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ICS 23.020.

30

February 2004 edition

Manufacture and
testing of
pressure vessels

Constniction regulations

Metal piping

Jhe AD 20W-Merkbi~fferare pmpared by fRe w e n assocrafrms M e d beiow who tcgefher f m the " A l b e r i s m i n s c l l s f i mIbehaiter" (.D) Jhe stnicture and the appircatron of the AD 2MXJ Code and the proxdurai gufdeirnes are covereo by AD 2WCMerkbiatt G 1
Jne AD 2060-Aleinbanm contain sofef, ieqeclvements
ro be i l e t 'ndei m r i a ' o m s r ng cond4 ons If a b & - n o n m ioadngs aie ro be
expecrea o i m g rne opefar on of rne piessue esse rn,s sna be rat<en nro accwnr oy neer ng spec a req<,rerienrs
Ilf there are any divergentes from the requirements d this AD 2000-MeiXbiaff it shaii be possibie to prove that the Standard of Safe* of
this Code has been maintaineo by othwmeans, e g . by materiais testing, tests, Stress anaiysis, Operating expenence.
Fachverband Dampikessei-, Behäiter- und Rohrieitu~sbaoe K (FDBR), Dusseidorf
Hauptberband der gewerblichen Bemfsgenossenschaffene V. Sankt Aogusfin
Verband der Chemischen Industrie e !/ (VCI). FranMufiIMain
Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Aniagenbau e.!/ (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Vefiahrenolechnische Maschinen und
Apparate, FrankiufiIMain

I
I

Stahiinsfitut VDEh, DÜsseMolf
VGB PowerTeeh e. !L, Essen
Verband der Technischen Überwachungs-Verein6 e.V (VdTUV,, W i n

.
addres
m e above associations contmooudy Update fhe he 2m-Merkbisfier in inte tm?h t e c h i I C B i ~ r e s Piease
this to the pubiisher

I

sny proposars for

Verbmndder Technischen Übemachungs-Vereine e.V., P. 0.Box f0 38 34, D-45038 Essen

Conients
0 Foreword
1
2
3
4
5

B
7

8
9

Scope
Terms and definitions
Geneml
Requirements of the rnanufacturei
Requirements of the materials
Design
Manufacture and laying
External corrosion protection
Avoidance of dangers resuiting
from electrostatic charges

0 Foreword

1 Scope

lThe AD 2000 Code can be applied to satisfy the basic
safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive,
principally for the conformity assessment in accordance
with moduies "G" and "B1 + F .
iThe AD 2000 Code is structured along the lines of a selfcontained concept. If other technical ruks are used in
accordance with the state of the ati to solve related problems, it is assumed that the Overall concept has been
taken into account.
IThe AD 2000 Code can be used as appropriate for other
%Y moduks of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as
specified in the provisions of the relevant sector of the
law.

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$5

10 Safety accessories
11 Marking
Annex 1 "Assessment of tees' diagtam
Annex 2 Aliowable spacing of swppotis for
steel pipes
Annex 3 Recording expansion of pipe legs
Annex 4 Explanatoty notes on the application of
AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R for piping of
categories I and II in accordance with atiicle 9
and Annex II of the Pressure Equipment Directive

This AD 2000-Merkblatt applies to the calculation, design,
material and construction of piping as specified in the
Pressure Equipment Directive (Q7/23/EC).

2 Terms and definitions
2.1 Piping is interconnected Pipe components for installation in a pressure System intended to convey fluids. In
patiicular it includes pipes or pipe Systems, pipe fittings,
accessories'), expansion bellows, hoses or other pressurebearing Parts. Heat exchangers made of pipes for cmling
or heating air shall be considered the equivalent 01 piping.
1

f accessaies fhsmse1vescmst"Jb pressurevessels(3slev nccesloiies pressure
bearng accessaas) they shal be sublecfed fo a separate c o n f o r m v assessment
and marked w t h a CE markng f they come w t h n annex I of fhe Pressure Equip
ment D r e c f v e

SuperSedes Octobet 2003 edition; I = Arnendments to previous edition
AD 2000-Merblatter are potecfed by Cq?nrght. nie rights of use, partmhrly of m y trmslattm. r e p d u c t i m , exhact of tigures, trannnission by
photomechamcal m s m and s t n q e indata retriwal Systems. w e n of extiacts, are r e m e d to the autha. Cail H e y m a m Vnlag has taken all reasonsble measures to ensue the accurecy of this tianslatim but rqlrets that n o responsibilily can be accepted for any error, omission oi inaccuiacy. In
cases of doubt or dispute, the latest editim of the German text only is valid.

Page 2 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 1W R, 01.2003 ediiion

2.2 A piping system can be regarded as a single pipeline
provided
- it conveys fluids of the Same group and Same state of
aggregation and
- it is designed for the Same maximum allowable pressure
over the complete piping system.

lnterruptions by various system components such as Pumps,
machines, tanks etc. do not prevent an assembly being
regarded as a single pipeline.
2.3 Above-ground piping is that which is laid in rooms or
outdoors without an earth or sand covering. This also includes piping laid in unfilled trenches or ducts.

Earth-covered piping is that which is completely or partially

I covered by earth or sand, even if it also lies completelyor partially above the suriace of the ground.

3 General
Piping shall be constructed so that when it is properly operated it safely withstands the mechanical, chemical and thermal Stresses occurring in normal use and remains tight.
Vibrations in the piping shall be taken into account. It shall
in particular:
(1) be constructed so that it safely withstands the maximum
allowable pressuresand maximum/minimumtemperatures;
(2) be manufactured of materials that
a) have the required mechanical properties in the finished component,
b) are not attacked in a hazardous manner by the conveyed substance (fluid) and do not form a hazardous
combination when the materials are exposed to the
conveyed substancez),
C) are corrosion resistant, or protectedagainst corrosion
when subjected to corrosive influences; corrosive influences are taken to mean only external influences
here,
(3) be fitted with devices necessary for safe operation, which
safely fulfil their task.

4

Requirements of the manufacturer

This also applies to the manufacturers of basic materials.
4.2

Requirements of the piping manufacturer

4.2.1 The manufacturer shall have availablethe equipment
necessary for the proper processing of the piping parts and
the performance of the necessary tests. Equipment from
other places, complying with the requirements may also be
used.
4.2.2 The manufacturer shall have his own responsible
supervisory personneland expertsforthefabricationwork.

The piping manufacturer shall meet the quality requirements
for welding as specified in DIN EN 729-3. If external personnel are used, the manufacturer shall satisfy himself with
regard to their expertise and to the proper manufacture.
4.2.3 If the fabrication work is wholly, or partially transferred
to other companies, these shall also comply with the conditions specified in 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 with respect to the work to
be carried out.

