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Major Earthquakes

Table of Contents
1.

Preamble ............................................................................................................................ 2

2.

History of Earthquakes in Indo-Pak Subcontinent ....................................................... 3

3.

Major Earthquake in Indo-Pak Subcontinent ............................................................... 4

3.1.

Rann of Kutch earthquake 1819 ................................................................................ 4

3.2.

Kangra earthquake 1905 .............................................................................................. 5

3.3.

Gujarat earthquake 2001 ............................................................................................. 6

3.4.

Balochistan earthquake 1935 ....................................................................................... 7

3.5.

Uttarkashi earthquake 1991......................................................................................... 8

3.6.

Assam–Tibet earthquake 1950..................................................................................... 9

3.7.

Balochistan earthquake 1945 ..................................................................................... 10

3.8.

Kashmir Earthquake 2005 ........................................................................................ 11

3.9.

Pakistan earthquake 2011 .......................................................................................... 12

3.10. Pakistan earthquake 2013........................................................................................... 13
4. References ......................................................................................................................... 15

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much like ripples radiating outward when you drop a pebble in a pond. where the rocks behave more brittle. called strain. seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency. A geologic fault is a fracture in the earth’s crust causing loss of cohesion and accompanied by displacement along the fracture. The seismicity. Seismic waves are generated when rock within the crust breaks. The energy released moves out in all directions as waves. Preamble Plate tectonics cause many of the physical features that we see on earth today like volcanoes and earthquakes. rock will break (brittle behavior) when put under large amounts of stress. exerted on the rock may cause a change in shape or volume of the rock. causing earthquakes. tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.”[2] The shaking during an earthquake is caused by seismic waves. At the Earth’s surface. type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. or stress. Fig-1: Movement during an earthquake Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 2|Page . The sudden release of stored strain energy causes an earthquake. The force. but also other geologic features like faults. When rocks pass from this ductile state to a brittle state. however. and stretch due to the internal forces within the earth. The Earth‟s crust near tectonic plate edges are forced to bend.[1] Hence Earthquake can be defined as: “An earthquake (also known as a quake. producing a tremendous amount of energy. compress. they are considered ductile. Because rocks can “flow” when they are deep within the earth. rocks flow plastically (ductile behavior). Deep within the earth. They pass the point of ductile behavior closer to the earth’s surface. the rocks may break along a surface called a fault.Major Earthquakes MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN INDO-PAK SUBCONTINENT 1.

2000) and the renewal time for earthquakes in the sub-continent may exceed many thousands of years. Certainly no repetition of an earthquake has ever been recognized in the written record of India and the Himalaya. rendering it unlikely that earthquakes will have repeated during the time of written records. and records are close to complete only for earthquakes in the most recent 200 years. [3] Fig-2: Map Showing Locations of Major. although great earthquakes in the Himalaya should do so at least once and possibly as much as three times each millennium. Significant Earthquakes and Tsunamis Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 3|Page . the holy grail of historic earthquake studies. 1999). trench investigations indicate that faults have been repeatedly active both on the subcontinent (Sukhija et al. we know very little about Indian earthquakes earlier than 500 years before the present. The excavation of active faults and liquefaction features is likely to play an important role in extending the historical earthquake record of Indian earthquakes in the next several decades. Rajendran. The strain rate within the Indian plate is observed to be less than 3 ns/yr (Bilham and Gaur. 1999. This presents a problem for estimating recurrence intervals between significant earthquakes. In contrast.Major Earthquakes 2. History of Earthquakes in Indo-Pak Subcontinent The most disappointing observation is that despite a written tradition extending beyond 1500 B.C. 2000) and within the Himalayan plate boundary (Wesnousky et al...

