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MZUMBE UNIVERSITY

(MBEYA CAMPUS COLLEGE)

FACULTY OF LAW

RESEARCH REPORT ON

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS: AN
EXAMINATION OF THE LAW AND PRACTICE
A CASE STUDY OF ILALA MUNICIPALITY
BY.
JOHN MICHAEL

REGISTRATION NO.14813/T.11
SUPERVISOR: MR. VINCENT MTAVANGU

A COMPULSORY RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL
FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE
BACHELOR OF LAWS DEGREE (LL.B) OF THE MZUMBE UNIVERSITY.
JUNE, 2014

CERTIFICATION
I, the undersigned, certify that I have read and hereby recommend for acceptance by the
Mzumbe University, a dissertation entitled Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas:
Examination of the Law and Practice: A Case Study of Ilala Municipality, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for award of the Bachelor of Laws Degree (LL.B) of
Mzumbe University.

Signature
___________________________
Supervisor

i

DECLARATION
I, John Michael, declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not
been presented and will not be presented to any other university for a similar or any other
degree award.
Signature ___________________________
Date________________________________

ii

COPYRIGHT
© 2014
This dissertation is a copyright material protected under the Berne Convention, the
Copyright Act 1999 and other international and national enactments, in that behalf, on
intellectual property. It may not be reproduced by any means in full or in part, except for
short extracts in fair dealings, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or
discourse with an acknowledgement, without the written permission of Mzumbe
University, on behalf of the author.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the course of writing this dissertation I have received tremendous support and assistance
from many people. First and foremost, I am grateful to My God, Almighty, the unfailing
Father, for making my journey of life and my LLB Programme possible. I learned that he
makes a way even where there seems to be no way. I recognise his blimey and I am always
in endless owe.
Special thanks go to my supervisor, Mr. Vincent Mtavangu, for his critical pieces of
advices and valuable guidance, the tireless support in revising, correcting and maintaining
accuracy to this research. This research could not have come to a successful conclusion
without the assistance and support that I received from him. His support made me realise
my potential to engage in academic and challenging thoughts.
I would like also to express my gratitude to the members of my large family who never
ceased to encourage and support me during my LLB studies, viz., Nuhu Suleiman, Daud
Matandiko, Dyness Nyachi, Kallaghe Rashid, Mary Mallya and those I cannot name here.
You offered me enriching, unique and unforgettable experience for which I am always
grateful; you will always have a place in my heart.
I am also indebted to my classmates whose meticulous critiques on my dissertation remain
exceptional; these include Ponela Cletus, Moshi Emmanuel, Mwanri Isaya, Kitime Eliud,
Funuki Sikujua, Mbaya Abdallah, Twaha Musa, Masota Petro, and Mtaki Kurwijila. Their
critical comments on my research importantly stretched my thoughts outside the box.
Although any sins of commission or omission are mine.
I would like also to express thanks to Ilala Solid Waste Department, especially Mr.
Pearson Kabantega and Mr. Bubegwa for making the opportunity available to all who
aspire to work for the betterment of the Municipality and the realisation of environmental
conservation. My field work would not have been meaningful had it not been for the
homely environment and support I found at the Department, your advice and assistance
has molded my work into what it is now. However, overall responsibility for the accuracy
of this research remains mine.

iv

DEDICATION
To the memory of my father, John Marere Michael. I would have been cheeriest person if
you lived longer to see this day as it was your desire. You will always be in my heart.
To my mother Naomi Daud Agutu, for everything you have done for me since I was born.
You are my second God under the sun, may you live long to see the fruit of your womb.
To my young sisters Adelina, Lucresia and Flaviana, for your love, encouragement,
patience, understanding, prayers, moral support and constant attention. My love and
appreciation go to you at all times. Brother has done this masterpiece; I believe this
inspires you to pursue your dreams.
To my brother Elly John Marere, for your support, love, constant attention and
encouragement, despite the distance.
To Mr. Sylvester Matandiko, although you are suffering from a sickness which positions
you in an unhealthy state, you have always been a catalyst towards my achievement. I
trust that God Almighty, to whom we have all our confident, will heal you from the
sickness.
To Mrs. Sylvester Matandiko, I could not have done this research without you, you have
been pivotal towards this success and always an inspiration in my career.

v

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AIR

=

All India Report

CAP

=

Chapter

CBO’s

=

Community Based Organisations

DAWASCO =

Dar-es-salaam Water and Sewage Company

DCC

=

Dar-es-salaam City Council

E.A

=

East Africa

e.g.

=

Exempli Gratia

EIA

=

Environmental Impact Assessment

EMA

=

Environmental Management Act

EMO

=

Environment Management Officer

EWURA

=

Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Agency

G.N

=

Government Notice

Hrs.

=

Hours

Http.

=

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTM

=

Hypertext Markup

Ibid

=

Ibidem

i.e.

=

Id Est.

ICT

=

Information and Communication Technology

ISWM

=

Integrated Solid Waste Management

IMC

=

Ilala Municipal Council

Kg.

=

Kilogram
vi

Km.

=

Kilometre

Ltd.

=

Limited

MCC

=

Mbeya Campus College

Misc.

=

Miscellaneous

MSW

=

Municipal Solid Waste

NEMC

=

National Environmental Management Council

NEP

=

National Environmental Policy

NGO’s

=

Non-Governmental Organizations

No.

=

Number

Pg.

=

Page

PPP

=

Public Private Partnership

RCC

=

Refuse Collection Fees

R.E

=

Revised Edition

SIDS’s

=

Small Island Developing States

SWM

=

Solid Waste Management

SWMP’s

=

Solid Waste Management Projects

TANESCO

=

Tanzania Electrical Supply Company

Tshs.

=

Tanzanian Shillings

UN

=

United Nations

UNDP

=

United Nations Development Project

V

=

Versus

Viz.

=

Videlicet
vii

WB

=

World Bank

WWW

=

World Wide Web

viii

ABSTRACT
This research report examines the law and practice on solid waste management in urban
areas, taking Ilala Municipality as the case study. The spirit behind the undertaking of this
research was that most of the urban areas in Tanzania seem to be tremendously affected
by solid waste notwithstanding the resilient efforts of the local government in countering
the same.
The filthy environment in most urban centers of Tanzania such as Dar-es-salaam and
Mwanza to mention but few is the mirror image of the problem of poor solid waste
management. In investigating the root cause of this status quo this research mounted
different objectives respectively viz. to examine the laws on whether they cater the need
for community in solid waste management in urban areas, to examine the practice as
whether it complies with the legal framework on solid waste management in urban areas
and to explore the role of the community and other stakeholders in management of solid
waste in urban areas.
In triumphing the above objectives this research enclosed different questions in respect
viz. is the legal framework for solid waste management in urban areas sufficient? , what
is the practice in solid waste management in urban areas vis-à-vis legal framework? , and
lastly, are the community members and other stakeholders active on solid waste
management? In reverence to these questions the research found that; -the legal
framework on solid waste management in urban areas is sufficient, the practice in solid
waste management in urban areas vis-à-vis legal framework is not satisfactory and finally,
the community members and other stakeholders on solid waste management are active.
Lastly, this research derived some recommendations from the findings some of which
are;- to establish independent and autonomous Authority to deal with solid waste
management, formalisation of the solid waste sector, establishment of the national
professional body for solid waste management, legislation of the law which are up to date
and cope with social changes, fostering cooperation of public with other actors on solid
waste management, provision of public awareness on solid waste management etc.

ix

LIST OF STATUTES AND POLICIES
International Instruments
Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
and Disposal of 1989.
Bamako Convention on Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Trans-boundary
movements of Hazardous Wastes within Africa of 1991.
Municipal Laws
Constitution
The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1997 [as amended time to time]
Principal Legislation
The Environmental Management Act [Act No.20 of 2004]
The Public Health Act [Act No. 1 of 2009]
The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act [CAP 288 R.E 2002]
The Local Government (District Authorities) Act [CAP 287 R.E 2002]
Subsidiary Legislation
Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-laws [G.N 111 of 2011]
National Policies
The National Environmental Policy of 1997

x

LIST OF CASES
Tanzanian Cases
Festo Balegele v. Dar-es-salaam City Council [Misc. Civil Case No. 90 of 1991]
Foreign Cases
Vellore Citizen Welfare Form v. Union of India and others [AIR 1996 SC 2715]

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LIST OF ANNEXTURES
Annexure A
Ordinary Citizens Questionnaire …………………………………………………… Pg.62
Annexure B
Solid Waste Stakeholders Questionnaire …………………………………………... Pg. 64
Annexure C
Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-laws [G.N 111 of 2011]……… Pg. 68

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification ....................................................................................................................... i
Declaration ........................................................................................................................ ii
Copyright .......................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................... iv
Dedication ............................................................................................................. ............ v
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms ................................................................................ vi
Abstract ............................................................................................................................. ix
List of Statutes and Policies ............................................................................................... x
List of Cases ..................................................................................................................... xi
List of Annexures ............................................................................................................. xii
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................... xiii

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
1:0 Introduction. ................................................................................................................. 1
1:1 Background of the Problem. ....................................................................................... 2
1:2 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................. 2
1:3 Objectives of the Study ................................................................................................ 4
1:3:1 General Objective ..................................................................................................... 4
1:3:2 Specific Objectives ................................................................................................... 4
1:4 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................. 4
1:5 Research Questions ...................................................................................................... 5
xiii

1:6 Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 5
1:7 The Scope of the Study .............................................................................................. 10
1:8 Research Design and Methodology ........................................................................... 10
1:8:1 Research Design ..................................................................................................... 10
1:8:2 Sampling Technique................................................................................................ 11
1:8:3 Sample Size ............................................................................................................ 11
1:8:4 Sample Selection. ................................................................................................... 11
1:8:5 Research Methodology ........................................................................................... 11
1:8:5:1 Field Research and Library Research .................................................................. 11
1:8:6 Data Collection ....................................................................................................... 12
1:8:7 Field Research ........................................................................................................ 12
1:8:8 Interview ................................................................................................................. 12
1:8:9 Observation ............................................................................................................. 12
1:8:10 Questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 12
1:8:11 Library Research ................................................................................................... 13
1:8:12 Documentary Review ........................................................................................... 13
1:8:13 Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 13
1:8:14 Limitation of the Study ......................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
URBAN AREAS
2:0 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 15
xiv

2:1:0 Conceptualisation of the Key Concepts .................................................................. 15
2:1:1 Waste ...................................................................................................................... 15
2:1:1:1 Categories of Waste in Ilala Municipality ........................................................... 16
2:1:2 Solid Waste ............................................................................................................. 18
2:1:3:0 Effects of Solid Waste .......................................................................................... 19
2:1:3:1 Effects of Solid Waste on Terrestrial and Aquatic Life ....................................... 19
2:1:3:2 Effects of Solid Waste on Health ......................................................................... 20
2:1:3:3 Effects of Solid Waste On Landscape .................................................................. 21
2:1:4:0 Solid Waste Management .................................................................................... 21
2:1:4:1 Source Reduction ................................................................................................ 21
2:1:4:2 Recycling ............................................................................................................ 22
2:1:5:0 Solid Waste Disposal ........................................................................................... 22
2:1:5:1 Composting .......................................................................................................... 23
2:1:5:2 Vermicomposting ................................................................................................. 23
2:1:5:3 Incineration .......................................................................................................... 24
2:1:5:4 Land-Filling ........................................................................................................ 24
2:1:6 Urban Authority ...................................................................................................... 24
2:1:7 Experienced Problems relating to Solid Waste Management in Ilala
Municipality ..................................................................................................................... 25
2:1:7:1 Insufficient Resource Mobilization ..................................................................... 25
2:1:7:2 Selection of Appropriate Technologies ................................................................ 25
2:1:7:3 Privatization Problems ......................................................................................... 25
2:2 Environmental Management Principles Relating to Solid Waste Management ........ 26
xv

2:2:1 The Precautionary Principle ................................................................................... 26
2:2:2 The Polluter Pays Principle..................................................................................... 27
2:2:3 The Public Participation Principle .......................................................................... 27
2:2:4 Waste Minimisation Principle ................................................................................. 27
2:2:5 Principle of Sustainable Use ................................................................................... 28
2:3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 28

CHAPTER THREE
LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS IN TANZANIA
3:0 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 29
3:1:0 Legal Framework .................................................................................................... 29
3:1:1 Environmental Management Act ............................................................................ 29
3:1:2 Public Health Act .................................................................................................... 31
3:1:3 The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act .................................................... 32
3:1:4 Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-Law of 2011 ......................... 34
3:2:0 Institutional Framework .......................................................................................... 35
3:2:1 Institutions at National (Central) Level .................................................................. 35
3:2:1:1The Minister Responsible for Environment ......................................................... 35
3:2:1:2 The National Environmental Advisory Committee ............................................. 36
3:2:1:3 The Director of Environment............................................................................... 36
3:2:1:4 National Environment Management Council [NEMC] ....................................... 37
3:2:1:5 Sector Ministries .................................................................................................. 38
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3:2:2:0 Institutions at Regional Level .............................................................................. 39
3:2:2:1 Regional Secretariat ............................................................................................ 39
3:2:3:0 Institutions at Local Level ................................................................................... 39
3:2:3:1 Municipal Environment Management Officer .................................................... 39
3:2:3:2 Standing Committee on Urban Planning and Environment ................................ 40
3:2:3:3 Ward Development Committee ........................................................................... 40
3:2:3:4 Township, Ward, Village, Mtaa and Kitongoji Environment Management
Officer .............................................................................................................................. 41
3:3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 41

CHAPTER FOUR
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS ON AN EXAMINATION OF
THE LAW AND PRACTICE ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN URBAN
AREAS.

