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Selecting your population and samples
o sample
 part of population, data is collected.
 The recipient of the experimental treatment in experimental design or the
individuals to be observed in a non-experimental design
o Types of sampling
 Probability - equal presentation/ chances in the population.
 Simple random technique
o Used a single/identical group.
o Fish bowl technique
 Stratified random sampling
o You will first going to create a sub population from the
whole population before doing randomization.
o One population, you divide it.
 Cluster random sampling
o You will first create a sub area in a population before doing
the randomization. In one population, you make it smaller
 Systematic random sampling
o choosing a sample every nth name in the population.
o Multiple of 100 names
o Sampling frame – list of names appearing as your
population
 Non-probability sampling – you are not choosing by chance.
 Accidental/ convenience sampling
o Base on the accessibility/availability of your sample.
o Kung sino pinakamalapit syo, yun ang kukunin mo.
 Purposive/judgmental sampling
o base on the common knowledge or popular knowledge.
 Snow-ball sampling
o get sampling base on last referral
 Quota Sampling
o Setting criteria and getting samples fitting the criteria
Conducting pilot studies
Collecting data
o types :
 questionnaires – use of pen and paper method
 dichotomous – divided into two. Eg. true orfalse. Yes or no
 rating scale – poor 1, good 2, better 3, best 4
 multiple choice
 Interview – use of oral method of collection of data. Use of active listening
 Structured – with checklist, formal talk, list of question
 Unstructured – informal talk, no pattern, anything goes
 records – pre existing data
 observation – use of ocular method using your senses
 participant observation
 non-participant observation

mild.  It is affected by special feelings/treatment between the researcher and the sample. wt. male. severe  Interval  base on the distance between 2 numerical values  eg.    Problems : o Hawthorne’s effects  The data you get from your sample is not accurate. ht  ratio – 3:10 children are malnourish Interpretation of Data o 2 Methods  quantitative method – base on numerical or graphical standards  qualitative method – use of narrative words Communicating your conclusion o Explaining the results of your work to the public o Conclusion – final answer to your research o Recommendation – suggestion to others o Dissemination of Information  Methods :  thesis/book – written form  symposia/symposium – oral presentation  publish – a lot will be able to read your research . BP – 150/100 – 120/80. moderate. female.  The sample has a problem  Solution : double blind research – they should not be conscious that they are being studied o Halo effect  The researcher has a problem. Analysis of Data o part of research when the researcher is forming a body of knowledge out of data collected for the purpose of affirming or denying your hypothesis o Methods  Nominal method  get data by means of categories. circumference.  He is manipulating the data collection. income  Ordinal method – base on rank eg.  eg.