The earthquake caused an area of subsidence to that formed the Sindri Lake and a local zone of uplift to the north about 80 km long. but the current tectonics is still governed by the effects of the continuing continental collision along this boundary. Plates Movements/ Fault Lines The Kutch District of modern-day Gujarat lies about 400 km from the plate boundary between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.2 on the moment magnitude scale and a maximum perceived intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale.7 g from collapse of very small structures near Vondh and Bhachau. 6 km wide and 6 m high that dammed the Puram River. 3. Ground Acceleration The maximum estimated acceleration is 0.7 to 8. Rann of Kutch earthquake 1819 [4] Location The 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake occurred on 16 June. The following are of major earthquakes in Indo-Pak.Major Earthquakes 3.0°N 71.1. Major Earthquake in Indo-Pak Subcontinent The Indian subcontinent has a history of devastating earthquakes. This natural dam was known as the Allah Bund ("Dam of God") 23.0°E Fig-3: Locations of Rann of Kutch earthquake 1819 Magnitude It had an estimated magnitude ranging from 7. The major reason for the high frequency and intensity of the earthquakes is that the Indian plate is driving intoAsia at a rate of approximately 47 mm/year. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 4|Page .

9 kilometers south of Pathyar (H. The 2001 Gujarat earthquake was caused by movement on a previously unknown southdipping fault. The related folding has formed a series of ranges. India 32.Major Earthquakes During the break-up of Gondwana in the Jurassic. this area was affected by rifting with a roughly west-east trend.P. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 5|Page . 3. involving both reactivation of the original rift faults and development of new low-anglethrust faults. particularly in central Kutch. Kangra earthquake 1905 [7] [5] Location The 1905 Kangra earthquake occurred in the Kangra Valley and the Kangra region of Himachal Pradesh in India on 4 April 1905. Its Epicentre lies 3.).40o E Fig-4: Locations of Kangra earthquake 1905 Magnitude The earthquake measured 7. 76. Damages As many as 15670buildings were reported to have been demolished by the earthquake. During the collision with Eurasia the area has undergone shortening. The focal mechanism of most earthquakes is consistent with reverse faulting on reactivated rift faults.8 on the surface wave magnitude scale. At least people are estimated to have been killed and 130.2.870 domestic animals were also lost.7 g. trending parallel to the inferred rift structures. Ground Acceleration The peak ground acceleration for 10% probability in 50 years comes around 0. There was also major damage to the network of hillside aqueducts that fed water to the affected area.10o N.

Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 6|Page . besides uplifting the Himalaya.6°N 69. The picentre was about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat. The total cost of recovering from the effects of the earthquake were calculated as 2.000 people are estimated to have been killed and 53. India's 52nd Republic Day. The present deformation front is at the foot of the Siwalik hills of India and Nepal marked by Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF).000 buildings were reported to have been demolished by the earthquake. India 23.9 million (1905) rupees.80–0. There was also major damage to the network of hillside aqueducts that fed water to the affected area. Gujarat earthquake 2001 [6] [8] Location The 2001 Gujarat earthquake occurred on 26 January.8°E. Ground Acceleration The predicted maximum ground acceleration and ground velocity in the epicentral region of the Gujarat earthquake are estimated to be 0.Major Earthquakes Plates Movements/ Fault Lines The continued thrusting towards the south resulting from the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates produced the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT).95g and 40–55 cm/sec respectively.000 domestic animals were also lost. 3.70 on the moment magnitude scale.3. Damages As many as 100. Fig-5: Map Showing Locations Gujrat Earthquake (2001) Magnitude The earthquake reached 7. At least 20.

Gujarat's commercial capital with a population of 5. In Ahmedabad. The quake destroyed around 40% of homes. Considerable damage also occurred in Bhachau and Anjarwith hundreds of villages flattened in Taluka of Anjar. Over a million structures were damaged or destroyed.0 kilometres South West of Ali Jaan.4. Damages The final death toll in Kutch was 12. eight schools. induced an anticlockwise rotation of the plate. two hospitals and 4 km of road in Bhuj and partly destroyed the city's historic Swaminarayan temple and historic fort as well Prag Mahal and Aina Mahal.5 billion and rising.Major Earthquakes Plates Movements/ Fault Lines The collision process of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is still underway at a rate of 45 mm year−1. In Kutch. Bhuj & Bhachau.5°N 66. British India (now part of Pakistan). The quake was centred 4. as many as 50 multi-storied buildings collapsed and several hundred people were killed. 3. Balochistan.8°E Fig-6: Map Showing Locations Balochistan earthquake 1935 Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 7|Page . was devastated. the earthquake destroyed about 60% of food and water supplies and around 258. Bhuj.300. British India 29. Balochistan earthquake 1935 [9] Location The 1935 Balochistan earthquake occurred on 31 May 1935 at 3:02 am at Quetta. Total property damage was estimated at $5. including many historic buildings and tourist attractions.000 houses – 90% of the district's housing stock. Balochistan.6 million. situated only 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the epicenter.