4:0 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 42
4:1:0 Research Findings .................................................................................................. 43
4:1:1 Is the Legal Framework for Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas
Sufficient? ........................................................................................................................ 43
4:1:2 What is The Practice in Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas Vis-À-Vis Legal
Framework? ..................................................................................................................... 46
4:1:3 Are the Community Members and Other Stakeholders on Solid Waste
Management Active? ....................................................................................................... 49
xvii

4:2 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 50
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND GENERAL CONCLUSION
5:0 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 52
5:1 Summary ................................................................................................................... 52
5:2:0 Recommendations................................................................................................... 54
5:2:1 Recommendations to the Central Government ...................................................... 54
5:2:2 Recommendations to the Local Government ......................................................... 56
5:2:3 Recommendations to the Legislators ..................................................................... 57
5:2:4 Recommendations to the Political Leaders ............................................................. 57
5:2:5 Recommendations to the General Public ................................................................ 57
5:3 General Conclusion .................................................................................................... 58
5:4 Proposed Area for Future Research .......................................................................... 58
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................ 59
ANNEXTURES .............................................................................................................. 62

xviii

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
1.0 Introduction
Degradation of the environment is one of the major issue of today’s life, it is not only in
the sites with pockets of poverty but also equally significant booming parts of expanding
urban areas.1A need to protect environment has become of paramount important for
decades now due to the mankind consciousness that sustainable development can take
place at a cost of environment only and thus the rejection of the same is like a foolish man
who tries to cut down the very branch of tree on which he is sitting.2
Solid waste management is a major responsibility of local government. It is a complex
task which requires appropriate organisational capacity and cooperation between
numerous stakeholders both in the private and public sectors. Even though it is essential
to public health and environmental protection, solid waste management in most cities of
developing countries in particular Tanzania is highly unsatisfactory.3
Since the colonial era, solid waste management in urban areas has been regarded as a
public goods or service whereby the Government has the duty to provide the solid waste
management service, and the public has to pay for that service.4
However, urban local authorities’ problems such as poor solid waste management are
often considered as problems that need long-term solutions, which Tanzanian cities and
towns cannot explicitly afford due to the weak financial structure and institutional
incapacity of urban local authorities to handle these problems.5

1

Anand, S. (2010), Solid waste management, New Delhi-India: Mittal Publication pg.5
Myneni, S.R. (2008),Environmental Law, New Delhi-India: Asia Law House pg.2
3
Peter Schubeler et.al (1996) , Conceptual framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Lowincome Countries , 1st Edition, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Switzerland , pg.9
4
Ntakamulenga, R. The status of solid waste management in Tanzania, A paper presented during the Coastal
East Africa Solid Waste workshop held in Flic en Flac, Mauritius(10–13 September 2012),pg.7
5
Ibid, pg.8
2

1

With regard to challenges facing solid waste management in urban areas and with due
respect that cities and towns grow and generate more solid waste, the environmental
impact from solid waste become gradually unbearable. Therefore this Research has been
conducted on the examination of the laws and practice on solid waste management in
urban areas taking Ilala Municipality in Dar-es-salaam as the case study.
1.1 Background of the Problem
Solid waste management has been an urban problem over the past decades. Every person
is a potential generator of waste and thus a contributor to this problem. To generate waste
is one thing, the type of waste produced is another and yet the way the generated waste is
managed or disposed of is quite a different issue.
It is usual that the rate at which solid waste is generated is far higher than the capacity to
responsibly manage such waste. Waste is generated by, and from different sectors;
domestic, commercial, industry and others.6
Tanzania is one of the countries in the world that rank higher in urbanization and urban
population growth. For instance Dar-es-salaam city has the population growth rate of
about 4.3%.7 The inference of this speedy growth of population in urban areas is that
pollution issues such as solid waste management need closer attention.
As Tanzania’s urban areas increase in number and expand in geographical and population
size, solid waste is expeditiously emerging as a significant issue in environmental
management. Even though there are established legal framework for solid waste
management, still there is a necessity for an examination of the laws and practice of the
same specifically on solid waste management.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Currently, solid waste management is a growing problem due to an increasing
urbanisation, rural-urban migration, rising standard of living and rapid development

6

Kirunda, M.P (2009), Public Participation in Solid Waste Management: Challenges and Prospects (MSc.
Development Management Thesis) , The University of Agder, Kristiansand, pg.1
7
http://www.dcc.go.tz/projects/dmdp.html. Accessed on 23rd October at 14:20hrs

2

associated with population growth that have resulted in increased solid waste generation
by industrial, domestic and other activities.
Ilala Municipality is estimated to produce about 1,088 tons of solid waste per day, basing
on a generation rate of 0.8 kg per person per day.8 The collection rate is around 424 tons
per day which is approximately 39% of all solid waste generated per day.9
Despite the initiatives taken by the Government in environmental management and
protection such as signing and ratification of various International treaties10 and setting up
the domestic legal and institutional framework on the protection and management of
environment,

11

still solid waste management provides some different if not unique

challenges as there are consequently many ‘grey areas’ that lead to uncertainty and
confusion when it comes to the practice of the laid down legal framework.12
In 2010 the International Rating Company known as NYC Partnership Consulting,
consulted a study upon which Dar-es-Salaam city was declared the eighth (8th) dirtiest city
in the world.13 Hence, all these dynamics necessitated the undertaking of this research on
solid waste management which provides the answer of questions related to solid waste
management stream vide the examination of the laws as well as the practice on the solid
waste management particularly in urban areas which might affect changes on the status
quo by suggesting different types of legal measures to encourage solid waste minimization
in urban areas for the sustainable development as well as the progress of not only the
contemporary but also the upcoming generations.

8

http://www.imc.go.tz/2/index.php/component/content/article/34-solid-waste-management/50-solid-wastemanagement. Accessed on 23rd October , 2013 at 14:05hrs
9
http://www.imc.go.tz/2/index.php/component/content/article/34-solid-waste-management/50-solid-wastemanagement. Accessed on 23rd October , 2013 at 14:10hrs
10
Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
and
Bamako Convention on Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes within Africa are example of International Conventions
11
Environmental Management Act[Act no.20 of 2004] and Public Health Act[Act no. of 2009] are example
of domestic legislation
12
Bell, S. and Donald, M. (2008), Environmental Law, 7th Edition, London: Oxford University Press ,pg.632
13
This Day; The voice of Transparency 1st March 2010

3

1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General Objective of the Study
The research aimed at making an examination of the law and practice in entire role of the
government, its agencies, community and the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s)
in management of the solid waste in the urban areas with the focus on the legal mandate
vested to them and the practice thereto.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
i.

To examine the laws on whether they cater the need for the community in solid
waste management in urban areas.

ii.

To examine the practice as whether it complies with the legal framework on the
solid waste management in urban areas.

iii.

To explore the role of the community and other stakeholders in management of
solid waste in urban areas.

1.4 Significance of the Study
This Research is significant as it afford the adequate knowledge and understanding on the
laws that governs solid waste management and the practice thereto particularly in the
urban areas, which acquaint the law enforcers and other environment stakeholders on a
need to revisit the law where necessary and to resort into the best practice for the proper
management of solid waste in the urban areas.
The study is as well significant as it assess the role of the private sector, NonGovernmental Organisations (NGO’s) and the informal sector and reveal the need for
capacity building so as to strengthen their ability to minimise solid waste in the urban
areas and at the same time providing social and economic benefits to communities in urban
areas.

4

Also, this work is momentous to the legislators in the sense that it lay a foundation in
making the laws and by laws which are logical, reasonable and relevant to the community
needs and dynamics as it endow enough knowledge on the weakness and the challenges
facing the legal framework on solid waste management particularly in urban areas where
the problem seems more apprehensive.
Moreover, the study is obliging to the urban councils in particular Ilala Municipal Council
as it bestow the opportunities for innovative and integrated approach for sustainable solid
waste management as it effectively address local conditions pertaining to solid waste
management such as institutional framework, technical and human capacities, sociopolitical situation and waste characteristics.
1.5 Research Questions
i.

Is the legal framework for solid waste management in urban areas sufficient?

ii.

What is the practice in solid waste management in urban areas vis-à-vis legal
framework?

iii.

Are the community members and other stakeholders active on solid waste
management?

1.6 Literature Review
Solid waste management has attracted the attention of various environmentalist, social
scientist, engineers, lawyers, planners, administrators, academicians and a number of
researchers. The following has been an attempt on the review of the literature available
related to solid waste management in different perspective in the contemporary era;Ntakamulenga, R.14 in his paper stated that, solid waste management (collection,
transportation and disposal) is one of the key duties of all urban authorities in Tanzania
and that it is a legal obligation in accordance with the Local Government Act 15 Section
55(g) and The Environmental Management Act.16 He remained of the opinion that due to

14

The status of solid waste management in Tanzania, A paper presented during the Coastal East Africa Solid
Waste workshop held in Flic en Flac, Mauritius ,(10–13 September 2012),
15
[CAP 288 RE 2002]
16
Act No.20 of 2004

5

rapid urban growth, coupled with scarcity of funds, many urban authorities are facing, and
the reluctance of the urban dwellers to pay for the services, represents a phenomenal
challenge. Hence, while cities and towns are generating an ever increasing volume of
waste, the effectiveness of their solid waste collection, transportation and disposal systems
are declining.
This literature is relevant in the sense that the author touches directly on the issue of solid
waste management by presupposing the causes of poor solid waste management in most
of the urban areas. However, the author has not thoroughly made an examination of the
legal framework guiding the issue of solid waste management in urban areas; hence the
research to be conducted will come up with a thorough examination of the legal
framework on the issue of solid waste management in urban areas taking a case study of
Ilala Municipality.
Lubuva, J.M.17 in his work wrote that, waste management systems, water and sanitation
situation, pollution and littering, environmental awareness and education and the role of
local government authorities, policy makers, the private sector and communities in
maintaining clean and healthy environment in Tanzania’s cities and towns. He had also
discussed the current situation by making evaluation of the changing institutional
framework of laws, policies, programs and plans as well as the organisational set up as it
evolved over time.
This literature is of vital importance as the author touches various areas on environmental
management inter alia being solid waste management. However, the author being too
general he has not intensively dealt with the issue of solid waste management. Hence, the
research to be conducted being specific on solid waste management it will provide a
comprehensive knowledge on the same.

‘Cleaning the Towns and Cities of Tanzania: A collective responsibility’ The paper presented during the
forum held at the Tanzania Global Distance Learning Centre (TGDLC), Block A, IFM Building, Serengeti
Room.(17th January 2012)
17

6

Liyala, C.M.18 in her book stated that the performance of local authorities is vital for high
quality flow of key public services such as solid waste management in three urban Centres
bordering the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa, Kisumu, Jinja and Mwanza. She had
shown that for solid waste management arrangements for service provision in the urban
Centres have evolved in direct response to locally specific conditions. She argued that
‘modernised mixtures’ are important for improving the performance of local authorities
in waste service provision, since they offer flexible perspectives which build upon existing
state capacities in the particular East African Contexts.
This literature is pertinent in the sense that the author has exposed the issues on solid waste
management in East African context taking the case of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.
However, the author has not addressed the problem much in legal perspective; henceforth
the research to be conducted will highlight the issue in legal outlook.
Dulo, S.19 in his book identified that, solid waste tends to have moisture contents as high
as 70%. This moisture translates into leachate as the waste drains. He further argued that
Urban Councils are grappling with challenges of preventing environmental degradation
due to non-systematic solid waste management and the impetus in pollution control is
rather slow and seems to be mostly crisis driven. He also suggested that in the three towns
of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu there should be decentralization of authority and
administrative measures to build the powers and capacities of local governments
commensurate with their solid waste management (SWM) responsibilities.
This literature is significant to the effect that the author has uncovered the causes of
environmental degradation inter alia being solid waste. Nevertheless, the study being
conducted in Kenya does not clearly reflect the situation in Tanzania, therefore the
research to be conducted will be specific conducted in Tanzania with regard to Ilala
municipality as a case study.

