You are on page 1of 16

RESEARCH

includes research articles that
focus on the analysis and
resolution of managerial and
academic issues based on
analytical and empirical or case
research

Impact of Organizational Culture on
Commitment of Employees: An Empirical
Study of BPO Sector in India
Sulakshna Dwivedi, Sanjay Kaushik, and Luxmi

Executive
Summary

Retention of employees has become a critical issue in the corporate arena. With the
increasing trend of frequent job switching among employees , it is a big challenge for
HR Managers today to fulfill the aspirations of each and every employee and to bring
congruence between organizational and individual goals. In the BPO sector of India
where attrition rate is as high as 55 percent (ASSOCHAM, 2011), the situation is even
more difficult for HR Managers.
But the big question is how to make employees feel committed to their organizations
especially in such a dynamic work environment where attrition rate is so high and job
poaching is the order of the day. An extensive review of literature reveals that employees’ ‘commitment ’to the organization is a function of their interaction and relationship with that organization and, to a great extent, a manifestation of the attitude of
management towards the employees. This belief is based on the premise that member’s identity with the organization is a result of a set of carefully designed policies
within the cultural pattern of the organization.
An attempt has been made in this research to study the BPO sector to see whether the
organizational culture and commitment level of employees differ across the different
strata of employees in the BPO sector and finally to explore the relationship between
organizational culture and commitment. The research was carried out in 15 BPO units
in and around Chandigarh – Chandigarh, Panchkula, and Mohali which covered
three strata of BPO units based on the number of employees and from all the three level
of employees, i.e. top, middle, and lower level of employees.

KEY WORDS
Organizational Culture
Organizational Commitment
Retention
Business Process
Outsourcing

Results reveal that employees of smaller BPOs perceive their culture a shade better
than medium or larger BPOs. And, as far as overall commitment is concerned, employees of smaller BPOs have significantly more commitment level than employees of medium or larger BPOs. As organizational culture is better in smaller BPOs and so is the
commitment, these findings give us a cue that organizational culture has definite
impact on commitment of employees. Further results reveal that commitment of employees is particularly sensitive to six dimensions of organizational culture viz.
proaction, confrontation, trust, authenticity, experimentation, and collaboration. But,
the results failed to support the relationship between autonomy and openness with
commitment. Further, findings reveal that the focal point in the development of any
strategy is directed towards impacting the commitment of employees towards their
organizations

VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY - SEPTEMBER 2014

77

the organizations’ ability to change constantly and fundamentally is considered critical for their continued existence. and highest average sick days taken per agent per annum (15 days) (Wallace.wing to a number of factors such as advancing technology. India. 2006. prevalence of stiff targets. rising globalization. 2005). outsourcing. Excessive monitoring. and Singapore revealed that in 2005. Through portrayal of ‘work as fun’ and ‘workplace as yet another campus’. 2006). 2004). row of jazzy computers. the rate of attrition exceeds 100 percent in certain companies and geographical locations and for particular processes. as the rate at which employees are opting out of mid.shoring. the Philippines. 2006). & Bhatnagar. . challenges. especially in a highly dynamic environment.5 per cent of India’s incremental GDP in the last decade. In this scenario. fundamental changes have taken place in the business environment. lack of career development opportunities and better job opportunities elsewhere as the major reasons of attrition in the Indian call centre industry. the company of smart and trendy peers . India’s market share in outsourcing industry spiked from 51 per cent in 2009 to 58 per cent in 2011. the BPO industry has grown at a frenetic pace.1 per cent of the national GDP of India (NASSCOM. 2011). The superior image of work in the sector and the vibrant ambience of workplace with sweeping glass and concrete buildings. BPO exports from India grew from $2. the business environment has become more volatile with the product lifecycle decreasing and consumers demanding more value at lower prices. In fact. skill shortages and employee turnover have rapidly become major challenges facing the mushrooming industry (Budhwar. 2006). and infrequency of breaks make work for many as monotonous and stressful. and changing demographics. Presently.. and stress by developing and managing levels of employee IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . Attrition rate in the BPO sector in the first quarter of the year 2011 was as high as 55 percent (ASSOCHAM. 2014). it had the greatest level of agent attrition (31%). who are fascinated with Western ways of living and modern work environments (Ramesh. Indian call centres have the highest employee turnover of 40 per cent against a global average of 20 per cent and almost 60 per cent of employees have less than one year of tenure at work (Holman et al. & Dhar. Iverson. Varmam. 2006). Indian BPO firms can successfully battle employee problems like attrition. Although officially running at 30-40 percent per annum (NASSCOM. 2003.1 million employees and generate revenues of over 8. Luthar. In this pursuit. It is the fastest growing segment of the Indian Information Technology (IT)-BPO sector and India is considered the “electronic housekeeper” of the world (NASSCOM. & Walsh. Singh. A comparative analysis of call centres in the Asia Pacific region including China. stressful work environment. the real rate is perhaps around 65-75 percent per annum. The BPO industry has accounted for around 1. 2007). Cost savings and assurance of acceptable quality are the two key reasons for offshoring particular business processes to developing countries (Dossani & Kenney. Budhwar. Today. while India had the lowest average full-time customer service agent annual salary (US$2074).. the potential workers are attracted to and engaged in the BPO sector. Verma.help in drawing educated and fun-loving youngsters from ur- 78 Similarly. burnout. Korea. 2011). Over the last decade. Notwithstanding these highly encouraging conditions for the establishment of BPO operators. managers often resort to re-engineering.. according to a global call centre study. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is about a decade old in India. BPO services are typically provided by Information Technology enabled Services (ITeS). O ban middle class.and low-level jobs has become alarmingly high (ASSOCHAM. 2009). 2002). often leading to emotional exhaustion and withdrawal (Deery. Budhwar. and off. Taylor & Bain. lowest average employee tenure (11 months). the IT-BPM sector in India is expected to provide direct employment to over 3.45 billion in FY 2002-03 to over $16 billion in FY 2012. unpleasant working conditions. and risks for business managers. The long-documented problem of high attrition is an end result of work that is repetitive and subject to short cycle times. Attrition remains the most pressing problem. leading to new opportunities. Malhotra. & Mukherjee (2009) suggested monotonous work. to improve efficiency and effectiveness of business activities. The BPO sector is facing severe dearth of skilled workers. The emerging technologies and business models are lowering barriers to entry and facilitating asymmetric competition (McKinsey Quarterly.

