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Three Kinds of

An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type
of atom. For example, the element hydrogen is made from
atoms containing a single proton and a single electron.

Victor Gabriel F. Marte

Grade VI-A am Page

Victor Gabriel F. Marte

you would notice that most of the hydrogen atoms would have no neutrons. The Element Gold [Click for Isotope Data] 79 Au Gold 196.966569 Atomic Number: 79 Atomic Weight: 196. Others.18°C or 1947. copper and carbon. Some. For example. you change the type of element it is. If you change the number of neutrons an atom has. If you change the number of protons an atom has.33 K (1064.52°F) Boiling Point: 3129 K (2856°C or 5173°F) Density: 19. If you had very. Marte . some of them would have one neutron and a few of them would have two neutrons. very good eyes and could look at the atoms in a sample of hydrogen. All isotopes of a particular element have the same number of protons.An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom.966569 Melting Point: 1337. darmstadtium and ununquadium. aurum. scientists know of 118 different elements.282 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word Jval and the Anglo-Saxon word gold. have only recently been created by scientists. Gold's chemical symbol comes from the the latin word for gold. have been known for thousands of years. These different versions of hydrogen are called isotopes. silver. the element hydrogen is made from atoms containing a single proton and a single electron. Currently. like gold. such as meitnerium. but have a different number of neutrons. Grade VI-A am Page 2 Science Victor Gabriel F. you make an isotope of that element. All known elements are arranged on a chart called the Periodic Table of Elements.

such as silver. so an 18 carat gold ring contains 18 parts pure gold and 6 parts alloy material. Gold sodium thiosulfate (AuNa3O6S4) is used as a treatment for arthritis. decorative items. One carat is equal to one part in twenty-four. platinum or palladium. zinc or copper. There is roughly 1 milligram of gold dissolved in every ton of seawater. Chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) is used to preserve photographs by replacing the silver atoms present in an image. calcite (CaCO3). are primarily used in arts and crafts for gilding. quartz (SiO2). although extracting it currently costs more than the gold is worth. Estimated Crustal Abundance: 4×10-3 milligrams per kilogram Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 4×10-6 milligrams per liter Number of Stable Isotopes: 1 (View all isotope data) Ionization Energy: 9.226 eV Oxidation States: +3. gold has been known for at least 5500 years. Marte . to increase its strength. A single ounce of gold can be beaten into a sheet measuring roughly 5 meters on a side. known as gold leaf. Gold alloys are used to make jewelry. The amount of gold in an alloy is measured with a unit called a carat. or about 400 times thinner than a human hair. One sheet of gold leaf can be as thin as 0. Gold is sometimes found free in nature but it is usually found in conjunction with silver. It has been estimated that all of the gold that has currently been refined could be placed in a cube measuring 20 meters on a side. Gold is the most malleable and ductile of all known metals. Thin sheets of gold.Say what? Gold is pronounced as GOLD. History and Uses: An attractive and highly valued metal. Gold coated mirrors can be used to make telescopes that are sensitive to infrared light. A radioactive isotope of gold. so it can be used to make electrical connectors and printed circuit boards. copper. Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity and does not tarnish when it is exposed to the air. is used for treating cancer. Pure gold is soft and is usually alloyed with other metals. +1 Electron Shell Configuration: 1s2 2s2 3s2 4s2 5s2 6s1 2p6 3p6 3d10 4p6 4d10 4f14 5p6 5d10 Grade VI-A am Page 3 Science Victor Gabriel F. dental fillings and coins. lead.000127 millimeters. Gold is also a good reflector of infrared radiation and can be used to help shield spacecraft and skyscrapers from the sun's heat. tellurium. gold-198.

tenorite (CuO). which means "from the island of Cyprus. Today.32°F) Boiling Point: 2835 K (2562°C or 4644°F) Density: 8. which is where copper's name originated. Peru and Canada. Chile. Grade VI-A am Page 4 Science Victor Gabriel F.933 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word cuprum.546 Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Weight: 63. malachite (CuO3·Cu(OH)2). Zaire.000 years ago. The Roman Empire obtained most of its copper from the island of Cyprus. covellite (CuS) and bornite (Cu6FeS4). Large deposits of copper ore are located in the United States.The Element Copper [Click for Isotope Data] 29 Cu Copper 63. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using copper for at least 11. copper is primarily obtained from the ores cuprite (CuO2).77 K (1084.62°C or 1984. people discovered methods for extracting copper from its ores at least 7. Marte . Zambia. chalcocite (Cu2S)." Say what? Copper is pronounced as KOP-er. Relatively easy to mine and refine.000 years.546 Melting Point: 1357.

