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system

D. Das a,*, S.K. Aditya a, D.P. Kothari b

a

Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi110016, India

Abstract

The paper presents dynamic system analysis of an isolated electric power system consisting of a diesel generator and a wind turbine

generator. The 150 kW wind turbine generator is operated in parallel with a diesel generator to serve an average load of 350 kW. Time

domain solutions are used to study the performance of the power system. Optimum values of gain settings of the Proportional-Integral

controller (P-I) are obtained by using the integral squared error (ISE) technique. A simple variable structure control (VSC) logic is also

proposed for improvement of the dynamic performance of the system. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wind and diesel power system; Stability; Optimization

1. Introduction

A constantly increasing power demand has to be met

through an adequately planned electrical power generation

programme. Electrical energy is environmentally the most

benign form of energy, with production routed through

conventional fossil fuel burning or through nuclear energy

and wherever possible through hydro resources. All of these

in addition to other disadvantages give rise to environmental

issues of a varied nature. Therefore it is necessary to

consider the problems of electrical energy generation and

environment jointly so that the increasing need of electricity

for industrialization will be met with minimal environmental degradation. One of the solutions is to utilize wind

energy in favourable sites which are remote from centralised

energy supply systems. Since wind power varies randomly

there must be a stand-by power source to meet load demand.

The diesel and wind system is one of the hybrid systems

utilizing more than one energy source. A wind and diesel

system is very reliable because the diesel acts as a cushion to

take care of variation in wind speed, and would always

provide power equal to load minus the wind power.

Scott et al. [1] have investigated the dynamic interaction

to quantify any increased disturbance to the Block Island

Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island (which operates

an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel and

wind turbine generators resulting from connection of the

MOD-OA wind turbine generator). In this study, the

* Corresponding author; e-mail: ddas@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in.

in parallel with a diesel generator on an isolated power

system is carried out. Optimum values for the gain settings

of the Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller have been

obtained using the Integral Squared Error (ISE) technique.

A simple Variable Structure Control (VSC) logic is also

proposed for the improvement of system dynamic performance.

The model considered in this study consists of the following sub-systems [1,3,4]:

Wind dynamics model;

Diesel dynamics model;

Blade pitch control of wind turbine;

Generator dynamics model.

The wind model is one feature that is unique to the wind

turbine generator and is not required for the diesel generator

system in the stability programme. Anderson et al. [2] have

presented one model that can properly simulate the effect of

wind behaviour, including gusting, rapid (ramp) changes

and background noise. The basic conditions for start up

and synchronization are that the wind speed is to be within

an acceptable range and there must be a phase match

between the generator and system voltages [1].

The diesel dynamics is associated with diesel power and

the nature of the dynamic behaviour in this model is

0142-0615/99/$ - see front matter 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0142-061 5(98)00033-7

184

power set point is selected in which it can manually adjusted

from zero to maximum value. The purpose of the adjustable

power set point is to allow system utility personnel to lower

the power setting below the maximum settings of the wind

generator to prevent controlling diesel from dropping to less

than 50% of the rated power. Operation of a diesel engine

for extended periods at two power levels could result in

possible engine damage.

Pitch control has the potential for producing the highest

level of interaction because of the presence of both diesel

and wind turbine control loops. The pitch control system

consists of a power measurement transducer, a manual

power set point control, a proportional plus integral feedback function, and a hydraulic actuator which varies the

pitch of the blades. Turbine blade pitch control has a significant impact on the dynamic behaviour of the system. This

type of control only exists in horizontal axis machines.

range of wind speeds than fixed pitch machines. However,

cost and complexity are higher.

The generator dynamics model consists of a synchronous

generator driven by a diesel engine through a flywheel and

connected in parallel with an induction generator driven by

a wind turbine. The diesel generator will act as a dummy

grid for the wind generator which is connected in parallel.

Variations of electrical power due to changes in wind speed

should be as small as possible; this is obtained by using the

induction generator as a wind turbine drive train. Unlike

synchronous generators, induction generators are high

compliance couplings between the machine and the electrical system. This is true for induction generators with slip of

at least 12% at rated power. The controlled variables are

turbine speed and shaft torque. Control acts on the turbine

blade pitch angle (pitch control). Since the torque speed

characteristic of the induction generator is nearly linear in

Fig. 2. Functional block diagram for wind and diesel systems with pitch control.