Sengupta and Gupta (2011) found five factors. in the response predispositions towards several significant issues and phenomena (attitudes). To fill this research gap. productivity. & Sinha (2012) found that employees with comparatively low financial obligation were more prone to quit the organization. Valk. Schein (1985. The popular use of the concept has further complicated matters by organizations labeling anything. it is apparent that most of the studies which are based on interviews with BPO workers point towards different aspects of organizational culture. & Nadkarni. • To establish a linkage between organizational culture and commitment level of employees in the BPO sector. Fewer studies are found in which some statistical relationship between the organizational culture and commitment in this sector has been worked out. Given the rapid growth in the sector. in the organized ways of filling time in relation to certain affairs (rituals). dispirited perceptual factors. Taylor & Bain.. and how it relates to more traditional industrial and organizational psychology theories. On the basis of literature reviewed in the BPO sector. • To assess whether the organizational culture and commitment level of employees differ across the three strata in the BPO sector. this research explored the relationship of organizational culture with commitment of employees in the BPO sector. the extant literature highlights a strong paucity of research on the management of high attrition rate in BPOs in India especially in Tier III cities. Conceptualizing organizational culture is a difficult task. 2013). some authors like Budhwar et al. from value statements to common behaviour patterns as organizational culture (Schein. or developed by a group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. Organizational culture has been presented as an enigma which has held the attention of practitioners and theorists worldwide for at least two decades (Ogbonna & Harris. substandard nature of job. 2005) or managerial surveys (Batt. work environment. to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive.hope (Combs. and increasing the focus on people (Thaly & Sinha. & Kodwani. and overall performance of HRM and their correlation to firms’ performance with more rigorous statistical analysis. Clapp-Smith. how it should be observed and measured. & Kwon. involvement of a large number of both national and multinational firms and a significant impact of BPO on the global economy. 24) defined organizational culture as “Cumulative. discovered. 1998). customer satisfaction. and in the ways of promoting desired and preventing undesirable behavior (sanctions)”. 2010). (2006) in their study of Indian BPO firms suggested that further research should be conducted with a large sample including different levels of managers and employees to obtain a more complete picture of HRM Systems and policies and their impact on different measures of labour turnover such as intention to quit. personal factors. The study has the following objectives: VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . it is important to highlight the organizational culture of BPOs and its impact on commitment of employees. think and feel in relation to those processes. 1990). due to the fact that there is little agreement on what the concept means. Moreover. Boyar. p. as antecedents of turnover and lower level of commitment. and hostile organizational culture as significant determinants of attrition in the Indian BPO industry. (1999. 2006. It holds the organization together — it is the fabric of ‘the way we do things around here’. 9) defined organizational culture as “A pattern of basic assumptions – invented. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational culture is a critical element of organizational life. • To recommend workable guidelines and action choices for enhancing organizational culture and commitment of employees in the BPO sector. Overall. enhancing job satisfaction which could further be augmented by work-life balance (Kanwar. crystallized and quasi stable shared lifestyle of people as reflected in the presence of some states of life over others. Maertz. But these studies are based either on descriptive evidence (Budhwar et al. 2009).SEPTEMBER 2014 • To carry an in-depth review of the literature in the area of organizational culture in the BPO sector. viz. 2005). and job design. 79 . p. Doellgast. uncongenial organizational support.” Pareek and Rao. Singh.

For cultural transformations. which are usually related to non-core business processes that involve low value. 2005). ‘ethos’. The third concept is culture – the cumulative beliefs. and repetitive. In view of the fact that offshore business models are mainly driven by cost-reduction strategies and are subject to stringent quality controls in service level agreements. and issues. ‘transactional’ work with ‘relational’ customer interaction (Kinnie. professional services. and a pretentious. night shift working (Budhwar et al. Hence work procedures are quite standardized and drudgerous leaving no room for job discretion. citing in particular the routinization of work. 2006). ‘beliefs’. Indian. rituals. ‘ethics’. as reflected in the way it deals with its members. there is likely to be a keen tension between quantity and quality or volume and value (Taylor & Bain. associated groups. and most particularly. which can be defined as the perceived attributes of an organization and its subsystems.According to Pareek (2004). structured. Low Value job/Under-utilization of Skills Most routinized jobs are offshored. the literature depicts a stark distinction between this emerging class of workers and those in more traditional Indian employment sectors (Taylor & Bain. . 2006). burnout. low skilled. Ramesh (2004) described workers in India’s new economy as ‘cyber coolies’: ‘insecure’ and ‘vulnerable’ casualties of the new economic order leading a double life – an ‘authentic’. Following are some of the major labour process issues in the BPO sector.. pp. the ‘cultural transformations’ that Indian agents need to undergo to get their jobs done. and streamlined HRM systems with tightly controlled organizational structures. BPO processes embrace more routine workflows that have been standardized. and turnover (Mirchandani. Hutchinson. 2005. adoption of pseudonames to mask identity are certain issues leading to employee stress. Batt. Western. tightlycontrolled. These can also be seen as multi-level cultural concepts. Work Standardization The nature of work in India has emerged as a low-cost replication of the most routinized processes in the West (Taylor & Bain. This is called ethos of the group. Customer abuse driven by the political backlash to outsourcing and its effects on job losses in Western countries. 2005. leading to demonization and higher attrition. etc. 2000). 2004. hybrid mass-customization models (Batt & Moynihan. McMillan (2006) portrayed Indian call centre workers as ‘the global proletariat’. At the second level is climate. the emotional labour that dealing with customers inevitably involves. 80 Issues of the BPO Labour Process Many labour management problems are rooted in the distinctive character of the call centre labour process (Taylor & Bain. It could be argued that this state of affairs results in lower levels of job commitment and correspondingly higher levels of job attrition (Taylor & Bain. 2009). & Purcell. 2006). 2005. Rigorous Supervision Studies of Indian call centre workflows suggest that due to the adoption of intense forms of mass production mod- IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . daytime life.. Ramesh. Considering that Indian BPO employees are usually more educated than their counterparts in the Western centres. Various researchers have segregated the call centre genre into various sub-types like the Taylorized mass-production. 2004). ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN BPO SECTOR Indian BPOs are usually distinguished by formal. 2005). routine. As far as the status of employees in BPO sector is concerned. 2008). which can be defined as fundamental character or spirit of a culture. Mirchandani. and assumptions underlying transactions with nature and important phenomena. various terms used in the context of organizational culture include: ‘values’. hypothetical profiles are developed with residential roots in some prominent city in the US. HRM plays a strategic role with a focus on employee involvement and commitment to work practices (Budhwar et al. as reflected in artifacts. 265). and standardized transactional activities (Thite. values. ‘climate’ and ‘culture’. 2002). Thus. permit less room for discretion. night-time one. The core (first level) consists of values which give a distinct identity to a group. 2002). and occasion higher levels of monitoring (Taylor & Bain. it is likely that their skills are under-utilized.