Uttarkashi earthquake 1991 The 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake occurred on 20 October 1991 in the Uttarkashi and Gharwal regions of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Damages Most of the reported casualties occurred in the city of Quetta.000 survivors and 4.000 people buried under the rubble. Magnitude The earthquake measured 7. Initial communiqué drafts issued by the Government estimated a total of 20. Plates Movements/ Fault Lines Quetta and its neighbouring towns lie in the most active seismic region of Pakistan atop the Chaman and Chiltan faults.8 m/s2.780°N 78.Major Earthquakes Magnitude The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.774°E. Ground Acceleration The results of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Quetta for the return period of 500 years indicate a PGA ground motion of 4. 3.5.7. It occurred within the main thrust system of the Himalayas 30. Fig-7: Map Showing Locations Uttarkashi earthquake 1991 Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 8|Page .000 injured. All the villages between Quetta and Kalat were destroyed. 10.0 magnitude. The city was badly damaged and was immediately prepared to be sealed under the military guard with medical advice.

In addition the earthquake claimed 3. Fig-8: Map Showing Locations Assam–Tibet earthquake 1950 Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 9|Page . one of the most earthquake prone regions of the world. Damages The earthquake caused strong ground shaking in the district of Uttarkashi.5°E. Tehri. Crustal instability in this belt is ascribed to the movement of the Indian plate towards the Eurasian plate at the rate of about 50mm per year. Assam–Tibet earthquake 1950 [12] Location The 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake also known as the Assam earthquake or Medog earthquake. and Chamoli in the state of Uttar Pradesh (Figure 1). Tibet 28. It was the 10th largest earthquake of the 20th century. The epicentre was located near Rima.5°N 96. 768 persons died while 5.Major Earthquakes Ground Acceleration The mean peak ground acceleration at Tehri for the epicenter estimated using the composite source model is 494 ± 98 cm/s2 for the E-W component and 970 ± 327 cm/s2 for the N-S component while for the epicenter are 542 ± 83 cm/s2 and 778 ± 273 cm/s2 respectively.6. from the conspicuous tectonic features.[11] 3. [10] Plates Movements/ Fault Lines Uttarkashi lies in the main Alpine Himalayan belt.294 villages were effected.096 head of livestock. two prominent thrusts tending northwest to southeast. Besides several local faults. occurred on August 15. Official information indicates that population of about 307.000 in 1. The roads between Uttarkashi and Gangotri were disrupted. As many as 42.066 were injured.400 houses were damaged.

Balochistan earthquake 1945 [12] Location The 1945 Balochistan Earthquake occurred in British India on 28 November 1945. adding the effects of floods to those of shaking.7. railways. East Pakistan.000 km2 of hill area were affected by landslides. Aerial reconnaissance revealed that 10. The spread of aftershocks activity extended from about 910 to 97°Eand 24°to 33°Nwith the epicenter of the main shock near the eastern margin. The earthquake's epicenter was 97. Ground Acceleration Damage to roads.0°E Fig-9: Map Showing Locations Balochistan Earthquake 1945 Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 10 | P a g e .Major Earthquakes Magnitude The magnitude of Assam-Tibet Earthquake was recorded as 8. Damages It was felt over an estimated area of 3 million km2 in India. Damage to roads.5°N 63. bridges and buildings was extensive. 3. The earthquake had severe effects on topography and the regime of rivers: Riverbeds had considerably silted up and many had permanently changed their courses. Tibet and China and caused some 1500 deaths. Plates Movements/ Fault Lines This earthquake was caused by a motion of the Asian plate relative to the eastern flank of the Indian plate where the NE Assam block is imparted a tendency of rotation with fracture lines being developed along its periphery.6 on Richter Scale.5 g. railways. bridges and buildings was extensive and the estimated acceleration on alluvium in the epicentral region was 0.6 kilometers south-southwest of Pasni in Balochistan and a tsunami caused damage along the Makran coastal region 24. Burma.