18

Modernising Solid Waste Management at Municipal Level: Institutional Arrangements in Urban Centres
of East African, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.(2011)
19
Solid Waste Management, VDM Publishing,(2010)

7

Ezekiel, E.20 in his work explored involvement of the private companies and Community
Based Organisations (CBO) in household solid waste management .He further expounded
and map stakeholders inherent diversity and dynamism and propose for solid waste
privatization and core impediments to waste management.
This literature is germane in the sense that the author has critical analysed the role of other
actors other than the government in solid waste management. However, this literature has
been confined in the household solid waste management thus the research to be conducted
will cover a wide range of solid waste management not only household.
Solomon, A.O21explained that Household solid waste management is a severe problem in
East Africa Capital Cities. She has also developed a new conceptual framework for
analyzing a role of households in solid waste management in East Africa’s capital cities.
She also added to the scanty body of scientific knowledge of sustainable waste
management by householders in East African countries.
This literature is important as it provides more knowledge on sustainable management of
household solid waste. However, the author has a little focus on the legal frame work and
has been more specific to household solid waste therefore; the research to be conducted
will address broadly the issue of solid waste management with regard to the legal
framework.
Thomas, E.M.22 raised critical issues in the management of solid waste and offered a basis
for discussion among the wide range of disciplines and sector involved in solid waste
management and suggested directions for future work in the practical dimensions of the
challenge with which developing countries are confronted.
This literature is encyclopedic to the effect that the author has been successful in giving
multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach in solid waste management in a practical
manner. Despite, the author having referred her work to the developing countries in
20

Municipal Solid Waste Management, LAP Lambert Acad Publishers, (2011).
The Role of Households in Solid Waste Management in East Africa Capital Cities, The Netherlands:
Wageningen Academic Publishers.(2011)
22
Solid Waste Management: Critical issues for Developing Countries, Kingston Jamaica: Canoe Press
University of the West Indies,(1998)
21

8

general yet Tanzania provide different experience in solid waste management thus the
research to be conducted will cover up the situation specifically in Tanzania.
Diaz, L.F et al.23 suggested the use of technologies that are environmentally sound for
managing municipal solid wastes in developing countries, in their work they have covered
a multitude of the principles of solid waste management processing and treatment. They
have also discussed on the key non-technical aspects, and offered regional overviews on
solid waste management.
This work is of principally sound in as far as the solid waste management concerns as the
authors have given a scientific approach to combat solid waste in urban areas. However,
their work has not based directly to East African region particularly Tanzania and the
authors have not elaborate clearly the legal framework on the same, hence, this work will
reveal the problem in Tanzanian context with due regard to the legal framework.
Singh, J et al24 in their piece of work analysed that human being in their ignorance and
lack of foresight, have now created so much inorganic waste that the whole planet is
suffering from pollution in the air in the rivers and oceans of the world as well as on the
landmasses. They had also dealt intensively with the aspect of organic and inorganic waste
management and explain how each type of waste must be correctly dealt with if mankind
is to decrease the outbreak of disease thereby ensuring that all inhabitants of the planet
earth have a healthy future. They also emphasized on the responsibility and steps that each
individual must take in every country of the world so as to take the earth to her former
glory in 21st Century.
The authors have been successful in the sense that they have addressed the problem of
solid waste management intensively as they have touched the impact of solid waste in
human health. However, their study having been taken in India it rarely reveals the
situation in Tanzania, thus the research to be done will cover the same in Tanzanian
context.

23

Solid Waste Management, Vol. 1, United Nations Environment Programme, (2005)
Solid Waste Management: Present and future challenges, New Delhi- India: I.K International (Pvt)
Ltd.(2010)
24

9

Squires, C.O.25 in his paper, indicated that sustainable solid waste management is a
relatively new discipline in small island developing states and success of solid waste
management has been threatened by social risks associated with the inadequate inclusion
of the public in decision making on solid waste management projects. He had also dealt
with the aspect on how the timely and consistent application of appropriate public
participation plans may assist in reducing project risks and enhancing efficiency in solid
waste management.
This paper is relevant to the sense that it merges the concept of solid waste management
in small island developing states which seems to be a new phenomenon. Nevertheless,
being concentrated much on small island developing states the author has skipped some
issues on solid waste management in non-island states such as Tanzania (mainland), hence
the research to be conducted will cover on the aspect of solid waste in non-island state.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam city council particularly in Ilala
municipality which is amongst the areas extremely affected by solid waste which has been
stimulated by the high rate of urbanization coupled with the growth of spontaneous
settlements, which are both subserviced and highly inaccessible.
This research involved different stakeholders including legal professionals, academicians,
and government officials, officials from Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) and
common people from the areas directly affected by solid waste disposition. The scope
chosen enabled the researcher to obtain information from different set of individuals
relevant to the study.
1.8 Research Design and Methodology
1.8.1 Research Design
The design of this research based utterly on the case study, this was due to the shortage of
time given for the research as well as other resources challenges such as financial

25

Public Participation in Solid Waste Management in Small Island Developing states,(October 2006),

10

resources and human resources. The research was confined in Ilala municipality for
primary data collection; secondary data collection was done through visiting the
Tanganyika library in Dar-es-Salaam, Ilala municipal council headquarters office and
Mzumbe University (Mbeya Campus College) library and Information Communication
Technology (ICT) Centre.
1.8.2 Sampling Technique
The research was conducted to different group of persons which involved individuals of
variety occupations such as academicians, legal practitioners, waste management officers,
solid waste collectors, NGO’s officials and common people from areas dramatically
affected with the solid waste dispositions. This allowed the researcher to have a
considerable sample for obtaining information which was relevant to the study.
1.8.3 Sample Size
The sample size of the research included a total of twenty respondents ranging from three
(3) academicians, three (3) legal practitioners, three (3) environmental officers, five (5)
common people, three (3) NGO’s officials and three (3) solid waste collectors.
1.8.4 Sample Selection
Sample selection based on group of individuals of different disciplines of study and
common people. This particular sample selection enhanced the researcher to acquire
relevant information pertaining to the research.
The academicians and legal practitioners acquainted the researcher with knowledge on the
legal framework on the solid waste management and get the information on the
examination of the laws as to whether they are sufficient or not in catering the demand of
the community in the urban areas.
Environmental officers, common people, NGO’s officials and solid waste collectors
availed the researcher with the knowledge on the practice in as far as the solid waste
management in urban areas concerns, as them being the direct actors and affected interest

11

in the entire process of solid waste management they were obviously in the position to
reveal on the practice taken vis-à-vis the law.
1.8.5 Research Methodology
1.8.5.1 Field Research and Library Research
The researcher conducted the research with Ilala Municipal Council. The field study aided
the researcher to collect the raw primary data from different respondents.
1.8.6 Data Collection
Data were collected both in primary and secondary data; in collecting primary data the
researcher used numerous tools for primary data collection such as interview,
questionnaire and observation. Secondary data were collected through documentary
review.
1.8.7 Field Research
The field research was used to collect primary raw data; the methods which were used to
collect the data were interview, observation and questionnaire. The interviews were both
structured and unstructured so as to get first-hand information from the interviewee.
1.8.8 Interview
An interview is basically an interaction, where questions are posed or a discussion takes
place, between two or more people with a specific purpose in mind. A researcher
employed Interview as the research tool in the field with a view of collecting information.
The researcher opted to use a combination of both structured and unstructured interview.
The use of interview made the respondents feel free with the issues being discussed and
that the flexibility of this tool helped the researcher in getting in-depth information on the
problem of the study in the sense that it was done face to face, hence, it allowed an
interviewee to seek clarification on the kind of questions that the researcher asked.
1.8.9 Observation

12

The researcher also used observation in collecting primary data. Observation helped the
researcher to discover issues that could not come out from interviews and those that were
concealed, either knowingly or unknowingly by the respondents. Observation involved
close follow-up, observing events in the field and synchronizing them within the context
of the theme of the study and at last draw a conclusion.
1.8.10 Questionnaire
A questionnaire is a written list of questions prepared in a series form by the researcher
on a given legal problem that are sent to respondents. The researcher made use of this
method in primary data collection in the field through commencing the process of
discovery from the perspective of the respondent. This method was chosen due to the fact
that questionnaires when carefully crafted and administered, they are very useful tool for
getting data from specific groups or people or entire populations on the identified legal
problem.
Questionnaires were both close-ended and open-ended, this tool were useful in time and
financial management as well as enhanced the researcher in getting the relevant answers
in accordance to the nature of the problem of the study.
1.8.11 Library Research
This method was engaged by the researcher as the second source of findings through
library research, it helped the researcher to overcome the problem of integrating with
subjects, saving time as well as in verifying genuineness.
1.8.12 Documentary Review
In gathering information, relevant documents were examined and consulted to supplement
the primary data. The documents reviewed included the ones available at Ilala Municipal
Council at Dar-es-salaam and Mzumbe University (Mbeya Campus College) library
concerning the research topic which is about solid waste management in urban areas: an
examination of the law and practice.

13

The essence of this method rests on the undisputable fact that not every literal work is
published, many works are kept off-public and remain exclusively for offices use only ,
so the only way the researcher could obtain relevant information from these sources was
through documentary review which were very effective and resourceful.
1.8.13 Data Analysis
The analysis of data was done qualitatively through translating; interpreting

data into

themes, the synthesis of themes were made by abstracting meanings from the themes and
interpreting them focusing the meanings into research objectives.

1.8.15 Limitation of the Study
The study encountered some limitations such as lack of co-operation amongst the
members of the Municipal to disclose some information pertaining to the research as they
in one way or another injured their interest. Another constraint was time as the time given
was hardly three months which affected the accomplishment of the research with regard
to the field data collection.
Moreover, due to the fact that data on the study were anticipated to be collected from
different sources and places, financial constraint to effect travel in different places led to
inadequate data to meet the objective of the study.

14

CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
URBAN AREAS
2.0 Introduction
This chapter offers definitions and meanings of the central concepts on solid waste
management (SWM) in urban areas in relation to the problem of the study. The meanings
and definitions of the terms in relation to the problem of the study are offered due to the
fact that terms or concepts in social sciences subjects which include but not limited to law
are bound to have different interpretations and meanings depending on one’s view of the
world, experience and frame of reference, so being aware of the fundamental concepts as
have been used in this study will set the focus on the main theme of the problem, hence it
will enhance easy and pragmatic understanding of the problem of this study.26
In furtherance this chapter also elucidates in nutshell the environmental law principles
which are relevant to solid waste management as have been propounded in different
environmental conventions, conferences, policy and legislations as the matter of widening
the understanding of the problem undertaken by this study.
2.1.0 Conceptualisation of the Key Concepts
In undertaking this research it is paramount important to conceptualise different key
concepts which relate to the problem, as far as this study concerns the following are the
important key concepts in relation to the problem;2.1.1 Waste
Waste is the vast concept which may mean various things in its broad sense, however,
Myneni27 construe waste to mean any substance that is discarded, they are rubbish or

26

Warioba M.D and Warioba L.M (2012) , Local Government Reforms in Tanzania, Mzumbe University ,
Morogoro-Tanzania, pg.1
27
Myneni S.R (2008) , Environmental Law, New Edition , Asia Law House , Hyderabad , pg. 150

15

materials that are not needed and are economically unusable without further processing.
It may also mean any material that is not needed by the owner, producer or processor.
Waste may be in liquid, gas or solid form and originate from a wide range of human
operations, such as industry, commerce, transport, agriculture, medicine and domestic
activities. Waste has always been a part of the earth’s eco-system, but its nature and scale
were such that the eco-system could use it in its many cycles.28
The consequences of a material or substance being determined to be waste are important
as such material will be subject to regulatory controls, with accompanying costs, and will
also be perceived more negatively by the public. However, deciding whether a material or
substance is waste is probably one of the most complex areas of environmental law.29
In Tanzania the current definition of waste is provided for under the Environmental
Management Act30 which defines waste to mean any matter whether liquid, solid, gaseous
or radioactive, which is discharged emitted or deposited in the environment in such
volume, composition or manner likely to cause an alteration of the environment.31This
statutory definition of waste is at least satisfactory as it is too comprehensive to provide
clarity for many purposes in the auspice of environmental management and protection.
2.1.1.1 Categories of waste in Ilala Municipality
There are various categories of waste composition in Ilala municipality, the following are
classifications of waste as found in Ilala municipality with the percentage amount they
contribute in waste composition;i.

Food Waste

Food waste is the main category of waste found in Ilala municipality contributing to about
42%32 of all the waste composition in Ilala Municipality. The high rate of food waste in

28

Ibid, Pg. 150
Beckwith S and Thornton J (2004) , Environmental Law, 2 nd Edition , Sweet and Maxwell , London , pg.
183
30
Act No.20 of 2004, Section 3
31
Section 3 of Environmental Management Act
32
JICA Study of 1996/1997 this percentage is as it appeared in 2005
29

16

Ilala Municipality is due to fast population growth resulting in daily waste generation
levels which even exceed the handling capacity of the council with regard to the collection
and transportation of waste.
ii.

Grass/Wood

This also is the source of waste in Ilala Municipality with the contribution of about 22%33
of all the waste found in Ilala Municipality.
iii.

Paper

Paper likewise is the source of waste found in Ilala Municipality which as well contributes
to about 8%34 of all the waste found in Ilala Municipality.
iv.

Plastics

Plastic as well form composition in waste found in Ilala Municipality with contribution of
about 5%35 of all the waste found in Ilala Municipality.
v.

Glass

Glass similarly is the source of waste in Ilala Municipality contribution to 3%36 of wholly
amount of waste found in Ilala Municipality.
vi.