and alterations in side bets or investments over time”. Hrebiniak and Alutto (1972) adopting the exchange notion. Still. Eveline. Union Formation in BPOs The demanding and individualistic nature of work.SEPTEMBER 2014 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Organizational commitment or member identity is a value laden behaviourally anchored cultural variable of organizational environment. Salancik (1977) defined organizational commitment as “a state of being in which an individual becomes bound by actions to beliefs that sustains activities and involvement”. and loyalty to an organization. the industry presently has ITPF (IT Professional Forum). defined commitment as “a result of individual organizational transactions. joining a union was improper for the international call centre employees and was seen as rebuffing of key professional values (D’cruz & Noronha. CBPOP (Centre for BPO Professionals). & Holtgrewe. Thus. Steers. More precisely. An extensive review of literature reveals that members’ ‘commitment’ to the organization and feeling of identity with the organization. BPO Industry labelled their employees as ‘professional agents’. organizational commitment can be defined as one’s identification with. and UNITES Pro (Union for ITES Professionals). they get concerned about their further career growth. Meyer and Allen (1991) held that organizational commitment was a multidimensional construct comprising three components: affective. Mehta and Mehta (2008) confirmed that both lower and middle level employees emphasized opportunities for career growth and skill development as the most important positive aspect of their job. and Boulian (1974)stated that commitment is “the relative strength of an individual’s identification and involvement in a particular organization”. a term which did not adhere to the concept of unionization. Previously. and advanced the notion of ‘side-bets’ as influences that produced a willingness to remain attached to the object of the commitment. Robbins (2005) stated that organizational commitment was a state in which an employee identified with a particular organization and its goals. However. But in case of negative aspects. Hall. Mowday. and wished to maintain his membership in the organization. which linked or attracted the person to the organization. Sheldon (1971) defined organizational commitment as an attitude or an orientation towards the organizations. In an example of the psychological approach. and blacklisting of employees with union backgrounds or those previously working in highly unionized firms (Van Den Broek. VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . 2003) have made it difficult for unions to organize workers within call centres.els employee performance is rigorously monitored and measured via service level agreements. Schneider. 2002). management control strategies such as close monitoring (Todd. continuance. and Nygfre (1970) defined commitment as “the process by which the goals of the organization and those of the individual become increasingly integrated or congruent”. middle level employees considered career stagnation as one of their prime concerns. (2006) mentioned that employees working in Indian call centres do not consider working in call centre as a career option. For agents. it seems that employees enter the outsourcing job market for career growth and good salaries. the inability to intermingle with colleagues or leave work stations. Hence employees usually remain under close watch of their seniors. are a function of their interaction and relationship with that organization and is the manifestation of the attitude of management towards the la- 81 . with the intervention of senior Indian and international trade union leaders and labour activists. Porter. erratic shift patterns (Bain & Taylor. Buchanan (1974) stated two distinct approaches in defining commitment: the psychological approach and the exchange approach. Performance monitoring tends to be more severe in call centres where technological aids such as silent/remote monitoring and screen capture tools enables the on-going collection of individual productivity data (Holman. but on reaching the middle levels within the organization. Mowday (1999) described organizational commitment as the attachment that was formed between employees and their employing organization. Career Stagnation Budhwar et al. Batt. & Skene. 2007). 2003). Becker (1960) exemplified the exchange approach. and normative. 2009).

Sharma (1997) indicated that both situational and personal factors contributed to workers’ commitment towards their organization. Shannawaz & Hazarika. organizational support. collaboration and experimentation) Scale by Pareek (1997) has been used. Satisfaction with the level of 82 control over working environment had the highest correlation with the level of commitment. HYPOTHESES H1: Perception of employees about organizational culture in three organizational strata of BPO units under study differs significantly. leadership and organization’s age. 2004) have established the relationship between organizational culture and commitment of employees in different regions and different industrial set ups. Bhagat and Chassie (1981) examined various determinants of organizational commitment and found satisfaction with promotional opportunities as the best predictor of commitment. and transformational leadership to be the significant predictors of trust in managers which in turn influenced turnover intent and commitment. and climate. Sambasivan. 2009. authenticity. Glisson and Durick (1988) found two job characteristics. Shannawaz and Hazarika (2004) assessed organizational culture on OCTAPACE Scale of Pareek (1997) in two hospitals and found dimensions of organizational culture as significant predictors of organizational commitment. . Porter. However. confrontation. and years of experience failed to show any relationship with commitment. as well as job satisfaction to be predictors of commitment. years in position. Better organizational culture where one’s higher order needs are satisfied leads to higher level of commitment among employees. Ferres. Allen and Smith (1987) found a positive relationship between affective commitment and employee innovativeness. and make them decide to remain in the organization (Mowday. Rashid. Connell. situational factors contributed more to commitment than person related factors. and Trice (1978) indicated that certain role factors such as tenure and work overload and personal factors such as attitude toward change and job involvement had a strong influence on commitment. Between the two. and Egley (2005) found teamwork and trust to be a significant predictor of commitment. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Researchers (Yiing & Ahmad. IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . 1982). 2003. Henkin. DeCottis and Summers (1987) found several aspects of the organization: perceived structure. procedural justice. Conversely. The organization works overtime to build attachment behaviour among members. OCTAPACE (openness. and Travaglione (2003) found perceived organizational support. The question then arises is that how can the employees be made to feel committed to their organizations especially in a dynamic work environment where attrition rate is so high and job poaching is the order of the day. On the basis of literature reviewed.. proaction. It is believed that members affinity with the organization comes as a result of a set of carefully designed policies underlined within the cultural pattern of the organization. A high degree of employee commitment may override employees’ job dissatisfaction. Tilaye (2005) assessed perceived job autonomy.. an organizational culture with coercive authority affects the level of commitment negatively (Singh & Das. the paper proposes that organizational culture has a significant influence on organizational commitment. procedural justice. Sungmin. They found a small positive association between age and commitment. and employee age as the most important predictors of organizational commitment. H2: Organizational commitment level of employees in three organizational strata of BPO units under study differs significantly. & Steers. as the best predictors of commitment. autonomy. task identity was found to have a strong positive relationship with professional commitment while gender and organization size had a positive (negative) influence on organizational commitment. & Johari. 1978). distributive justice. Stevens. trust. participants’ level of education. Kwon and Banks (2004) showed strong relationships between organizational commitment and job meaningfulness. as the best predictors of satisfaction and two organizational characteristics. For organizational culture. Lok and Crawford (1999) found that organizational subculture was more strongly related to commitment than was organizational culture. process.bour force. Beyers. skill variety and role ambiguity.