It was centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir . Magnitude It registered a moment magnitude of 7. Ground Acceleration It is found that he PGA near the epicenter was more than 1g. has a lot of inertia that means that it has still not stopped moving and is still slowly grinding into the Eurasian plate. Its waves destroyed fishing villages and caused great damage to port facilities. because of northwestward motion of Indian plate. The ground acceleration was 0. Its epicenter was located in the north of Muzaffarabad about 19-20 km and in the east of Balakot tehsil of district Mansehra 34°29′35″N 73°37′44″E.8. though. Plates Movements/ Fault Lines Balochistan. is also absorbing immense pressure from the Arabian plate in the south that is “subducting” under the Eurasian plate in the Makran Subduction zone. 3. Plates Movements/ Fault Lines This earthquake resulted from the seismic activity resulting from the collision of Indian plate and Eurasian plate. and the 2009 Sumatra earthquakes.6g during that earthquake.000 people died from the combined effects of the earthquake and the tsunami. near the city of Muzaffarabad. Height of Waves This Earthquake produced 12-15 m high sea waves.Major Earthquakes Magnitude The Earthquake was of moment magnitude of 8. the 2001 Gujarat earthquake. but most deaths were caused by the tsunami. that forms the Western boundary of the Indian plate. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 11 | P a g e .6 making it similar in size to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. the tsunami reached a maximum run up height of 13 m (40 feet). This one is in slow-motion. The Indian plate.1 and a maximum perceived intensity of X (Intense) on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. Its hypocenter was located at a depth of 16 km below the surface. being such a huge land mass. As a result the Tibetan plateau continues to rise and Mount Everest keeps getting higher by approximately 4 millimeters each year Damages Along the Makran coast of Pakistan. Kashmir Earthquake 2005 [14] The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October in the Kashmir region of South Asia. More than 4. the 1935 Quetta earthquake.

MM III in Dubai.2 earthquake that had its epicenter 45 kilometers west of Dalbandin inBalochistan. around 138. 2011 at 20:23:17 UTC (on January 19 at 01:23 AM local time) at 28. MM IV in Muscat. Pakistan earthquake 2011 The 2011 Pakistan earthquake was a magnitude Mw 7.Major Earthquakes Fig-10: Kashmir Earthquake in 2005 Damages Its main impact zone was in AJK and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.298 schools and 796 health facilities were damaged and destroyed.65g Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 12 | P a g e . Approximately 400. and MM III Abu Dhabi. MM III in Kabul. Ground Acceleration The Peak Ground Acceleration near the epicenter was estimated as 0. The United States Geological Survey reported the earthquake took place on January 18. water and sanitation etc.5 million people were displaced in this earthquake. MM IV Karachi. Magnitude The magnitude of earthquake was recorded as 7.[2] The epicenter is located in a sparsely populated area. 6.9.440 km roads.000 sq.838°N. It damaged about 6.000 people were seriously injured and 3.000 people were dead.974°E. km approximately was affected by this earthquake.2 and it was felt with Mercali intensity MM IV in Islamabad.153 houses. MM IV in Delhi. An area (mostly mountainous and rugged terrain) of about 30. 63. UN 2006. Approximately 100. It damaged 50-70 % of services like power.34g to 0. 3.

971°N 65. Its epicentre was 66 kilometres (41 mi) north-northeast of Awaran in the province of Balochistan.520°E. Magnitude This recorded moment magnitude of this earthquake was 7.Major Earthquakes Fig-11: Epicenter of Pakistan Earthquake 2011 Plates Movements/ Fault Lines This major earthquake occurred as a result of normal faulting within the lithosphere of the subducted Arabian plate.7 on Richter scale and intensity was IX (Intense) on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 13 | P a g e . Arabian-plate lithosphere is subducted beneath the Eurasia plate at the Makran coast of Pakistan and Iran.6g to 0. 3. and becomes progressively deeper to the north. southwestern Pakistan 26.65g. The subducted Arabian plate is known to be seismically active to depths of about 160 km.10. Pakistan earthquake 2013 [15] Location The 2013 Pakistan earthquake took place on 24 September. Ground acceleration The ground acceleration near the epicenter was recorded as 0.