5 Requirements of the materials
5.1

Requirements at low temperatures

At working temperatures and ambient temperatures of the
conveyed substance below -1 0 "C, the specifications of
AD 2000-Merkblatt W 10 shall be taken into account observed in addition to the requirements of 5.2 to 5.5.
5.2

Requirements for materials for pipes

Materials
The requirements for materials specified in clause 3 (1) and
(2a) are consideredto be specifically met if pipes of materials
in accordance with 5.2.1.1 to 5.2.1.5 are usedwithin the limits
given in the standards and, where applicable, in the W series
of the AD 2000-Merkblatter, or within applicationareas specified in the assessment of the relevant third party and their
quality properties are also verified in accordance with 5.2.4.
5.2.1

5.2.1.1 Pipes of unalloyed or alloyed steel
- seamless pipes in accordance with DIN 1629, DIN 1630,
DIN EN 10208-2, DIN 17173, DIN 17175, DIN 17179;
- welded pipes in accordance with DIN 1626, DIN 1628,
DIN EN 10208-2, DIN 17174, DIN 17177, DIN 17178.

Requirements of the manufacturer of parts for
5.2.1.2 Pipes of stainless, austenitic steels in accordance
piping
with DIN 17457, DIN 17 458 and SEW 400.
The manufacturer of parts for piping such as pipes, fittings,
5.2.1.3 Seamless, drawn, copper pipesto DIN 1754 Parts 1
flanges, bolts, nuts or valves or their components shall:
to 3 and service pipes of seamless, drawn copper to
- have equipment available for the proper manufacture and . DIN 1786, material SF-CUto DIN 1787 in the strength condititesting of the products; equipment from other places, ons stated in DIN 17 671 Part 1.
which complies with the requirements, may also be used,
- have experts available for the manufacture and testing of 5.2.1.4 Aluminium pipes to DIN 1746.
the products as well as a test supervisor for non-destruc- 5.2.1.5 Pipes of other metal materials provided their suitative tests where these are specified in the material specifi- bility for their application has been established by the relecation,
vant third party. These requirements can be established by
- manufacture the products in accordance with a suitable testing or by proofs of operating suitability. If the suitability
process,
of the material for pressure vessels has been established,
- by means of quality inspection, with appropriate records, this applies accordingly.
ensure the proper manufactureof the products as well as
compliance with the requirements specified in the materi- 5.2.2 Special requirementsfor pipes for welded or brazed piping
als specification.
5.2.2.1 Materials for pipes which are used for welded or
2, ~ u account
e
shall be taken of possible darnage mrough t~~rbulence
OreddY Gurbrazed piping shall
&isfy the requirements t0 be specirents. e.g. by increasing wall thickness, by using cladding or lining. or by the posfied for processing and suitability f0r brazing or welding.
sible replacement of the rnmt adversely affected parts.
4.1

1.2. 4.3.1.2.3. are considered specifically to be rnet for the bodies of valves of piping. 5.1 .6.2.3.5 in the calculation of the fitting Tough material shall be used for fittings used for gases in a liquid state. 5. W 612. using test report 2. 1.2.2.6. .1. Refer also to VdTÜV-Merkblatt 1252. forged fittings. 5.4.2 The requirernents of 5. with User experience being included as appropriate.4. the working properties and suitability for wel5. providedacertificate frorn the relevant third party on their usability is available. tubular fittings.2.3. .3 Other rnetal rnaterials rnay be used for welded or brazed piping providedtheir suitability has also been covered in accordance with 5.3.3.2. In such cases.1.3.2.1.1 to 5.rnanufacturer's rnark .5 shall be provided in accordance with the requirernents when establishing suitability. 3.1 to 5. 5.pipe bends of copper in conjunction with AD 2000Merkblatt W 612 or for 5.5 shall be applied as appropriate.2 The requirernents of 5.4.3.2. Testing Fittings shall be tested in accordance with DIN 2609 with the provisions of the HP series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter being observed as appropriate.2 The requirernents of 5.2. 5. Proof of the quality properties of individual cornponents shall be provided. W 9 and W 13. 1 and 2 a. Nos.1. fittings of Cast steel or Cast iron.1 .2 5.1.3.1 The requirernents of 3. The rnarking shall contain thefollowing information: .2.shall be provided in accordance with the requirernents in the relevant standards.1.2.2. are rnet. W 2. 01.5 5. and W 611. 2 a) are specificallyconsideredto be rnet if for: 1. 5.2. 5.I.2.shall be providedin accordance with the appropriateapplication of the W series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter.1.capillary-brazed fittings to DIN 2856 . proof of suitability of the rnaterials shall be provided as patt of a cornponent test in line with VdTÜV-Merkblatt 1065. . 5.3.1.2.5 shall be applied as appropriate. The requirernents of 5.in accordance with the rnaterials standards or rnaterials data sheet indicated in 5. fittings of tough rnaterials shall be used. copper alloys or stainless steel in accordance with DIN 3859 are used.1 For the rnaterials specified in 5.3 with the exception of those in accordance with AD 2000Merkblatt W 311.material group.AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R.series (details in accordance with DIN 2353) .2. Tough rnaterials are rnaterials as specified in 5. if bodies as specified in AD 2000-Merkblatt A 4 "Accessory housings" are used. or if the valves correspond to DIN 3230 Parts 5 and 6 with regard to testing and proof of quality. the requirernents for piping with regard to docurnentation and rnarking can be specified during further processing with appropriate application of the HP and W series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter.2.3 apply as appropriate for proof of the quality properties. proof of the quality properties shall be provided with appropriate application of the W series of the AD 2000Merkblätter.4 Proof of quality properties 5.2 as specified in DIN EN 10204 as a rninirnurn. the scope of the test shall be as specifiedwhen the suitability is deterrnined.Ito 5.6 5. fittings of copper rnaterials.4.1 . rnaterials in accordance with AD 2000-Merkblätter W 1.Ito 5.1 Materials in accordance with DIN 3859 are perrnissible for cornpression joints to DIN 2353.3 Testing of materials 5.3 The requirernents of 5.1 Proof of the quality properties of pipes for piping: . bolts and nuts Requirements of materials for valves 5.as described in the W series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter for the rnost irnportant pressure-bearing parts.4 and 5 and for fittings of cast steel in accordance with No.2.2. provided the rninirnurn requirernents for elongation at fracture and notch toughness specified in the DIN standards rnentioned there are cornplied with.3 Requirements of metallic materials for fittings If the failure of a fitting can lead to a hazard.2 For fittings of rnaterials as specified in 5.2. The rnanufacturer of the joints shall confirrn by rnarking that the joint cornplies with DIN 2353 and that the required rnaterial proofs are available.2 For rnaterials in accordance with 5.2.5. 5. the scope of testing for pipes is . other rnaterials can be designated as satisfactory with respect to the special requirernents fortoughness.1.2. Nos.2.1. No.5.1. 5.5 shall be applied as appropriate.4 for additional parts.1 The requirernents of the rnaterials are considered to be rnet if the specifications of AD 2000-Merkblätter W 2. rnaterials in accordance with AD 2000Merkblätter W 2 and W 13 are used.I. 5. fittings of sheet material. but in any case at least in accordance with test report 2.1 are considered to be rnet for the rnaterials specified in 5. 5. 1 and No.2003 edition Page 3 5. fittings of grey Cast ironcan be used for pressures up to 10 bar and ternperatures up to 200 "C provided the fitting is overdirnensioned with respect to the stresses which occur.1. 3. 5.5.2 as specified in DIN EN 10204 for additional parts. Depending on the anticipated operating stresses.5. Requirements of materials for compression joints and clamping ring couplings 5. W 7. This is generally considered to be rnet if the safety factor is increased by a factor of 1.1 . Requirements of materials for flanges.2 For other cornpression joints and clarnping ring couplings.2. rnaterials in accordance with 5.1 The requirements for the rnaterials specified in 3.3.3.2.1 Materials 5.3 Proof of quality properties For fittings. in agreernent with the relevant third party. 5.2. however.4 5.4. or by assessment by the relevant third party.2.3. ding are considered verified. rnaterials in accordance with AD 2000-Merkblätter W 3 or W 5. . 2. where copper.4.2 Proof of the quality characteristics for pipes as specified in 5. W 611.

