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# ECE595 Digital Image Processing

Topics Covered:
− Matlab orientation and refreshment
− Review of linear algebra and linear systems
− Image transformations
− Image enhancement in spatial and frequency domains
− Image restoration and segmentation
− Advanced topics in medical applications

You are encouraged to collaborate on homework
problems and labs with your classmates. However,
cheating of any kind, including copying of others’
work of any kind is prohibited, and will not be
tolerated All university,
tolerated.
university school,
school department rules
apply.

Image Processing  Photoshop
Question: Any image processing function missing in Photoshop?

• Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB
by Gonzalez, Woods, and Eddins
• Mastering MATLAB
by Hanselman and Littlefield
• Digital Signal Processing

Chapter 2: Digital Image Fundamentals

• Numerical Analysis
• Mathematical Methods
• Basic statistics

Chapter 2

Human Visual System
Image sampling
Image interpolation
A
Averaging
i ffor noise
i reduction
d i
Linear and Shift Invariant Systems

Fovea: 1.5mm x 1.5mm
Density of cones: 150,000 /mm2

170 m

1

Optical Nerve and Visual Cortex
Function of Eyes: Optical  Electrical

Optical Illusions
• How accurately can we estimate and compare distances and areas?
• By which features can we detect and distinguish objects?

Why do we need long optical nerves?

Square A is exactly the same
shade of grey as square B.

When interpreted as a 3D scene,
our visual system immediately
estimates a lighting vector and
uses this to judge the property of
the material.

The Brain Sees What We Don't
The human visual system is extremely powerful in
recognizing objects, but is less well suited for
accurate measurements of gray values, distances,
and areas.
areas
Solution: Let computers do the math and
measurements.

http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/

The brain studying the brain

Image Sampling and Digitizing

A

B

C

Regular rectangular grid
Question: B and C are mathematically identical?

2

Other regular sampling grids

Signal Sampling in 1D

Regular rectangular grid is one of the sampling grids.

Triangular grid

Hexagonal grid

Irregular grids: require advanced math skills.
Example: Simulate cell growth.

Matrix Representation
j

i

FN  N

 f11
f
 21
 ...

 f i1
 ...

 f N 1

f12
f 22
...
fi 2
...
fN2

...
...
...
...
...
...

f1 j
f2 j
...
f ij
...
f Nj

Each pixel has one value only.
Pixels are indexed by integers.
No area is associated with a pixel.

Neighborhood Relations

Indexing in 2D and 3D
...
...
...
...
...
...

f1N 
f 2 N 
... 

f iN 
... 

f NN 

Image processing convention: start from upper left corner

Spatial Resolution

Question:
FOV=10mx20m

4 and 8 neighbors

6, 18, 26 neighbors

what is the resolution?

Same FOV. a: 3 × 4, b: 12 × 16, c: 48 × 64, d: 192 × 256
When FOV is fixed, small matrix size  low spatial
resolution.

3

Question: Spatial Resolution

Intensity Resolution: Quantization

Fovea: 1.5mm x 1.5mm
Density of cones: 150,000 /mm2

170 m

What is the spatial resolution in the
vertical direction of the tree?

From 256 gray levels to 2 gray levels.
In practice, intensity levels are sufficient for visualization in most situations.

Linear System and Shift Invariant System
X(n)

T

Y(n)

Linear Operator

 T{X(n)} = Y(n)

Shift invariant: T{X(n-n0)} = Y(n-n0)

X1(n)

T

Y1(n)

 T{X1(n)} = Y1(n)

X2(n)

T

Y2(n)

 T{X2(n)} = Y2(n)

Linear: T{aX1(n) + bX2(n)} = aY1(n) + bY2(n)
Question: Are they shift invariant operators?
Square operator: Y(n) = T{X(n)} = X2(n)
Flip operator:
Y(n) = T{X(n)} = X(-n)

Question: Are they linear operators?
Square operator: Y(n) = T{X(n)} = X2(n)
Shift operator: Y(n) = T{X(n)} = X(n) + c
Homework: summation operator is linear.
Satisfy both requirements: Linear Shift Invariant System (LSI)

Brightness, Contrast and SNR

Brightness, Contrast and SNR

Brightness  Intensity.