Metal

Metal is also another category of waste found in Ilala Municipality with the contribution
rate of about 2%37 of entirely the amount of waste found in Ilala Municipality.
vii.

Textile

Textile is also another source of waste in Ilala Municipality which contributes to about
1%38 of all the waste found in Ilala Municipality.

33

JICA Study, Op. Cit. pg.17
Ibid
35
Ibid
36
Ibid
37
Ibid
38
Ibid
34

17

viii.

Leather / Rubber

Leather and rubber altogether are the source of waste in Ilala Municipality and contribute
to about 1%39 of all the waste found in the Municipality.
ix.

Ceramics/Stones

Ceramics are also another category of waste found in the Ilala Municipal with about the
contribution of 1%40 of all the waste found in the Municipality.
x.

Miscellaneous

These are other sources of waste in the municipality excluding the afore mentioned, which
also contribute to waste composition in Ilala Municipality for about 15%41 with regard to
all amount of the waste found in the municipality.
2.1.2 Solid Waste
Another concept that calls for attention in as far as this study concern is the term solid
waste. The term solid waste as used in this context may be construed by tracing the
meaning of the word ‘solid’ independently and then construe the general meaning when
it is qualified by the term ‘waste’. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners42
defines ‘solid’ simply to mean a substance that is not a liquid.
Myneni43 defined solid waste to mean any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment
plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded
material including solid, liquid, semi- solid or contaminated gaseous material resulting
from industrial , commercial , mining and agricultural operations and from community
activities , but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage. The solid
waste includes garbage, paper, wood, cloth, plastic, iron scrap, food residue, and glass

39

JICA Study, Op. Cit. pg.17
Ibid
41
Ibid
42
Shovel M (2007), Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, 2nd Edition, A&C Black
Publishers Ltd, London, pg. 1421
43
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 150
40

18

containers as bottle, crockeries and other discarded materials from industrial operations,
such as boiler slag and fly- ash.
Another author who attempted to define solid waste is Schubeler44who defined solid waste
to include refuse from households, non-hazardous solid waste from industrial, commercial
and institutional establishments (including hospitals), market waste, yard waste and street
sweepings.
In Tanzanian context the meaning of solid waste is provided for under Section 3 45 which
defines solid waste to mean non-liquid materials arising from Domestic Street,
commercial, industrial and agricultural activities and includes refuse or garbage, nonliquid materials arising from construction and demolition activities, garden trimmings and
mining operations m dead animals and abandoned cars scraps. This statutory definition of
the term solid waste is exhaustive as it covers a wide range to reflect the concept.
2.1.3.0 Effects of Solid Waste
Billions of tons of solid waste are generated globally; cities in the developed countries
produce more solid waste per capita than the cities that are located in the developing
countries.46For instance, a typical American generates an average of 2Kgs of solid waste
each day, 47whereas in Africa is approximately 0.5Kgs per person.48
Solid wastes released by cities are referred to as municipal solid waste (MSW). Solid
waste affect environment in various ways especially when not properly managed, the
following are the impact of solid waste on environment;2.1.3.1 Effect of Solid Waste on Terrestrial and Aquatic Life
The terrestrial organisms such as plants and animals are always exposed to risks of health
and life due to pollution related to solid waste accumulation. For instance; - animals such

44

Schubeler P (1996) , Conceptual Frame work for municipal solid waste management in Low income
Countries ,UNDP/UNHCHS(Habitat)/ WORLD BANK/ SDC Collaborative Programme on Municipal
Solid waste management in Low income countries.(Working Paper No.9), pg.18
45
Environmental Management Act [Act No. 20 of 2004]
46
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 150
47
Ibid
48
www.encapafrica.org/EGSSAA/solidwaste pdf accessed on 28 November 2012 at 1350Hrs

19

as cows and goats die of eating plastic wastes.49On the other hand solid and liquid wastes
that accumulate in water bodies affect the physical, chemical and biological characteristics
of the aquatic ecosystem.
The life form in the aquatic ecosystem is adversely affected by the solid waste
accumulation and the impact can range from less reproduction and also reduction in total
population of various plants and animals to the extinction of a few species which cannot
survive in the changed environment.50
2.1.3.2 Effect of Solid Waste on Health
Domestic and Industrial solid wastes are dumped in residential areas, which causes
unhygienic conditions and ultimately results in outbreak of diseases such as cholera and
malaria51 For example;- coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy
metals that are highly toxic, some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead,
chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium.52
The effect of solid waste on health in Tanzania was given weight in the landmark case of
Festo Balegele v. Dar-es-salaam City Council53 in which the court held that the City
Council decision to locate the garbage dump near residential areas violated plaintiffs’
Constitutional rights to healthy environment. In his own words Lugakingira J (as then
was) had this to say;“I have never heard it anywhere before a public authority or even an individual to
go to court and confidently seek for permission to pollute the environment and
endanger peoples’ lives, regardless of their number. Such wonder appears to be
peculiarly in Tanzania but I regret to say that it is not any court to grant such a
prayer. Article 14 of our Constitution provides that every person has a right to life
and to protection of his life by the society. It is therefore a contradiction in terms

49

http://www.shareyouressays.com/110866/what-is-the-impact-of-waste-accumulation-on-terrestrialaquatic-lifeaccessed on 28th November 2013 at 1405Hrs
50
Ibid, accessed on 28th November 2013 at 1410Hrs
51
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 155
52
http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/solwaste/health.htm accessed on 28 November 2013
53
Misc. Civil Case No. 90 of 1991 [High Court] (Unreported)

20

and a denial of this basic right deliberately to expose anybody’s life to danger or
what is eminently monstrous to enlist the assistance of the court in this
infringement.”
2.1.3.3 Effect of Solid Waste on Landscape
Improper disposal of the solid waste in the highways and other places spoil the landscape
to a great extent, this in turn affect the whole community.54Solid waste is one of the major
causal factors for filthiness in most of the cities in the world. For instance; - cities like
Mwanza, Arusha, Dar-es-salaam are adversely affected by solid waste pollution.
2.1.4.0 Solid Waste Management (SWM)
Solid waste management (SWM) is also defined under section 355 to mean an essential
service that is provided to protect the environment and public health, promote hygiene,
recover materials, avoid waste, reduce waste quantities, decrease emission and residuals
and prevent spread of diseases.
Solid Waste Management also, refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling,
resource recovery and disposal of solid waste.56In its broad sense solid waste management
may be considered as a cyclical process of setting objectives, establishing long- term
plans, programming, budgeting, implementation, operation and maintenance, monitoring
and evaluation, cost control, revision of objectives and plans.57Solid waste management
can be attained vide adopting some strategies such as;2.1.4.1 Source Reduction
Source reduction is one of the fundamental ways to reduce solid waste. Source reduction
involves using less material when making a product, reusing production on site designing
products or packaging to reduce their quantity of waste thrown away.58Source reduction is
the highest goal in the solid waste management hierarchy as the practice of source

54

Myneni, Op. Cit. , pg.155
Of the Environmental Management Act
56
Schubeler, Op. Cit. pg.3
57
Ibid
58
Myneni, Op. Cit. Pg. 155
55

21

reduction benefits the environment through reduced energy consumption and pollution,
conservation of natural resources, and extension of valuable landfill space. It can also have
economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling
of waste. Plus, source reduction can save money every day.59
Source reduction can be a successful method of reducing waste generation for instance at
the individual level we can reduce the use of unnecessary items while shopping , buy items
with minimum packaging , avoid buying disposable items and also avoid asking for plastic
carry bags.60
2.1.4.2 Recycling
The term “recycling” means reusing some components of the waste that may have some
economic value. Recycling diverts items such as paper, glass, plastic and metals from the
waste stream. These materials are sorted, collected and processed and then manufactured,
sold and bought as the new products.61
Recycling prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants, saves
energy, supplies valuable raw materials to industry, creates job, stimulates the
development of greener technologies, conserves resources for the future and reduces the
need for new landfills and incinerators.62However, recycling is associated with technical
and economic problems for example; - plastics are difficult to recycle because of the
different types of polymer resins used in their production.
2.1.5.0 Solid Waste Disposal
Solid waste disposal is defined under The Environmental Management Act 63to mean the
final stage in solid waste management system. The disposal of solid waste can be carried

59

http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Land/RecyclingandOperationsprogram/SourceReduction/Pages/pr
ograms/landprograms/recycling/source_reduction/index.aspx accessed on 28 November 2013 at 1523Hrs
60
Ibid
61
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 154-155
62
Ibid
63
Act No. 20 of 2004, Section 3

22

out by several methods such as composting, vermicomposting, land filling and
incineration;2.1.5.1 Composting
Composting is the biological decomposition of organic waste such as food or plant
material by bacteria, fungi, worms and other organisms under controlled aerobic
(occurring in the presence of oxygen) conditions.
The end result of composting is an accumulation of partially decayed organic matter called
humus.64Composting involves degradation of organic wastes by micro- organisms in the
presence of oxygen and provide a number of attractive features.65
The prepared compost is supplied to nurseries, kitchen gardens and horticulture
department. The urban solid waste can be disposed of through a biotechnology-based
‘anaerobic digestion process’ which produce valuable organic manure and methane that
can be used as fuel to generate power.66
2.1.5.2 Vermicomposting
Vermicomposting is a simple way of turning organic household waste into a useful soil
conditioner and fertilizer for houseplants, gardens and lawns.67This technique is popularly
known as ‘earthworm forming’.
It is an important bio technique for concerting solid wastes such as sewage sludge and
domestic wastes into compost with the help of earthworm overtime. It requires less space
than normal composting methods, and is therefore ideal for apartments and other settings
in high density urban areas.68

64

http://livinggreen.ifas.ufl.edu/waste/composting.html accessed on 28 November 2013
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 155
66
Ibid
67
http://environment.alberta.ca/02984.htm accessed on 28 November 2013 at 1634 Hrs.
68
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg.155
65

23

2.1.5.3 Incineration
Incineration is an industrial process designed to reduce unwanted materials to simple solid
and gaseous residues. It is the process of controlled burning of waste at high temperature
(i.e. 850 Centigrade degree) in the presence of air. Emission of fly ash and other particles
are often controlled by wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators and bag filters. It is a
hygienic way of disposing solid waste and is more suitable if the waste contains more
hazardous material and organic content.69
2.1.5.4 Land- filling
The term “land-filling” means a method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried
between layers of dirt so as to fill in or reclaim low-lying ground.70It is the most common
and cheapest method of waste disposal; landfills are engineered where solid waste is
placed into the land.71
2.1.6. Urban Authority.
The term Urban Authority as has been used in this context has the meaning as connoted
under the Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act72which give the general definition
of the term urban authority to mean a town council, a municipal council or a city council.
Urban authorities are generally responsible for the provision of solid waste management
including but not limited to the collection and disposal services. Urban authorities are the
legal owners of waste once it is collected or put out for collection.
Responsibility for solid waste management is usually specified in bylaws and regulations
made by the particular urban authorities and may be derived, more generally, from policy
goals regarding environmental health and protection.73The authority to enforce bylaws

69

Myneni, Op. Cit.pg.157
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/landfillingaccessed on 28 November 2013
71
Myneni, Op. Cit. pg. 157
72
[CAP 288 RE 2002]
73
Schubeler P, Op. Cit. pg.21
70

24

and regulations, and to mobilise the resources required for solid waste management is, in
principle, conferred upon local governments by higher government authorities.74
2:1:7 Experienced Problems Relating to Solid Waste Management in Ilala
Municipality
Ilala Municipality has been experiencing some problems with respect to solid waste
management. The following hereunder are the utmost experienced problems relating to
solid waste management in Ilala Municipality;2:1:7:1 Insufficient Resource Mobilization
Ilala Municipality has been experiencing insufficient resource mobilization as there is a
lack of appropriate mechanisms for Council to collect refuse charge (RCC), funds to
replace the aging fleet of vehicles and other equipments, equipments maintenance and
repair.
2:1:7:2 Selection of Appropriate Technologies
Ilala Municipality also has been facing the trouble in the selection of appropriate
technologies as there are poor systems for Solid waste storage at households level,
segregation of waste at point of generation, primary collection, secondary collection and
transportation is not linked to primary collection due to inadequate of communal storage
facilities and proper managed disposal site and waste transfer station.
2:1:7:3 Privatization Problems
Ilala Municipality likewise has been facing the challenges associated with privatisation
since there are poor residents and businesses cooperation on willingness to pay refuse
charges, lack of contractor’s operational experience in solid waste management and
inappropriate equipment base, lack of transparency in customers, mobilization and
financial information, weak institutional arrangement especially at grassroots level
capacity, inadequate enforcement of the existing legislations and lack of awareness on

