress Monitoring. Establish Routines. Create Assessment Stations. Prepare Assessment Materials. Organize
Materials. Involve Others. Data Displays. Interpreting Data: Decision-Making Rules. Model Progress Monitoring Projects.
Heartland Area Education Agency and the Iowa Problem-Solving Model.
Part III: ASSESSMENT USING FORMAL MEASURES.
9. How To Evaluate A Test. Selecting a Test to Review. How Do We Review a Test? Test Purposes. Test Content and
Assessment Procedures. Scores. Norms. Reliability. Validity. Making a Summative Evaluation.
10. Assessment of Academic Achievement with Multiple-Skill Devices. Considerations for Selecting a Test. Why Do We
Assess Academic Achievement? Specific Tests of Academic Achievement. Stanford Achievement Test Series (SESAT,
SAT, TASK). Terra Nova 3. Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update. Wide Range Achievement
Test-4. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition. Diagnostic Achievement Battery-Third Edition. Getting the
Most out of an Achievement Test.
11. Using Diagnostic Reading Measures. Why Do We Assess Reading? The Ways in Which Reading Is Taught. Skills
Assessed by Diagnostic Reading Tests. Oral Reading. Assessment of Word-Attack Skills. Assessment of Word Recognition
Skills. Assessment of Other Reading and Reading-Related Behaviors. Specific Diagnostic Reading Tests. Group Reading

Behavior Assessment System for Children. Install a Standards-Based Accountability System.Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE). Making Special Education Eligibility Decisions. Communicating Assessment Information through Written Records. Elicited Language. Commonly Interpreted Factors on Intelligence Tests. Developing Standards-Based Accountability Systems. Using Measures for Infants. Continuous Technology-Enhanced Assessment Systems. Best Practices in High-Stakes Assessment and Accountability. Toddlers. The Process of Determining Eligibility Procedural Safeguards. Motor Behavior. 13. STAR Reading AIMSweb. It's All About Meeting Standards. Developmental Delay. Maintenance of Pupil Information. Handheld Observation Systems Classroom Response Systems. and Preschoolers. Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning. Sequencing. Why Do We Assess Problem Behavior? Functional Behavioral Assessment and Analysis. Maladaption. Situational Measures. Vocabulary. Computer Scoring Systems. Discrimination. Decide What Data Will Be Collected and What Rewards and Sanctions Will be Used. Deaf-Blindness. Specify Content Domains for Data Collection. Context. Using Measures of Adaptive Behavior. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Why Assess Oral and Written Language? Considerations in Assessing Oral Language. Speech or Language Impairment. General Knowledge. Orthopedic Impairments. Mental Retardation. Important Considerations in Assessment for the Purpose of Making Accountability Decisions. 16. 18. Commonly Used Diagnostic Mathematics Tests. Current State Assessment and Accountability Practices. Emotional Disturbance. Using Measures of Oral and Written Language. Official Student Disabilities. Frequency and Amplitude. Dissemination of Pupil Information. Develop Rules or Guidelines for IEP Teams to Use in Deciding Who Takes What Kind of Assessment. Communicating Assessment Information to Parents. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Other Health Impairments. Autism. Communicating Assessment Information. and Preschoolers? Tests Used with Infants. Characteristics of Effective School Teams. Behaviors Sampled by Intelligence Tests. Problems in Determining Special Education Eligibility. Important Terminology. Alternate Assessment. Specific Rating Scales of Social-Emotional Behavior. Decide How Information Will Be Reported and Used. . Test of Language Development Primary-4. Second Edition (VABS II). Toddlers. Interview Techniques. Specific Oral and Written Language Tests. Factors Underlying Intelligence Test Behaviors. Physical Environment. Assessment of Processing Deficits. Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using Measures of Perceptual and Perceptual-Motor Skills. Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS). Making Accountability Decisions. Rating Scales. Test of Language Development Intermediate-4. Toddlers. Generalization. Decision: What Should Be Included in a Student's IEP? Decision: What Is the Least Restrictive Appropriate Environment? Decision: Is the Instructional Program Effective? 21. Accelerated Math. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. Why Do We Assess Perceptual-Motor Skills? Specific Tests of Perceptual and Perceptual-Motor Skills. Abstract Reasoning. Responsibilities of the MDT. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI). Assessment of Intelligence: Commonly-Used Tests. Analogical Reasoning. 22. Social and Cultural Expectations. KeyMath-3 Diagnostic Assessment (KeyMath-3 DA). Specific Diagnostic Mathematics Tests. Using Measures of Intelligence. Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Procedure. Sixth Edition (DIBELS). Pattern Completion. Deafness and Hearing Impairment. Types of Intelligence Tests. 23. Woodcock-Johnson-III Normative Update: Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Valid Assessments Team Process. Making Instructional Decisions. Memory. 20. STAR Math. Legal Requirements. Composition of the MDT. Test of Written Language-4 (TOWL-4). Defining Adaptive Behavior. The Multi Disciplinary Team. and Preschoolers. Using Measures of Social and Emotional Behavior. Why Do We Assess Adaptive Behavior? Specific Tests of Adaptive Behavior. Specific Learning Disability. Induction Comprehension. Performance Versus Ability. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (PPVT-4). Establish a Data-Collection and Reporting System. 14. Assessing Adaptive Behavior. Group Tests. Using Diagnostic Mathematics Measures. 12. Imitation. 17. Nonverbal Intelligence Tests. 15. Decisions Prior to Referral Decisions: Are There Unrecognized Problems? Decision: Is the Student Making Adequate Progress in Regular Education? Decision: What Can We Do to Enhance Competence and Build Capacity? Decision: Should the Student Be Referred to an Intervention Assistance Team? Decision: Should the Student Be Referred for Multidisciplinary Evaluation? Decisions Made in Special Education. Third Edition (DIAL-3). Develop or Adapt Data-Collection and -Analysis Mechanisms. Define the Population of Students for Whom Alternate Assessments Will Be Used. Multiple Disabilities. Types of School Teams. Third Edition (Bayley-III). The Effect of Pupil Characteristics on Assessment of Intelligence. Ways of Assessing Problem Behavior. Identify Data Sources. Steps for Completing a Functional Behavior Assessment. Specify Rewards and Sanctions. Individual Tests. Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (G-MADE). Establishing Educational Need for Special Education. Observing Language Behavior. Age and Adaptation. Establish a Solid Foundation for Assessment Efforts. Collection of Pupil Information. Second Edition (BASC-2). Periodic Technology-Enhanced Assessment Systems. Using Technology-Enhanced Measures. Why Do We Assess Infants. Terminology. Traumatic Brain Injury. Detail Recognition. Why Do We Assess Mathematics? Behaviors Sampled by Diagnostic Mathematics Tests. The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Family. Part IV: USING ASSESSMENT RESULTS TO MAKE EDUCATIONAL DECISIONS. 19. Visual Impairment.