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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189

**Dynamics of diesel and wind turbine generators on an isolated power
**

system

D. Das a,*, S.K. Aditya a, D.P. Kothari b

a

b

**Electrical Eng. Dept., Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur—721302, India
**

Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi—110016, India

Abstract

The paper presents dynamic system analysis of an isolated electric power system consisting of a diesel generator and a wind turbine

generator. The 150 kW wind turbine generator is operated in parallel with a diesel generator to serve an average load of 350 kW. Time

domain solutions are used to study the performance of the power system. Optimum values of gain settings of the Proportional-Integral

controller (P-I) are obtained by using the integral squared error (ISE) technique. A simple variable structure control (VSC) logic is also

proposed for improvement of the dynamic performance of the system. 䉷 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wind and diesel power system; Stability; Optimization

1. Introduction

A constantly increasing power demand has to be met

through an adequately planned electrical power generation

programme. Electrical energy is environmentally the most

benign form of energy, with production routed through

conventional fossil fuel burning or through nuclear energy

and wherever possible through hydro resources. All of these

in addition to other disadvantages give rise to environmental

issues of a varied nature. Therefore it is necessary to

consider the problems of electrical energy generation and

environment jointly so that the increasing need of electricity

for industrialization will be met with minimal environmental degradation. One of the solutions is to utilize wind

energy in favourable sites which are remote from centralised

energy supply systems. Since wind power varies randomly

there must be a stand-by power source to meet load demand.

The diesel and wind system is one of the hybrid systems

utilizing more than one energy source. A wind and diesel

system is very reliable because the diesel acts as a cushion to

take care of variation in wind speed, and would always

provide power equal to load minus the wind power.

Scott et al. [1] have investigated the dynamic interaction

to quantify any increased disturbance to the Block Island

Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island (which operates

an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel and

wind turbine generators resulting from connection of the

MOD-OA wind turbine generator). In this study, the

* Corresponding author; e-mail: ddas@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in.

**dynamic simulation of the wind turbine generator operated
**

in parallel with a diesel generator on an isolated power

system is carried out. Optimum values for the gain settings

of the Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller have been

obtained using the Integral Squared Error (ISE) technique.

A simple Variable Structure Control (VSC) logic is also

proposed for the improvement of system dynamic performance.

**2. Description of diesel and wind systems
**

The model considered in this study consists of the following sub-systems [1,3,4]:

Wind dynamics model;

Diesel dynamics model;

Blade pitch control of wind turbine;

Generator dynamics model.

The wind model is one feature that is unique to the wind

turbine generator and is not required for the diesel generator

system in the stability programme. Anderson et al. [2] have

presented one model that can properly simulate the effect of

wind behaviour, including gusting, rapid (ramp) changes

and background noise. The basic conditions for start up

and synchronization are that the wind speed is to be within

an acceptable range and there must be a phase match

between the generator and system voltages [1].

The diesel dynamics is associated with diesel power and

the nature of the dynamic behaviour in this model is

**0142-0615/99/$ - see front matter 䉷 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
**

PII: S0142-061 5(98)00033-7

this is obtained by using the induction generator as a wind turbine drive train. The generator dynamics model consists of a synchronous generator driven by a diesel engine through a flywheel and connected in parallel with an induction generator driven by a wind turbine. However. Since the torque speed characteristic of the induction generator is nearly linear in Fig. The pitch control system consists of a power measurement transducer. This is true for induction generators with slip of at least 1–2% at rated power. a manual power set point control. Das et al. Control acts on the turbine blade pitch angle (pitch control). Unlike synchronous generators. Turbine blade pitch control has a significant impact on the dynamic behaviour of the system. a proportional plus integral feedback function. Variations of electrical power due to changes in wind speed should be as small as possible. Pitch control has the potential for producing the highest level of interaction because of the presence of both diesel and wind turbine control loops. Variable pitch turbines operate efficiently over a wider range of wind speeds than fixed pitch machines. dominated by the diesel speed governor controller. This type of control only exists in horizontal axis machines. Conceptual model of diesel and wind turbine generator system. Operation of a diesel engine for extended periods at two power levels could result in possible engine damage. and a hydraulic actuator which varies the pitch of the blades. 2. The controlled variables are turbine speed and shaft torque. A total power set point is selected in which it can manually adjusted from zero to maximum value. Functional block diagram for wind and diesel systems with pitch control. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 Fig. cost and complexity are higher.184 D. induction generators are high compliance couplings between the machine and the electrical system. 1. The purpose of the adjustable power set point is to allow system utility personnel to lower the power setting below the maximum settings of the wind generator to prevent controlling diesel from dropping to less than 50% of the rated power. . The diesel generator will act as a dummy grid for the wind generator which is connected in parallel.

/ Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 185 Fig. 2) labelled ‘data fit pitch response’ is a simple lag which is required to match the phase/gain characteristic of the model. The fluid coupling shown in Fig. For this system (Fig. The transfer function of the diesel governor (Fig. U and P are state. B and G are constant matrices associated with them respectively. 2. Das et al. (4) is split into two blocks and DPf1 is a dummy variable. (2) of the hydraulic pitch actuator is split into two blocks (Fig. we get 3. 2). . 2) is DPf S K 1 ⫹ S d ⫺ Dv2 S S 1 ⫹ ST1 4 The transfer function of the diesel governor Eq. resulting in a constant for the particular power set point selected. A linear model is formulated for the wind and diesel turbine generator system for the purpose of identifying and quantifying the underdamped oscillation. torque changes are reflected as speed changes. The transfer function of the hydraulic pitch actuator is given as: 1 But Tk is very small compared to Tp2 and hence Tk is neglected from the mathematical model. A. Data for this system are given in Appendix 2. The system is a linear continuous-time dynamic system and can be represented by a set of linear differential equations of the form: X_ AX ⫹ BU ⫹ GP 5 where X. Therefore. it is possible to provide a single speed controller to control speed as well as torque.0. therefore Dvref 0. 2 shows the functional block diagram that is obtained.0 in Eq. Fig. 3. Mathematical model of the system Kp2 1 ⫹ STp1 DH S 2 U1 S Tk S ⫹ STp2 ⫹ 1 1 ⫹ S given as: 2 The transfer function Eq. 0 stands for transpose. (3). The conceptual model that results is shown in Fig. 1 transfers speed difference into power.D. Kp vs J for several values of KI. 1. The actual function is nonlinear (Square law) but for the model it is linearized. (1) can be written as Kp2 1 ⫹ STp1 DH S 1 ⫹ STp2 1 ⫹ S U1 S DPf S K 1 ⫹ S d Dvref S ⫺ Dv2 S S 1 ⫹ ST1 3 As vref is the reference speed setting (a constant) for the diesel generator. Substituting Dvref 0. control and disturbance vectors and A. B and G are given in Appendix 1. 2) and DH1 is a dummy variable. U and P are given as X 0 DH1 DH DD Dv1 Dv2 DPf 1 DPf 6 U U1 7 P 0 DPv DPload 8 where. Other state variables are marked in Fig. This objective is met by retaining the pertinent controller dynamics for both the diesel unit governors and wind turbine generator pitch controller/actuator. X. Therefore Eq. Appearing in a block (Fig. the operating region.

Note that DPvtg is also a function of Dv1 and Dv2 (Fig. A performance index Fig. Pmax 150 kW is constant. Das et al. The P-I control law Zt 0 DPvtg 2 dt 11 is minimized to obtain the optimum values for P-I gain settings. . 4. therefore DPmax 0. Plot of Kv vs J. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 is given as U1 Kp DPmax ⫺ DPvtg ⫹ KI Zt 0 DPmax ⫺ DPvtg dt 9 For the study system. 5. 3 shows the plot of J vs Kp for several values of KI. Optimization of the Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller gain settings using the ISE technique Many utilities prefer to use the P-I controller for better system dynamic response and in the present study. Substituting DPmax 0.0. (9) we obtain U1 ⫺Kp DPvtg ⫺ KI Zt 0 DPvtg dt 10 An attempt is made to obtain the optimum values of P-I gain settings (Kp and KI) using the integral squared error (ISE) technique for a 1% step increase of load. where Kp and KI are proportional and integral gains Fig.0 in Eq. Fig. 2).186 D. the P-I controller is used. Frequency responses with conventional and variable structure controllers. J 4.