74

Schubeler P, Op. Cit. pg.22

25

community involvement in solid waste management as a result even Recycling cannot
comply due to existing situation.
Furthermore, the central government does not subside the waste collection activities thus
Ilala seems always dirty due to the burden of its location say Kariakoo market –pollutions
with limited resources.
2.2 Environmental Management Principles Relating to Solid Waste Management
Solid waste management being part and parcel of environmental management has handy
relationship with the principles of environmental management. Since environmental
pollution has become a threat to global sustenance, the efforts to combat the growing
environmental pollution are in full swing both at the national and international level.75
This attention has led to the formation of different environmental principles in different
international conventions and declarations such as Rio Declaration76 and many others of
the like, which also get domestication in our country vide our policies and legislations
such

as

National

Environment

Policy77and

Environmental

Management

Act78respectively. The following are some of the environmental management principles
which relate to solid waste management;2.2.1 The Precautionary Principle
Solid waste management entails the Precautionary Principle which requires that where
there is a risk of serious irreversible adverse effects occurring, a lack of scientific certainty
should not prevent or impair the taking of precautionary measures to protect the
environment.79
The precautionary principle is pertinent to solid waste management as it urge for the
society to seek to avoid environmental damage by careful forward planning , blocking the

75

Guppta D, (2008) , Text Book on Environmental Law, 2nd edition , Asia Law House, India , pg.95
1992
77
1997
78
Act No.20 of 2004
79
Ibid, Section 7(a)
76

26

flow of potentially environmental harmful activities. Also, this principle can be invoked
to justify the implementation of vigorous laws for solid waste management.
2.2.2 The Polluter Pays Principle
This principle is enunciated in the Environmental Management Act80 and it has the
relation to solid waste management in the sense that the principle requires that any person
causing adverse effect on the environment inter alia being pollution by solid waste be
required to pay in full social and environmental costs of avoiding, mitigating and/or
remedying those adverse effects.
It means the absolute liability for harm to the environment extends not only to compensate
the victims of pollution but also the cost of restoring the environmental degradation.81
2.2.3 The Public Participation Principle
It is also the principle having the relation with the solid waste management of which
requires the involvement of the people in the development of policies, plans and processes
for the management of the environment.82Solid waste management is the mirror image of
public participation principle since it needs voluminous cooperation of the public and
other actors.
2.2.4 Waste Minimisation Principle
It is another principle having relation with the solid waste management which entails that
the generation of waste be minimized, wherever practicable waste should, in order of
priority, be re-used, recycled, recovered and disposed of safely in a manner that avoids
creating adverse effects or if this is not practicable, is least likely to cause adverse
effects.83This principle hold water in as far as solid waste management concerns as re-use
and recycling of the solid waste is highly advisable and recommended.

80

Act No.20 of 2004, Section 7(c)
Vellore Citizen Welfare Form v. Union of India and others , AIR 1996 SC 2715
82
Environmental Management Act , Section 7(d)
83
Ibid, Section 7(g)
81

27

2.2.5 Principle of Sustainable Use
The principle of sustainable use is to the effect that the renewable natural resources and
ecosystems only be used in a manner that is sustainable and does not prejudice their
viability and integrity.84 This principle is relevant to the Solid Waste Management as it
protect the environment from being polluted or degraded inter alia being by solid waste
pollutants.
2.3 Conclusion
Solid waste management (SWM) should be approached from the perspective of the entire
cycle of material use, which includes production, distribution and consumption as well as
waste collection and disposal. Solid waste management (SWM) goals cannot be achieved
through isolated or sectoral approaches. Sustainable solid waste management depends on
the overall effectiveness and efficiency of urban management, and the capacity of
responsible municipal authorities.
User satisfaction with provided services, approval of higher government authorities and
financial viability of the operation are important criteria of successful solid waste
management from the local government perspective. Therefore, needs and demands for
solid waste management in urban areas must be weighed and addressed in the context of
the needs and relative priorities in all sectors and services.

84

Environmental Management Act , Section 7(i)

28

CHAPTER THREE
LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS IN TANZANIA
3.0 Introduction
This Chapter elucidates on municipal legal and institutional framework for solid waste
management particularly in urban areas. The effective solid waste management (SWM)
calls for the collaboration of several central and local bodies (institutions) as well as
consolidated legal framework. It is necessary to evaluate the legal and institutional
framework on solid waste management as they are of vital importance in providing the
guidelines and capacity in the fields of administration, financial management, technical
systems and environmental protection.
Effective solid waste management and environmental protection programmes call for a
clear definition of roles, jurisdictions, legal responsibilities and rights of the concerned
governmental bodies and other organizations. The absence of clear legal and institutional
framework may lead to controversies, ineffectiveness and/or inaction, undermining the
sustainability of solid waste management (SWM) in urban areas.
3.1.0 Legal Framework
Solid waste management being the acute problem in various areas in our country
particularly in urban areas it has called upon the attention of the legislators thus various
legislations has been laid down on the same, fundamental being the following;3.1.1 Environmental Management Act85
The Environmental Management Act (to be referred hereinafter the Act) is a superior law
so far as environmental management matters concern in Tanzania. This has been given
effect under section 232 of the Act which states that “where the provision of this Act
(Environmental Management Act) is in conflict or is otherwise inconsistent with a
provision of any other written law relating to environmental management, the provisions
85

Act No. 20 of 2004

29

of this Act (Environmental Management Act) shall prevail to the extent of such
inconsistency.” The Act includes provisions for legal framework on solid waste
management86 in different aspects;The Act87 imposes the duty and responsibility to the local government to manage and
minimize solid waste, whereas it states that “for the purpose of ensuring minimization of
the solid waste in their respective geographical areas of jurisdiction local government
authorities shall prescribe;- a) for different types or kinds of waste or refuse or garbage to
be separated at the source b) for standards to guide the type, size, shape, colour and other
specifications for refuse containers used; and c)for mechanisms to be put in place to
involve the private sector and Non- Governmental Organisations on planning, raising
awareness among producers ,vendors ,transporters ,manufacturers and others on the need
to have appropriate containers and enhance separation of waste at source.88
The Act also provides for the disposal of solid waste from markets, business areas and
institutions as it provides that “each local government authority shall undertake periodic
studies to determine the type of solid wastes generated from markets, business, areas and
institutions and determine appropriate methods for sorting storage as disposal of waste.”89
The Act establishes solid waste collection in urban and rural areas as it states that “the
local government authorities shall, with respect to urban and rural areas prescribe a) the
best ways possible for the collection of various classifications of solid waste from
generation sources and shall on its own or with any commercial or private sector arrange
ways to recover the cost, incurred in collection of the solid waste.90
The Act has also established the waste transfer stations as it states “the local government
authorities may designate transfer stations to serve as collection centers of solid wastes to
serve cities or municipalities or towns or other areas where large amounts of solid waste
are generated.91It further provides that before a local government authority designates an
86

Environmental Management Act , Part IX (a)
Ibid, Section 114
88
Ibid, Section 114(1)
89
Ibid, Section 115(1)
90
Ibid, Section 117(a)
91
Ibid, Section 118(1)
87

30

area to be a waste transfer station for the purposes of collection of solid waste it shall; - a)
Carry out social, health and environmental impact assessment b) Ensure that the selected
area is adequate in size and situated away from residential areas c) Ensure regular removal
of solid waste to avoid any possible nuisance d) Ensure the area is fenced off and secured
to prevent unauthorized persons from entering.92
3.1.2 Public Health Act93
The Public Health Act (hereinafter to be referred as the Act) is another law which provide
for the legal framework on solid waste management in Tanzania. The Act has pointed out
in various ways on how the solid waste should be managed;The Act94imposes the duty to the Authority (District or Urban) to undertake or contract an
agent to set aside areas of adequate size for the purpose of solid waste disposal. To collect,
transport and dispose of solid waste from buildings, premises and land. To collect,
transport and dispose of solid waste from any trade or business premises where
expeditious removal and efficient disposal is in the interest of the public and the services
may extend to the whole or any part of its area.
The Act95 also empowers the Authority (District or Urban) to charge a fee for a service
provided to a service beneficiary. Section 73(4)96 is to the effect that the Authority
,contractor or any person who undertakes the removal .transportation and disposal of
waste from a public place shall provide a skip bucket, sanitary land filling, transfer station
or approved covered containers for holding and transportation of waste prior to disposal.
The Act97 imposes a penalty of not less than one hundred thousand shillings or to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or both for any person who
contravenes with this provision. The Act98 stipulate also that for the minimization of solid
waste the authority shall prescribe for the separation at source ,of different types or kinds
92

Environmental Management Act, Section 118(2)
Act No.1 of 2009
94
Ibid, Section 73(1)(a, c, d )
95
Ibid, Section 73(2)
96
Ibid
97
Ibid, Section 73(7)
98
Ibid, Section 75(1) (a, b)
93

31

of waste or garbage and standards to guide the type, size, shape, colour and other
specifications for waste containers used.
The Act99 obliges the authority to manage solid waste generated in accordance with
sustainable plans prepared by respective authority and ensure appropriate sorting of
wastes is made at source and is in accordance with standards or specification prescribed
by the authority. The Act100 requires the authority to ensure that industries provide
adequate space and facilities for managing all solid waste generated from the industry and
in the premises prior to its collection for disposal.
The Act101also provides for the collection of solid waste as it states that “the authority
after the consultation with the Ministers responsible for environmental management and
local government shall prescribe the best ways possible for the collection of various
categories of solid… wastes from generation sources on its own or in collaboration with
any commercial entity or private sector.” Also the Act102 provide for the designation of
transfer stations by the authority which serve as collection centers of solid wastes where
large amount of solid waste are generated.
The Act103 also provides for the factors to be considered for the choice of methods of solid
wastes disposal, it provides for the factors such as the climatic condition, its economic
ability and that of its community, Environmental Health Impact Assessment of that land,
environmental hygienic social benefits available and the availability of sites for tipping.
3.1.3 The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act104
The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act (herein to be referred as the Act) is also
another law which provides for the legal framework on solid waste management in
Tanzania. The Act has given the number of ways on how the local authorities should
manage waste inter alia being solid waste in their jurisdiction areas;-

99

Public Health Act, Section 75(3) (a, b)
Ibid, Section 76 (3) (a)
101
Ibid, Section 77
102
Ibid, Section 78(1 and 2)
103
Ibid, Section 79 (a, b, c, d, e)
104
CAP 288 R.E 2002
100

32

Section 5(1) of the Act empowers the minister concerned to establish the appropriate
urban authority in any place in Tanzania mainland in accordance to the procedures
prescribed under section 7 of the same Act.
Also, section 53(1) of the Act provides that “it shall be the duty of every urban authority
to discharge the functions conferred upon it as such, and as a local government authority,
by this Act or by or under any other written law, and for that purpose, an urban authority
may, within the limits of the functions so conferred, either by its own officers or by duly
appointed agents, do all such things and acts as are lawful and necessary for the
performance of its duties.” In the given context by the Act the term ‘functions’ include
but not limited to solid waste management.
Likewise, Section 55(1) (g)105 is to the effect that “subject to this Act, it shall be the duty
of every urban authority within its area of jurisdiction to keep and maintain in good order
and repair all public latrines, urinals, cesspits, dustbins and other receptacles for the
temporary deposit and collection of rubbish, and public bathing and washing places, and
to provide for the removal of all refuse and filth from any public or private place, and
provide for the removal of night soil and the disposal of sewage from all premises and
houses in its area, so as to prevent injury to health.”
In addition, Section 80 (1) of the Act106empowers the urban authorities to make by-laws
as it provides that “every urban authority may, subject to the consent of urban authorities
to the proper officer, make by-laws for the carrying into effect and for the purposes of any
function conferred on it by virtue of this Act or any other written law.” In pursuant to this
particular section urban authorities have been making by-laws inter alia being on the solid
waste management.

105
106

The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act [CAP 288 RE 2002]
Ibid

33

3.1.4 Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-Law of 2011107
The by-law108 which is established by the Ilala municipal council on waste management
vide the Act109 provides for various ways of waste management inter alia being solid waste
at local level, for instance section 4 (1)110 prohibits disposal of the waste including but not
limited to solid waste in the places which are not set aside for such purpose.
Correspondingly, section 4(2) of the same by-law directs every household within the
Municipality to have separate storage facility for solid waste.
Section 4 (3) of the established by-law111 requires the waste carriage trucks to be tighten
to the extent that the carried waste is not seen and does not fall down on the way when
transported for disposal. Section 5 (1) of the by-law imposes refuse collection fees to every
household for the transportation of the solid waste from their households to waste disposal
centres.
The by-law112 also, under section 17 imposes penalty to defaulters and on conviction the
penalty is payment of money at the tune of not less than fifty thousand (50,000/=)
Tanzanian Shillings (Tshs.) or sentence of not less than twelve (12) months in jail or
altogether.
The research found this by-law adequate saving for some few censures in the sense that it
provide for the wide coverage in solid waste management arena ranging from solid waste
management strategies to the reprimands and penalties on default. However, practice in
Ilala municipality with regard to this by law is not upright as the law enforcers and other
stakeholders do not fully implement the same. This makes the effectiveness of this bylaw in question.

107

Government Notice No. 111 of 18th March , 2011
Ibid
109
The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act [CAP 288 RE 2002]
110
Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-law of 2011 [G.N 111 of 2011]
111
Ibid
112
Ibid
108

34

3.2.0 Institutional Framework
The Environmental Management Act113 being the fundamental law on environmental
management and protection provides for the institutional framework for environmental
management and protection in Tanzania inter alia being solid waste management.
The Institutional framework is categorically divided into three levels which lie from the
national (central) level, regional level and local level. Hereunder are the institutions in as
far as environmental management specifically solid waste management concerns;3.2.1 Institutions at National (Central) Level
The Act114 provides for the institutional arrangement from the central level to include
various central government institutions.