Contrast  Dynamic range

Brightness  Intensity.
Contrast  Dynamic range
SNR  Signal to noise ratio
The definitions of contrast and SNR may be
different in different areas.

SNR  Signal to noise ratio

SNR in MRI and other medical imaging modalities:

Question:
High brightness but low contrast, examples?

SNR 

avg ( signal )
std (background )

Question: which part is the background?

4

Signal Averaging

Signal Averaging
g ( x , y )  f ( x, y )  n ( x , y )

• One of the most widely used technique in medical
imaging, especially in MRI.

By averaging N noisy images, the averaged image will be

g ( x, y ) 

• Result: improve signal to noise ratio (noise reduction)

The expectation value of g ( x, y )

g ( x, y )  f ( x, y )

• Question: Averaging changes numerator(signal),
denominator(noise), or both?

SNR 

1 N
 g i ( x, y )
N i 1

Variance and standard deviation of signal and noise will be
1 2
σ noise
N
1
σ noise

N

σ 2signal 

avg ( signal )
std (background )

σ signal

Signal Averaging

Image interpolation

• Requirements:
– Uncorrelated and zero mean noise
– Registered images
52
39

• Questions:

16

– Signal averaging leads to higher contrast?
– Signal averaging leads to higher SNR?
– Can you estimate the SNR improvement after averaging 100
noisy images?

39
16

28 27
10

14

What is the intensity at k=1.2?
• What is the original signal or image?
• Can we reliably reconstruct the original image/object
back from the sampled data we have?

14

What is the intensity at k=1.2?

Inverse Problem
52

28 27
10

Image Interpolation
• Interpolation is model based.
• Optimized interpolation exists.
• Commonly used interpolation methods:

N
Nearest
t neighbor
i hb
Linear, bilinear, trilinear
Cubic, bicubic, tricublic
Spline, many variations

5

Order of continuous

Spatial Resolution and Sampling Rate

Nearest
neighbor

Given resolution  Sampling rate
Given sampling rate  resolution
To fully recover the required
details  Nyquist criteria

Linear

Question: The lamp pole in C is
larger than the pole in D. Why?
The lamp pole in c and d: partial
pixel or partial volume effect

Cubic

Low sampling rate  Less details

Sampling vs Interpolation
• Sampling means that all information is lost except at the
grid points. (continuous  discrete)
• Interpolation is to fill the gap between discrete grids.
(discrete  continuous)

• Basic Relationships between Pixels and Distance
Measures
• Arithmetic Operation
• Set and Logical Operations

Affine Transformation

Geometric Transformation
• Spatial transformation of coordinates
• Intensity interpolation

• Affine Transformation

Translation

Rotation

Scaling

Sheering

Translate
Rotate
Scale
Sheer
Rigid Body

6

Affine Transformation in 3D

Affine Transformation
 x1   a11
 y   a
 2   21

Translation

Rotation

Scaling

Sheering

Translate

a12   x   t1 

a22   y  t2 

 x1  1 0  x   t1   x  t1 
 y   0 1  y   t    y  t 
2
   2  
 2 
 x1   cos(θ) sin(θ)   x  0
 y    sin(θ) cos(θ)  y   0
   
 2 

Rotate

Rigid Body

Affine Transformation
 x1   a11 a12   x   t1 
 y   a
    
 2   21 a22   y  t 2 
Translate

Rotate

Affine Transformation
 x1   a11
 y   a
 2   21

a12   x   t1 

a22   y  t2 

Sheer

 x1   1
 y   s
 2  y

sX  x x  sX y

1   y   y  s y x 

Scale

 x1   s X
y    0
 2 

0   x  s X x

s y   y   s y y 

Scaling

 x1  1 0  x   t1   x  t1 

 
      
 y 2  0 1   y  t 2   y  t 2 

 x1   cos(θ) sin(θ)   x  0
 y    sin(θ) cos(θ)   y   0
   
 2 

Question: How to implement scaling: x  ax, y  by?

