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IRC:SP:62-2014

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN

AND
CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT CONCRETE
PAVEMENTS FOR LOW VOLUME ROADS
(

First

Revision

Published by:

INDIAN

ROADS CONGRESS
Kama

Koti

Marg,

Sector-6, R.K. Puram,

New

Delhi-110 022

January, 2014

Price

(Pius Pacl<ing

:

^ 600/-

& Postage)

No part of thiis publication translated or transmitted in shall be reproduced. any form or by any means without the permission of the Indian Roads Congress) Printed by India Offset Press.IRC:SP:62=2014 First Published Reprinted 2006 August. Reprinted Reprinted First October. 2007 January. 2007 March. 2004 Revision (All Rights Reserved. 2014 July. Delhi-110064 1000 Copies .

IRC :SP:62-2014 Contents Page No Personnel of the Highways Specifications and Standards Committee i & ii 1 Introduction 1 2 Scope 3 3 Factors Governing Design 3 4 Design of Slab Thickness 8 5 Joints 15 6 Materials and Mix Design 20 7 Construction 25 References 32 Appendices 35 .

Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive in 2014 Iittps://arcliive.org/details/govlawircy2014sp62 .

Chief Engineer (Retd. Sunil Duhsaka.). L Bose. Kumar. Transport Kandasamy. Pvt.S. Gangopadhyay. S. New Delhi . of Lai. Haryana Jain. R. Transport Bhavan. S. Intercontinental Consultants New and Technocrats Marwah.L. New Civil Engg. Pateriya. Mahesh Engineer-in-Chief. Add!. New DTTDC CRRI. Chief Engineer (Retd.. New Delhi Delhi Delhi PWD. National Rural (Min. Haryana Kumar. DG(RD) & AS Jain. R.) Bongirwar.. S. Delhi Delhi Road Development Agency.K. Ministry of (Co-Convenor) Highways. Vanlal & FPC T. Secy. Deptt..). Manoj The Chief Engineer (R) S. New MORTH. Ltd. Central CRRI PWD (Retd. Chandigarh Delhi Engineer-in-Chief. Pandey. Dr. MORTH.. Dr. Faridabad (Highways). Satander Ex-Scientist.). Roorkee. MORTH. C. S.L. Kurian. Chief Engineer (Retd. Chaman New Institute. (Retd). Dr. New Delhi Road Transport & Patankar. Chief Engineer (Planning). Director General (RD) (Convenor) Ministry of Bhavan. MORTH. IIT Kadiyali. Dr. New Director (Tech. Advisor. Director General. Dr. New MORTH.IRC:SP:62-2014 PERSONNEL OF THE HIGHWAYS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (As on 19**^ July. MORTH. Head.P.R. V. I. P. Director. Divn.K.). Jose Chief Engineer. Road Transport & Highways. of India.). New Delhi (Member-Secretary) New Delhi Members Basu. R. Jain.K. (Retd.B. of Rural Development). Aizwal (Mizoram) Road Research Gupta.). New & Associates. Professor & (Retd. D. to Govt. Roorkee New Ltd.R&T. L. Addl. N. 2013) & Spl. L. Centre of Transportation Engg. New Delhi Delhi PWD. Transport Bhavan. Kumar.R. Director General.K. Sonipat Delhi Coordinator. Chief Executive. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Ashok Chief Engineer. Delhi Mumbai Chief Engineer. Delhi.S.K. Haryana State Agriculture Marketing Board Panchkula (Haryana) Manchanda. Kadiyali Kumar.

IRC:SP:62-2014
23.

Pradhan, B.C.

Chief Engineer, National Highways, Bhubaneshwar

24.

Prasad, D.N.

Chief Engineer, (NH),

25.

Rao,

Consulting Engineer, H.No. 399, Sector-19, Faridabad

26.

Reddy, K. Siva

P.J.

RCD, Patna

Engineer-in-Chief (R&B) Admn.,

Road &

Building Deptt.

Hyderabad
27.

Representative of

28.

Sarkar, Dr.

BRO

PK.

(Shri B.B. Lai), Dpt.

DG,

HQ DGBR, New

Professor, Deptt. of Transport Planning,

School of Planning & Architecture,
29.

Sharma, Arun Kumar

CEO

30.

Sharma, M.P

Member
India,

(Highways),

GMR

DG(RD) & AS

(Retd.),

32.

Sinha, A.V.

DG(RD) & SS

(Retd.)

33.

Singh, B.N.

Member (Projects),
New Delhi

34.

Singh, Nirmal

35.

Vasava, S.B.

(RD) &

36.

Yadav,

Dr. V.K.

SS

Delhi

Limited, Bangalore

Highways Authority

MORTH, New

MORTH New

National

(Retd.),

Chief Engineer

Roads &

New

of

Delhi

Sharma, S.C.

DG

Highways

(Technical), National

New

31.

Jit

Delhi-110 010

Delhi

Delhi

Highways Authority

MORTH, New

of India,

Delhi

& Addl. Secretary (Panchayat)

Building Dept.,

Gandhinagar

DGBR, New

Delhi

MORTH, New

Delhi

Addl. Director General,

Corresponding Members
1.

Bhattacharya, C.C.

2.

Das,

3.

Justo, Dr. C.E.G.

Dr.

Animesh

DG(RD) & AS

(Retd.)

Associate Professor, NT, Kanpur
334, 14'^ Main, 25'^ Cross, Banashankari 2nd Stage,

Bangalore-560 070.
4.

Momin, S.S.

(Past President, IRC) 604 A, Israni Tower,

5.

Pandey,

Advisor,

Prof. B.B.

EX'Officio

Mumbai

NT Kharagpur, Kharagpur

Members

1.

Kandasamy, C.

(Road Development) & Special
Secretary, MORTH and President, IRC, New Delhi

2.

Prasad, Vishnu Shankar

Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

Director General

ii

New

Delhi

IRC:SP:62-2014

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT CONCRETE

PAVEMENTS FOR LOW VOLUME ROADS
INTRODUCTION

1

IRC:SP:62 "Guidelines

for the

Design and Construction of Cement Concrete Pavement

for

Rural Roads" was published by Indian

Roads Congress (IRC) in 2004. These guidelines served
the profession well for about a decade. However, advancement in design and construction of
the Rigid Pavement, H-3 Committee realised the necessity to revise existing guidelines.
Accordingly, the Rigid
Dr. B.B.

Pandey

for revision of

Pavement Committee

S/Shri R.K. Jain, Satander Kumar, M.C. Venkatesh and PL. Bongirwar

IRC:SP:62. The Sub-group prepared

discussed and deliberated

approved the revised
the
this

(H-3) constituted a sub-group comprising

in

number

of

draft guidelines in

its

initial

draft

and

thereafter,

same was

committee meetings. The H-3 Committee
meeting held on

8'^

finally

June, 2013 for placing before

HSS Committee. The Highways Specifications and Standards Committee (HSS) approved
document

in its

held on 31^' July,

Council

in

its

meeting held on

19*''

July,

2013 approved the same document

meeting held

at

New

of

H-3 Committee

is

as given below:

R.K. Jain

Convenor

Satander Kumar

Co-Convenor

Raman Kumar

Member-Secretary

Members
Isaac V. Joseph

A.K. Jain
Akhil

Kumar Gupta

J.B.