185

changes. Therefore, it is possible to provide a single speed

controller to control speed as well as torque.

turbine generator system for the purpose of identifying

and quantifying the underdamped oscillation. This objective

is met by retaining the pertinent controller dynamics for

both the diesel unit governors and wind turbine generator

pitch controller/actuator. The conceptual model that results

is shown in Fig. 1. The fluid coupling shown in Fig. 1

transfers speed difference into power. The actual function

is nonlinear (Square law) but for the model it is linearized,

resulting in a constant for the particular power set point

selected. Fig. 2 shows the functional block diagram that is

obtained.

The transfer function of the hydraulic pitch actuator is

given as:

1

neglected from the mathematical model. Therefore Eq. (1)

can be written as

Kp2 1 STp1

DHS

1 STp2 1 S

U1 S

DPf S

K 1 S

d

Dvref S Dv2 S

S1 ST1

diesel generator, therefore Dvref 0.0. Substituting Dvref

0.0 in Eq. (3), we get

Kp2 1 STp1

DHS

2

U1 S

Tk S STp2 11 S

given as:

The transfer function Eq. (2) of the hydraulic pitch actuator is split into two blocks (Fig. 2) and DH1 is a dummy

variable.

The transfer function of the diesel governor (Fig. 2) is

DPf S

K 1 S

d

Dv2 S

S1 ST1

into two blocks and DPf1 is a dummy variable.

Appearing in a block (Fig. 2) labelled data fit pitch

response is a simple lag which is required to match the

phase/gain characteristic of the model. Other state variables

are marked in Fig. 2. The system is a linear continuous-time

dynamic system and can be represented by a set of linear

differential equations of the form:

X_ AX BU GP

and A, B and G are constant matrices associated with them

respectively. For this system (Fig. 2), X, U and P are

given as

X 0 DH1 DH DD Dv1 Dv2 DPf 1 DPf

U U1

P 0 DPv DPload

Appendix 1. Data for this system are given in

Appendix 2.

186

is given as

U1 Kp DPmax DPvtg KI

Zt

0

DPmax DPvtg dt 9

For the study system, Pmax 150 kW is constant, therefore DPmax 0.0. Substituting DPmax 0.0 in Eq. (9)

we obtain

U1 Kp DPvtg KI

Zt

0

DPvtg dt

10

gain settings (Kp and KI) using the integral squared error

(ISE) technique for a 1% step increase of load.

A performance index

Fig. 4. Plot of Kv vs J.

J

4. Optimization of the Proportional-Integral (P-I)

controller gain settings using the ISE technique

Many utilities prefer to use the P-I controller for

better system dynamic response and in the present

study, the P-I controller is used. The P-I control law

Zt

0

DPvtg 2 dt

11

settings. Note that DPvtg is also a function of Dv1 and Dv2

(Fig. 2).

Fig. 3 shows the plot of J vs Kp for several values of

KI, where Kp and KI are proportional and integral gains

187

4:0 are more or less optimum values of P-I gain settings.

5. Variable structure control (VSC) logic

In this study, an attempt is also made to improve the

system dynamic performance by using a simple variable

structure control (VSC) logic which is based on proportional

(P) and proportional-integral (P-I) control concept. If the

control law applied at the first stage of the transient (as

long as error is sufficiently large) is chosen as

U1 Kv DPvtg if DPvtg 1

12

the control law is

Zt

13

U1 Kp DPvtg KI DPvtg dt if DPvtg 1

0

and 1 are suitably selected, one can ensure a high-quality

transient response, distinguished by good dynamic and

steady-state characteristics. Indeed taking the magnitude

of Kv as being sufficiently large, one can make sure that

the speed of the system is high; thus, the error DPvtg, in

DPvtg 1. At the instant t1 , when the error has fallen to

1, the structure of the controller is changed by switching to a

P-I control, which eliminates the steady error remaining in

the system.

An attempt is made to obtain optimum values of Kv by

using the ISE technique. The same performance index J Eq.