The number of flanged joints shall be kept to a rninimurn.C.1 General Pipes. 6.2. Installation instructions shall be followed. Proof of the perrnissibility of the support spacing is provided if.g. the necessary additional considerations. For tees to DIN 2615 Part 1.1. a piping System shall adequately allow for bending or torsional deforrnation. The preconditions of Annex 1 shall be observed in this case. . ' 7. or rnining subsidence are to be specified to suit the particular case. flttings and other components against internal or external pressure Pipe bends.cP)ldaat p .1 are considered to have been rnet if the quality of the material is not irnpermissibly irnpaired due to deforrnation at high or low ternperature. 6.1 Pipes The requirernents of 6. dated 02i1990.c2)ldaat p .C. For piping designed to convey substances with a particular hazard potential.3 Joining elernents between individual pipes shall be constructed so that a safe and technically tight joint is ensured. e.I.1. 6.1 To ensure adequate elasticity. 1 158 of the Gerrnan Copper Institute.2. for example. SIK specified in Annex 1 is rnaintained as a rninirnurn.as specified in 6.2.1 . 7. the rnaxirnurn allowable presSure corresponding to the perrnissible usage factor of the tees shall be reduced relative to that of the straight pipe. 01. gravitational forces and ternperature fluctuations can be simply deterrnined in accordance with 6. 7.2 The requirernents of 7.2.2.1. liquefied cornbustible gases. for exarnple. and the individual pipes have been joined together in such a manner that stresses and deforrnationwhich could impair the safety of the piping are excluded. Examples of application of Annex 3 and explanatory notes are given in pages 16 to 18 of Annex 3.1.3. 7 Manufacture and laying 7. specified in 6.2. . or AD 2000Merkblatt B 0.1.Page 4 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R. 6. For buried piping.2 6. to withstand the internal or external pressure and additional stresses where these substantially affect the design of the piping.1 General 6.1 or 6. or where there is thermal expansion of a connectedtank. All the deterrnining stresses (see AD 2000-Merkblatt S 310) are cornbined to form load cases which particularly take into account internal pressure.1 apply to pipes provided the ratio of wall thickness to diarneter (s. reducers in accordance with DIN 2616 Part 2 or caps in accordance with DIN 2617 to withstand internal pressure. where the thermal expansion of the piping is hindered.3 A design calculation is not required for 90" and for 45" branches provided the ratio of wall thickness to diarneter (s. these requirernents are met if. provided the connector wall thickness of the fitting is chosen to suit the required pipe wall thicknesss. flanges with a . The preconditionsof Annex 1 shall be observed in this case.3 Design of pipes.g. . straightening or aligning work.1 or 6.2 Fittings Check of elasticity 6.2. . forces of gravity and ternperature fluctuations. This assurnes that the torsional stresses are less significant due to the rnethod of laying. For other Parameters. ANS1 B 31. Tees to DIN 2615 Part 2 need not be designed to withstand internal pressure provided that the wall thickness of the connection of the fittings is chosen in accordance with the required pipe wall thicknesss. The perrnissible support distances for copper pipes can also be specified in accordance with DKI Information Sheet No.2003 ediion 6 Design 6.2. caps It is not necessary to design pipe bends in accordance with DIN 2605 Part 2.2. AD 2000-Merkblatt A 4 applies.2 As a deviation frorn 6. reducers. For accessory housings. The superirnposed stresses are cornpared with the perrnissiblevalues in accordance with criteria specified in the generally acknowledged rules of technology. fittings and other cornponents shall be designed in accordance with the generally acknowledged rules of technology.2. Proof of stresses resulting frorn internal pressure is provided in accordance with the generally acknowledged rules of technology. 6. 1 158 of the Gerrnan Copper Institute. restricted expansion in the earth.3. e. Fittings to DIN 2856 need not be designed to withstand internal pressure providedthe working gauge pressures specified in this standard are not exceeded. e. The following points apply essentially to piping which is not buried. or by bending the pipe. the support distances as shown in Annex 2 are rnaintained and the explanatory notes regarding the specification of support distances are observed.1.1 6. sag or stresses so that it is possible to treat the internal pressure and forces of gravity separately.1 to 6.3. independent of the other stresses in each case. e.1.2 Simplified procedure As a deviation from 6. the table in Annex 2 can be converted in accordance with the inforrnation in the explanatory notes. Specification of permissible spacing of supports The specificationof the permissiblespacing of supports lirnits the effect of the forces of gravity.1. dated 02i1990.2.2.2.3.1 . If it is not possible to dirnension the piping by calculation.2.1 The individual pipes shall not be irnpermissibly stressed or deforrned when assernbling piping. This is norrnally achieved by suitable laying. or only at an unacceptable cost. other rnaterials. a design calculationfor elasticity is not required if the leg lengths cornply with the conditions of Annex 3.g. such as DIN 2413 Parts 1 and 2 and the B series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter. the stresses from internal pressure. for exarnple with regard to earth loads. The safety factors shall be taken frorn DIN 2413 Parts 1 and 2. the maxirnurn allowable pressure correspondingto the perrnissible usage factor of these fittings shall be reduced relative to that of the straight pipe.1.g.SIK specified in Annex 1 is rnaintained as a rninirnurn.I. for steel pipes.g.2. the adequate dirnensioning of the piping can also be established by experimental design rnethods. The elasticity of copper pipes can also be deterrnined in accordance with DKI Information Sheet No. For pipe bends in accordance with DIN 2605 Part 1 and reduCers in accordance with DIN 2616 Part 1. e.