Sengupta

Ashok Kumar

Jose Kurian

Ashutosh Gautam

K.

B. S. Singia

K.K.

Bageshwar Prasad

L.K. Jain

Col. V.K.

Ganju

Dr. B.B.

Pandey

Sitaramanjaneyulu

Gupta

M.C. Venkatesh

PL. Bongirwar
Prabhat Krishna

Dr. L.R. Kadiyali

Sharma

Dr.

S.C. Maiti

R.N.

Dr.

S.N. Sachdeva

Ram Avtar

Dr. S.S.

meeting

The

& 12''^ August, 2013 approved the draft
of Cement Concrete Pavements for Low Volume

for publishing.

The composition

in its

for placing before the Council.

Delhi on 11'"

"Guidelines for the Design and Construction

Roads"

2013. The Executive Committee

Seehra

Rep. of E-in-C Branch

1

IRC:SP:62-2014

Corresponding Members
Vishal

Thombre

D.C.

Rajesh Madan
Brig.

S.A. Reddi

Vinod Nakra

Dr.

Ex-Officio
C.

Kandasamy

C.E.G. Justo

Members
(Road Development) &
Special Secretary, MoRTH & President, IRC
Director General

Vishnu Shankar Prasad

A

De

Secretary General, IRC

have been connected with all-weather
roads due
by National Rural Road Development Agency (NRRDA),
Rural
Development,
Ministry of
Government of India. Rural roads usually have low volume
1.1

large proportion of India's villages

to the efforts

of

traffic,

made

consisting mostly of light transport vehicles, like agricultural tractors/trailers,

light

drawn vehicles, auto-rickshaws, motor cycles and bi-cycles.
Some of the rural roads may also have light and medium trucks carrying sugarcane, quarry
materials, etc. The most common composition of such roads is granular layer with or without
thin bituminous surfacing. Another feature common to such roads is that their maintenance
is neglected because of paucity of funds and poor institutional set-up, and the road asset
created at a great cost is lost. The selection of pavement types for such roads should consider

goods

vehicles, buses, animal

these factors.

Concrete pavements have been constructed on many rural roads under PMGSY
programme. They are also being widely used on minor roads of cities carrying low volume of
traffic because of their durability even under poor drainage conditions. Concrete pavements
offer an alternative to flexible pavements especially where the soil strength is poor, the
aggregates are costly and drainage conditions are bad. The choice of pavement type
depends on these factors and the life-cycle cost. Concrete pavements can be (i) conventional
screed-compacted concrete (ii) Roller Compacted Concrete (iii) Interlocking Concrete Block
Pavements (ICBP) and (iv) concrete pavements with panel size 0.5 m x 0.5 m to 1.2 m x
1.2 m and depths ranging from 50 mm to 200 mm similar to Thin White Topping as per
IRC:SP:76 in which the upper one third has a discontinuity created by sawing or by inserting
three to five millimeter thick polyethylene strips which are left in the concrete. Self-Compacting
Concrete (SCC) as per Appendix Hi can also be used since it is easy to pour and requires
very little compaction. It has successfully been used in Maharashtra in different trials sections
1.2

of rural roads.

1.3

Rural roads connecting major roads are sometimes required to carry construction

or diverted

traffic

which

may damage

the concrete slabs.

Some

roads connect several

and they are constructed in stages spread over several years and have to carry
heavy construction traffic. Such factors may be considered while arriving at thickness of
pavements.

villages

should be recognized that concrete pavements demand a high degree of
professional expertise at the stages of design, construction and maintenance. The institutional
set-up should be suitably strengthened to meet the required parameters of concrete
1.4

It

pavements

in

remote places.
2

Transverse joints spacing ranging from 2.3. need not be considered for low volume traffic except in special situations where heavy truck traffic is anticipated. The repetitions of axle loads. as evidenced from the performance of roads constructed in the past in the country. The design methodology given in these guidelines is based on wheel load stresses. thickness evaluation should be done on the basis of total stresses resulting from wheel load of 50 kN and temperature differential. Design 3. The effect of tyre pressure on the wheel load stresses for practical thickness of pavement is not significant. roller compacted concrete and self-compacting concrete.8 MPa for a truck carrying a dual wheel load of 50 kN may be taken as 0. fatigue can be a real problem and the guidelines consider thickness evaluation on the basis of fatigue fracture For traffic less than 3 for . The basic design concepts of IRC:58 may be relevant for arriving at pavement thickness in some cases as mentioned in Clause 1.50 m to 4.1 Heavy vehicles are not expected frequently on wheels The maximum legal load limit on recommended design load on dual rural roads. For traffic exceeding 150 CVPD. curling stresses and the consumption of fatigue for different axle loads.2 The in tyre pressure may be taken as 0. while for a wheel of tractor trailer.75 m wide (minimum 3 m wide in hills) made up of conventional concrete.5 MPa.00 m may be selected. only wheel load stresses a load of 50 kN on dual wheel need be considered for thickness estimation since there is a low probability of maximum wheel load and highest temperature differential between the top and the bottom of the rigid pavement occurring at the same time.IRC:SP:62-2014 2 SCOPE IRC:58 deals with design of concrete pavements for major roads carrying an average daily traffic exceeding 450 Commercial Vehicles Per Day (CVPD) with laden weight exceeding 30 kN. 3 FACTORS GOVERNING DESIGN Wheel Load 3. 100 kN. which form the basis of design in IRC:58. single axle with dual India being Tyre Pressure 3. the wheel is 50 kN having a spacing of the wheels as 310 mm centre-to-centre. the pressure Design Period 3. Agricultural tractors and trailers also are being used to carry construction material and the single wheel load may rarely approach 50 kN. The guidelines contained in this document are applicable only to low volume roads with average daily traffic less than 450 Commercial Vehicles Per Day.3 Concrete pavements designed and constructed as per the guidelines contained in this document will have a design life of 20 years or higher.4 Traffic for Thickness Evaluation 50 CVPD. This document covers the design principles of rigid pavements of low volume roads 3. For traffic higher than 50 and less than 150 CVPD.

1 may be considered for cumulative fatigue analysis as illustrated later. k. 40 percent of the pavement slabs are expected to crack at the end of the design period against 10 percent cracking considered for high volume roads. It can also be estimated from Dynamic Cone it soon after the Penetrometer also as described Table Soaked subgrade k Value 3. 4 .05) n = design period N = total number in years (recommended as 20 years) of cumulative commercial vehicles at the end of the design period An estimation of gross weight of vehicle and axle load can be made from the knowledge Approximate number of commercial vehicles having an axle load of about 100 kN as a percentage of total number of commercial vehicles may be estimated from the traffic survey.2 Since.. Approximate k Value Corresponding CBR (MPa/m) in to CBR Values 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 50 21 28 35 42 48 50 62 69 140 subgrade shall be 4. considering a reliability of ^(l N = + r)"-l^ X 365 . of goods Characteristics of the Subgrade 3. = 0.IRC:SP:62-2014 60 percent against a reliability of 90 percent adopted for IRC:58. 3. using 750 mm diameter plate according to 18:9214-1974. For the fatigue analysis of a concrete pavement the cumulative number of commercial traffic at the end of design period can be estimated from the following formula. the subgrade strength is affected by the moisture content. test values obtained with a plate of determined using the standard 300 mm diameter.. a default value of ten percent of the values obtained from Equation 3.1 The minimum CBR of the IRC:58. CVPD A = Initial r = rate of traffic increase r after the completion of the road decimal in (for 5 percent rate of increase in traffic. which is determined by carrying out a plate bearing test. spectrum of axle loads may have to be considered to avoid damage to pavements and design concept of IRC:58 may be used.1.1 J where. In case the road is expected to carry a large volume of very heavy trucks on a regular basis. For A > 150 CVPD.5 The that the vehicles carry. Stresses in a concrete pavement are not very sensitive to minor variation in k values and hence its value for a homogeneous soil subgrade may be obtained from its soaked CBR value using Table 3. In case of homogeneous foundation. plate by the following correlation: strength of subgrade is expressed in 3. it is desirable to determine monsoon. k may be converted to give k 750 mm dia. terms of modulus of subgrade reaction.