The following is the arrangement of the

institutions dealing with environmental management and protection inter alia being solid
waste management in the central or national level;3.2.1.1 The Minister Responsible for Environment
The Act115 gives powers to the minister concerning with environment as the overall
responsible person or institution for matters relating to environment and shall in that
respect be responsible for articulation of policy guidelines necessary for the promotion,
protection and sustainable management of environment in Tanzania.
Section 13(2)116 authorizes the minister to issue general guidelines to the sector Ministries,
Government Department, the Council, National Environment Advisory Committee, City,
Municipal or District Environmental Management Committee, agency or any other public
or private institutions for the purposes of implementation of/or giving effect to the
provisions of this Act.

113

Act No. 20 of 2004
Ibid,
115
Ibid, Section 13 (1)
116
Ibid,
114

35

3.2.1.2 The National Environmental Advisory Committee
The National Environmental Advisory Committee herein to be referred to as Committee
is established vide section 11(1) of the Act117 and is composed of members whose
experience reflects various fields of environmental management in the public, private
sector and civil society.118The fundamental function of this Committee is to advise the
minister responsible for environment or any sector ministry on any matter which may be
referred to it.
However, the Committee particularly examines any matter which may be referred to it by
the Minister or any sector ministry relating to the protection and management of the
environment and shall recommend to the ministry or sector ministry, as the case may be,
such action as in necessary for achieving the objectives of this Act.119Also, the Committee
reviews and advises on any environmental standards, guidelines and regulations which are
to be made pursuant to the provisions of this Act.
3.2.1.3 The Director of Environment
The Director of Environment is established vide Section 14 of the Act120which provides
that “there shall be the Director of Environment and such other officers as may be
necessary for proper discharge of the functions of the office of the Director of
Environment.”
On matters pertaining to the management of the environment the Director of Environment
among the other things has to coordinate various environment management activities
being undertaken by other agencies and promote the integration of environment
considerations into development policies, plans, programmes, strategies, projects and
undertake strategic environmental assessment with a view of ensuring the proper

117

Environmental Management Act [Act No. 20 of 2004]
Ibid, Section 11(2)
119
Ibid, Section 12(a)
120
Ibid
118

36

management and rational utilisation of environmental resources on a sustainable basis for
the improvement of the quality human life in Tanzania.121
Also, the Director of Environment is required to monitor and assess activities being carried
out by relevant agencies in order to ensure that the environment is not degraded by such
activities, environmental management objectives are adhered to and adequate early
warning on impending environmental emergency is given.122
3.2.1.4 National Environment Management Council [NEMC]
National Environment Management Council is established under section 16(1) of the
Act123 which states that “there shall be a Council to be known as the National Environment
Management Council, also to be known by acronym “NEMC”. The legal status of the
Council124 is a body corporate with perpetual succession and common seal and its
corporate name is capable of suing and being sued and capable of holding, purchasing and
otherwise acquiring and disposing of movable or immovable property.125
The objectives for the establishment of the council are provided for under section 17(1)126
which is to the effect that “the object and purpose for which the council is to undertake
enforcement, compliance, review and monitoring of environmental impact assessment and
in that regard, shall facilitate public participation in environmental decision making,
exercise general supervision and coordination over all matters relating to the environment
assigned to the Council ,under this Act or any other written law.”
Amongst the functions of the Council are;- to undertake and co-ordinate research,
investigation and surveys in the field of environment and collect, and disseminate
information about the findings of such research, investigation or survey, to enforce and
ensure compliance of the national environmental quality standards and undertake in cooperation with relevant sector ministries programmes intended to enhance environmental

121

Environmental Management Act, Section 15(a)
Ibid, Section 15(d)
123
Ibid
124
National Environment Management Council
125
Environmental Management Act, Section 16(2) (a ,b and c)
126
Ibid.
122

37

education and public awareness about the need for sound environmental management as
well as for enlisting public support and encouraging the effort made by other entities in
that regard.127
3.2.1.5 Sector Ministries
The law under section 30128 require the establishment in each ministry a sector
environmental section which its duties among others is to ensure compliance by the sector
ministry with requirements of the Act,129ensuring all environmental matters contained in
other written law falling under sector ministry are implemented and report of their
implementation is submitted to the Director of Environment130and liaison with the
Director of Environment and the Council on matters involving environment and all
matters with respect to which cooperation or shared responsibility is desirable or required
under the Act.131
Among the functions of sector environmental section are;- to advise on and in
collaboration with other bodies implement the policies of the Government on the
protecting and management of the environment,132 to ensure that environmental concerns
are integrated into the ministry or departmental development planning and project
implementation in a way which protects the environment,133to prepare and coordinate the
implementation on environmental action plans at the national and local levels as required
under the Act134 and in conjunction with the ministry responsible for local government, to
provide environmental advice and technical support to district level staff working in the
sector.135

127

Environmental Management Act [Act no. 20 of 2004] , Section 18 (2) (c, f, h)
Ibid
129
Ibid, Section 30 (a)
130
Ibid, Section 30 (b)
131
Ibid, Section 30 (c)
132
Ibid, Section 31 (1) (a)
133
Ibid, Section 31(1) (c )
134
Ibid, Section 31 (1) (e)
135
Ibid, Section 31 (1) (m)
128

38

3.2.2.0 Institutions at Regional Level
The Act also affects the management of environment at the regional level by setting up
some of the institutions which deals with the environmental management and protection
at the regional level. Hereunder are the institutions as provided for under the Act which
deals with the management and the protection of environment at the regional level;3.2.2.1 Regional Secretariat
Section 34136 vests the regional secretariat with the responsibility for coordination of all
advice on environmental management in their respective regions and liaison with the
Director of Environment and the Director – General on the implementation and
enforcement of the Act.
Section 35(1)137 provides that “there shall be appointed by Minister responsible for
regional administration a person to be known as the regional environment management
expert who shall be charged with the responsibility of advising the local authorities on
matters relating to the implementation of this Act.” The regional environment
management expert shall be a link person between the region in which he is employed
with the Director of Environment and the Director – General.138
3.2.3.0 Institutions at Local Level
Local authorities being vital in the entire process of environmental management and
protection has been given place in the Act, as it lay down the institutions arrangement for
the management and protection of environment at the local level. Here forth, is the
institutional arrangement at local level as provided for under the Act;3.2.3.1 Municipal Environment Management Officer
Section 36(1) (b)139 provides that, there shall be designated or appointed by each City,
Municipal, District and Town Council an Environment Management Officer who shall be

136

Environmental Management Act [Act no. 20 of 2004]
Ibid.
138
Ibid, Section 35 (2)
139
Ibid
137

39

a Public officer and shall in the case of geographical jurisdiction of Municipality, the
Environmental Management Officer shall be known as the Municipal Environment
Management officer.
Among the functions of Municipal Environment Management Officer are; - to advise the
Environment Management Committee to which he belongs on the all matters relating to
environment,140promote environmental awareness in the area he belongs on the protection
of the environment and utilisation of natural resources in the area,141review by-laws on
environmental management and a sector specific activities related to the environment142
and report to the Director of the Environment and the Director – General on the
implementation of the Act.143
3.2.3.2 Standing Committee on Urban Planning and Environment
This committee is established under Section 42144 and provided for under section 37
(1).145The committee is vested with the functions as provided for under Section
55,146however, the committee without prejudice to subsection 2 of Section 37147 shall also
perform such additional functions such as are prescribed by this Act [Environmental
Management Act] or as may, from time to time, be assigned to any one of such city,
municipal or district by the Minister by notice published in Gazette and carry out all
directives given to them by the minister in relation to the promotion and enhancement of
sustainable management of the environment.
3.2.3.3 Ward Development Committee
The Ward development Committee is established under section 31(1)148 and provided for
under section 38 (1).149The committee is vested with the proper management if the

140

Environmental Management Act [Act No. 20 of 2004] , Section 36(3) (b)
Ibid, Section 36 (3) (c)
142
Ibid , Section 36 (3) (g)
143
Ibid, Section 36 (3) (h)
144
Ibid
145
Ibid
146
Ibid
147
Ibid
148
Local Government (District Authority) Act [CAP 287 RE 2002]
149
Environmental Management Act [Act no. 20 of 2004]
141

40

environment in respect of the area in which they are established, perform additional
functions as are prescribed by the Act150 or as may be assigned to each or any of them by
the minister or the Council.
Also, to carry out all directives to them by the minister in relation to the promotion and
enhancement of sustainable management of the environment and perform any other
function or discharging any other duty relating to ancillary or incidental to proper
management of the environment as provided under the Act.151
3.2.3.4 Township, Ward, Village, Mtaa and Kitongoji Environment Management
Officer
They are established under Section 39152 and they are vested with the functions as
provided for under Section 40153 the officers have to coordinate all functions and activities
geared towards the protection of environment within the areas of designation.
3.3 Conclusion
However, national (central) government is responsible for establishing the institutional
and legal framework for solid waste management (SWM) and make sure that local
governments have the necessary authority, powers and capacities for effective solid waste
management. In many instances the responsibility for solid waste management has been
delegated to the local authorities (urban authorities) without adequate support to capacity
building to the staffs and personnel of the local government (urban authority).
Nevertheless, effective solid waste management (SWM) depends upon the cooperation of
the population and local governments (urban authorities). It is therefore, high time now
for the local governments (urban authorities) to take measures to enhance public
awareness on the importance of solid waste management (SWM), generate a constituency
for environmental protection and promote active participation of users and community
groups in local level solid waste management.

150

Environmental Management Act [Act No.20 of 2004]
Ibid
152
Ibid
153
Ibid
151

41

CHAPTER FOUR
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS ON AN EXAMINATION OF
THE LAW AND PRACTICE ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN URBAN
AREAS
4.0 Introduction
Solid waste management is gradually becoming a serious concern in Tanzania due to
limited sorting at source and improper storage, collection, transportation, treatment and
final disposal. This implies that significant proportion of the waste generated end up in
the environment in an unacceptable ways of disposal which accentuates environmental
and public health risks.
The government has engaged the private sector, Non-Governmental Organizations
(NGO’s) and Community Based Organizations (CBO’s) to be involved in solid waste
management (SWM) services. This has tried to reduce the amount of solid waste in urban
areas, although more efforts are still required.
This Chapter presents the research findings and data analysis on the examination of the
law and practice on solid waste management in urban areas, the findings presented range
from what was obtained through field data collection involving the questions; - is the legal
framework for solid waste management in urban areas sufficient?, what is the practice in
solid waste management in urban areas vis-à-vis legal framework? And, are the
community members and other stakeholders active on solid waste management? The
findings also include the data collected vide secondary sources such as websites materials,
manuals, journals, reports as well as the books.
The researcher in the due course of undertaking this research visited various areas of Ilala
Municipality such as Kivukoni and Kisutu which represents the high income wards in the
Municipality, Kariakoo, Gerezani and Mchikichini which represents the middle income
wards in the Municipality and Buguruni and Segerea which represents the low income
wards in the Municipality. These areas visited have been valuable in depicting the real
situation on solid waste management as exist, hereunder are the findings of this research;42

4.1.0 Research Findings
4.1.1 Is the Legal Framework for Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas
Sufficient?
The research discovered that the legal framework on solid waste management in urban
areas is sufficient as it has gratified various aspects on solid waste management, this can
be verified by the Ilala Municipality (Environmental Cleanliness) By-laws 154 herein to be
referred as the by-law, which governs the matters of Environmental Management within
the Ilala Municipality vicinity inter alia being on solid waste management.
The by- law for example section 4 (1)155 prohibits disposal of the waste including but not
limited to solid waste in the places which are not set aside for such purpose. Respectively,
Section 4(2) of the same by-law direct every household within the Municipality to have
separate storage facility for solid waste.
Also, under section 5 (1) it imposes refuse collection fees to every household for the
transportation of the solid waste from their households to waste disposal centres. In the
same tune, section 4 (3) of the established by-law156 requires the waste carriage trucks to
be tighten to the extent that the carried waste is not seen and does not fall down on the
way when transported for disposal.
The by-law does not only address the issue of solid waste management in letters rather in
spirit as it provides for some punitive measures to the polluters and defaulters as under
section 17 it imposes penalty to defaulters and on conviction the penalty is payment of
money at the tune of not less than fifty thousand (50,000/=) Tanzanian Shillings (Tshs.)
or sentence of not less than twelve (12) months in jail or altogether.