Better Way: Homogeneous Coordinates
 x1   a11
 y   a
 1   21
 1   0

a12
a22
0

What’s the difference?
 x1   a11 a12
 y   a
 1   21 a22
 1   0
0

t1   x 
t 2   y 
1   1 

Question: Write down the transformation of
translation, rotation, scaling and sheering.

x1

y1 1  x

t1   x 
t 2   y 
1   1 

 a11
y 1a21
 t1

a12
a22
t2

0
0
1

7

• What are the advantages of the 3x3 transformation
matrix?
– Concatenating
C
t
ti a sequence off operations
ti
– Reducing image blurring

Question: Why concatenation can reduce image blurring?

Implementation

3D Affine Transformation
 x1  a11 a12 a13 t1   x 
 y1 a 21 a 22 a 23 t 2  y 
 
 
 z1  a31 a32 a33 t 3  z 
  
 
0
0
1  1 
1  0

High Dimensional Affine Transformation?

Implementation

Inverse mapping

F
Forward
d mapping
i

Question: Which mapping is better? Why?
1. Forward mapping could lead holes and overlaps in
the output image
2. Inverse mapping is more efficient to implement than
forward mapping.

Nearest Neighbor

Linear

Cubic

Affine Transformation for Registration
1. Implementation issues: matrix size
and interpolation
2. How to determine the transformation
matrix?

Marker
Cost functions
• Cross Correlation
• Mutual Information
• ……

Intensity Transformation
Gray level mapping

8

Intensity Transformation
Lookup Table
Input
0
1
2

180

255

Intensity Transformation

255

Output
0
1
1

221

255

Transformation
function T(r)
L = 256

0

255

Image Negative

Log Transformation

L-1

Purpose: Output image may
be better suitable for
visualization
s = L-1- r

0

a narrow range of the low
intensity values in the input image
into a wider range of intensities
– s =c*log(1+ r)
– c is a constant

L-1

Power Law Transformation
s  c(r  ε)γ
Purpose: the same as the log
transformation
• More flexible in comparison to log
transformation
• Varying one parameter is enough to
yield a change in the image
• Varying gamma can get a family of
transformation curves

s  c(r  ε)γ
c = 1,
γ = 1, 3, 4

Criteria: Subjective or Objective?

9

Which gray mapping method?

255

0
threshold

255

0

255
negative

• Purpose: increase the dynamic range of intensities in the
image
• Determine 2 points (r1,s1) and (r2,s2) which band the
transformation line
r1, r2 relate to the input image
s1, s2 relate to the output image
Result is 3 sections each with a different linear
transformation

255

255

255

Piecewise-Linear Transformation Functions

0

log

255

0

255
γ=2

Piecewise-Linear Transformation Functions

Looks better after transformation?

Application: Contrast Stretching

Disadvantage: requires considerably more user input.

Bit Plane Slicing

Bit Planes
Original

Least significant bit plane 

 Most significant bit plane

For pattern recognition, the most significant bit plane is enough

10

Recon from bit planes 7-8

bit planes 6-8

bit planes 5-8

Most medical images are saved in 16 bit integer, unsigned

Bit Planes (1-8)

Bit Planes (9-16)

Steganography

Original image in uint16

Recon image from bit plane 8 to 14

In most hospitals and universities, the first choice is ‘keep everything’.

Removing all but the two least significant bits of each color component
produces an almost completely black image. Making that image 85 times
brighter produces the image on the right side.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography

11

Histogram
Histogram Processing

• Histograms are the basis for numerous spatial domain
processing techniques
• Simple to calculate
calculate, easy to implement

Histogram
• What is a histogram?
– A discrete function h(rk) = nk where rk is the kth intensity value
and nk is the number of pixels in the image with intensity rk.