6.2.2. It must be of good quality so as not to undergo large settlement under repeated wheel load to prevent cracking of slabs.3 Traffic from 150 to 450 minimum UCS may be of 1. murrum or river bed material with CBR not less than 30 percent.1 Traffic mm up to CVPD 50 (WBM lll)/Wet Mix Macadam compacted Water Bound Macadam Grade (WMM) may be provided over 1 00 mm granular subbase made up of gravel.6. 100 mm thick cementitious granular layer with a minimum unconfined strength (UCS) of 3 MPa at 7days with cement or 28 days with lime/lime-flyash over 100 mm thick 75 1 cementitious naturally available materials with a 7 days or with lime or lime-flyash at 28 days 3. The granular subbase and WBM should layers Specifications. CVPD mm thick WBM lll/WMM over 100 mm of granular subbase may also be used. Quality of meet the requirement subbases varies from region 5 of to region MORD and past .!RC:SP:62-2014 Sub-Base 3. non-uniform and undulating sub- traffic even if the subgrade is wet silts grade v) It acts as a capillary cut-off 3. mm of cementitious granular layer with a minimum UCS of 3.1 quality i) It provides a uniform and reasonably firm support ii) It supports the construction iii) It prevents mud-pumping of subgrade of clays and iv) It acts as a leveling course on distorted.5 MPa with cement at provided. The stabilized If days with cement or at 28 days with lime/lime-flyash may should not erode as determined from wetting and drying test at 7 soil (IRC:SP:89).6.0 MPa at 7 days with cement or at 28 days with lime or lime-flyash over 00 mm of cementious layer with naturally 150 100 1 occurring material with a with lime or lime-flyash.6. 150 mm of cement/lime/lime-flyash treated marginal aggregate/soil layer with minimum Unconfined Index less (PI) less than Strength (UCS) of 3 6.2 Sub-base types 3. Alternately. 3.6 A good compacted foundation layer provided below a concrete pavement is commonly termed as subbase. liquid limit less than 25 percent and Plasticity 75 thick III aggregates are not available within a reasonable cost.5 at 7 regions having acute scarcity of aggregates. MPa be used.6. WBM/WMM in many minimum UCS MPa days with cement or at 28 days Cementitious marginal aggregates may be much cheaper than of 1.2. Section 400(34).2 Traffic from 50 to 150 CVPD mm thick WBM lll/WMM layer over 00 mm of granular material may be used as a subbase. The provision of a sub-base below the concrete pavement has many advantages such as: 3. Alternatively.

Reduction in stresses in the pavement slab due to higher subgrade CBR is marginal since only fourth root of k matters in stress computation but the loss of support due to erosion of the poor quality foundation below the pavement slab under wet condition may damage the it seriously. flexural strength. ff = flexural strength. f = characteristic MPa compressive cube strength. the and the following mix design may be Where it is necessary that there are no facilities for their design is determining the carried out using the compressive strength values relationship: f.6.3. the effective 3.7t. Recommendations for estimated of modulus subgrade reaction over granular or cemented subbase are given in Table 3. 3. The GSB layer with fines passing 75 micron sieve less than 2 percent can act as a good drainage layer and addition of 2 percent cement by weight of total aggregate will make non-erodible. = . where. Commercially available IRC accredited be used if found successful on trials.IRC:SP:62-2014 experience on performance of concrete pavements in different regions best guide for is tlie the selection of the most appropriate subbases.. 6 MPa .2. specifications (34) otherwise to Concrete Strength Since concrete pavements based on the fail due to bending stresses.3 0. effective of it Table 3.1. MPa/m k Value over granular (thickness 150 to 200 mm cementations sub base MPa/m k It Value over 150 to 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 50 25 34 42 50 58 60 74 83 170 42 56 70 84 96 100 124 138 280 should be ensured that embankment. flexural strength of concrete. taken as twice that of the subgrade.3 stabilizers with subbases For the granular subbases. the subgrade and the subbase shall be well compacted as per MORD under adverse moisture condion leading 3..4 may no harmful leachate also modulus of subgrade reaction over granular and cement treated Effective 3. the effective k value k value of the sub-grade may be k value shown in Table may be taken as 20 percent more than the For the cementitious subbases.2.2 Effective k Values Over Granular and Cementitious Subbases Soaked CBR subbase 250 mm).6.7 heavy wheel loads may displace the subbase cracking of the unsupported concrete slab. Most low volume roads with concrete pavements in built up area having WBM over GSB have performed well even under adverse drainage conditions.

MPa.000 3.3 40 5.65.4 a where. For rural roads. at Zg = normal variate. 90 day compressive strength is 20 percent higher than the 28 day compressive strength. The concrete mix should be so designed that the minimum flexural strength requirement in the field is met at the desired confidence level.0 6. Table 3.0 35 5. The 90 day flexural strength may be taken as 1. S = target average flexural strength. for this tolerance level being 1 . 1 .9 The Elasticity of Elasticity. 28 day flexural strength (third and Poisson's Ratio of concrete and the Poisson's ratio 0. for field test MPa a tolerance factor of in 1 20 samples. can be taken as 1 in 20. the tolerance level (accepted proportion of low results).3.6 6. The normal variate. Z^.3 6.8 MPa. may be taken as: may be taken as .10 times the 28 day flexural strength or as determined from laboratory tests. For Low volume Heavy traffic roads. expansion of concrete.. may be it is allowed after 28 days. 7 a.8 The Modulus 30.3 Expected Values of Standard Deviation of Compressive Strength Grade of Concrete Very M M M Good Good Fair 30 5. Table 3. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion coefficient of thermal MPa Standard Deviation for Different Degrees of Control. having a value of a = expected standard deviation of 28 days.15 respectively. the target average flexural strength is obtained from the following relationship: S^+Za S = . a = 10 X 10-^ per °C. it is 3.6 7. at = characteristic flexural strength. Modulus of 3.65.IRC:SP:62-2014 suggested that the 90 day strength may be used for design since concrete keeps on gaining strength with time.6 Flexural strength can be derived from the Equation For pavement construction for rural roads.3 gives the values of expected standard deviation of compressive strength.. MPa and E.3. MPa 28 days.3 7.0 7. recommended that the characteristic compressive strength should be at least 30 MPa and corresponding point loading) shall not be less than 3.