1 Welding fillws. 7 Sutiace Pore No.3 As a deviation from 7. procedures shall be used which the manufacturer has proved he is competent to perform and which ensure the uniformity of the welds. the sultability for a specific or similar application can be determined within the framework of an extended procedure test.2.3 Manufaeturers shall employ oniy qualified welders.21 100 "CI"d. and where less than 50 % they shall be quartered. In the assessment a9 specified in 6.4 When pipes are cut. Tabk 1. from the equivalent Stress.51 For steel.AD~2000~Merkblaff HP 100 R.11521 Matenal grw P 11 + 111 11 + 111 25 Matenal grmp 314. If suitability is not stipulated. the test scope can be specified accordingly. are followed. Brazing is permissible on sizes up to DN 32.2.2. For piping whose welds have been produced using the gm. 20 Excessive asymmetry fillet weld No. through the manufacturing process and up to the final inspection.1.2.2.2. for piping with a nominal diameter up to DN 150 and made of materials as specified in 5. corresponding to the state ofthe art. 7. The tasks and responsibilities of the welding Supervisors are given in DIN EN 719.1 The welds on piping shall be made using suitable equipment and fillers so that a satisfactory weld is ensured and residual Stresses remain limited.g. For the welding fillers and consumable specified in VdTÜV-Kennblatt 1000. With fegard to the intemal appearance.2 When fabricating welded piping. Tables 1 and 2 Fiuid W ~ 1 3 Category Mater~al grow 115. but in any case they shall not be less than 2 %. 18 Linear misalignment h in circumferential welds on both sides Page 5 No. the test for welders shall be in accordance with AD 2000Merkblatt HP 3. 16 Excessive penetration No. shall be suitable for the manufacture of piping. the values shall be halved. e.g.3.2. e. a production test shall also be carried out for which bending or fracture test specimens shall be taken for each welder and each material group within the scope given in AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 0.2 The suitability of the weld fillen and consumables shall be determined by the relevant third patiy. Refer to DIN 8564 Part 1 7. 7. If the specimens oT the welding work and the welders are to be specificaliy monitored.1. 15 Excessive convexity No. or gasshielded metal-arc methods.4. 19 Incompletely Rlled groove No. Brazed joints made by open-joint brazing are permitted only on copper service pipes with dimensiom as specified . 7.1. 13 Excessive convexity (fillet welds) No.ng i1uids n c u d n g conoslve f u d s [See Gefanrsfom) up to and n c u d n g PS DN = 2000 buf not tor very t m c lluds Where strength characteristic values of 50 % to 85 % are used. as part of a workshop prefabtication.2. the usage factor is obtained by considering the resistance to intemal pressure and when assessing in accordance with 6.2 Proof that the requirements of 7. The type of non-destructive t e 9 and the assessment of the results are regulated by AD 2000-Merkblafl HP 513. For piping of category I. 7.1. The welds (samples) to be tested shall be chosen according to the degree of difficulty when welding and as a function of the welding method. 11 Undercut (continuous not permitted! Also applies to fillet welds) No. They shall have available expert supervisory personnel.4. or special seals such as metal-reinforced or metal seals are used. aluminium. a part of the test in accordance with Table 1 may be carried out without being associated with an object with the agreement of the relevant third patiy.x-ray or ultrasonie testing -. i.2.diz.2 Baeio ptindples for weiding 7. in a weld filler specification. the suitability is specified within the application limits given therein. 02 2004edfon tongue and groove or projection and recesc are fmed. Other materials shall be subjected t o these Standards as appropriate according to their properties 7. For materials not contained in this table but which can be assigned to one of these material groups. 7.6 Piping of categoy II + III shall be subjected to nondestructive testing in accordance with Table 1. and in accordance with DIN EN 50042 for the following imperfections No.1161 214. the weld metal shall be suited to the parent metals and the qualities required for this shall be specified.2.2. Scope of non-destructive testing .2. an object-related production test is sufficient. quality level CS as specified in DIN EN 25817 is adequate for the following imperfections No.2.4. They shall ensure that the regulations usually applied. in combination with welding consumables as necessary. 21 Root concavity.2. if it is possible to demonstrate in another suitable fashion that the materials can be identified from the goods incoming inspection. As a deviation from this. however. Transfer of the marking is not necessary. 19 Excessive penetration.4 Welding fillers end consumabks 7.2. For requirements of the NDT personnel.5 Butt welds and fillet welds to join pressurebearing park shall be made so that their external condition is of quality level B as specified in DIN EN 25817 (steel) and DIN EN 30042 (aluminium). nlckel and their alloys. See also VdTüV-Merkblatt 1153. 7. 7.1. transfer of marking is one means by which the materials can be identified throughout the manufacturing and production processes.ng ox. to 5. See Annex 4. that proper brazing is ensured. for piptng as a % of the number of circumferential welds Materials to AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 0.51 Brazed joints on piping shall be formed by opmjoint brazing (capillary brazing) using suitabk materials x.3.2. see AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 4.e.2.3. 7. the genefally applied regulations corresponding to the state of the art apply.2 have been met shall be provided to the relevant third party by means of a relevant procedure qualification test with the appropriate application of AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 211 7. The specimens of fillet welds may also be prepared from sheet. 7.