is used to fix dyes to fabrics. Estimated Crustal Abundance: 6. Cuperic chloride (CuCl2). Copper cyanide (CuCN) is commonly used in electroplating. using it to make such things as coins. screws and other hardware that must resist corrosion.0×101 milligrams per kilogram Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 2.5×10-4 milligrams per liter Number of Stable Isotopes: 2 (View all isotope data) Ionization Energy: 7. as an algicide in water purification and as a blue pigment for inks. Since it resists corrosion from the air. containers and ornamental items. Early people used bronze to make tools. Copper is also used to make water pipes and jewelry. Brass. copper is second only to silver in electrical conductance. is a mix of copper that contains as much as 25% tin.000 years ago that copper can be strengthened if it is mixed with other metals. Bronze. People first learned about 5. copper has been widely used in coins. as well as other items. moisture and seawater.726 eV Oxidation States: +2. Although once made nearly entirely from copper. was first used about 2.500 years ago. Marte . Hydrated copper sulfate (CuSO4·H2O). weaponry. another copper compound. a mix of copper that contains between 5% and 45% zinc. Cuprous chloride (CuCl) is a poisonous white powder that is chiefly used to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2). kettles and ornamental objects. is the best known copper compound. Pure copper is usually too soft for most uses. +1 Electron Shell Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1 Grade VI-A am Page 5 Science Victor Gabriel F. The two most familiar alloys of copper are bronze and brass. American pennies are now made from zinc that has been coated with copper. brass is also used in some musical instruments. Today.Used in large amounts by the electrical industry in the form of wire. also known as blue vitriol. The Romans were the first to make extensive use of brass. the first alloy created by people. It is used as an agricultural poison.

is used to make inks. It Grade VI-A am Page 6 Science Victor Gabriel F. History and Uses: Carbon. Amorphous carbon is formed when a material containing carbon is burned without enough oxygen for it to burn completely. the sixth most abundant element in the universe. Carbon is most commonly obtained from coal deposits.0107 Melting Point: 3823 K (3550°C or 6422°F) Boiling Point: 4098 K (3825°C or 6917°F) Density: 2. Three naturally occurring allotropes of carbon are known to exist: amorphous. This black soot. carbo.2670 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 14 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for charcoal. also known as lampblack. graphite and diamond. channel black or carbon black.The Element Carbon [Click for Isotope Data] 6 C Carbon 12. Marte . has been known since ancient times. although it usually must be processed into a form suitable for commercial use.0107 Atomic Number: 6 Atomic Weight: 12. paints and rubber products. gas black. Say what? Carbon is pronounced as KAR-ben.

a radioactive isotope of carbon with a half-life of 5. the black material used in pencils is actually graphite. the amount of carbon-14 in the environment remains constant because new carbon-14 is always being created in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays. Scientists know that a small amount of naturally occurring carbon is carbon-14. known as white carbon. in a form known as coke. These small diamonds are made by squeezing graphite under high temperatures and pressures for several days or weeks and are primarily used to make things like diamond tipped saw blades. among other things. is a form of carbon that is primarily used as a lubricant. These two forms have identical physical properties but different crystal structures. graphite and diamond differ only in their crystal structure. have recently been discovered and are currently the subject of much scientific interest. if the concentration of carbon-14 in the remains of an organism is half of the natural concentration of carbon-14. Although carbon-14 decays into nitrogen-14 throughbeta decay. Although they posses very different physical properties. is one of the hardest substances known. Once an organism dies. was produced in 1969. Living things tend to ingest materials that contain carbon. A single buckyball consists of 60 or 70 carbon atoms (C60 or C70) linked together in a structure that looks like a soccer ball. Although commonly called lead. scientists can estimate when that organism died. It is a transparent material that can split a single beam of light into two beams. a black tar residue remaining after the refinement of crude oil. For example. the third naturally occurring form of carbon. Naturally occurring graphite occurs in two forms. appear to be capable of withstanding great pressures and have magnetic and superconductive properties. Very little is known about this form of carbon. Carbon-14. a scientist would estimate that the organism died about 5. is used in large amounts in the production of steel. Marte . Grade VI-A am Page 7 Science Victor Gabriel F. a property known as birefringence. most commercial quality diamonds are artificially produced. All artificially produced graphite is of the alpha type. By measuring the percentage of carbon-14 in the remains of an organism. and by assuming that the natural abundance of carbon-14 has remained constant over time. In addition to its use as a lubricant. so the percentage of carbon-14 within living things is the same as the percentage of carbon-14 in the environment. graphite. it no longer ingests much of anything. most commercial graphite is produced by treating petroleum coke.can also be pressed into shapes and is used to form the cores of most dry cell batteries. Graphite. The carbon-14 within that organism is no longer replaced and the percentage of carbon-14 begins to decrease as it decays.730 years ago. the half-life of carbon-14. A fourth allotrope of carbon.730 years. known as buckminsterfullerenes. Coke is made by heating soft coal in an oven without allowing oxygen to mix with it. Although it does occur naturally. Although naturally occurring diamond is typically used for jewelry. Diamond. The theory behind carbon dating is fairly simple. Large molecules consisting only of carbon. in an oxygen-free oven. alpha and beta. or buckyballs. one of the softest materials known. They can trap other atoms within their framework. is used to find the age of formerly living things through a process known as radiocarbon dating.

Marte . -4 Electron Shell Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p2 Grade VI-A am Page 8 Science Victor Gabriel F. known as organic chemistry. ethylene (C2H4). carbon monoxide (CO). Estimated Crustal Abundance: 2. Many carbon compounds are essential for life as we know it. ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH).00×102 milligrams per kilogram Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 2. chloroform (CHCl3). methane (CH4). carbon disulfide (CS2). benzene (C6H6).260 eV Oxidation States: +4.There are nearly ten million known carbon compounds and an entire branch of chemistry. acetylene (C2H2). carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). is devoted to their study.8×101 milligrams per liter Number of Stable Isotopes: 2 (View all isotope data) Ionization Energy: 11. +2. Some of the most common carbon compounds are: carbon dioxide (CO2).