N = Where . (Fig. in a pavement slab edge and corner are Effect of temperature gradient is very less at the higher at the edge. 4.222 log. The effects of moisture changes and shrinkage. the top being hotter than the bottom during the referred to at commonly as curling stresses. IRC:58) for 60 percent reliability is recommended rural village roads. The factors commonly considered for design of pavement thickness are traffic loads and temperature gradients..1 Critical OF SLAB THICKNESS Stress Condition due to a variety of factors and the conditions which induce the highest stress in the pavement should be considered for analysis. of temperature differentials. at top during night (Fig.5 0. bottom during the day. construction and social activities. Appendix III.. fatigue analysis should be done for the spectrum axle load recommended in IRC:58. there can be significant amount of traffic consisting of buses and trucks due to agriculture. being tensile.2). would ordinarily relieve the temperature effects to some extent and are not normally considered critical to thickness Concrete pavements are subjected to stresses design. Concrete also keeps on gaining strength with time. Occasional heavy loads may not affect the pavements since the subgrade is weak only during certain period in the monsoons/post monsoon periods and only worst value of subgrade strength is considered in design. 4. 3. For most rural roads. Concrete pavements undergo a daily cyclic change day and opposite is the case during the night. being generally opposed to those of temperature and are of smaller magnitude.10 because of low volume of commercial vehicles. while it is much pavement design. 8 As the restraint offered . fatigue behavior not important is ^^-2. fatigue is SR life = stress of a ratio SR — defined as: flexural stress - due to wheel load and temperature flexural strength 4 DESIGN 4. The consequent tendency of the pavement slabs to curl upwards (top convex) during the day and downwards (top concave) during the night.IRC:SP:62-2014 Fatigue Behaviour of Concrete Pavement 3. and restraint offered to the curling by self-weight of the pavement induces stresses in the pavement. Following fatigue equation (MEPDG.1) and These stresses are flexural in nature. If the number of heavy vehicles are large. Influence of light commercial vehicles is negligible. For the purpose of analysis. In case a rural road forms a connecting link between two important roads or if the road connects several villages. and fatigue behavior of pavement slab may be considered in such cases. Fatigue equations of IRC:58 cannot be used because they are valid for 90 percent reliability.523 ^ pavement subjected to stresses caused by the combined effect of wheel load of 50 kN and temperature gradient. two different regions considered critical for corner..

is obvious that corners have very little of such restraint. Wheel For low volume roads carrying a low volume of likely to be of rare traffic.2. 4. Fig.3 through a dual wheel set of a commercial vehicle Wheel Load 9 at Pavement .1 Load stresses at case of interior This and edge regions.V IRC:SP:62-2014 any section of the slab would be a function of weight of the slab.3 in differentials.1 Tensile the Top Due to bend like a cantilever.2 Tensile Fig. The maximum tensile stresses in the edge region of the slab the chance that highest axle load will due the edge and corner loading. A shorter transverse joint spacing imparts safety to a panel due to load sharing by the adjacent slabs because of better load transfer across the transverse joints since dowel bars are not recommended in low volume roads except near a permanent to structure.2. 4.1 Edge stresses 4. 4. edge shows a slab subjected applied at the edge region. Consequently the temperature stresses induced in the pavement are negligible in the corner region. to curling at it Tension at bottom Stresses at the Bottom Due to Curling During Day The corner tends Stresses at Curling During Night Fig. to a load Fig. when the temperature gradient also is highest is occurrence. heavy vehicles are not frequent and load stresses for interior loading are lower than those will act be caused by simultaneous occurrence of wheel loads and temperature would occur during the day at the bottom 4. giving rise to tension at the top while the tension is at bottom in case for edge loading.2 Calculation of Stresses 4. Deflections due to wheel loads are larger at the corner causing displacement of weaker subgrade resulting in loss of support under repeated loading and consequent corner breaking. 4.2.

The contact areas of two Fig.666(-)-0.1 / = 0.2 I l-(0.15.4)i)y . 4. where p a load is wheel load to a single N mm concrete is MPa mm in mm tyre pressure p and 4. applied by a dual wheel.4.1 and 4. Equations 4...1 reduces to Equation =5:?^[41og(-) + 0. h = pavement slab thickness.034] a. k = Modulus subgrade reaction of the pavement foundation.IRC:SP:62-2014 Widely validated and accepted Westergaard's equation (15) for edge loading is recommended for the computation of edge stresses caused by single or dual wheel at the edge <3e = ——+ ^-^[ln( Eh^ + |a)/7- lOOka^ 7i(3 For |j |Ll)P^.2 are valid only for circular area. .84. + 1... load stress 6g = deflection at the P = Single wheel Load..4 are obtained wheels and the area in-between the two contact areas shown and the radius of the equivalent circular below.2 can be used for the stress computation due to dual wheel by computing the radius of the equivalent circular area as shown below.3 can be used for the FWD at the edge.1 in the edge edge due ratio for of region. MPa/m = radius of relative stiffness. 3(l ^ ^ T-) o. 10 is in then computed as given . Equation 4.18(1 + ^1 2|J)^7. 4. — + —~ + 4^1 l-|Ll 3 2 1. evaluation of in-place k value of the subgrade using When MPa = Equation 4.. a h" .76 + 0.3 where.4. = radius of the equivalent circular area = ( I y-^ TZ* The Equations 4. |j = Poisson's E = Modulus of elasticity for concrete.

2. L P. the above value of a the stresses are is P.2 + 0.2 is indicative of loss of support. a = In 4.5227p case of dual wheel. 4.2 + (S^ - = 7ra2 of Substituting L from Equation 0.5227/.4454/. A large edge deflection measured by Benkelman beam or FWD as compared to that computed from Equation 4.7 n 0.8521Pd yields 4. p The above S/ L = 0.) computed for the total is to be used in the edge stress Equation 4.6/.4 Computation of Equivalent Radius of Contact Area for Dual Wheel Load where.? radius of equivalent circular contact area pn 4.8 Coefficient of thermal expansion 11 . = Length of contact area = spacing between the centres of dual wheel = Load on one wheel of dual wheel set P.4 0. where p is tyre pressure 4.4) 2 X 0.6 V 0.5227.1 and wheelload.1. Temperature stresses at edge Bradbury's equation given by Equation 4.5227/7 The area an equivalent circle is (Fig. 4.5 P.IRC:SP:62-2014 Fig.8 is recommended for the stress computation for the linear temperature gradient across the depth of the slab Eat a = C 4.3 4.