e.1 In principle. The pmeedure test shall becarried out on the basis of VdTÜVMerkblatt 1160 with the relevant third patty and the number and size of the test specimens shall be chosen in accordance with clause 6 of VdTÜV-Merkblatt 1160 SO that all required specimens can be taken. This requirement is generally considered to be met if Sand (grain size not exceeding 2 mm) or solid materials. the sampling points on the permanently installed side of the joints shall be ckarly marked with the fluid contained.3.4 of VdTÜVMerkblatt 1160 can be dispensed with if the radiographic inspection described in 8.1 is regarded as having been provided if a procedure test is available for the brazing. a comparable number of production tests can be carried out in the laboratoty on a specific object as destructive ur non-destructive tests. The fewest possible detachable joints should be used. and in any case not less than 5 mm. . .1. slag and other foreign and aggressive substances are used for preparing the base and filling the trenches or ducts. piping shall be laid above ground outside traffic areas and shall be easily accessible. . 7.1. a suitable method shall be pmvided to block off pipe branches that present considerable risks because of their dimensions. e. They shall be surmunded on all sides with a layerat least 10 cm thick.4. 4). DIN 30 671 and DIN 30 673.2 The requirements for brazing given in 7. The degree of wetting shall be at least 80 % of the minimum overlap length and the minimum overlap length shall be three times the wall thickness. ber of supports so that a w impermissible sag is avoided and it is secured so that da'ngerous chang& in positions cannot occur and 3. No. 4 or5).it shall be provided with a pmtective pipe or laid in a duct. or by a component test on the basis of VdTÜV-Merkblatt 1065. For substances which are non-coffosive and which are generally not hazardow to water. This requirement is regarded as having been met if: 1.2 of VdTÜVMerkblatt 1160 is carried out in accordance with DKIMerkblatt No. 7-4.4. Detachable joints shall be arranged so that they can be easily inspected. device shall be p m i d e d to drain or remove deposits from deep-lying areas in order to prevent damage from precipitation or corrosion.only brazen are used whose qualifications have been verified by a procedure test on the basis of V ~ T Ü V Merkblatt 1160 or have been obtained in accordance with DIN 65 228 (on test specimens 3 . The type of non-dectructive testing and ascessment of the test results shall be in accordance with AD 2000-MeMlatt HP 5/3.3 Earth-covered piping shall be laid so that the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures is not impaired.6 If wndensation can form on the inside of piping for gaseous fluids. route does not allow adeauate expansion. Where the dimensions are different. The thermal pull-out test in accordance with 8.in this case the piping shall not convey combustible liquids with a flash point above 55 "C within the meaning of the Verordnung über brennbare Flüssigkeiten (Wammable Liquids Reguhtions). If thex? requirements cannot be met for safety reasons. As a deviation from theabove. Compression joints shall only be used up to DN 32 and only for precision steel pipes with dimensions in accordance with DIN 2391 and DIN 2393. 81 1 and. Non-destnictive testing (x-ray or ultrasonic testing) shall be carried out on 10 % of the brazed joints.4. leakages of the Pipe walk shall be indicated by an approved leak detector.2. This also applies to single-walled piping in pipe ducts which cannot be entered. Suriace imperfections are detectable on the finished component by means of two sensors offset by 90" so that the degree of wetting can be evaluated. 2.g.1. only a construction which is technically equivalent shall be used. splgot/wcket.4. stones.3. 7. .3 and DVGW-ArbeitsblattGW 392) and on fittings as specified in DIN 2856 (see 5.it shall be double-walled. ash. 7. Proof of the suitability of clamping ring and other compression joints shall be indicated to the relevant third party either on the basis of adequate experience of the User. brazed. earth-cwered piping is laid in pipe trenches so that it is evenly supported.4 Laying piping3 7.3. 7. 7.it shall be designed as vacuum pipes with a liquid column leak indicator.4. its technical construction shall meet one of the following requirements: . above-around riioina is sumoi'ted on a sufficient num.4. U U 7. piping in flat ducts whkh k Open at the top or covered with gratings need not be surrounded by the filling material. bolted or flanged joints. i The regulstlons n ather EU Member Sfstes may deviafe vom Of74 me reqwrernenfs Particular care shall be taken with compression and clamping joints to ensure that they are used in areas of low Stress. thermal expansion is allowed for during laying and piping o l long length is fitted with flexible intermediate sections if the .3.7 If piping contains flukls of gmup 1. in accordance with DIN 30 670. A substance which leaks shall be visible in an inspection device . proof shall be provided that the brazed joints are suitable. . sheathing. As an alternative to these nondestructive tests. or for copper pipes with dimensions in accordance with DIN 1786. Detachable jolnts are not permisible in earth-covered sections of piping. can be used in conjunction with TRB 601.8 In order to minimize the risk of unintentional sampling.5 Piping chall be laid so that no unwanted Change in its position can occur. The procedure test and peffionnel approval is carriec out by the relevant third party A repeat test is necessaty after a brazer has not been working as a brazer for more than 6 months.3.pipe .3 Proof of compliance with the requirements of 7. . which are free of sharp-edged objects.2 If piping is earth covered. .1 are considered to have been met if the specifications of the DVGW-Arbeitsblatt GW 2 for brazing are obsewed. No hollow spaces shall be present.g. 7.4 Piping for combustible substances which is laid below ground outside of buildings shall be completely surrounded by the filling material.1.Page 5 AD 2000 MerKblaff HP 100 R 02 2004 e d t m in DIN 1786 (see 5. Joints in piping are usually welded.4. for stainless steel pipes with dimensions in accordance with DIN 2462 in tolerante classes D 4 and T 4. 7. or if systematic defects are found during the initial testing of brazed joints - 7. by a suitable arrangement of the pipe supports.

1 Piping shall be marked in accordance with Annex 1.3.2 If pipes or parts of Systems made of different metals.3. The A series of the AD 2000-Merkblätter shall be applied as appropriate for this purpose.2 The requirements of 9. which could lead to corrosion as a result of galvanic element formation.1 are not possible or practical.1 General Piping exposed to external corrosive influence. e. 11.3 Earth-covered piping 8.2 Piping shall be protected against excess pressure by suitable devices if pressures above the maximum allowable pressure cannot be excluded. made from materials which are not sufficiently corrosion resistant shall be protected against corrosion.1 are considered to have been met if berufsgenossenschaitliche Richtlinie BGR 132 (Industrial Employers' tiability lnsurance Guideline BGR 132) is followed. 9.but these shall be specified in the operating instructions. in a P&l diagram so that the piping in the System can be unambiguously identified. which shall be designed so that they satisfactorily perform their task. resistance exceeding 106 B shall be bridged by a conducting joint or the pipes shall be separately earthed. for example.g.marking the piping itself.g. 11.2 The route of earth-covered piping shall be shown in the technical documentation. the operation of safety valves can be impaired because of corrosive. unless they are cathodically protected.1 Piping shall be constructed so that ordinary operating procedures do not give rise to hazardous electrostatic charges. The resistance to earth shall not exceed 106 B. . . 01. 10.3 of the Pressure EquipmentDirective.by a clear representation e. See TRB 601. A 2 or A 6.2003 edition Page 7 8 External corrosion protection 8. 11 Marking 9. are connected together. This can be done by: .4 Safety devices against overpressure shall be installed at a suitable point and designed in accordancewith AD 2000Merkblätter A 1. 10. Insulating pipe joints or adapters with a 4) The regulations in other EU Member States may deviate from the requirements of clause 9. the earth-covered piping shall always be cathodically protected. 9 Avoidance of dangers resulting from electrostatic charges4) 10.g. viscous. exposed to external corrosion shall be provided with a suitablecoating (corrosion protectivepaint).3 If suitable devices in accordance with 10. These measures are generally unnecessary for piping laid in the soil. or subliming charge materials.AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R. they shall be electrically isolated from each other by isolating components.5 To prevent impermissible pressures as a result of a temperature rise in fluids. 9. 8. dusty. due to solar radiation. Ordinary flanged joints are considered adequately conductive. 8. organisational measures are also permissible . 10.2 Above-ground piping 10 Safety accessories Piping above ground. This also applies to isolating pipes from supporting brackets.3 Piping shall be earthed unless it is laid in such a way as to ensure adequate earthing. e. overilow valves are also suitable. 8.1 Piping shall be fitted with suitable accessories as necessaryfor safe operation.3.1 If a pressure vessel connected to earth-covered piping is protected by cathodic corrosion protection. 10.

1.005 [N/mm2] [mml [mm] [mm] [mml 0. 0 = Operating pressure [bar] =. Assessment of Tees . C.Ol Fig.AD B 9 TRD 301 Calculationwith 45' branch Symbols p S K d. Safetyfactor = Strengthvalue PipeexLdia. s. = Actual wall thickness = Manufacturingtolerance = Wearallowance = 0. C.