Another three BPO units were in medical billing services. H3f: Autonomy dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. who suggested that organizational culture and its dimensions are related to organizational commitment.g. one BPO is a third party outsourced customer service centre while the second is a leader in a BPO call centre for telecom companies and manpower outsourcing. and lower levels were chosen from these 15 BPOs totalling the sample size of 524 employees. and field sales operation. middle. Allen & Meyer. i. H3e: Proaction dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. 2005. a mixed bag of BPOs were considered – e. Out of the total 40 BPO units. IT development and related outsourcing services. through judgment sampling. H3h: Experimentation dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. Sambasivan. 15 BPOs were selected proportionately from the following strata for final study: • BPOs having less than 250 employees • BPOs having 250-500 employees • BPOs having more than 500 employees In the second stage. and telemarketing. 2004. H3b: Confrontation dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. and yet another provided BPO services to Telecom companies. In Stratum I. virtual back office. Scope of the Study Data Collection This research was dedicated to assess organizational culture and commitment of employees in the BPO sector in and around Chandigarh. i. H3g: Collaboration dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment.e. units. The study has been conducted at all the three levels. 1990). 2001. stratified sampling was used for selecting BPOs. 1999. Lok & Crawford. three BPO units were for research and all the three had voice-based and non-voicebased outsourcing services. The details of the sample profile of BPOs from each stratum are exhibited in Table 1. another had Insurance as its focus area. and Mohali which covered all the three strata of BPOs as discussed above and from all the three levels of employees. Table 1: Sample Profile of BPO Units (from each stratum proportionately) No. H3c: Trust dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. 2005. VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . Dick & Metcalfe. 2001. The rest two BPO units had their customer service support centre. H3d: Authenticity dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. Panchkula. documentation companies as its clients. and lower level of employees. Data was collected through multi-stage sampling. In Stratum II. Singh & Das. Tilaye. Having more than 500 employees Total 6 02 40 15 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In Stratum III BPOs. & Johari. Henkin. Connell.H3: All eight dimensions of organizational culture have a significant influence on organizational commitment. and lower levels of employees to present a comprehensive picture of organizational culture with respect to the selected BPO Data was collected from 524 employees in 15 BPOs in and around Chandigarh – from Chandigarh. Sharma & Joshi. Shannawaz & Hazarika. 2004. H3a: Openness dimension of organizational culture has significant influence on organizational commitment. middle. 1978. Lok & Crawford. In the first stage. These hypotheses were generated after a rigorous review of various studies (Sungmin. top. middle. 2003. top. Sampled of BPOs BPOs 1. Strata Total No. employees from top. Ferres. Rashid. & Travaglione. 2003. and another was general business consulting BPO. & Egley. Between 250-500 employees 10 03 3.e.SEPTEMBER 2014 83 . BPOs having up to 250 employees 27 10 2. one BPO unit had publishers.

t-test. XS1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This study tested for the significance of the difference among the sample means through ANOVA. of Items Cronbach Alpha (∝) Organizational Commitment 40 18 0. magazines. when probability is ≥ 0. i. II. This is done by F-test for testing the significance of the difference of organizational culture and its dimensions in all the three strata of BPO units under study. As far as the dimensions of organizational culture are concerned.. reports. alternative hypothesis may be accepted. secondary data was collected through research journals. The questionnaire started with information relating to demographic profile of the respondents. it is clear that there is no IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . and regression analysis. total experience. and lower level employees of the BPO units for studying the organizational culture and organizational commitment of the employees. The tools. middle. marital status. In general. 84 Organizational Culture No. the second section was comprised of three dimensions relating to organizational commitment (18 items). analysis of variance (ANOVA).801 0. The 4-point scale ranged from: 1 = to a very low extent. 3 = Slightly disagree.e. And the items were scored on a seven-point Likert scale according to the following response categories: 1 = Strongly disagree. 7 = Strongly agree Questionnaire of the Study All the questionnaires were used as it is except some modifications in the wordings.0) package. 3 = to a high extent.05 H1:XS1≠XS2≠XS3 . As depicted in Table 3. when probability is < 0. and websites of the respective BPO companies. age. The scale had 18 items. and continuance commitment as depicted in Exhibit 1. 4 = to a very high extent The scale used for the purpose of measuring the responses of the employees for organizational commitment was the one developed and revised by Meyer and Allen in 1997. as given in Table 5. correlation. it can be concluded that employees in BPOs of Stratum I perceive their organizational culture more positively than employees of BPOs in Stratum II. normative commitment. Reliability coefficient. 5 = Slightly agree. The results of the analysis through SPSS are explained below: H1: Perception of employees about organizational culture and its dimensions differs significantly in three organizational strata of BPO units. and other related BPO web sites. the collected data was put through a statistical analysis using SPSS(16. Further. 4 = Neither disagree nor agree. Hypothesis: H0:Xs1=Xs2=Xs3. 2 = Moderately disagree. Software Technology Park of India (STPI) Mohali.Table 2: Reliability Coefficients of Variables Sources of Data The study being empirical in nature relied both on primary and secondary data. .787 ANALYSIS To arrive at a pertinent result. Measures The questionnaire was prepared for the top. The data was tabulated for each variable being studied separately for each BPO unit in three strata of BPO sector. 2 = to a low extent. multiple comparison.05 where. it is evident that probability 0. XS3 are the mean of organizational culture of Stratum I. NASSCOM. 6 = Moderately agree.000 is less than 0. qualification. As per Table 4 on post hoc multiple comparison. i.05. gender. The inference is that the perception of employees about organizational culture differs significantly in all the three organizational strata of BPO units and this difference is not by sampling or chance. XS2. cronbach alpha for the two scales was calculated for a sample of 524 employees and is exhibited in Table 2. therefore at 5 percent level of significance. And. The scale had three dimensions named as affective commitment.e. Scheffe method was used to compare the variance. experience in the present organization. and III respectively. and level of management followed by two sections – the first section was related to eight dimensions of organizational culture (40 items). H0 accepted.. which were employed to test the drafted hypothesis for analysis included: Factor analysis. a four-point scale was used in Part-I of the questionnaire. Primary data was collected through questionnaires and discussions with BPO employees. The 40 variables relating to organizational culture mentioned in the questionnaire have been categorized into eight dimensions as depicted in Exhibit 1. H1 accepted.