2 15.0 Arunachal Pradesh. If data parts. the C value is computed in the excel sheet attached with the guidelines through regression equations from the relation between and C determined from Bradbury's curve where the slab and the foundation. Nagaland.4 16. Andhra Pradesh.8 is available. Appendix II gives equations for the computation of the curling stresses due to linear part from mid depth to the top surface.3 15. Sikkim. Chattisgarh. Tripura.4 17.6 14.P. Meghalaya. The maximum temperature can be taken as differential and non-linear bi-linear (Appendix II) and consists used for the linear part only across the full depth.3 19. MPa ratio of length(l) or width(b) and radius of relative stiffness.8 16. local values of the temperature differential may be used.0 16.P. Mizoram. Concrete Slabs Uttranchal.6 17.IRC:SP:62-2014 t C = Temperature difference (°C) between the top and the bottom of the slab = Temperature stress = Coefficient depending in the edge upon the region.1 Recommended Temperature Zone Differentials for Temperature Differential °C in Slabs of Thickness States 150 i) Punjab. 12 . Western Orissa and North Tamil Nadu excluding hilly regions and coastal areas iv) Kerala and South Tamil Nadu excluding hilly regions and coastal areas V) Coastal areas bounded by vi) Coastal areas unbounded by hills hills For a given length and a width of a pavement slab. U. Karnataka.1 gives default values of temperature differentials in different zones in India as recommended by Central Road Research Institute of both linear over thirty years back. Table 4. Rajasthan.6 15. b// 7' is I// or value of radius of relative stiffness of The temperature gradient across the depth is usually non-linear and the maximum day temperature difference between the surface and the mid depth is nearly double of that between the mid depth and the bottom of the slab. mm 200 mm 250 mm 12. Manipur. Gujarat and North M.P. is Equation 4.3 15. West Bengal. Himachal Pradesh. Jharkhand.. South M. excluding hilly ii) regions Bihar.6 16.5 13. This causes reduction in temperature stresses at the bottom as explained in the Appendix II. Haryana.1 14.0 20. Table 4. Assam and Eastern Orissa excluding hilly regions and coastal areas iii) Maharashtra.5 17.0 19.

Very few low volume roads may come under this category. Minimum pavement slab thickness shall be taken as 150 the excel sheets for pavement design. maximum edge stress is computed by adding wheel load stresses and curling stresses. only wheel load stresses are a dual wheel loaded of 50 kN with a tyre pressure computed edge stress design 5) for 50 is less than the 90 day modulus of rupture.5 do not require reinforcement.4 Reinforcement Plain concrete jointed slabs for rural roads 4. Most of the low category Case 2 Combined stresses due to for traffic greater CVPD than 50 and less than 150 Case 50 kN dual wheel load and temperature gradient 3 Fatigue analysis for stresses due to 50 kN dual wheel load and temperature for than 150 CVPD traffic greater and less than 450 CVPD. concrete flexural strength. is 0. the safe. Recommended Design Procedure (Refer Illustrative Example Appendix I) 1) (recommended as dual 50 kN).IRC:SP:62-2014 Pavement Design 4. joint spacing and flexural Select design wheel load strength of concrete. Case mm. coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete and zone and input them in the excel spread sheet. k value. and less than 150 CVPD for Case 2. the If the traffic is linear part of the greater than 50 CVPD temperature gradient. given in Table 4.1.3 A programed excel sheet is provided for quick computation of thickness of pavements.7 gives the curling stresses in which 't'. Three cases are considered in 1 Stresses due to 50 kN dual wheel load only for volume roads are likely to fall in this traffic less than 50 CVPD. modulus of elasticity of concrete. Poisson's ratio. 4) If the is CVPD for Case 1 . II 13 .667 of the temperature differential The compressive stress due to bi-linear temperature is subtracted from that due to the linear variation as explained in Appendix part to get the actual curling stress due to non-linear temperature gradient. Equation 4. 2) Select a tentative design thickness of slab. 4. 3) If the total less than traffic is computed at the edge of0.80MPa. effective modulus of subgrade reaction.

3. The subgrade soil has a CBR value of 4 Percent. mm GSB considered.00 m since temperature stresses are not considered. spacing of 2. Traffic survey is very important when volumes of vehicles are large. more than 150 is less than the safe and acceptable. stress ratio (SR) is computed and the allowable load repetitions are obtained from the Equation 3.25 Pavement 4. Excel sheet is CVPD and less than 450 CVPD. Assuming that only ten percent (default value) of the total traffic has axle loads are equal to 1 00 kN.2 gives slab thickness for traffic WBM WBM are indicated for joint spacing of 2. The effective k value over is taken as 42 MPa/m (35 + 20 percent of 35 MPa/m). the fatigue damage is to be computed for the axle load spectrum 7) the If traffic is .50 160 160 160 160 160 160 Note : Design thickness values are based on the 90 day 14 flexural strength .2 Concrete Pavement Thickness for Subgrade and 4. using the fatigue Equation 3. the design does all the computations.50 m. silt and silty clay. Ratio of expected repetition and allowable repetition is the cumulative fatigue damage and its value should be less than 1 The spread sheet gives all the computations and various trials can be made instantly.5. compute the number of repetitions of 1 00 kN axle loads (dual wheel load = 50 kN) expected in 20 years.50 m. The thickness given in the table is applicable to common subgrade soils.IRC:SP:62-2014 6) the tota! of wheel load stress and the curling stress If 90 day modulus of rupture.25 170 170 170 170 170 170 2. Thickness values Table 4. For a computed total stress due to wheel load and temperature.6 mm WBM up for Traffic to 50 CVPD. traffic between 50 and 150 CVPD and a CBR of 4% Pavement Thickness (mm) Wheel Load-50 kN Joint Spacing in Metres Zone-! Zone-ll Zone-Ill Zone-IV Zone-V Zone-VI 4. For other k values.00 180 180 190 180 180 180 3. If there are too many axle loads heavier than 100 kN. Thickness values for a dual wheel load of 60 kN are 160 mm for the joint A sub-base of 75 over 100 is is all and 4.25 m Table 4.00 m.5. such as. A sub-base of 75 mm over 1 00 mm GSB is considered. clay. fatigue of concrete is considered for examination of the safety of the pavements. Pavement Thickness 4. 3. with a CBR value of 4 percent. The effective k value over WBM taken as 42 MPa/m (35 + 20 percent of 35 MPa/m). excel sheet can be used to get the thickness. A minimum thickness of 1 50 mm is recommended even for higher modulus of subgrade reaction.7 m Tliicl^ness for Traffic from 50 to 150 CVPD from 50 to 150 CVPD.

the width roads of villages.8 For Table 4. differential for has a cementitious base with a 100 is CVPD.75 no need is m m for a longitudinal about 4. Thus. joints. RCCP is very popular for Roller low volume roads its own to form in developed countries.75 one operation.3 Concrete Pavement Thickness over for a Traffic of 250 Thickness of cementitious subbase = 200 CBR = 8) Percentage of CVPD with 50 mm. Assuming a thickness of in RCCP as 200 mm.3 in 8 percent.60 MPa < 4. the cracks has been successfully used programme.1 Low volume roads have which for is concreted narrow in city streets generally a single-lane carriageway with a lane width of 3. The thickness of 200 mm is appropriate.50 200 210 210 210 210 210 Note Design thickness values are based on the 90 day : Roller 4.5 m in case of . fatigue also is M30 concrete for a traffic total CVPD be considered and the thicknesses are of 250 CVPD having a subgrade CBR of greater than 150 traffic shown for Traffic Greater than 150 to thickness of 200 mm. Table 4.IRC:SP:62-2014 Pavement Thickness 4. 5 JOINTS Types of Joints 5. CVPD MPa (100 + 100) take k = 100 (subgrade kN dual wheel load = 10 Pavement Thickness (mm) Joint Spacing k value for M Wheel Load-50 kN Zone-I Zone-ll Zone-lll Zone-IV Zone-V Zone-VI 4. The effective (Table 3.00 240 250 260 260 250 250 3.25 220 230 240 230 230 230 2.2). there roads except when the causeways.3.22 MPa. and joint for single-lane rural interior In some cases. It In such pavements. Fatigue cracking of pavement slab Thicknesses and hence it for all is considered because zones are given. 15 may be is pavement width lower than 3. the total of wheel load and curling stress from excel sheet for a 200 mm slab . Zone 3 has highest temperature six gives the highest thickness because of higher curling stresses. a k value of 100 MPa/m Zone 90 day modulus of rupture = 4. .22 MPa. West Bengal may develop on also under PMGSY the spacing of the cracks to be 6 m. an initial of traffic of 100 CVPD. I.9 flexural strength Compacted Pavement Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP) as per MORD specifications (34) can also be used for the construction of pavements for low volume roads. design of It heavy MPa/m traffic.