• Normalized histogram
– p(rk) = nk/(total pixels), k = 0,1,2,…,L-1
– p(rk) ~ the probability of occurrence of intensity level rk in an
image.
– sum(p(rk)) = 1

Normalized Histogram
• Assuming that we are using a normalized histogram
– s=T(r) and that 0<= r <=1
– s is the output grey scale for every pixel with value r in input
image

• • Assume that the transformation satisfies
– a) T(r) is a single valued and monotonically increasing in the
interval 0<=r<=1
1
– b) 0<=T(r) <=1 for 0<=r<=1
Transform
ation
function
T(r)

• The inverse function is r =T-1(s)
• 0<=s<=1
0

• Let pr(r) and ps(s) denote the Probability Density Function (PDF) of
the random variables r and s respectively.
• Given pr(r) and T(r), if T(r) is continuous and differentiable, the PDF
of the transformed variable s

ddr
p s ( s )  pr ( r )
ds
• The PDF of the transformed variable, s, is determined by the PDF of
the input image and on the transformation function

1

• Most widely used: a cumulative distribution function as the
transformation function
r

s  T (r )  ( L  1)  pr (t )dt
0

• The function satisfies conditions a) and b)
• monotonically increasing
• range of [0, 1] (scaled to (L-1))

• Most widely used: a cumulative distribution function as the
transformation function

12

p s ( s )  pr ( r )

dr
ds

Histogram Equalization
r

s  T (r )  ( L  1)  pr (t )dt
0

ds dT (r )
d r

 ( L  1)  pr (t )dt  ( L  1) pr (r )
d
dr
d
dr
d 0
dr

p s ( s )  pr ( r )

Histogram
Equalization

1
1
dr
 pr ( r )

ds
( L  1) pr (r ) L  1
Histogram of the input image

Histogram of the output image

• The resulting ps(s) always is uniform, independently of the form
of pr(r).

Histogram Equalization Implementation

Histogram Equalization

k

sk  T ( rk )  ( L  1) pr ( ri )
i 0

L 1 k
 ni
MN i 0
k  0,1,2,..., L  1

Input histogram

Qualitative

Dark image

Input images

Quantitative

Histogram
Equalized

Output histogram

Histogram

Dark image

Light image

Light image

Low contrast

Low contrast

High contrast

Transformation function

High contrast

13

The original image before histogram equalization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histogram_equalization

Same image after histogram equalization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histogram_equalization

Histogram Specification
• Histogram Specification
• Local Histogram Processing

• Sometimes, histogram equalization is not the best
approach

• Fundamentals of Spatial Filtering
• Order Statistic Filter

• Generate a processed image with a specified histogram

Histogram Specification
• pr(r): Input image’s PDF
• pz(z): specified or desired PDF for output
r

s  T (r )   pr (t )dt
0

Define:

Histogram Specification
• Procedure
– Calculate T(r) -- input histogram
– Calculate G(z) – desired histogram
– Obtain
Ob i G-11 -- transformation
f
i ffunction
i

z

G ( z )   p z (t )dt  s
0

G ( z )  T (r )

z  G 1 ( s)  G 1[T (r )]

Input  T(r) G-1  output
Problem: No analytical expression for T(r) and G-1 in
most cases.

14

Histogram Specification
• Discrete formulation

• Requirement:
pz(zi) != 0

k

sk  T (rk )   pr (ri )

• Why?

i 0
k

vk  G ( z k )   p z ( z i )  s k
i 0

zk  G 1[T (rk )]  G 1 ( sk )

• How to implement
sk  zk?

Local Histogram Processing
• Define a mask and move the center from pixel to pixel
for each neighborhood. (sliced window)
• Calculate histogram equalization/specification function
• Map the intensity of pixel centered in neighborhood
• Can use new pixel values and previous histogram to
calculate next histogram (implementation details)

original

equalized

specified

Note: Histogram specification is easier for discrete case, but the
histogram of an output image is the approximation for desired
histogram.