The event occurred within the transition zone between northward subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasia plate and northward collision of the India plate with the Eurasia plate. the Balochistan Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) estimates at least 30. Over all 825 were dead and 700 were injured. Washuk and Gwadar districts.000 people) have been affected in Awaran.Major Earthquakes Fig-12: Epicenter of Pakistan Earthquake 2011 Plates Movements/ Fault Lines This earthquake in south-central Pakistan occurred as the result of oblique-strike-slip type motion at shallow crustal depths. Kharan. Panjgur. The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with rupture within the Eurasia plate above the Makran Trench subduction zone. Kech. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 14 | P a g e . Awaran and Kech districts have been hit the hardest and are therefore prioritized for humanitarian response. Damages As of 11 October.000 families (200.

). University of Colorado. Rajendran. M. Utsu. Meena (24 September 2013) "Quake in southern Pakistan kills. K.J. Assam . (2002). P. Kurukshetra University. p. A. damages houses". 6.S. Department of Education.K.Singh1.: 2005.A. Vol. K. India: The Hindu. S.Major Earthquakes References 1. 13.A. revised version accepted November 18. The Kashmir Earthquake of October 8. G. 2015 3. V. International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) and Geological Sciences. EERI Special Earthquake Report: EERI Newsletter. 2005. Vol. Gupta and Amit Nagar Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. Rehovot (Israel) Submitted October 10. Ramesh P. Atta-e-Mustafa (2015-MS-CES-01) 15 | P a g e . Dinesh Kumar. T. S. Ari Ben-Menahem. Eidinger. Department of Applied Mathematics. Part A. India 7.2. 1935 in Quetta.America Earthquake Center. S. ed. K. Sudhir. 12.786 6022 Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology. (2001): Gujarat (Kutch) India M7. Hashash.7 Earthquake of January 26. 1974 Rajendran. Khattri. Balochistan". MAHAJAN Oil India Limited. Dehradun . Reddy. N. Pararas-Carayannis. February 1992.K. 1974. R. Academic Press.org/wiki/Earthquake dated February 17.. A Quick Look Report. Current Science (Current Science Association) 95 (12): 1739–1743. Ramanamurthy. G: "The Earthquake of May 30. Vinay K..26. and SouthCalifornia 2. S. 2001. Department of Earth Sciences. 04510 Mexico. Teotia and S... Ezra Aboodi And Rivka Schild: Adolpho Block Geophysical Observatory.248 001 8. ROGER BILHAM: Annals of Geophysics. B. 9. Kurukshetra 136 119. DF. Reston. VA: ASCE.M. (2008): "Hazard implications of the late arrival of the 1945 Makran tsunami".7 Bhuj earthquake of 2001 National Geophysical Research Institute. K. No. Hyderabad-500007. 33 GMS Road. Menon. Bansal: Instituto de Geofisica UNAM. 2/3. GMS Road. A. Rastogi: Ground deformation study of Mw 7. 10. Singh. Duliajan. Volume 81A (First ed. U. 14. C.K. N. Y. 5. http://en. Elnashai. and Masud. Chennai. A. 702. T. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 4. 4. Kamal and B. The Weizmann Institute of Science. Jain.. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. John M. India 11. 2005 Science Academic Standards. CO. India.wikipedia. Ciudad Universitaria. 15.. Earthquakes and Seismic Waves: Designed to meet South Carolina. Dehradun. April/June 2004. Mexico Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology. GHOSH1 and A. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Durrani. Boulder. Disaster Pages. 33.S. Mid. "A List of Deadly Earthquakes in the World: 1500-2000". K. N. Rai: Modelling of accelerograms of two Himalayan earthquakes using a novel semi-empirical method and estimation of accelerogram for a hypothetical great earthquake in the Himalaya.