3-5mm 3-5rTim fi m I -Sealant m -Back-up Rope -Back-up Rope V V -Cracks -Cracks Fig. 5(a) to 5(o).4. Bituminous based sealants as per IS1 834 can be used. High and intermediate support HDPE for keeping the strip in position strips are left in place. 5(b) Longitudinal Joint Fig.1 Contraction joints stresses along the whose spacing may be kept as 2. forming.IRC:SP:62-2014 Joints for low volume roads can be 1) Contraction joints 2) Construction joints 3) Expansion 4) Longitudinal joints of four types as given below: joints 5. steel T-section are the other options for joint The joint depth can extend from one fourth to one third the depth of the concrete.2 Spacing of Joints 5.50 m . 5(a) Contraction/Construction Joint 16 . Metal strips and can also be used for creating joints. The details of the contraction joints are shown in Figs. The curling longitudinal direction depend to a great extent on the spacing of the transverse the joint spacing These are transverse can be joints. The contraction joints can be formed by sawing the pavement slabs within twenty four hours of casting of concrete.00 m. verified If joints is 2.2. curling stresses are practically negligible as from the excel sheet of the guidelines. Practice abroad mm wide perform well with better riding Density Polyethylene (HDPE) strips 3 mm to 5 mm thick with suitable tensioning indicates that the narrow contraction joints 3 to 5 quality.5 m.

5mm THK sealant-. 5(c) Bitumen painting/ plastic sheathing of0. i compressible synthetic filler r™__powel cap <! A % i of plastic tu|^e with T?^losed end filled with s|^nge. -J-25- DETAILS OF KEYED CONSTRUCTION JOINT Fig. 5(e) Construction Joints 17 A thk .2 to 0.20mm X A- board Sealing he*-"tape • ^ \ '—25mm dia bar (®250c/c EXPANSION JOINT Fig.IRC:SP:62-2014 20 -2 5mm SEALAHT DEBOfJDING TAPE £OI/!PRESS!BLE SYNTHETIC FILLER BO^D Expansion Joint Fig. 5(d) Details of an Expansion Joint with Dowel WOODEN STRIP IS PLACED : FORMING SEALING GROOVE -COMPRESSIBLE DEBONDING A STRiP WITH PAf^RBACK KEY- -<rT o A 1.

5(g) Plastic strip Dowel Bar Cradles 3mm to 5mm thick to Or modjfied bitumen filled into sawed joint 3 to over back up thread 5mm wide I { Fig.IRC:SP:62-2014 -3750- 125 125 |-250j 1 r H30WEL BARS J L I i J Top view I I I of Transverse joint showing Fig.Wearing course Abutment cap Abutment Fig. X? a> XJ ^ E O (O 25mm MS plain r Q. 5(h) Contraction Joints with Plastic Strip or Sawn Joint Filled with Hot Modified 12mm/20mm THK premoulded filler board Hot poured sealant as per 151834 Pavement slab -Deck Slab .75m Wide Pavement Slab in TO -150- -60- -150- -9b- X 3. o » "dowel bars I \ 6nTn MS bars/ ^6 mm MS bars ' PI -8mm MS 100- -100- Detaits of dowel bar in bars a^embly for Contraction joint concrete pavement for low volume roads Fig. 5(f) Details of Dowel Bar Spacing Dowel bars a 3. 5(i) Deck Slab and Expansion 18 Joint in a Concrete Pavement Bitumen .

19 . Fig.ad Job-Strips in Stressed Position 5.2. 5(k) Fig. 5(1) Fig. Fig.1RC:SP:62-2014 50) A Close up View of Fixture of HDPE Separation Strip and Spacer Bar Fig.2 Construction joints Transverse construction a day's work or construction is be provided wherever concreting is completed after more than 90 minutes. 5(n) Preparatory A View Strip Work Fig. 5(o) Coi hp o. 5(e) shows the details of a joints shall suspended for joint. Anchoring of Strip of HOPE Separation and Spacer Bar 5(m) Typical Tightening Device Fig.

OPC 53 grade is to be used only when a part of cement is replaced by flyash. If the price of OPC. 5(i). the slab thickness can be from 150 to 250 one mm.0 m.5 percent of the soil.5 necessary to provide a longitudinal joint m as in the case of causeways. the cement used shall be sulphate resistant and shall conform to IS: 12330. If the case of Roller by cutting joints important consideration. 450 mm long and spaced at 250 mm centre to centre. 53 grade (blended 1489 and with flyash) has soluble salts like sulphates (SO3) in excess of 0. to the third/one fourth of the depth is itself adequate for load transfer . MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN Cement 6. If slabs are cast in alternate panels. IS:8112 i) Ordinary Portland ii) Portland Blast Furnace Slag iii) Portland Pozzolana iv) Ordinary Portland Cement conforming Cement (PPC) conforming to IS:455 to IS: Cement (OPC). 5(e).1 Any contraction joints of the following types of cement capable of attaining the design strength may be used. where the joints width may be 20 mm. If the soil 20 . 5(f). These shall be made out of MS steel plain bars.. preference may be given to PPC as it will result in a more durable concrete.4 Transverse expansion culverts. 5(d) at Transverse Joints Since low volume roads have lower wheel loads. dowel bars are required as shown in Fig. Load Transfer 5. it is the mid-width of the slab. the sawing of joints by transverse cracking at regular 6 may be formed aesthetics of the road is not an may be omitted and the joints will form themselves intervals. The joints are necessary details of the joints are shown for the in concrete slabs abutting the bridges and may be provided near a culvert or a minor bridge to slab as shown in 5(i) Fig.2. 5(b) in etc. as per the details shown in Fig. 5(a) and 5(h) show a contraction joint filled with hot poured modified bitumen. Figs. a combination of OPC-43 and fly ash can be economical. The aggregate in the range interlock at the contraction joints with discontinuity up and no dowel bars are necessary.3 Where the width of concrete slab exceeds 4. the concrete saw at the spacing of 8. keyed joints can be formed as in Fig. Expansion joints 5.Two expansion joints take care of expansion of the concrete Figs. 43 Grade. 43 grade and PPC is almost the same. Fe 240.IRC:SP:62-2014 Longitudinal joints 5.3 and . Dowel bars shall be 25 mm diameter. In Compacted Concrete Pavements. Day's work should normally be terminated at a construction joint At expansion joints.2. Cement (OPC). 5(c). If fly ash of required quality is available.