3 9.1 6.7 4.3 32.7 4.7 10.7 4.3 5.6 6.7 7. Allowable spacing of supports for steel pipes (for boundary conditions refer to Explanatory Notes for Annex 2) Ernpty pipe.4 3.8 50.9 18.7 2.6 10.1 1.1 7.0 9.1 3.3 2.3 62.9 2.0 11.9 320.4 3.7 3.2 8.6 2.0 2.2 5.4 5.1 7.2 15.8 2.7 165.0 8.7 7.4 75.2 9.9 2.5 4.6 4.3.9 4.9 4.2 13. without insulation q L 1 1 4 1 4 1 h 1 4 1 4 kglrn rn 1.5 4.7 9. insulation thickness DD 80 .7 37.2 75.8 46.2 14.6 1.3 13.8 28.5 4.7 5.4 18.6 2.1 5.2 7.7 9.0 11.5 2.5 3. 5.6 2.3 10.4 3.7 9.6 8.4 6.5 8.4 5.6 10.1 11.3 5.3 4.9 3.3 5.4 2.8 14.8 10.9 5.8 3.0 7.2 5.9 5.6 16.0 22.8 6.0 5.9 3.3 3.3 6.8 3.6 16.0 8.5 4.3 4.7 kglrn 2.4 11.1 7.1 4.2 3.5 9.3 4.4 6.6 2.8 2.4 5.3 7.1 8.9 3.5 6.2 1.8 5.9 2.3 6.5 5.2 10.3 16.5 70.6 4.6 12.6 8.9 99.5 8.4 3.1 2.3 2.9 12.0 8.8 9.8 5.8 4.6 8.5 5.1 5.7 14.3 Water-filled pipe.9 7.9 2.3 6.5 4.7 7.3 6.6 46.7 4.6 6.0 8.4 2.4 2.5 1.2 5.8 10.9 2.5 4.3 2.4 6.4 8.8 20.3 3.4 3.6 12.5 10.3 4.5 2.9 6.0 6.5 2.1 10.0 6.3 4.5 4.7 2.Table 1.7 7.2 3.7 3.5 7.0 4.8 3.4 5.9 1.0 9.4 4.6 2.6 31.9 10.6 3.8 12.7 2.5 4.7 123.1 9.6 51.8 8.4 2.1 24.8 1.4 8.0 4.6 11.3 9.7 3.5 3.6 6.9 18.0 6.6 5.1 19.9 4.7 2.5 7.3 20.5 7.3 12.3 2.4 3.7 2.2 6.2 5.2 97.7 8.4 2.3 3.8 13.4 6. without insulation -6qYiJT rnrn Water-filled pipe.7 10.2 4.8 13.3 2.6 3.2 8.0 16.9 11.5 4.6 4.1 2.2 7.6 4.0 8.4 6.3 5.0 9.4 10.7 8.0 5.3 7.0 4.6 23.5 7.4 134.6 4.1 157.9 8.2 11.8 3.7 rn 4.0 4.6 4.1 17.5 5.4 7.3 4.4 2.7 4.0 7.6 7.7 8.6 4. insulation thickness DD 40 1 Water-filled pipe.3 28.0 102.6 7.1 7.6 4.0 215.6 16.9 5.5 4.9 8.3 136.2 3.9 6.7 5.2 3.2 5.7 5.9 7.2 7.3 6.3 9.6 7.6 22.9 2.9 3.0 10.9 6.8 4.7 246.3 8.1 4.0 2.4 11.0 12.9 8.1 11.9 6.0 9.3 3.6 2.2 3.7 3.

ann. p.10' A '= 384~1 1 1..Page 10 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R.81 5. q+ Single load in all fields q+ Single load in particular field only q+ Single load in particular field only 1 I with eauai field I in each field) .2003 ediiion Explanatory Notes for Annex 2 L4 f„. 01.9.) B I ~ o n tsupport . and c2) not considered Case - I Criterion Remarks System Stress Sag Exp.13 curvc Determination of I iterative: lrv3. = 3 mm DN 5 50 f„. or welded Tee with horizontal branch Stress from internal pressure not considered Tolerances and allowances (C.6. = 5 mm DN > 50 amm= 40 NImm2 i according to Annex 2 Page 13 % +A (welded) t ~ 3' / U„. = 40 NImm2 U„ = 40 NImm2 to 'i according " ~ Annex 2' omm= 40 N/mm2 i according to Annex 2 Page 13 ~ Page 13 Tee (forged) = 40 N/mm2 a„ L5 (welded) Conditions: Forged.

q. The following data have been used for the rnass q relative to length: e~ = 1000 kg/ms Medium Pipe material QR = 7900 kg/rna @D = 120 kg/rn3 Thermal insulation es ' SB = 10 kg/rn2 Sheet covering Overlaps and fasteners are included. to i4 1. q. For this.s reference to saglstress criterion * Parameter deviating frorn table in Annex 2 relative to continuous support where DN 5 50 f = 3 rnm where DN > 50 f = 5 rnrn The calculation rnodel for L. C. frorn the point of view of avoiding possible "puddle forrnation": - - i. s/d.W. W .1 Limitation of sag .AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R. D.9/(8. - (f. LI LI = K ~1. rn = 0. rn = 0. in piping with a tee (welded or forged) at the point of rnaxirnurn rnornent are lirnited to a = 40 NIrnrn2. a forged tee in accordance with Annex 2 with a stress concentration factor i = 0.a weided tee in accordance with Annex 2 with a stress concentration factor i = 0.)%) has been assurned. The support distances in Annex 2 have been deterrnined using the equation for lAS in Annex 2. For this. s/d. W. 3 and 4) 2. W.9/(2sldm)21~) = Iss(U.2003 edition Page 11 rnean diarneter of branch rnean diarneter of pipe external diarneter of pipe internal diarneter of pipe . An average value E 200 kN/rnrn2 has been assurned for the rnodulus for elasticity. I) = LAF(f. to L. q . undisturbed piping with a stress concentrationfactor i = 1 has been assurned for L. a welded tee in accordance with Annex 2 with a stress concentration factor i = 0. q. to L. L. s/d. q. rn = 0. in the undisturbed piping and at 4. I) L. For L4. 2. rn = 0.9/(2 . = IAS((J. W. to L4 can be derived frorn C. ~=ies(a. B.9/(2 . = Iss(U. the permissible support distances or cantilever bearn lengths can be derived frorn the lengths in Annex 2. and L. r n = 0 . K L s W Q (J [N/rnrn2] [ml [-I [rnrns] [kg/rnS] [N/rnrn2] I:[ sag equivalent length stress concentration factor support spacing. q. The support distances L.2 Other Parameters If the rnornent of inertia I* and the section rnodulus W*.)%) has been assurned in the centre of the field. the following applies: . W .)2/3 has been assumed in the centre of the field.2: Specification of allowablespacing of supports The cantilever bearn lengths in Annex 2 have been detennined using the equation for I„ in Annex 2. L. E reference to cases in Annex 2 F. = lAF 1.2 Cantilever bearn. q.rn=O.9/(2 s/d.L. The support spacing L. flexibly-rnounted at both ends (case A in the "Explanatory notes to Annex 2" annex).)2/3) L.)2/3) = IAS((J.i=l)-LBS(o. i = 0. undisturbed piping where i = 1 has been assurned for L.1 Flexibly-mountedsingle field supports. the permissible support as follows: distance L.. E . For this support condition.9/(2 s/d.i=l) L. q . W. W. Additional loads F = rn g are not taken into account in the support distances in the table in Annex 2. to b a r e based on a flexibly-rnounted.2. the rnodulus of elasticity E*.9/(8. 1. Explanatory notes to 6. The assurnption of a centre field of a continuous support is frequently rnore realistic. and L. The stiffening effect of the sheet covering has not been taken into account even though under certain circurnstances it can be considerable. i = 0. i = 1) L3 = IAs((J.2.9/(2s/dm)2/3) 1 General 2 Conversion of the allowable lengths from Annex 2 The support distances in the Table 1 "Allowable spacing of supports of steel pipes" have been deterrnined on the basis of the equations in the table in the "Explanatory notes to Annex 2". to L..5 .8 .W. s/dm)2/3) = lAs ((J. i = 0.q. W. i = 0.1 Other support conditions The support distances L. E . Where the sag is lirnited. is the single field support. 2L 2 5 . the line load q*. i = 0. The lirnit sag f has therefore been included as follows. 01. i = 0.2 Limitation of stress. For &. i = l ) = L A s ( a . .9 1 (8. By rnaintaining the support widths L. single-field support frorn case to case. L. has been specified in accordance with the "lirnitation of sagncriterion. the preset values f* and (J* or the stress concentration factor i* in accordance with Annex 2 deviate substantially frorn the values in Annex 2. cantilever length (general) additional (single) mass rnass relative to length nominal wall thickness weld efficiency ratio of length withlwithout additional rnass ratio of equivalent IengtMength without additional rnass nominal width rnodulus of elasticity single load rnornent of inertia design strength value length without additional rnass safety factor section rnodulus density stress acceleration due to gravity Indices fL of Annex 2 A.~ ~~ - (i = 2. L. 1.8 . L 2 = I A S ( a . q. s/dm)2/3) 1. the Stresses (J due to q at L. to &. = W. L. For L3..and L. q.8 .q.2. have been deterrnined in accordance with the "lirnitation of stress" criterion.