154

G.N 111 of 2011
Ibid
156
Ibid
155

43

In response to the interview conducted on this aspect one of the respondent 157 had this to
say as hereunder quoted in his own words;“…the legal framework is sufficient as it has touched various issues on solid waste
management. For example, the Municipal by-laws state well on solid waste
management concerning waste producer responsibility such as separation of waste
at source i.e. dry waste and wet waste, this is purposely done so as people will
understand the recycling and re-use of the waste, paying refuse charge

upon

which the failure lead to criminal charge ant to clean the plot including frontage
maintenance”
Likewise, in the interview done to one of the respondent158 he commented on this aspect
by saying;“…the legal framework on solid waste management in urban areas is sufficient to
a great extent though compliance of the same is the problem for example here in
town every office has dust bins for keeping waste as required by law but you find
that people do not use the same effective”
Similarly, in another interview conducted to one of the respondent 159 who in the same
trend had this to comment;“…the law itself has no problem the problem is with the enforcers of it and the
community as they don’t exactly do what the law requires, a good example is when
you find people throwing the litters in various places in town and elsewhere”

157

The Head of Department Waste Management Department, Ilala Municipal Council. The interview
conducted on 10th September, 2013 from 0920Hrs to 1000Hrs at Ilala Municipal Environment Office at
Kamata, Dar-es-salaam
158
A legal practitioner with National Social Security Fund (NSSF) on 20 th September , 2013
159
A law student at Mzumbe University Mbeya Campus College living in Ilala Municipality at Sharif
Shamba

44

In contrary, one of the respondent160 in the interview conducted to him in responding to
the question on whether the legal framework on solid waste management in urban areas
is sufficient, firmly point out that;“The legal framework on solid waste management is not sufficient in the sense
that the by-laws are not flexible, hence does not match with time as the
circumstances varies depending with time. For instance, regardless of the price
fluctuation which causes the life expenses increase the by-law still stipulate the
refuse fee which were used five or three years ago.
Another reason which causes the legal framework on solid waste in urban areas
not sufficient is that, the by-laws are not realistic and logical as does not consider
the circumstances of the people as you may find the storey building pays a little
amount of money compared to a person with just a single room while the rate of
waste generated is quite different. So you find that sometimes we set aside by law
and negotiate afresh logically on the reasonable refuse fee to be paid by the waste
producer which sometimes brings about inconveniences.
Also, Irrational rate of refuse fee, for instance a person with a Bureau de change
pays 100,000/- while a person with hardware pays 30,000/- or 50,000/- this is
unfair as the person has to pay refuse fee as per the production rate”
In the same move, another respondent161 in reacting on the issue of sufficiency of the legal
framework had this to comment in the questionnaire that was given to him;“…the legal framework on solid waste management is not sufficient due to the fact
that the legal framework provides for the lesser penalties in some of the offences,
this has led to non-compliance of some laws by the waste producers as they know
that they can afford to pay the fines imposed by those laws which result into non-

160

Operations Manager, Green Waste Pro. Limited (The private company dealing with waste management
in the Ilala Municipality), the interview conducted on Thursday 26 th September, 2013 from 1545Hrs to
1630Hrs at Ilala, Dar-es-salaam.
161
Law Enforcement Officer, Waste Management Department, Ilala Municipal Council.

45

deterrence of solid waste pollution in most of the urban areas such as markets and
households”
Since, most of the respondents suggested that the legal framework on solid waste
management is sufficient; it is convincingly to comment that this research revealed that
the legal framework on solid waste management in urban areas is sufficient.
4.1.2 What is the Practice in Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas vis-à-vis Legal
Framework?
This research revealed that the practice in solid waste management in urban areas vis-àvis legal framework is not satisfactory. This particular position has been reached on the
fact that most of the respondents to this questions commented that the practice in solid
waste management worsen due to concentration of socio-economic activities and
escalating population growth.
In responding to this question one of the respondent162 in the interview conducted to him
had this to say in as far as the practice in solid waste management in urban areas concerns;“…the solid waste production is higher than the collection rate as the company
(Green Waste Pro. Limited) collects about 70% to 75% of the solid waste
generated. The reasons for not meeting collections goals include Poor
infrastructures e.g. roads, inadequate of collection equipments, distance to
dumpsite (30Km) from collection areas, which make it hard for many trips, traffic
jams (congestions) sometimes collection cars delay in the jam for a long time,
hence few trips are possibly made and goals can hardly be meet, lack of community
awareness on the value of waste as most of the people in the community does not
know that, waste can generate a lot of money to them if they take it serious, as
family can buy a container for waste keeping and at last the waste collected can be
sold for recycling and dumpsite is not modernised , as it just merely a poor land

162

Operations Manager, Green Waste Pro. Limited (The private company dealing with waste management
in the Ilala Municipality), the interview conducted on Thursday 26 th September, 2013 from 1545Hrs to
1630Hrs at Ilala, Dar-es-salaam.

46

fill which in turn make the equipments such as compactors coming old and not
effective in the whole process of solid waste collection.
The practice of solid waste management in urban areas face a lot of challenges
such as interference from government agencies such as TANESCO, DAWASCO
etc. for instance TANESCO sometimes launch the operation for cutting down tree
that hinder their stem which cause pollution by the tree branches and they do
nothing to abate that, hence the responsibility remains ours to remove it without
any cost. It is difficult to enforce the law against government agencies when they
fault, since it becomes difficult and not practicable.”
In the same trend, another respondent163 responding to the interview to him on the material
point had this to comment;“The Municipal Council involve in the promotion and management of solid waste
in various ways such as conducting Public awareness programmes, collection of
solid waste, investment in equipments and tools, law enforcement, encourage
waste separation, re-use, recycling in order to reduce the volume of waste
transported and many others of the like. However, the Municipal have been facing
some challenges in solid waste management such as low community involvement
in solid waste management, lack of awareness, high cost of operation, inadequate
tools for solid waste management, inadequate fund for operation, poor law
enforcement as there is a laxity of actors or law enforcers such as extension
officers, Mwenyekiti wa Mtaa, ward level leaders and Lack of landfills.
Nevertheless, the practice on solid waste management in urban areas is not
sufficient as the Institutional framework itself is not well organized which lead to
laxity of the actors from the mtaa (street) level up to the Municipal, for example
some actors on solid waste management are political leaders of which make them
to act in according to their political interest making it hard for management of solid

163

The Head of Department Waste Management Department, Ilala Municipal Council. The interview
conducted on 10th September, 2013 from 0920Hrs to 1000Hrs at Ilala Municipal Environment Office at
Kamata, Dar-es-salaam

47

waste. Also, the bureaucracy on the institutions on solid waste management hinder
the clear management of solid waste as sometimes request for fund may be delayed
or denied as it passes through a lengthy process quiet different if waste
management would be vested to autonomous body or Authority rather than the
Municipal, hence the service provided is low and the consumers or costumers are
discouraged to pay or hardly pay their money for the service. I suggest for
efficiency solid waste management the duty of solid waste management should be
vested to a specific authority as it has been done to others such as water, electricity
etc.”
Likewise, another respondent164 who also had a chance to contribute on this aspect had
this comment, as it is hereunder quoted in his own words;“The practice on solid waste management in urban areas is not satisfactory to high
extent, as you may find that most of the waste producers fail to pay fee for example
in Ilala Municipality the wards are categorized into three status of which are;Higher Income wards , Middle income wards and lower income wards hence you
find that the fee are 15,000/-, 10,000/- and 5,000/- respectively but people from
middle and lower income are stubborn in payment of the refuse fee hence make it
difficult for the provision of solid waste management in those areas. Also, the
institutional framework is not well arranged as it brings about Bureaucracy as fund
to facilitate the solid waste management activities comes from the City Director
office and thus the office (Director) has many priorities not only solid waste so
sometimes you may find even the car may lack a fuel to go to the field to collect
solid waste due to this bureaucracy.”
From the above observation given by different respondents on the research question it is
credibly to comment that this research found that the practice in solid waste management
in urban areas vis-à-vis legal framework is not satisfactory.

164

Law Enforcement Officer, Waste Management Department, Ilala Municipal Council.

48

4.1.3 Are the Community Members and Other Stakeholders on Solid Waste
Management Active?
The research revealed that the community members and other stakeholders on solid waste
management are active as the local government has engaged the private sector, NonGovernmental Organizations (NGO’s) and Community Based Organizations (CBO’s) in
the due process of solid waste management (SWM) services.
In responding to the question on this particular aspect one of the respondent165 to whom
the questionnaire was issued stated that;“Apart from the government there are other stakeholders who deals with solid
waste management in our area (Ilala) such as Non-Governmental Organisation
(NGO’s), Community Based Organisation (CBO’s), private companies for solid
waste management (under contract) and private entities for example
industries[Emphasis Mine]. These stakeholders have been effective as they help
the Municipality in solid waste management by performing different functions
patterning to solid waste management, for example the private companies hired by
the Municipal under contract to perform solid waste management, performs almost
the functions of the municipal on solid waste management except of the
prosecution which in most case is done exclusively by the municipal.”
Likewise, another respondent166 was of the same view as to the previous respondent on
this aspect as he commented that;“To some extent the community and other stakeholders have been active in the
entire process of solid waste management, for instance most of the people comply
with the payment of the refuse fee which shows that to a large extent they are
conscious on the issue of environmental management and particularly solid waste
management. Also other stakeholders such as Community Based Organisation

165

Law Enforcement Officer, Waste Management Department, Ilala Municipal Council.
Operations Manager, Green Waste Pro. Limited (The private company dealing with waste management
in the Ilala Municipality), the interview conducted on Thursday 26 th September, 2013 from 1545Hrs to
1630Hrs at Ilala, Dar-es-salaam.
166

49

(CBO’s) and Private entities for example Hotels such as Kilimanjaro Hotel which
in one event provided the dust bins for keeping waste such as solid waste has been
frontline in solid waste management with cooperation with the Municipality.”
In another occasion another respondent in responding to the question basing on the
activeness of the community and other stakeholders in solid waste management in urban
areas had this to say;“The Municipality has adopted Public Private Partnership [PPP] in which it
involves some private company in solid waste management. These companies
have contract with Municipal and they are vested with the obligations such as solid
waste collection, cleaning streets and open spaces, collection of refuse fee and
sometimes enforcement of the law (sometimes). Also there are Community Based
groups which their activeness have been depicted in their duties which include the
primary solid waste collection, collection of refuse fee and to clean environment.
Other active stakeholders on solid waste management are individual companies
and good will people, who take social responsibility through contribution of solid
waste management instruments such as blooms, dustbins and others of the like.”
The above views given by different respondents and with due regard to majority of them
are conclusive indication that this research found that the community members and other
stakeholders on solid waste management are active save for some denigrations as have
been mounted by minority respondents on the same question.
4.2. Conclusion
Solid waste if properly handled is a potential source of employment, jobs and income.
Private sector and investors are encouraged to establish solid waste recycling systems in
order to minimize the amount of the non- degradable waste materials which include waste
paper, metal, glass, plastic bottles and used tires. Presently, there are minimal recycling
activities for some types of waste materials in few towns in Tanzania including Dar-essalaam in particular Ilala Municipality.

50

The Government is encouraging various stakeholders to exploit the potential of
decomposing solid waste for climate change mitigation through biogas flaring and
generation of electricity. Also, industry owners and investors are encouraged to promote
the production of alternative bags in place of plastic bags, such as paper and sisal
manufactured bags.
For instance in recent years, the government under Regulation 40 (1)167ban the
manufacturing, importation, selling, buying, and use of plastic bags under 30 microns (or
0.03 mm) thickness and those with 65 microns (or 0.065 mm) thickness used for water
and juice packaging. Nevertheless, it surtaxes other types of plastic bags (commonly
known as Rambo) with 30 microns (or 0.03 mm) thickness and above, by more than 100%,
since these bags and packets polluted the environment.