3. It reduces shrinkage and also contributes to the development of long term strength because of the pozzolanic reaction.1 Properties of Fly-Ash in shown for at least shall not have Coarse aggregates Coarse aggregate shall consist of clean. and drained shall deleterious materials shall not exceed the values set out IS:383. The aggregates dirt.3. strong.1 Aggregates not be alkali-reactive. of cementitious content (cement + roads shall not be less fly ash/slag) or Fly-Ash 6. . flaky. hard. the loss shall not be more than 12 percent if sodium sulphate solution is used or 18 percent if magnesium sulphate solution is used. cement may be obtained in bulk form if a cement plant is nearby.5 (N/mm^) 3) Loss on reactivity 6. After 5 cycles of testing.2 Fly-ash can be used as a partial replacement of cement (OPC) up to an extent of 30 percent needs the strength requirement. soft. The Aggregates Impact Value (AlV) shall of crushed stone or crushed gravel not be shall more than 30 percent. The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 25 mm. and dense.1.IRC:SP:62-2014 packed form. Table 6. The coarse aggregates flakiness index more than 35 percent. Bulk cement shall be stored in vertical or horizontal silos.20.2 in 6. Incase the aggregates are not found to be free from 6. there shall be bag splitters with the facility to separate pieces of paper bags and dispose them off suitably. non-porous and durable pieces be devoid of pieces of disintegrated stone. Where the water absorption is more than 3 percent.3 Aggregates 6. elongated. For large sized projects. very angular or splintery pieces. The mass in rural cement in the concrete mix used than 360 kg/cum and not more than 425 kg/cum. the same may be washed 72 hours before batching. Maximum Ignition shall The 5 percent be natural material conforming limits of to IS:383. If cement in paper bags is proposed to be used. No aggregate which has water absorption of more than 5 percent shall be used in the concrete mix. by weight of cementitious material if it it Fly-ash shall conform to 18:3812-2004 and shall have the following properties Table ^ mm^/gm 1) Specific surface area Greater than 3. No paper pieces shall Cement may be supplied in enter the concrete mix.000 2) Lime Greater than 4. Dumping and stacking of aggregates shall be done 21 in an approved manner. the aggregates shall be tested for soundness in accordance with IS:2386 (Part V). It reacts with the free lime liberated from cement thus inhibiting the alkali-silica reaction pond ash shall not be used.

3. clay.6 stipulated in IS:456. The fine aggregate shall not contain substances more than the following: shall consist of clean natural Clay lumps 1.3.00 mm 9.3. The workability at the point of placing shall be adequate for the concrete to be fully compacted and finished without undue flow.5 Water Water used oil. The same grading can be adopted in pavement fine to the grading given constructed with roller compacted concrete. loam. cemented particles.0 percent Coal and 1.3. Fine aggregate shall be free from soft particles.50 mm 4. Guidance in this regard may be had from IRC:44 or 18:10262. and curing of concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amount of vegetable matter or other substances harmful to the finished concrete.0 percent lignite Material passing IS sieve No.50 80-100 55-75 35-60 600 micron 10-35 75 micron 0-8 For concrete compacted by needle vibrators. meet the requirements 6.IRC:SP:62-2014 6. 6. 22 may be used to improve workability of .2.75 mm 100 26. cement and water should be done based on any standard procedure. Tarle 6. shale. salt.3 Fine aggregates The fine aggregate sand or crushed stone sand or a combination of the two and each individually shall conform to IS:383. the proportioning and fine aggregates. Admixtures Admixtures conforming to IS:6925 and IS:9103 concrete or extension of the setting time. screeds and hand tampers.4 Blending of aggregates The coarse and conform aggregates shall be blended so that the material after blending shall in Table 6. of the coarse 6. It shall for mixing acid.2 Aggregate Gradation for Concrete Sieve Designation Percentage Passing the Sieve by Weight mm 19. mica and organic and other foreign matter.0 percent 8 percent in in natural sand and crushed sand produced by crushing rock. 75 micron 3.

even though stored acceptance test prior to their in approved godowns/places. A monthly return shall the month and in be made showing the quantities of cement received and issued during stock at the end of the month. and if found sub-standard shall not be used in the works and shall be removed from the site.3.3 Cement shall be transported.IRC:SP:62-2014 6. Aggregates 6. these shall be deposited at the mixing site not less than 8 hours before use and shall have been tested and approved.3. Aggregates placed soil may be resorted to if mm will of the ground be permitted to aggregates are found or excessive fine dust. Rescreening of aggregates before use contaminated with In two separate sizes.7 Storage of materials 6. handling. Any consignment or part of consignment of cement which had deterio.3. Coarse aggregates on the ground directly until shall the final be delivered to the site in be removed from the stockpile within 150 shall not cleaning up of the work. removal such materials.7. If denuded is necessary.7. during storage. immediate use.2 Aggregate stockpiles may be made on ground that drained. and then only the clean aggregate be used.7. and water-tight sheds and Cement shall shall in the site in such a manner as be stored above ground be stacked not more than eight bags to avoid level in perfectly dry high. the case of fine aggregates. it it Proper records on be maintained site in at site respect of delivery. The by cement factory shall be collected and documented for future reference. the ground shall be covered with 50 of vegetation. All be subjected to The storage space must also permit easy inspection.rated in any way. 23 . Wherever bulk storage containers are used their capacity should be sufficient to cater to the requirement at site for a week and should be cleaned at least once every 3 months. Each consignment shall be stored separately so that may be readily identified and inspected and cement shall be used in the sequence in which is delivered at site. Cement 6. is hard and well mm wooden planks or gunny bags or hessian cloth.3. handled and stored deterioration or contamination. storage and use of cement shall and these records daily test certificate issued shall be available for inspection at all times. shall be subjected to tests. and storage shall in of materials.1 General All materials shall be stored quality and proper places so as to prevent their deterioration or satisfactory fitness for the work.

laying and compaction operations. It may cost a little higher but it can be conveniently placed.3 Self compacting concrete Compacting Concrete (SCC) can flow and requires little compaction. The mix design is initially as.0 support the weight of a distribution of paste throughout the The water content may be trial The exact moisture content requirement field trial construction as explained Using the moisture content so established. to 7 percent mean vibrators. 6.IRC:SP:62-2014 6. enough by weight of dry materials including cement.4. the trials should desired strength is If six in Clause be repeated in is range with mixes with water maximum the mix shall be 7.4.2 to the range of 5-7 percent and shall be determined by density shall be established. Details of mix design are given is in MORD the Specifications (34). water contents contents at 1 in .4 Mix Design 6. IRC:44 "Guidelines carried out in for the laboratory. such Pavements". needle vibrators and hand tampers shall be done on the basis Mix Design in for of any recognized procedure. water-cement of aggregates. 6. The optimum moisture content which gives the established after making shall be prepared lower than the desired after increasing the cement/fly ash content till the achieved. is The moisture content vibratory mass of 4 shall shall ingredients such that the desired target be based on the be selected so that mix and yet wet enough roller. Roller a zero-slump concrete.4. The mix strength be proportioned by weight of shall The mix design achieved. the degree of workability.1 Roller Mix design compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) RCCP for different is totally from the design of mix for a conventional cement concrete pavement as the Abrahm's water/cement Compacted Concrete ratio law does not hold good. It consists of additional ingredients like ultra-water reducer and silica fumes. keeping view the desired characteristic strength. needle 6. size acceptable for compaction by hand-operated machines.2. all to permit is dry adequate during mixing. 24 and any adjustments that are needed . A slump of 30 to 50 mm at paving site may be Concrete ratio. Concrete compacted by vibratory screeds. Trial stretches in Maharashtra for rural roads were done with Self easily success. for testing flexural strength of concrete. hand tampers and plate compactors Mix design for concrete compacted by screeds. length construction. beams and cubes the flexural strength achieved in may be made mixes Trial percent intervals. strength. a set of on the 7*" and 28'^ days.3 The Design mix laboratory trial mixes are carried out during the shall trial be tried out in the field.4.