(11) is chosen to obtain the optimum values of Kv. Throughout this optimization process, values of Kp and KI are fixed at

10.0 and 4.0, respectively. Fig. 4 shows the plot of J vs Kv

for 1 0.0004. It is worth mentioning here that several

values of 1 are tried out. However, 1 0.0004 gives the

lowest value of J. From Fig. 4, it is seen that the optimum

value of Kv is 10.0. However, any positive value of Kv

does not minimize the performance index J Eq. (11) and

perhaps this is due to excessive control action.

6. Dynamic responses

Figs. 5 and 6 show the dynamic responses for a 1% step

increase of load with the P-I controller and variable structure controller (VSC). It is seen that the activation of pitch

control with the conventional P-I controller results in an

underdamped response. Although this is a stable response,

the low damping allows the oscillation to continue for a

188

deviations and settling time compared to that of the conventional fixed structure P-I controller.

It can also be concluded that wind turbine generation,

even when providing a large proportion of the power

required by an isolated utility can be a practical option

resulting in system disturbances no greater than those

found in a conventional diesel system.

longer time before damping out. It is seen that with the use

of VSC, damping is greatly improved. Peak wind generator

frequency deviation (Fig. 5(a)) and peak diesel power deviation (Fig. 6(a)) are much less compared to the conventional

P-I controller. From Fig. 6(b), it is also seen that with the use

of VSC, the wind power deviation (DPvtg) is slow and

monotonic and hence is preferred. From Figs 5 and 6, it is

also seen that with the use of VSC, settling time is much less

compared to that of the conventional P-I controller. Therefore, it can be concluded that the variable structure controller improves the system damping compared to the fixed

structure P-I controller.

2

Appendix 1

A, B and G matrices of the system (Fig. 2) are given

below:

1

Tp2

6

6

6

!

6

6

6 Kp2 Kp2 Tp1

6

Tp2

6

6

6

6

0

6

6

6

A6

0

6

6

6

6

6

6

0

6

6

6

6

0

6

6

4

0

2

1

Tp2

6

6

6

6

6 Kp2 Tp1

6

6 T

6

p2

6

6

0

6

B6

6

6

0

6

6

6

0

6

6

6

6

0

4

0

7. Conclusions

A linear mathematical model of the wind and diesel turbine

generators operating on an isolated electric power system has

been formulated for the purpose of identifying and quantifying

the underdamped oscillation. The simulation incorporates

wind turbine pitch control and diesel governor. Optimum

values for the gain parameters of the conventional proportional-integral (P-I) controller and variable structure controller

(VSC) have been obtained using the integral squared error

(ISE) technique. Analysis reveals that the variable structure

controller gives better dynamic performance in terms of peak

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7;

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

Kp3

Kpc

2Hv

Kfc

2Hv

Kfc

2Hv

Kfc

2Hd

Kfc

Kd

Kd

T1

1

T1

6

6 0

6

6

6 0

6

6

6 1

6

6

G 6 2Hv

6

6

6

6 0

6

6

6

6 0

4

0

3

0 7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

7

1 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

1 5

T1

7

0 7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

1 7

7

2Hd 7

7

7

0 7

5

0

control input.

Appendix 2

Area capacity; PR 350 kW;

Hv inertia constant on machine base

3:5 s for wind system;

Hd inertia constant on machine base

8:5 s for diesel system;

189

References

Kp2 1:25

Tp2 0:041 s;

Kp3 1:40

Tp1 0:60 s;

DPload 0:01 pu kW

Kpc 0:80;

T1 0:025 s

Tk 0:0009 s:

[1] Scott GW, Wilrekar VF, Shaltens RK. Wind turbine generator interaction with diesel generators on an isolated power system. IEEE Trans

Power Apparatus Syst 1984;PAS 103(5):933937.

[2] Anderson PM, Bose A. Stability simulation of wind turbine systems.

IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1983;PAS 102(12):37913795.

[3] Hinrichsen EN. Controls for variable pitch wind turbine generators.

IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1984;PAS 103(4):886892.

[4] Hinrichsen EN, Nolan PJ. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine

generators. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1982;PAS

101(8):26402648.

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