167

Environmental (Solid Waste Management) Regulation , G.N 263 of 2009

51

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND GENERAL CONCLUSION
5.0 Introduction
Solid Waste Management effectiveness in urban areas is influenced by the waste handling
patterns and underlying attitudes of the urban population. Since the effectiveness and
sustainability of solid waste management in urban areas depends on the degree to which
the served population recognizes and takes ownership of the systems and facilities on solid
waste management in those areas, it is important that the people be involved from the
outset in the planning of the local segments of solid waste management in urban areas.
This chapter deliberates a summary of the research findings, recommendations on the
appropriate course to be taken by the law makers, law enforces, Municipality, community
and other stakeholders on solid waste management in urban areas particular Ilala
Municipality as well as the general conclusion on solid waste management in urban areas
with regard to the examination of the law and practice thereto.
5.1 Summary
The research was undertaken in Dar es Salaam city in particular Ilala Municipality. The
essence of taking Ilala Municipality as the case of this study was basically due to the factor
that most of the areas within the vicinity of this Municipality have dense population which
in turn has led to filthy conditions in specific by the solid waste, for instance areas such
as Kariakoo Market, Buguruni and others of the like.
The research corpus comprised of almost five chapters in which, chapter one provided a
general introduction to the research and other methodological issues such as;- background
of the problem, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study,
research questions, literature review, scope of the study, research design and methodology
and lastly limitation of the study.
Chapter two examined the existing environmental law principles and concepts on solid
waste management. Whereas, chapter three described the legal and Institutional
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framework for the regulation of solid waste in Tanzania taking into consideration the
principal legislations as well as other sectoral legislations implemented by various
government agencies and authorities.
Moreover, chapter four analysed the findings gathered from field and chapter five
summarised the key findings of the research, recommendations and conclusion.
In the statement of problem this research justified its validity by aiming at providing the
answer of questions related to solid waste management stream vide examining the laws as
well as the practice on the solid waste management particularly in urban areas so as to
effect changes on the status quo by suggesting different types of legal measures to
encourage solid waste minimization in urban areas for the sustainable development.
This purpose has to a large extent been met by this research as the research revealed some
issues relating to the legal framework as well as the practice on solid waste management
which were not well addressed and unrevealed as well as giving the way forward in the
recommendations part.
The specific objectives of the research were; - to examine the laws on whether they cater
the need for the community in solid waste management in urban areas, to examine the
practice as whether it complies with the legal framework on the solid waste management
in urban areas and to explore the role of the community and other stakeholders in
management of solid waste in urban areas.
These objectives have squarely been dealt by this study respectively; - the research in its
findings revealed that the laws on solid waste management to a large extent caters the
need of the community, the findings also revealed that the compliance with the legal
framework on solid waste management is still a problem as the practice contradicts the
legal provisions and lastly the research findings discovered that the community and other
stakeholders on solid waste management plays a great role in assisting the Municipality
in entire process of solid waste management.
The research was conducted basing on three questions which were; - Is the legal
framework for solid waste management in urban areas sufficient? What is the practice in
53

solid waste management in urban areas vis-à-vis legal framework? , and Are the
community members and other stakeholders active on solid waste management?
These questions had place in this research as the findings come out with the position on
the same questions respectively;- on the first question concerning the sufficiency of the
legal framework for solid waste management in urban areas most of the respondents
commented that the legal framework is sufficient to the large extent.
In response to the second question the research revealed that the practice in solid waste
management in urban areas vis-à-vis the legal framework is not satisfactory due to many
reasons ranging from institutional defies to financial encumbrances.
In the last question on whether the community members and other stakeholders on solid
waste management are active, the research revealed by the majority respondents that the
community and the stakeholders are to the large extent active in as far as solid waste
management concern since they participate fully together with other actors in the entire
process of solid waste management.
5.2 Recommendations
The trend for solid waste management seems to worsen in urban areas Ilala Municipality
not spared due to concentration of socio-economic activities and escalating population
growth. This research despite of covering Ilala Municipality only; it is of high lesson to
various Municipalities, the legislators, policy makers, law enforcers and others of the like.
This research offer the following recommendations to different entities depending on their
participation in solid waste management;5.2.1

Recommendations to the Central Government

The central Government should provide subsidies for solid waste management planning.
One amongst many factors that this study revealed to hinder the efficient solid waste
management in urban areas is financial constraints that face the local governments, so it
is the urge of this research that the central Government should fully provide for the fund
or subsidies for the local government authorities on solid waste management for the
smooth management of solid waste in their localities.
54

The central Government should not leave the burden of solid waste management solely to
the Municipals. It is crystal clear that the duty of solid waste management is legally vested
to the Local Governments. However, these governments seems to be incapacitated due to
various factors, so this research is of the view that central government participation is still
of paramount importance.
The central Government must prioritise the issue of solid waste management, the
government should invest in solid waste management equally as to other matters by
making sure it establish things such as collection points which will minimize distance to
the dumpsite and increase efficiency in solid waste management, provide awareness to the
community through mass media as it is done to other matters such as malaria and
HIV/AIDS and in different ways for example through putting placards in the highways
and various areas so that people can be aware on the importance of keeping their
environment clean.
The central Government shall establish the recycling firms or industries in the large scale
so that most of the domestic solid waste be recycled in our country and not exported
outside as the trend is now, which in one way or another reduces the profit from our waste.
This research discovered that there are few recycling industries in our country and other
countries such as China has used this loophole to take our solid waste such as plastic for
recycling in their country.
The central Government should establish an independent and autonomous authority such
as EWURA, DAWASCO, TANESCO and others of the like to deal with solid waste
management as solid waste is also the utility with importance such as water or electricity
and the production of waste in inevitable as far as human being is alive. An independent
Authority to deal with solid waste management will cease the role to be performed by the
local authorities which seems to be incapacitated and inefficient in solid waste
management.
The central Government shall establish the capacity building programmes to the
Municipal officials from time to time on the new techniques on how to combat solid waste
and on the management of the solid waste in their localities. This will help the actors on
55

solid waste management to increase their skills and knowledge on the new techniques of
solid waste management and increase their efficiency capacity.
The central Government also shall formalise the waste (solid waste) sector as the
employment sector. Waste sector have been employing many people especially youths for
instance there are youths who have employed themselves as scavengers (bottles
collectors), this is one of the ways in which these youths have been making life and
alleviate from poverty. This research recommend that the central government formalise
this sector by making a good arrangement such as registration of their activities as they
play a great role in combating solid waste at the municipal level. This will also help in
statistical information, as this research revealed that even the authorities have no exactly
number of the people engaging in this activity.
The central Government also, has to establish the large scale compost or organic farms.
This has been done in other countries and have been efficient in solid waste management
as the established compost and organic farms will be helpful in the reduction of the bulk
of solid waste produced as other will be used as manure in those farms.
The research recommends that the central Government should establish a national
professional body for solid waste management. The research revealed that most of the
staffs in solid waste management are not well skilled in this aspect so having a professional
body for solid waste management may help to raise the profile of the profession and
promote improved operational and professional standards.
5.2.2 Recommendations to the Local Governments (Municipalities)
The local governments since are legally responsible for solid waste management this
research recommend that they should practice separation of waste at source, the laws are
clear on this aspect though the compliance of it is still a problem to the local governments,
this will help in the reduction of the bulky of solid waste as there are some of the solid
wastes which are recyclable but due to the fact that they are not separated at source they
all end up to the disposal areas.

56

The research also recommend for the local governments to provide for the public
awareness on the issue of solid waste management. This will ease the task of solid waste
management on the part of the local governments as things such as non-compliance to the
payment of the refuse fee will end up following the members of the community taking
solid waste management as the important utility for their lives.
5.2.3 Recommendations to the Legislators
The Research also owes a recommendation to the legislators as they are also among the
stakeholders of solid waste management;The Research recommends that the legislators be up to date to cope with the changes of
the society, since the society is flexible the laws made on solid waste management should
match with time and the circumstances or realities of the society. So to speak things like
fluctuation and life hardship should be considered in the making of the solid waste
management programmes and rules.
5.2.4 Recommendation to the Political Leaders
The research recommends that the political leaders should have the political willingness
to combat solid waste in their areas and not just to concentrate on their political differences
in the implementation of the solid waste management programmes in their areas.
The research revealed that lack of political willingness among the political leaders is one
of the key factors for poor solid waste management at the local government level. It should
be borne in mind that waste sector if properly handled can employ a lot of jobless youths
and if it is given the priority waste can liberate a lot of people from poverty.
5.2.5 Recommendation to the General Public
The research recommends that the citizens be trustworthy in cooperating with the actors
on the solid waste management. This will help in fulfilling the effective solid waste
management as untrustworthy acts in the public such as vandalism by untrustworthy
citizen of the solid waste collection equipments such as trails and others of the like will
be eradicated.
57

5.3 General Conclusion
Operative solid waste management (SWM) depends upon an appropriate distribution of
functions, responsibilities, authority and revenues between national, regional and local
governments, as well as intra-urban units such as wards or communities. In comparison
with other sectors, agencies responsible for solid waste management should also pay a
reasonable attention to integrated management approaches based on adequate information
systems, decentralised responsibility, interdisciplinary interaction and cooperation
between functional levels.
It is the credence of this research that private enterprises can usually provide solid waste
management services such as collection, transfer and disposal services more efficiently
and at lower cost than the public sector. This is due to various factors such as competitive
bidding as the entity which is highly competitive will be chosen, existence of enterprises
with adequate technical and organisational capacity for example Green Waste Pro.
Limited which conduct its functions in Ilala Municipality specifically city centre effective
regulation of the partnership arrangements and adequate management of the private
partners through clear specifications, monitoring and control.
However, it does not mean that the duty of solid waste management be left exclusively to
private enterprises as there are some places which need the hand of the local authorities,
for instance on the enforcement of the law, as this research revealed that it has been
difficulty for the private enterprises to enforce laws on solid waste management.
5.4 Proposed Area for Future Research
The researcher being confined on solid waste management he did not concentrate much
on other kinds of wastes management. However, in the due undertaking of this research
the researcher came across some challenges in as far as environmental management
concerns which may be considered for the future study.
The researcher discovered that electronic (e) waste and hazardous waste have not well
been addressed thus propose that an examination of the law and practice be done on these
areas for the future research.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
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University Press
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London
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Programme
Dulo, S. (2010), Solid Waste Management, VDM Publishing
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Liyala, C.M. (2011), Modernising Solid Waste Management at Municipal Level:
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Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Myneni, S.R. (2008), Environmental Law, New Delhi-India: Asia Law House
Shovel M. (2007), Macmillan Dictionary for Advanced learners, 2ndEdition, A&C Black
Publishers Ltd; London
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Delhi- India: I.K International (Pvt) Ltd.
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Capital Cities, the Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
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Countries, Kingston Jamaica: Canoe Press University of the West Indies

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Warioba M.D and Warioba L.M (2012), Local Government Reforms in Tanzania,
Mzumbe University, Morogoro - Tanzania
Journals and Articles
Pallangyo, M.D (2007), “Environmental Law in Tanzania; How Far Have We Gone?”
Law, Environmental and Development Journal
Papers
Lubuva, J.M. (17th January 2012), ‘Cleaning the Towns and Cities of Tanzania: A
collective responsibility’ The paper presented during the forum held at the Tanzania
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Ntakamulenga, R. (10–13 September 2012),The status of solid waste management in
Tanzania, A paper presented during the Coastal East Africa Solid Waste workshop held
in Flic en Flac, Mauritius
Squires, C.O. (October 2006), Public Participation in Solid Waste Management in Small
Island Developing states
Schubeler P (1996), Conceptual Frame work for municipal solid waste management in
Low income Countries, UNDP/UNHCHS (Habitat)/ WORLD BANK/ SDC Collaborative
Programme on Municipal Solid waste management in Low income countries. (Working
Paper No.9)
Newspapers
This Day; The voice of Transparency 1st March 2010
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www.encapafrica.org/EGSSAA/solidwaste pdf

accessed on 28 November 2012 at

1350Hrs
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Reports
JICA Report on Solid Waste in Dar-es-salaam, 1996/1997

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ANNEXTURE A
ORDINARY CITIZENS QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondent, this questionnaire is deliberately for academic purpose, in which a
researcher as a finalist (3rd year)student at Mzumbe University- Mbeya Campus College
is extremely obliged to undertake a compulsory research paper to be submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of bachelor of Laws. The
respondent’s personal information is uprightly reserved at their choice. The researcher is
outstandingly esteemed to give his thanks in advance and call for your space and time to
respond to the following questions;1. What is the most type of waste in the household in your area?
a) Kitchen waste (food remains, vegetable, fruits peel etc.)
b) Papers (magazines, newspapers , cardboards )
c) Glass
d) Metals
e) Plastic
2. Is waste stored at the household level?
a) Yes
b) No
If the answer is NO how is generated waste managed?
a) Burnt
b) Buried
c) Thrown in nearby drains Street
d) Collected by waste contractors
e) Others (Specify)
62

3. Who is Responsible for managing waste?
a) Members of the Household
b) Ward leaders
c) Counselors
d) Other (Specify)

Name of the Respondent ……………………………………………
Job Description ……………………………………………………...
Address ………………………………………………………………
Signature …………………………………………………………….
Date ………………………………………………………………….

63

ANNEXTURE B
SOLID WASTE STAKEHOLDERS QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondent, this questionnaire is deliberately for academic purpose, in which a
researcher as a finalist (3rd year) student at Mzumbe University- Mbeya Campus College
is extremely obliged to undertake a compulsory research paper to be submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of bachelor of Laws. The
respondent’s personal information are uprightly reserved at their choice. The researcher
is outstandingly esteemed to give his thanks in advance and call for your space and time
to respond to the following questions;1. What are the sources of solid waste in your Municipality?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
2. How much solid waste is generated daily in your Municipality?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. What does the Municipality do to promote or carry out in solid waste management?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
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……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………....
4. Do you have any Municipal by-laws on solid waste management?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
5. What does the Municipal by-laws state on solid waste management concerning waste
producer responsibility?
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
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6. What does the Municipal by-laws state on solid waste management concerning liability
on failure to pay for waste fee collection?
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7. What is the role of Municipal officials in solid waste management in the Municipality?

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8. Are there any other Institutions or agencies (private contractors) which provide Solid
Waste Management services in your Municipality?
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9. Do they have any terms with municipality?
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10. What are their roles?
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11. What are the Municipal views regarding its roles in solid waste management?
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12. Does Municipality get any Central government support in solid waste management?
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13. What kind of support? (Financial, technological, human etc.)
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Name of the Respondent ……………………………………………
Job Description ……………………………………………………...
Address ………………………………………………………………
Signature …………………………………………………………….
Date ………………………………………………………………….

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ANNEXTURE C
ILALA MUNICIPALITY (ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANLINESS) BY-LAWS [G.N
111 OF 2011]

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