2 rn is obtained frorn the support distance table where q = 57.7.7 rn and q = q*.58 frorn Annex 2 "Diagrarn to take account of single loads on the basis of the perrnissible stress". a pipe branches off so that an additional rnass rn = 250 kg acts on thisfield. the single load with I* = -.2 = 4. the stress a* should be lirnited to 30 NIrnrn2. 3. The allowable support distance taking account of the additional single load where F = rn g is then obtained as follows: .l rnrn is designed as a continuously supported piping over several supports. the following applies: (i = 2. 4..0. rn For this. The rneter rnass (rnass per unit length) of the piping with filling q* = 60 kglrn. using the equations given in Annex 2.or by using the appropriate equations frorn Annex 2. to L. .38 Curve 2 frorn Annex 2 A value X = 0. The perrnissible support distance is as follows: If the pararneters deviate frorn those used as a basis in Annex2. 5 and 6) For other support conditions. = 4. The value X = I/L is taken frorn Annex 2 as a function of y = i*/L. 3 Additional single loads Single loads which are to be considered in addition to the line loads in Annex 2 can be taken into account in cases L.58 > 0.2 . 7. A support distance L. In a centre field. The relevant subPortdistance or cantilever bearn length without a single load is then deterrnined in accordance with Annex 2 .8 [kgtrn]. this deviation shall first be taken into account in accordance with 2.Page 12 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R. As a result of the high Operating ternperatures. the allowable lengths L* can be correspondingly converted frorn the length L as specified in 2.2. q equivalent length I*. 01. is converted into an DN 150 piping with s = 7. - I = X L = 0.2 and then the influence of the single load is considered in accordance with clauses 1 and 2.65 . Assurning that the branch fitting is forged.2003 edition Exarnple Where the stress is lirnited. I* Y=-=L -- 4'17 7.7 [rn] The sag can be deterrnined in accordance with case E in the table of "Explanatory notes to Annex 2" with IEF= I = 4.65 is obtained with curve 2 for y = 0. The support distances or cantilever bearn lengths for the "stress lirnitations" criterion can also be deterrnined in this case with the aid of Annex 2 and 1. then Vi* = 2.1.

For the basic pipe. r . or. (1 + cot o 4 + Tee with welded-on. i Where: C = hlle for reinforcement on one side C = h113 for reinforcement on both sides 2) These bends are brokendown into single bends with a radius r and straight intermediate sections of length I.s = 1 .dm. cot a r=2 + tan a) '1 2. 3) With tees.2003 edition Page 13 Table 2: Shape factor. s. the basic pipe and noule are examined separately. Forged set-in tee with s and SA as connecting wall thicknesses Forged set-in reducer Chape conditions a 5 60" s r da/lOO Sp 1) For pipe bends reinforced by a flange or similar a distance of less than dJ2 from the beginning or end of the bend. to the point a distance of a = 0. the governing moment is the greater of the two moments resulting leii and right of the axis intersection point. As a simplification. but with additional reinforcing ring with SA 5 s with S. k. 2. As above.kB i' = c . set-in or flanged-out nozzle Basic pipe: n d i . = 1-2. rnax. = C . it is the resulting moment on the side of the branching leg. k. and i shall be replaced by k'. tan a. and i also apply to individual segmental welds therefore.r. The values of r. more precisely. .dq 32 da -. For the nozzle. as srnaller value of sx1= S and .O (ain grd) e S.5 from the axis intersection point.s dm with . Noule: 3. it can be related to the axis intersection point. stress concentration factors and section moduli Designation Diagram Shape factor H Flexibility factor kg (2 1!) Stress concentration factor I (21!) Section modulus W Straight pipe Plain pipe bend + ') Segmental bend with I5 (1 dm with I . flexibility factor. Segmental bend with dm I > -(1 tan a) 2 4.AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R. 01.

1. starting from the permissible Stress O Beam on 2 supports and cantilever arm Y= @ Continuous beam with single mass I\ 2-x2 for y > 0. Diagram taking account of single load.380 1086 265 Y= C9 Continuous beam with single rnass O Continuous bearn. single rnass in each field y = 1 -X2 -for y < 0.(reduction factor) .380 252 265 1 -x2 2 X rnax.Page 14 AD 2000-Merkblan HP 1W R.2003 edltlon Flg. 01. bending rnornent: in centre of field for O and O in support area for O and O X = I L .