39 0. Deviation Confrontation Std.000) 85 .485 2.000) F-Value: 1.5 level.596 2.032) VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY .11447* 0.43 136 Mean 240 II Mean I Mean Std. since the probabilities are greater than 0.3878 0.33 Mean 2.653 2.500 2.3370 0.000).07481 0. Deviation Experimentation Mean Collaboration Std.21 0.07481 0.266) F-Value: 0.03260 0.33 0. Confrontation.35 0.393 2.03966 0.378 2. Deviation Authenticity Std.03705 0.28 0. trust (p=0. As depicted in Table 6.03348 0.25 0.20 0.074) F-Value: 5. The perception of employees about confrontation (p=0.476 2.422 2.459 2.18 0.000) dimensions of organizational culture in three organizational strata of BPO units differs significantly as the probabilities are less than 0.449 (p=0. The study thus reveals that irrespective of the size of BPOs (in terms of no.17 0.535 2.57 0.464 (p=0.14 0.240 (p=0. proaction (p=0.05. therefore at 5 percent level of significance.47 0.31709 >500 employees Total Mean Std.31514 ANOVA: F-Value: 6.50 0.32 0.073 250-500 employees 0. and experimentation dimensions are more in Stratum I than in Strata II and III.455 (p=0.29 0. proaction. and collaboration dimension (p=0.032).405 2.43 0. Deviation Autonomy Mean Proaction Std. and autonomy dimensions of organizational culture.32 0. there is no significant difference in openness.002) significant difference in the perception of employees about openness (p=0.03260 >500 employees -0. and experimentation (p=0.528 ANOVA F-Value: 2.22 0.073 250-500 employees <250 employees <250 employees -0.11447* 0.37 0.589 2.348 2.408 (p=0.006). Deviation 148 2. This implies that employees of smaller BPOs perceive their culture a shade better than the medium or larger BPOs.665) Mean 0. Deviation Openness Std.277 (p=0.074).500 2.621 (p=0.30091 Organizational Culture 250-500 employees 136 2. the alternative hypothesis is accepted.455 2. Deviation 2.327 (p=0.03705 0. Deviation Trust Std.32438 524 2.542 2. collaboration.266).40 0.561 2.30 0.440) F-Value: 10.823 (p=0. Table 4: Multiple Comparisons between Three Strata of BPO Units for Organizational Culture Scheffe Dependent Variable (I) Organization >500 employees Organizationalculture (J) Organization Mean Difference (I-J) Std.665).466 2.443 2.003 * indicate that the mean difference is significant at 0. trust. Further.411 2.38 0.614 2.27 0. Deviation Strata N F-Value: 9.004 is less than 0.42 0.47 0. The inference is that organizational commitment level of employees differs significantly in three organizational strata of BPO units and this difference is not by sampling or chance.05.42 0. authenticity. Table 5: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Dimensions of Organizational Culture in Three Organizational Strata of BPO Units (under study) Mean Std.423 2.539 0. Error Sig.564 <250 employees -0.511 2.SEPTEMBER 2014 F-Value: 0. authenticity (p=0. 250-500 employees 0.19 0.515 Total 524 2.03348 0.003 >500 employees 0. autonomy (p=0.440) of organizational culture in three organizational strata of BPO units.390 2. H2: Organizational commitment level of employees and its dimensions in three organizational strata of BPO units differ significantly.525 2.05.2733 0.22 0. it is evident that the probability 0.006) F-Value: 3.41 0.411 2.27 0. of employees).3130 0.483 2. it is clear from the mean and standard deviation values that all these dimensions are high in Stratum I than in II and III.486 III 148 2.Table 3: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Organizational Culture in Three Organizational Strata of BPO Units Variable Strata N <250 employees 240 2.577 2.03966 0.564 0.

67837 Total 4. As far as dimensions of organizational commitment are concerned.62985 3. Preliminary Further. Deviation Mean Std.1862 0. Impact of Organizational Culture on Organizational Commitment Correlation between Dimensions of Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment Before using regression analysis.007 >500 employees 0.1469 0. it gives us a cue that organizational culture has a definite impact on commitment of employees.2834 0.2097 0.095) 86 Continuance Commitment F-Value:1.06067 0.06067 0. Error Sig.58553 Thus the study reveals that irrespective of the size of the BPOs (in terms of no.06230 0. ANOVA: F-Value: 5. As organizational culture is better in Stratum I and also commitment level is higher in Stratum I employees.19813* 0. But the respondents’ level of normative commitment in these three strata of BPO units is significantly different. on the basis of mean and standard deviation values.01358 0..18455* Std. there is no significant difference in the levels of affective and continuance commitment of employees in these three strata of BPO units as the probability is greater than 0. .0429 0..55834 >500 employees 148 4.1998 0. of employees). Table 8: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Three Dimensions of Organizational Commitment in Three Organizational Strata of BPO Units Variable Affective Commitment Normative Commitment Strata Mean Std.345 (p=0. Stratum I employees have significantly more commitment level than employees of Strata II and III.80757 4.05.Table 6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Organizational Commitment in Three Organizational Strata of BPO Units Variable Organizational Commitment than employees of BPOs in Stratum II. Deviation I 4. As per Table 7 for post hoc multiple comparison.3986 0. Deviation <250 employees 240 4.007 * indicate that the mean difference is significant at 0. the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment was investigated using Pearson correlation.368 (p=0.9069 0.73805 F-Value:2.000) IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES .029 <250 employees -0. it can be concluded that employees in BPOs of Strata I and III have high normative commitment levels Table 7: Multiple Comparisons between Three Strata of BPO Units for Organizational Commitment Scheffe’s Method Dependent Variable Organizational (I) Organization >500 employees Commitment 250-500 employees <250 employees (J) Organization Mean Difference (I-J) 250-500 employees 0.589 (p=0. 0.05 level.432 (p=0.01358 0.78897 4.1408 0.0191 0.78657 4.75569 II 4.975 250-500 employees 0.0016 0.55950 Total 524 4.06895 0. This finding is in line with Kwon and Banks (2004). who found strong negative relationship between organization size and organizational commitment.74082 4. it can be concluded that employees in BPOs of Strata I and III have more commitment level than employees of BPOs in Stratum II. as exhibited in Table 8.240) F-Value:9. there is no significant difference in affective and continuance commitment of employees in the three strata of BPO units.3417 0. while normative commitment is significantly more in Strata I and III than in Stratum II.77311 4.0551 0.004) Further Scheffe’s method is used to compare the variance.975 >500 employees -0.1445 0.029 <250 employees -0. As far as overall commitment is concerned.0032 0.19813* 0.74680 4.06895 0.60485 250-500 employees 136 4.06230 0.0479 0.72466 III 4. Strata N Mean Std.18455* 0.71735 4. Deviation Mean Std.

H3e.000 Pearson Correlation (Only significant correlations are displayed) ** Correlation significant at 0.000 0. VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . confrontation. stepwise regression was used with dimensions of organizational culture as predictors.140 3.002 ANOVA(F) 41.000 Adjusted R2= 0. All the explanatory variables except openness and autonomy were found to be significant which suggests that in the BPO sector.000 Collaboration 0. are not supported. A closer scrutiny of the results in Table 10 shows that the key explanatory variables in the organizational culture domain.analysis revealed that there were no violations of the assumptions of linearity or homoscedasticity.005 • Beta co-efficient is the standardized regression coefficient.123 2. It can be seen that dimensions of organizational culture fits the data well (Adjusted R2=0. it can be concluded that Hypotheses H3b.315). with the strongest association being between organizational commitment and proaction (r=0.001 0. p<0.05.315 Proaction 0. i.000 Authenticity 0. and all associations were found to be significant at 95 percent level.440 0. Hypothesis Testing From the above results. openness and autonomy were not found to be significant in the model.151** 0. Regression Model Summary 10. Multiple Stepwise Regression Analysis of Organizational Commitment and Dimensions of Organizational Culture To examine the fit of the regression model and to identify the best predictors of organizational commitment. Table 10 also summarizes the results of an Analysis of Variance.001 Durbin Watson = 1. The significance value of F statistic is less than 0. H3g. namely.884 0.346** 0. and H3h are supported whereas H3a and H3f.508 0.05) and weakest with autonomy (r=0.418** 0.000 0. however.e.299** 0. eight dimensions of organizational culture.5 percent of the variance in the commitment and the value of Durbin Watson test is between 1-3. served as independent variables and overall commitment as the dependent variable. The Table displays adjusted R2 and the Durbin Watson test of independence of errors. which means that the variation explained by the model is not due to chance. Therefore.152 3. have a significant positive influence on organizational commitment.481** 0. and outliers.797 0.392** 0.225 0. Preliminary analysis revealed no violation of the assumption regarding sample size.05) as depicted in Table 9.151.000 0. Further. organizational commitment is driven by a number of dimensions of organizational culture. which allows comparison of the relatives on the dependent variable of each independent variable. proaction.148 Experimentation 0. it can be concluded that organizational culture is a significant predictor of commitment. experimentation.000 0.183 0. which originally consisted of 40 items. Table 10 suggests that Table 9: Correlation-Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment Commitment Openness Confrontation Trust Authenticity Proaction Autonomy Collaboration Experimentation 0.902 Confrontation 0. H3d. • t-statistics help to determine the relative importance of each variable in the model. p<0.481.001 Sig.309** 0.135 3.05 levels Table 10: Step-wise Regression Analysis .000 0.162 3. openness and autonomy.004 Trust 0. which fulfills the as- sumption of independence of errors.Organizational Commitment Dimensions Standardized Coefficients (Beta) (Constant) Model 6 t Sig. multicollinearity. In the model.951 0. and trust are significant predictors of organizational commitment in the BPO sector.118 2. authenticity.SEPTEMBER 2014 87 . H3c. 0. The Regression model summary as depicted in Table 10 reports the strength of the relationship between the model and the dependent variable. It can be seen that regression model explained 31.000 0.384** 0. collaboration.