Example of Local Histogram Equalization
Fundamentals of Spatial Filtering
• Spatial
p
filtering
g basically
y consists of
– A neighborhood or a kernel
– A predefined operation

original

global

local

• The value of the kernel center is the
result of the filtering operation

15

Spatial Filtering Kernel

• Operate on a neighborhood with an odd kernel size. E.g.
3x3, 5x5, etc.

g ( x , y ) w (  1,  1) f ( x  1, y  1)  w (  1,0 ) f ( x  1, y )  ...
 w ( 0,0 ) f ( x , y )  ...  w (1,1) f ( x  1, y1)

Simplified Notation

General Linear Filter

g ( x , y ) w (  1,  1) f ( x  1, y  1)  w (  1,0 ) f ( x  1, y )  ...

R  w1 z1  w2 z 2  ...  wmn z mn

 w ( 0,0 ) f ( x , y )  ...  w (1,1) f ( x  1, y1)

• We proved that the weighted summation is a
linear operation
• One to one correspondence between linear
spatial filters and filters in the frequency domain

R  w1 z1  w 2 z 2  ...  w9 z 9
 wT z

Nonlinear spatial filter
Order Statistic Filter:
• Median Filter
• Max, Min Filter
• Percentage Filter

Median Filter
• Purpose: remove salt and pepper noise
• Operation: replace the centre pixel with the
neighborhood median
• A nonlinear filter
filter, based on the ranking of pixels in a
kernel
8

2

8 2 5 5 4 6 7 8 9

5

5

4

6

7

8

9

Sort

2 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9

16

Other Percentage Filters
• Use ranking to find image properties
• For 3x3 kernel,
• Max Filter (100%) - finds the bright spots in the image
– R = max(z
( k | k=1,…,9)
k 1
9)

• Min Filter (0%) - finds the darkest spots in the image

Averaging Filter
• Purpose: remove high frequencies from the image
(smoothing or blurring)
• Operation: Assign the average value of a kernel to the
center of a neighborhood
• The size of kernel controls the smoothing effect

– R = min(zk | k=1,…,9)

• Predefined percentage

8

2

5

5

4

6

7

8

9

Averaging vs. Median Filter

X-Ray image

3x3 averaging filter

8 2 5 5 4 6 7 8 9
Average: 6

Difference between median and average?

Weighted Average

1

3x3 median filter
? ×

It seems that the averaging is quite close to the
median. Why the output images are so different?

Gaussian Kernel

1

1

1

1

Weighted Averaging Equation
1

g ( x, y ) 

1

  w(s, t ) f ( x  s, y  t )

s  1t  1

1

1

  w(s, t )

s  1t  1

You can design your own filters by modifying the weights.

17

Kernel Size

1x1

3x3

9x9

5x5

Image from Hubble
Space Telescope

35 x 35

15 x 15

15 x 15 averaging
kernel

Thresholding

Get a gross representation of objects
Detect large objects

Image Sharpening
• Operators for sharpening: derivative operator which is
proportional to the degree of intensity discontinuity.

Image Sharpening

• Image differentiation enhances edges and other
discontinuities
• How to compute the differentiation?
– Numerical Computing or Scientific Computing
• Finite difference

Finite Difference

Finite Difference
How to compute

Finite difference approximates an operator
(e.g., the derivative) and solves a problem on a
points ((the g
grid))
set of p
FD: convergence, accuracy, speed, etc.

x-1

x

x+1

f
x

?

f
 f ( x  1)  f ( x) =
x
f
 f ( x)  f ( x  1) =
Backward difference:
x
f
1
1
Central difference:
 f (x  )  f (x  ) =
x
2
2
F
Forward
d diff
difference:

-

18

Accuracy

Finite Difference
32

Using Taylor’s Theorem to estimate the approximation
errors:

38

56

Question: Calculate the finite difference
x-1

x

x+1

f
 f ( x  1)  f ( x) =
x
f
 f ( x)  f ( x  1) =
Backward difference:
x
f
1
1
Central difference:
 f (x  )  f (x  ) =
x
2
2

• Forward difference  O(h)
• Backward difference O(h)
• Central difference O(h2)

f
x

F
Forward
d diff
difference:

-

Finite Difference
32

38

56

How to compute
x-1

x

x+1

Central difference:

2 f
x 2

?
Distance
Velocity
Acceleration

2 f
 f ( x  1)  f ( x  1)  2 f ( x)
x 2
=

- 2x

+

Use the central difference formula for the first derivative and apply a
central difference formula for the derivative of f' at x.

Question: Derive the formula and calculate

2 f
x 2

Observations
First-order derivative
• Horizontal segments  zero
• Onset of step or ramp  nonzero
• Ramp
R
with
i h constant slope
l
 nonzero
Second-order derivative
• Horizontal segments  zero
• Onset of step or ramp  nonzero
• Ramp with constant slope  zero

Laplacian Filter
• Rosnefeld and Kak (1982) introduced Laplacian filter to
image processing
• Second derivative operator
• Isotropic
p operator:
p
spatial
p
invariant

2 f 

y-1

2 f 2 f

x 2 y 2

2 f
 f ( x  1)  f ( x  1)  2 f ( x )
x 2

y
y+1
x-1

x

x+1

2 f
 f ( y  1)  f ( y  1)  2 f ( y )
y 2

19

Laplacian Filter

y-1
y

y

y+1

y+1
x-1

x

x+1

x-1

 f  f

 f ( x  1, y )  f ( x  1, y )
x 2
y 2
 f ( x , y  1)  f ( x , y  1)  4 f ( x , y )

2 f 

Laplacian Filter

y-1

2

2

• This Laplacian filter implementation is isotropic
in the x or y direction (90 degree isotropic)

Laplacian Filter

x

x+1

2 f 2 f

 f ( x  1, y  1)  f ( x  1, y  1)
x 2
y 2
 f ( x  1, y  1)  f ( x  1, y  1)  4 f ( x , y )

2 f 

Add the effect of the diagonals to the filters to
make it 45 degree isotropic

Laplacian Filter: Image Sharpening
Sharpened Image = Original + Laplacian image

Isotropic results
for increments of
90 degrees

Isotropic results
for increments of
45 degrees

 f ( x , y )   2 f ( x , y ) if Laplacian kernel center < 0
g ( x, y )  
2
 f ( x , y )   f ( x , y ) if Laplacian kernel center > 0

Alternatives:

Note: same operation as image smoothing

• Widely used in printing and publishing industries for
image sharpening
Laplacian without
scaling

Laplacian with
scaling (Set min
scaling.
to zero to raise all
values above
zero).

Use D4 sharpen
kernel

Use D8 sharpen
kernel with
differentiation in
the diagonal
directions.

• Method:
– Blur the original image
– Subtract the blurred image from the original. The result

20

Highboost Filtering
g mask ( x , y )  f ( x , y )  f ( x , y )
g ( x, y )  f ( x, y )  k  g mask ( x, y )

Original

Gaussian blurred

For weighting factor k,
k = 1,
k >1,

highboost filtering

Highboost filtering, k>1

Point Detection

Point and Line Detection

Point Detection

y-1
y

• Detect isolated points in an image
• Method:
• A point,
point at (x,y),
(x y) is detected if |R|>T
• T is a threshold
• R is the filter (R=w1z1+w2z2+…+w9z9)

Point Detection

2 f 2 f

 f ( x  1, y )  f ( x  1, y )
x 2 y 2
 f ( x, y  1)  f ( x, y  1)  4 f ( x, y )

2 f 

y+1
x-1

x

x+1

• Compute the Laplacian image
• Convolve with the image
• Threshold the image

21

Line Detection

Line Detection
What are the problems of using
the absolute value of Laplacian?