Dynamic responses Figs. values of Kp and KI are fixed at 10. Indeed taking the magnitude of Kv as being sufficiently large. but when the error is small the control law is Zt 13 U1 ⫺Kp DPvtg ⫺ KI DPvtg dt if 兩DPvtg 兩 ⱕ 1 0 where 兩DPvtg 兩典1 for t ⱖ t1 . However.0.0004 gives the lowest value of J. any positive value of Kv does not minimize the performance index J Eq. it is seen that the optimum value of Kv is ⫺ 10. the error DPvtg. distinguished by good dynamic and steady-state characteristics. It is seen that the activation of pitch control with the conventional P-I controller results in an underdamped response. However. Das et al.D. (11) is chosen to obtain the optimum values of Kv. the structure of the controller is changed by switching to a P-I control. then if the parameters Kv. 6. 4 shows the plot of J vs Kv for 1 0. 1 0. which eliminates the steady error remaining in the system. one can make sure that the speed of the system is high. one can ensure a high-quality transient response. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 187 Fig. it is seen that Kp 10:0 and KI 4:0 are more or less optimum values of P-I gain settings. If the control law applied at the first stage of the transient (as long as error is sufficiently large) is chosen as U1 ⫺Kv DPvtg if 兩DPvtg 兩典1 12 where 1 ⬎ 0 is some constant. Throughout this optimization process.0004. (11) and perhaps this is due to excessive control action. 5. the low damping allows the oscillation to continue for a . 4. At the instant t1 . thus. Although this is a stable response.0 and 4. respectively. 5 and 6 show the dynamic responses for a 1% step increase of load with the P-I controller and variable structure controller (VSC). From Fig. Power responses with conventional and variable structure controllers. 3. From Fig. The same performance index J Eq. Variable structure control (VSC) logic In this study. respectively. in response to a step input rapidly enters the region 兩DPvtg 兩 ⱕ 1. Fig. 6. It is worth mentioning here that several values of 1 are tried out.0. an attempt is also made to improve the system dynamic performance by using a simple variable structure control (VSC) logic which is based on proportional (P) and proportional-integral (P-I) control concept. when the error has fallen to 1. An attempt is made to obtain optimum values of Kv by using the ISE technique. KI and 1 are suitably selected. Kp.

6(b). . 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 ⫺1 0 0 0 0 Kp3 ⫺1 0 0 0 0 Kpc 2Hv ⫺Kfc 2Hv Kfc 2Hv 0 0 0 Kfc 2Hd ⫺Kfc 0 0 0 0 ⫺Kd 0 0 0 0 ⫺Kd T1 1 T1 2 0 6 6 0 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 1 6 6 G 6 2Hv 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 6 0 4 0 0 3 0 7 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 ⫺1 5 T1 3 7 0 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 7 ⫺1 7 7 2Hd 7 7 7 0 7 5 0 Note that B is a 7 × 1 matrix because there is only one control input. Peak wind generator frequency deviation (Fig. The simulation incorporates wind turbine pitch control and diesel governor. From Fig. damping is greatly improved. Therefore. It can also be concluded that wind turbine generation. 2) are given below: ⫺1 Tp2 6 6 6 ! 6 6 6 Kp2 ⫺ Kp2 Tp1 6 Tp2 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 A6 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 4 0 2 1 Tp2 6 6 6 6 6 Kp2 Tp1 6 6 T 6 p2 6 6 0 6 B6 6 6 0 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 6 0 4 0 7. it can be concluded that the variable structure controller improves the system damping compared to the fixed structure P-I controller. it is also seen that with the use of VSC. 5(a)) and peak diesel power deviation (Fig. Das et al. 2 Appendix 1 A. From Figs 5 and 6. Analysis reveals that the variable structure controller gives better dynamic performance in terms of peak 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7. 6(a)) are much less compared to the conventional P-I controller. even when providing a large proportion of the power required by an isolated utility can be a practical option resulting in system disturbances no greater than those found in a conventional diesel system. Optimum values for the gain parameters of the conventional proportional-integral (P-I) controller and variable structure controller (VSC) have been obtained using the integral squared error (ISE) technique. Appendix 2 Area capacity. B and G matrices of the system (Fig. Conclusions A linear mathematical model of the wind and diesel turbine generators operating on an isolated electric power system has been formulated for the purpose of identifying and quantifying the underdamped oscillation. it is also seen that with the use of VSC. settling time is much less compared to that of the conventional P-I controller. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 deviations and settling time compared to that of the conventional fixed structure P-I controller. the wind power deviation (DPvtg) is slow and monotonic and hence is preferred. Hv inertia constant on machine base 3:5 s for wind system.188 D. Hd inertia constant on machine base 8:5 s for diesel system. PR 350 kW. It is seen that with the use of VSC. longer time before damping out.

[3] Hinrichsen EN. [2] Anderson PM. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1982. . IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1983. Kp3 1:40 Tp1 0:60 s. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators. Stability simulation of wind turbine systems. Wind turbine generator interaction with diesel generators on an isolated power system. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1984. [4] Hinrichsen EN. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 21 (1999) 183–189 189 Kfc 16:2 pu kW=Hz Kd 16:5 pu kW=Hz. References Kp2 1:25 Tp2 0:041 s. T1 0:025 s Tk 0:0009 s: [1] Scott GW.PAS 101(8):2640–2648.PAS 103(5):933–937. Wilrekar VF. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1984. Shaltens RK. Das et al. DPload 0:01 pu kW Kpc 0:80. Bose A. Nolan PJ.D. Controls for variable pitch wind turbine generators.PAS 103(4):886–892.PAS 102(12):3791–3795.

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