While. Overall it can be stated that employees in the BPO sector are particularly sensitive to six dimensions of organizational culture. openness and autonomy) are concerned. proaction. there is no significant difference in affective and continuance commitment of employees in these three strata of BPO units. results do not support the findings of Tilaye.1990. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The present research tested. the overall commitment is significantly more in Stratum I employees than of Stratum II and III. more will they be committed to their organizations. 1999. who found strong negative relationship between organizational size and organizational commitment. trust. Thus organizational culture as well as commitment have been found to be more among employees in Stratum I. i. experimentation. Organizational culture is found to be an important input in organizational commitment. and collaboration. Therefore. and autonomy dimensions of organizational culture. viz. 2003. trust.. authenticity. Lok and Crawford. irrespective of the size of the BPOs. Interestingly.the dimensions (excluding openness and autonomy dimension) associated with organizational culture are significant predictors of overall organizational commitment and have the expected positive sign. As Evans et al. But the results failed to support the relationship between autonomy and openness with commitment. Lok and Crawford. thus. 2005. 2005. reveal no significant difference in openness. Responses with respect to organizational culture and commitment were solicited from the employees of BPOs in and around Chandigarh. 2004. and confirmed the hypotheses that organizational cultural variables are positively related to organizational commitment. (2000) suggested. normative commitment is significantly more in Strata I and III in comparison to Stratum II. Thus. This implies that retention should be approached as an offensive IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . and therefore had limited geographical diversity. it was relevant in the context of the region. So. But as far as excluding variable (i. Connell et al. experimentation. the six dimensions provide substantive contributions and thus are the key predictors of the outcome variable. Singh and Das. the findings support the results of Sungmin et al. supported. being the first such study. as far as commitment and its dimensions are concerned. Allen and Meyer. The explanation for this intriguing finding is not obvious and demands further research. and experimentation dimensions are found to be more in Stratum I than in II and III. 2003. 88 Tests that verify H1 and H2. And. collaboration. From a human resource managerial perspective. this limitation should be considered while interpreting the findings. The study is somewhat limited by its sample. organizations today are concerned not just with preventing individuals from leaving but also with being able to create a sustained and mutually beneficial exchange with employees. irrespective of the size of the BPOs. This finding is in lines with Kwon and Banks (2004). authenticity. this provided some insight into the structure of the different variable sets as they related to dependence relationship. viz. It provides a clear and comprehensive picture of the relationship among dimensions of organizational culture and commitment.e. confrontation. When interpreting the independent variable. Although there is no compelling reason why the relationship would not hold across other samples. while confrontation. proaction. 2004.. the potential for data inaccuracies due to item misinterpretation or predisposition to certain responses on the part of the participant as well as social desirability effects does exist. These should be the focal point in the development of any strategy directed towards impacting the commitment of BPO employees towards their organizations so that they stay with their organizations and attrition rate could be reduced. trust.e. . particularly in the Indian BPO sector. and method. However. the results failed to support the relationship between autonomy and openness with commitment. authenticity. design. Another area of concern is the nature of measures used. which were based upon the perceptions of the participating employees (self-reports). explaining the 31. and collaboration which predicted the commitment of employees in the BPO sector. Thus.5 percent variance. generalizability of the findings would be stronger with more diverse samples.. ANOVA and post hoc tests. Shannawaz and Hazarika. confrontation. more the BPO employees perceive higher level of these dimensions. proaction. Step-wise multiple regression reveals particularly six dimensions of organizational culture. This implies that the employees of smaller BPOs perceive their culture to be a shade better than the medium or larger BPOs. Rashid et al. 1978.

The outcome of collaboration includes timely help. • Trust: Trust is not used in the moral sense. and the sharing of these without defensiveness. using feedback for improving. & Smith. In other words. they would not only lead to effective utilization of human resources but also help in retaining the employees. • Collaboration: Giving help to and asking for help from others. improved communication. receiving and giving. pre-planning and taking preventive action. One’s awareness of the costs associated with leaving the present organization. It means respecting and encouraging individual and role autonomy. and in not misusing it. N. Employees with a strong affective commitment will remain in the organization because they want to. • Normative commitment. and encouraging creativity. • Continuance commitment. It is nothing but willingness to use power without fear and helping others to do the same. taking fresh look at things. The term confrontation is being used with some reservation and means putting up a front as contrasted with putting one’s back (escaping) to the problem. future studies could delve upon the issue of augmentation of organizational culture in the BPO sector. N. enhanced team spirit. The outcome of authenticity in an organization is reduced distortion in communication. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association. and in unreserved sharing of feelings. All this involves taking up challenges. identification with. Allen. Both these may relate to ideas (including suggestions). It is reflected in owning up one’s mistakes. It is also reflected in a sense of assurance that others will help. The role of HR is crucial as human resources in the BPO sector are the most important resources for competitiveness and growth. in which action is in response to (and in the pattern of) an act from some source.strategy than just approaching it as a defensive play. and accept himself/herself as well as others who relate to him/her as persons. and does. ASSOCHAM 89 . and feelings. J. (1987). ASSOCHAM (2011). • Authenticity: Congruence between what one feels. that if appropriate interventions relating to change in organizational culture are implemented whole-heartedly. in proaction. the action is taken independent of the source. An employee’s emotional attachment to. It means working together (individuals and groups) to solve problems. Academy of Management Journal. In contrast to reaction. This value is important for the development of a culture of mutuality. Therefore. sharing of experiences.J. when such help is needed and will honour mutual commitments and obligations. Employees whose commitment is in the nature of continuance will remain in the organization because they have to. says. and improved resource sharing. It multiplies power in the system. As findings of this research are based only on quantitative research. & Meyer. Employees whose commitment to the organization is said to be of the normative type remains in the organization simply because they believe they ought to. Feeling of obligation to the organization based on one’s personal norms and values. individual initiative. changes need to be made in the culture of the organization. It also implies deeper analysis of interpersonal problems. It is the willingness of a person to acknowledge the feelings he/she has. qualitative research such as in-depth interviews could be attempted in future studies. It is reflected in maintaining confidentiality of information shared by others. Authenticity is reflected in the narrowest gap between the stated values and the actual behaviour. • Proaction: Taking initiative. • Autonomy: Using and giving freedom to plan and act in one’s own sphere. It is believed Thus. • Confrontation: Facing rather than shying away from problems. Dimensions of Organizational Commitment • Affective commitment. to make employees more committed to their organizations. Authenticity is closer to openness. An investigation of ‘extra-role’ VIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . and involvement in the organization. feedback (including criticism). Exihibit 1: Conceptual Definitions and Description of Dimensions of Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment Dimensions of Organizational Culture • Openness: A spontaneous expression of feelings and thoughts.SEPTEMBER 2014 behaviours within organizations. Talent crunch. and better succession planning. and calculating the payoffs of an alternative course before taking action. J (1990). Openness is in both directions.. It develops mutual respect and is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility. • Experimenting: Using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems. 33(4). REFERENCES Allen. Organizational socialization tactics: A longitudinal analysis of links to newcomers’ commitment and role orientation. the focus of the management should be on augmenting the organizational culture and its corresponding dimensions so as to enhance the commitment. soaring attrition rate might push India behind other BPO giants. 847-858. Vancouver.