• Similar to point detection
• Sharpen an image
• Threshold the image to get lines

What is the limitation of the
p
in edge
g detection?
Laplacian

Double the width of lines
Laplacian can detect thin
lines only.

Can Laplacian detect thicker
lines by increasing the kernel
size?

Line Detection

Apply +45
degree line

• Detect lines in specified directions

threshold

Keep >0 values

Gradient Filter – 1st Order Derivatives

• In 2D, The gradient of f at (x,y) is a two dimensional
vector

C

A

B

grad ( f )   f ( x )  g x 

f
x

 ff 
gx   
grad ( f )   f ( x , y )      fx 
g y   
 y 

Question: from ABC.

22

mag ( f ( x , y )) 

g 2x  g 2y

mag ( f ( x , y )) 

g 2x  g 2y

Approximation:

Approximation:

mag ( f ( x , y ))  g x  g y
Pros and cons of the approximation?

mag ( f ( x , y ))  g x  g y
Pros and cons of the approximation?
Fast computing, but lost isotropic property (only for 90° rotation)

Robert proposed a way to
differences:

g x  z9  z5
g y  z8  z 6
 f  [( z 9  z 5 ) 2  ( z 8  z 6 ) 2 ]1 / 2
 f  z9  z 5  z8  z 6

Prewitt Operator

g x  ( z 7  z 8  z 9 )  ( z1  z 2  z 3 )
g y  ( z 3  z 6  z 9 )  ( z1  z 4  z 7 )
 f  ( z 7  z 8  z 9 )  ( z1  z 2  z 3 )
 ( z 3  z 6  z 9 )  ( z1  z 4  z 7 )

Problems: 2 x 2 op matrix is awkward to implement

Sensitivity to Noise

Sobel Operator

g x  ( z 7  2 z 8  z 9 )  ( z1  2 z 2  z 3 )
g y  ( z 3  2 z 6  z 9 )  ( z1  2 z 4  z 7 )
 f  ( z 7  2 z 8  z 9 )  ( z1  2 z 2  z 3 )

•The
Th 1st
1 t and
d2
2nd
dd
derivative
i ti
are sensitive to noise
•Use smoothing to keep the
main changes

 ( z 3  2 z 6  z 9 )  ( z1  2 z 4  z 7 )
Sobel has better noise suppression characteristics

23

Sensitivity to Noise
• The 1st and 2nd derivative are sensitive to noise
• Use a blurring filter to eliminate details and thus
• only keep the main changes

Sum of coefficients
is 0. Why?
Roberts
R
b t C
Cross

In an area of
constant intensity,
the response
should be 0.

Sobel Operator

• Sobel operator is widely used in edge detection.

Contact lens

Tree leaves
Masks for detecting horizontal and vertical edges

Sobel |gx|

Sobel |gy|

Sobel |gx|+|gy|

24

Smoothed
with 5x5
averaging
filter

Sobel |gx|

Sobel |gx||+|g
|gy|

S b l ||gy|
Sobel

Image

Sobel
diagonal
operators

Combining Spatial Enhancement Methods

=

+

• Marr-Hildreth edge detector
• Canny edge detector

Laplacian

5x5 average
smoothing

Sobel

Geometric, Intensity Transformation and
spatial Filtering

• Affine transformation
– Geometric modification
– Operations:
O
ti
translation,
t
l ti
rotation,
t ti
scaling
li and
d
shearing
– Techniques: operation multiplication,
interpolation

+

Original

Gamma

25

Geometric, Intensity Transformation and
spatial Filtering

Geometric, Intensity Transformation and
spatial Filtering

• Intensity transformation
– Gray level mapping
– Operations: transformation function. Pixel by
pixel.
i l
– Techniques: image negatives, threshold, log
transformation, gamma transformation,
piecewise-linear transformation
– Histogram processing: histogram equalization
and specification, local histogram processing

• Spatial filtering
– A neighborhood or a kernel. (Kernel level)
– A predefined operation
– Operations:
• Smoothing: averaging, median