01.AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R.2003 edition Page 15 Annex 3 to AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R .

called the reduction factor i. ): 01: &: FP FL LL f 200 "C 12.8 At: L: fl: E 200 "C: K 200 T: S: ( E S) . i let~ w lenaths Li. S. The effect of Pipe bends on the stress has been taken into acco~ntq tne stress concentrat on factor as spec f eo n AhSl B 31. L shall beadded together to form an equivalent pip& leg length L* as folb w s for applying the nomogram' [I] U Nornogram 6trudure: Pipe damped on both d e s without bend U This procedure is explained in more detail in the following examples 2 and 3. iU(K . l for welded pipe branches with Same wall thicknessldiameter ratio saiety factor weld efficiency expansion to be recorded f=103La. p.3 m 30 rnm frorn L.V )to ladder d„ then the intersection point of ladder f.. 6.rmctjon) j ~ stahl im Hochbau (Stee/in ~ 14'%dition. 191000 N/mmz 185 N/mmz 13 485 1822 12. 1iPart 2 No.S) . Branches can be cwered by the nomogram by including the ratio of the pipe bendbranch stress concentration factors .o = fixed point = locating bearing = non-locating bearing = iO3La.5 D 2 . Vol.~.. modulus of elasticity design strength value reduction factor = 1. 10-6K-' 1.1.3 r nns been ncorpornred in rne nomogrnm. system 13 If the expansion f of more than one p i p leg is recorded. L?. the res~ective.. 154. Required pipe leg lengih L2 for f 2lrom the m o g a r n Expansion f 2 = 13 mm from Li Join the rntersedion point of IadderA to ladder f Ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L2 = 3 3 rn . = Fnp(to DIN 2505) and the wall thickness of the pipe is designed in accordance with FR. K.5.2 . v and da BiMiography ~ Cons. .At Required pip leg length L.3 m.in the observation. 'i f The nomograrn is based on the pipe clarnped on M h sides as a static system.O ior Pipe bends with R > 1. Ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of Ll = 5. ixflK. The nomogram also applies t o flange joints in the pipe 1% if F.At pipe leg Iength linear expansion iaetor temperature difference extemal diameterof pipe internal diameter of pipe nominal diameter longitudinal force of pipedue to internal pressure pipe force additional Pipe form - Example 1: Piping expsnsion in two directions Determination of pipe leg lengths Material: St 35. forf 1 from the nmograrn Join ladder (E .Explanatory note on Annex 3 Determination of Pipe leg length to r e c ~ exvansion d as a result of temperature for the nominal size range DN 10 to DN 500 with nomogram Variables E..

.~. 5m 12 mm from L. S) FP = FL = LL = Required pipe leg length for f 1 from the nomogram Join ladder (E .5 0.3 rnm 200 "C 7 rn 17 mm from L.3 mm from L. 7m 17 mm from L.5 mm from L. S) .5 m 3 3 rn 3. L.4 m 23 mm from L.~t Required pipe leg length for f 3 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 3).4 m 191000 NImm2 185 NIrnm2 Material: da: At: L. 5m 12 mm from L. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„.1 a: FP FL LL f 1. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„.S) .6 m.: f 3: L: f 4: L5: f 5: L6: L:. V)to ladder d„ then the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f I).85 3826 fixed point locating bearing non-locating bearing .2003 edition Page 17 Example 2: Piping expansion in three directions Check of existing pipe leg lengths St 35.: b: E 200 "C: K 200 "C: S: V: (E . 12 mm from expansion App. Required pipe leg length for f 2 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 2). : fl: L.85 1822 = fixed point = locating bearing = non-locating bearing = 103. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„.a. = q m = 4. E 200 "C: K 200 "C: a: IX: S: V: (E .6 m L*vo*.o 12. ix/(K. = V= 4. iJ(K V): 1.5 m 5. 01. 3m 7.2 .: f 2: L. = 4 m Required pipe leg length for f 4 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 4). 4.8 168.1 13 0.3 > Lefi. L*vorh.AD 2000-MerkblattHP 100 R. 7. iJ(K . 10-6 K-I 2.8 168.4 m Example 3: Piping location in three directions with pipe branch Check of existing pipe leg lengths Material: da: At: L. = 2. V): St 35.O m 191000 Nlmm2 185 N/mm2 12. 2. 33m 8.6 = Led. = 4. : f 1: L2: f 2: L.5 m 18 mm from L.: f 3: f 4: L:.2 .3 mm 200 "C 9. 10-6 K-1 : . = 3.

ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L.8 rn Lvorh.. = V= 6. the required elasticity for the displacernent f 1 results if the whole length L.iJ(K V)to ladder da. = 4. Required pipe leg length for f 2 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 2). Required pipe leg length for f 3 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 3).8 rn Lvorh. = L. the requirernent can be regarded as having been met. does Because of the great length. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of .S ) . has only 113 of the rigidity of leg L.Page 18 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R.. The flexural rigidity depends approximately to the third power on the pipe length.7 rn.7 m The explanatory notes on f 1 are applicable here for uncoupling the branching pipe. = 5 rn > Led. cornpared to L. then the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f I ) . the branching pipe L„ not represent any notable hindrance to expansion for f 2. This can be achieved by having as low flexural rigidity as possible for L.7 rn > Llr.L..l rn L*vorh.2003 edition Required pipe leg length for f 1 from the nomogram - Join ladder (E . the leg L. 01. Required pipe leg length for f 5 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 5). = 5. is effective in addition to L. = 4. = 4. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„. Required pipe leg length for f 4 from the nomogram Join the intersection point of ladder A to ladder f (f 4). Therefore. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„. In this case. For the exarnple of f 1 . = 5. ladder L gives a required pipe leg length of L„. = L4 = 5 = .

1 7. Nos. 1 to 5 shall be tested by the manufacturer.3. suitability is regarded as established for any comparable application. 5. if any. 5.3. the manufacturer can satisfy himself that the requirements specified in 7.3 I Al 1 Al 2 Cu including oxidizing fluids including corrosive fluids (See GefahrstoffVJ but not for vew toxic fluids 7. with the DIN 1786 mark and the quality mark. In addition: For pipes with a diameter up to DN 100 for piping of category I. The following deviations are possible relating to the specific subclauses: 5.4.2 For piping of categones I and 11.AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R.2 The scope of the NDT can be 2 % for category I piping.2.2 1 5.the manufacturer can satisfy himself of the suitability of the joints. For piping of category I. However.4 I 7 1 3 1 4. the suitabilitycan be established by the manufacturer.6 Table 1 The scope of testing for pipes for piping of category I can be established as for additional parts. . For piping of category 1.2.2003 edition Page 19 Annex 4 to AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R Explanatory notes on the application of AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 100 R for piping of categories I and II in accordance with article 9 and Annex II of the Presure Equipment Directive For pipes for piping of category I. As a deviation from this. 1) 2) 3) Material group Material group Material group 1 1 5. it is possible for the manufacturer to establish the suitability of the materials.1 1 5. He can use the method employed in 7.1 . For piping of categories Iand 11.2 as specifiedin DIN EN 10204shall be issued on the test.1 Fluid group Proof of the quality properties for pipes for piping of category I can be provided as for additional parts. For welding fillers and consumables that have proved themselves in service. 01.3.2 are met in a manner appropriate to the material and the jointing method.2.1 1 6 1 2 1 4. The test can also be carried out not connected to a specificobject.5 For piping of categories Iand 11. in the case of copper pipes in accordance with DIN 1786.3.4.2. or stamping with the material grade and manufacturer's mark and.1.l.2 I 5.2. A test report 2. 5.3.1 Fittings in pipes of category I made of materials as specified in 5.6. it is sufficient to include the proof of quality in the documentation.2. stamping with the material grade and manufacturer's mark is adequate as proof of quality for fittings up to DN 100.2. the following scope of non-destructive testing (NDT) can be used: 5. proof of suitability of the materials can be provided by the manufacturer. care shall be taken to include all the brazers. For piping of category I. proof is regarded as having been provided if the manufacturer has satisfied himself by testing that the procedure and the brazers are qualified.

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