6181. Administrative Science Quarterly. Batt. (1972). G.. R.. K. Hutchinson. (1981). S. Leadership and Organization Development Journal... 66(1). (2007).. & Moynihan. The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: A cross–national comparison. & Purcell. The McKinsey Quarterly. IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . T. Personnel Review.. Managerial factors and organizational commitment: A comparative study of police officers and civilian staff. Dick. Kinnie.stanford. Maertz. P. Glisson.. Administrative Science Quarterly. A.com/industry-and-economy/info-tech/talent-crunch-soaring-attrition-might-push-india-behind-other-bpo-nations-study/ article1696473. S. Notes on the concept of commitment. Managing BPO service workers in India: Examining hope on performance outcomes. 11(5). & Chassie. J. (2003). 215-234. G. S. V. 235-241. McMillan. M. 246-261. Batt. T. A. The Journal of Management Development. M. Malhotra. 23(5). & Crawford. Stanford. P. (2004). Service management and employment systems in US and Indian call centre. (2000). stayed for 90 quality? Moving the back office to India. 32-42. Luthar. & Dhar.. & Taylor..ece Bain. Varmam. McKinsey Quarterly (2005). W. 445-470. E. & Kenney. Journal of Management Studies. 555-572. Jr. In S. Singh. International Journal of Human Resource Management. Schneider. I. Economic & Political Weekly. Doellgast. 12(4). USA.. The viability of alternate call centre production models. & Kodwani.. Holman. 606-622. DeCottis. & Mukherjee. Journal of Occupational Behaviour. Lok. L. Offshoring whitecollar work. (1987). B. Batt. P. Linking turnover reasons to family profiles for IT/BPO employees in India.. Administrative Science Quarterly.. 19(4). (2009). N. Administrative Science Quarterly. P. 457-476. & Alutto. Varma. Singh. D. Combs. C. R. Gponzalez.. & Banks. Ivey Business Journal. 20(7). C. B. (2002). CA. Collins. B... Iverson. 321-338. A. P. I. (2006). B. S. Engendering trust in manager-subordinate relationships. J. 17-30... M. Personal & role–related factors in the development of organizational commitment. Journal of Labor Research.. Clapp-Smith. Vision-The Journal of Business Perspective. P. Deery. R. & Walker.. (1974). S. S. subculture. 351-362... S. T. Human Resource Management. Hall. Outsourcing identities call centres & cultural transformation in India. Ferres. 176-190. 339-360. Dossani. 967-985. D. Brainard (Eds. R. R. Report of the global call centre network. D.. & Sinha. The dynamics of HRM systems in Indian BPO firms. & Holtgrewe.study dated April 14. P. (2010). N. leadership style and job satisfaction in organizational change and development. (1960). & Durick. A. The global call centre report: International perspectives on management & employment.. 17(5). & Kwon. Popiel.edu D’Cruz.. 4(1) 6-23. . (1970). Accessed through http://APARC. Boyar S. D. Bhagat. (1999). G. International Journal of Human Resource Management. Work relationships in telephone call centres: Understanding emotional exhaustion and employee withdrawal. R. J. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. & Crawford. Kanwar Y..thehindubusinessline. American Journal of Sociology. & Walsh. 533-546. H. 2(1). D. & L. & Bhatnagar. J. Human Relations. (2012). & Nadkarni. Engaging the professional: Organising call centre agents in India.. A. Lok. J.. Human Resource Management Journal. The path analysis of a model of the antecedents & consequences of organizational commitmment. 49(3). R. 15(2). Determinants of organizational commitment in working women: Some implications for organizational integration. HRM systems of Indian call centres: An exploratory study. Valk. (1988). P. H. 2011 through http://www. P..). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations. U. T. Fun & surveillance: The paradox of high commitment management in call centres. R. 39(4). 40(7). 19(5). D. Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organization..: Brookings Institute.. (2009). Hrebiniak. (2002). 21(1). H. J. (2005). Managing customer services: Human resource practices. Industrial Relations Journal. Global survey of business executives. K. 111-128. Kwon. 33(1). & Travaglione. Buchanan. (2003). L.. G. N. Budhwar. Evans. & Metcalfe. Insights into the Indian call centre industry: Can internal marketing help tackle high employee turnover? Journal of Services Marketing. 40(3). T.. 27(3). 33(3). J. R. & Noronha. S.. S. 587-597. Connell. 23(4). 1-12. (2006a). H. (2004). Industrial Relations Journal. (2002).Worklife balance and burnout as predictors of job satisfaction in the IT-ITES industry. Becker. 14(2). Washington. The relationship between commitment and organizational culture.. R. quit rates and sales growth. A. T. Academy of Management Journal. Journal of Indian Business Research. & Summers. 45(3). J.. 471-96. Asia Pacific Research Centre Working Paper.. (2009). & Nygfren. 569-587. C. 2011. R. 881-897. V. M. Budhwar.. P. (2006b). Whose capital is it? Trends in Human Resources. (2002)..C. Budhwar. Managerial Auditing Journal. Personal factors in organizational identification. (2000). 13(2).. Factors related to the organizational & professional commitment of internal auditors. 17(4). Ringing the changes? Union recognition and organization in call centres in the UK finance sector. P.. Batt. 365-374. 64(3). (2001). A. R. 14-34. 32(5). Went for cost. 28-37. Accessed on April 29..

Staw and G. Bangalore. U. J. M. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Thousand Oaks. E. Clair Press. Work. Beyers. Thite and B. M. Journal of Applied Psychology. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Management of Globally Distributed Work and the quest for Business Competitiveness. T. teamwork and trust: Exploring associations. B. (2005). V. Abingdon. The Next Available Operator: Managing Human Resources in Indian Business Process Outsourcing. P. Thousand Oaks. The Handbook of 21st Century Management. (1997). Salancik. (2013). (1978). Academy of Management Journal.. pp. Steers. & Das. (1998). (1977). (2005). NASSCOM (2014). Commitment in the workplace: Theory. Work organization and employee relations in Indian call centres. A. 35-43. Connell (Eds. 1259-1288. R. A. 43(5). J. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Organizational culture: It’s not what you think. American Psychologist. 124-130. Porter. New Delhi: NASSCOM. & Egley. & Allen. Sharma. Organizational commitment and organization culture: A study of two hospitals in Assam. (2006). & application. Russell. (2004). R. 512-524. Ogbonna. (1982)... V.).. Administrative Science Quarterly. S. Global Networks. India. Z. In B. NASSCOM (2006). Practices of global capital: Gaps.. 109-119. T. (2005). Taylor.SEPTEMBER 2014 Thaly. 199-216. 407-425. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. role and organizational predictors of managerial commitment. Mowday. Sambasivan.. (1990). M. Shannawaz. & Joshi. P. R. Strategy review 2009: The IT industry in India. (2008). & Sinha. 355-373. & Bain.. (1997). 4(4). P. Determinants of organizational commitment in a manufacturing organization in the private sector. & Boulian. controversies and applications (6th ed... 603-669. OX: Routledge. (2001). E. P. Sheldon. Global Business and Organizational Excellence. Organizational Culture and Leadership. N. 1-21. Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology.). Human Resource Management Review. To prevent attrition in business process outsourcing focus on people. V. B. 37(2). Stevens. 8(4). 492-497. (1999). B. New Delhi: National Association of Software and Service Companies. Indian Institute of Management. (1991). 387-401. N. Sungmin. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. J. 23(6). G. Mirchandani. and J. & Trice. (1974). CA: Sage. Sharma. P. 708-728. & Harris. C. Journal of General Management. R. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 45(2). (1999). Human Resource Management Review. Organizational commitment. New Delhi: NASSCOM. & Steers. M. & Rao. absenteeism and turnover. Mirchandani... 462–479. Understanding organizational behaviour. Rashid. H. L. research.. Transnationalism in Indian call centres. (Eds. Meyer. Organizational culture and its impact on commitment to Work. Organizational behaviour: Concepts. Investments and involvements as mechanisms producing commitment to organization. Employment and Society. 35-47. K. 261–282. L.. (2004). E. Porter. 32(3). In J. & Bain. India calling to the far away towns: The call centre labour process and globalization. N. K. H. 193-210. M. Englewood Cliffs.. N. 16(2). U. HR issues in globally distributed work: An exploratory study of Indian outsourcing firms. (2005). Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. M.. Mowday.. Pareek. J. Schein. 33(2). 59(5). T. Business process outsourcing management. P. New directions in organizational behavior.. A. Indian ITES-BPO industry – Fact sheet. Singh. 143-150. New Delhi: Sage. Organizational commitment and its determinants. (2004). Henkin. Taylor. P. M. Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. Level of organizational commitment: Its 91 . (2012). job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatrist technicians. Robbins. P. 21(3). (2008). Exploring the dimensions of attrition in Indian BPOs. Cybercoolies in BPOs: Insecurities and vulnerabilities of non-standard work. Reflections on the study and relevance of organizational commitment. G. 39(5). H. G. Tilaye. Mowday.Mehta. P. Pareek. J. (1997). CA: Sage. P. NASSCOM (2010). P. cracks and ironies in transnational call centres in India. (2003). J. In M. & Hazarika. Pareek. & Gupta. W. Journal of Educational Administration. Employee organization linkages: The psychology of commitment. 19(2). In C. (2009). Ramesh. & Mehta. Designing and managing human resource systems. New Delhi: Oxford University Press and IBH. Training instruments for human resource development. E. NJ: Prentice Hall. Economic and Political Weekly. New Delhi: NASSCOM. Schein. Teacher team commitment. M. 13(4). Meyer. A. Journal of Management Development.. (1971). 30(1-2). W. (1985). R.). R. NASSCOM (2009). (1978).. (2004). Burgess. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. & Allen. mitment on performance. S. 23(3). Assessing personal. Chicago: St. J. Strategic review 2014: The IT-BPM industry in India. P. 22(8). New York: Academic Press. R. Organizational culture. J. Salancik (Eds. T.. 61-89. Developments in the call centre industry. 380-396. U. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. Thite. and Johari. P. The influence of corporate culture and organizational comVIKALPA • VOLUME 39 • NO 3 • JULY . L.). Wankel (Ed. Sengupta S. R. 1(2).). K.. Strategy review 2010: The IT industry in India.

D.com Luxmi is a Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management at the University Business School. 30(1). He has more than twenty years of experience in teaching and research and over a dozen research papers in various journals of repute. Todd. Chandigarh. He has to his credit various consultancy projects in the State Bank of Patiala. tenure and drivers of satisfaction.. (2004).. Her areas of interests include organizational behaviour. The moderating effects of organizational culture on the relationships between leadership behavior and organizational commitment and between organizational commitment and job satisfaction and performance. Globalising call centre capital: Gender. 30-62. J. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations.. She has to her credit many research papers published in reputed national journals. J. & Ahmad.com IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES . She has to her credit corporate. 29(2). Research findings: Contact centre employee turnover. and organizational development. HPCL Mittal Energy Limited. Management responses to unions in Australian call centres: Exclude. Currently. Punjabi University. e-mail: sanjaykaushik. (2009). Leadership and Organization Development Journal.. Editorial board of two journals relating to business management. Panjab University. e-mail: luxmimalodia@yahoo. Bhatinda. teaching. e-mail: sulakshna_79@yahoo. industrial relations. . 162-176. degree in 2011. Reserve Bank of India. (2006). he is a member in the 92 Wallace. She has published many research papers in national/international conferences and journals of repute. 14(3). training and development. organizational behaviour. Labour and Industry. etc. Panjab University. H. & Skene. (2003).com Sanjay Kaushik is Professor of Human Resource Management at University Business School. K. Chandigarh and was awarded a Ph. and research experience of seven years. Van den Broek. P. His areas of interest include human resource management.. New Delhi. L. Chandigarh. She has eleven years of experience in teaching and research. B. and banking. Z. Eveline. 53-86. Yiing. She has a Masters degree in Human Resource Management and a Diploma in Training and Development from the Indian Society for Training and Development. and industrial relations. Chandigarh. 59-75. tolerate or embrace? Australian Bulletin of Labour.D. North Sydney: ACA Research. Panjab University.ubs@gmail. She has been awarded doctoral fellowship from Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). culture and work identity. Sulakshna Dwivedi is presently working as a visiting faculty at the University School of Applied Management. C. Her areas of interests are human resources. 41(1). Patiala. She was a Senior Research Fellow at the University Business School. human resource management.. New Delhi in 2002. Still L.correlates and predictors.