like. appropriate giving a Commercially available proprietary stabilizers may also be used if they are found to give good have leachate which may pollute underground water or the water in nearby fields. Accelerated curing at 50°C up to three days may be correlated with 28 day strength for quick results. lime rice husk ash as found minimum unconfined strength as Clauses 3. the in-situ density of the freshly laid material shall be determined by sand replacement method with 200 mm diameter density holes.6. The density during the normal work shall 25 . The thickness will be as per Clause 3. conforming to IRC:63 Well-graded soil-aggregate mixtures conforming to IRC:63 iv) Stabilised soil with cementitious material as per IRC:89 b) Local soil or moorurn stabilized with cement.2.3 and 3. etc. Mixes shall be produced from the mixers intended to be used in the actual construction. may be used.IRC:SP:62-2014 7 CONSTRUCTION Sub-base 7. The sub-base may be composed of granular material or stabilized soil material as listed below: rural roads shall be laid Granular material a) i) Water Bound Macadam (WBM) ii) Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) iii) Well-graded granular materials. After the construction of the trial length in the case of Compacted Concrete. etc. laboratory tests should be done thoroughly to evaluate the design parameter. For proprietary soil stabilsers marketed commercially.1 The Concrete pavement for on a properly compacted sub-base which shall be constructed on a subgrade of selected coarse grained soil of 300 mm thickness. Three density holes shall Roller be made at locations equally spaced along a diagonal that bisects the trial length and the average of the three densities shall be determined. brick metal. lime. The laying operation also shall be done by employing roller proposed in the case of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement and screeds. a trial length of at least 30 shall pouring equipment can be examined. Construction of Trial These stabilizers should not Length order to determine and demonstrate the m suitability of the construction equipment and be constructed outside the main road and shall be laid on two different days.2. Flowability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) and the working of methodology.6.2. in the case of normal concrete. lime-fly ash.2 In in different trials in India. kankar. natural laterite. Soil and stabilisers can be mixed easily by rotovators which are widely used by farmers. This reference density shall be used for determining the field density of day-to-day work. crushed concrete.6. Reference may be made to IRC:SP:89 for guidance as regards design of mixes with cement or lime or lime-soil mixtures. gravel. crushed slag. performance 7.3 after 7 days and 28 days of curing for cement and lime/lime-flyash respectively.

f. 26 . a better method split tensile strength. within the strip 500 mm from the edges.2 where.IRC:SP:62-2014 be made case of screed-vibrated concrete pavement. 7.. 7.3 = 0. The trial length shall be again constructed after making necessary changes in the gradation of the mix to eliminate segregation of the mix. Flexural strength is of vital importance for thickness design of pavement. The trial length shall satisfy surface levels and regularity. the not be less than 97 percent of this reference density. The be derived from the difference between the theoretical maximum dry density of the concrete calculated from the specific gravities of the constituents of the concrete mix and the average value of the three direct density measurements on cores. F|-^3 is the ITS of the cored sample must be done to sort out various problems that may arise before the construction of the pavement slab begins. two test known as samples can be made test. It shall be ensured that the lower surface shall not have honey-combing and the aggregates shall not be held loosely at the Trials edges. for ITS test.1 where. In These density holes density of the cores shall be such that the air voids are not in-situ shall not more than 3 percent.. The hardened concrete shall be cut over 3 m width and reversed to inspect the bottom surface for any segregation taking place.78 . The crushing strength of cylindrical cores shall be determined and the corresponding crushing strength of cubes determined by the formula: air-voids shall Crushing strength of cylindrical specimens =0. f = correction factor n = height to diameter ratio The number be a minimum of three...8 x crushing strength of cubes When the height to diameter ratio The crushing strengths be corrected to a is 2 of cylinders with height to diameter ratio standard cylinder of height to diameter ratio of between 1 and 2 may 2 by multiplying with the correction factor obtained from the following equation: f = 0.. also a core of height 150 mm. The concrete in the work represented by the core test shall be considered acceptable if the average equivalent cube strength of the cores is at least 85 percent of the cube strength of the grade of concrete specified for the corresponding age and no individual core has strength less than 75 percent. and demonstrate that the joint.11 n + 0.forming methodology is satisfactory. Since it can be Even in of cores shall is difficult to to get make use cores of sufficient height for the compression of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS). Flexural strength of concrete can also be obtained from the relation F.67 ' .

The sections shall have a length of at least 3. The weighing mechanism shall be checked periodically and calibrated. the entire procedure shall be repeated. to yield an accuracy of ± 2 percent in the case of aggregates and ± 1 percent in the case of cement.3 cum. pavement slab from the metal strips surface. fly ash and water. 7. be satisfactory and is approved. After the trial length is found to Batching and Mixing 7. The rated capacity of the mixer shall not be less than 0.4 The mix be discharged immediately from the mixer. All forms shall be cleaned and they are used.IRC:SP:62-2014 Paving should be done continuously and the contraction joints concrete saw or discontinuity can be made by or steel T-section to one third the depth of the preplacing 3 to 5 will have to be cut with a mm HOPE strips. Wooden forms shall be capped along the inside upper edge with 30-50 mm angle iron well recessed and kept flush with wooden forms. The capacity of the batching and mixing shall be at least 25 percent higher than the proposed capacity for the laying arrangements. moisture content. cement/fly ash content. laying.3 The batching plant/concrete mixer be capable of proportioning the materials by weight. the mixing time shall be increased by a minute to ensure proper mixing. iron pans or tippers to the point where it is to be laid and protected from the weather by covering with tarpaulin during transit. mixing.5 All side forms shall be of mild steel channel sections of depth equal to the thickness of the pavement. each type of material being weighed separately. The forms shall be held firmly in place by stakes driven to ground. the material. The forms shall be jointed neatly and set correctly to each time the required grade and oiled alignment.0 m. shall Formwork 7. Care shall be taken to see that no segregation of Concrete shall 27 .6 shall be used at construction joints. Bulkheads of suitable dimensions dispensed with if a paver is used. Formwork can be Placing Concrete be deposited on the sub-base to the required depth and width in successive batches and in continuous operation. compaction plant and entire construction procedure shall not be changed. shall Transporting 7. transported directly using wheel barrows. When fly ash is added. The supply of forms shall be sufficient to permit them to be taken out only after the face of the the 12 hours after the concrete has been placed. In case any change is desired. mix properties. The concrete shall be transported continuously to feed the laying equipment to work at a uniform speed in an uninterrupted manner. The type of the mixer may be selected subject to demonstration of its satisfactory performance during the trial length construction.

side forms and around gullies and manholes. It is desirable to stop concreting when the ambient temperature is above 35°C. The concreting shall be terminated when the ambient temperature is 5°C during descending temperature. Night concreting may be resorted to when the day temperature in summer is not congenial for concreting. In the latter case spreading shall be as uniform as possible and shall be accomplished by shovels. the same shall be got approved after demonstrating its satisfactory performance. Semi self-compacted concrete can be poured directly over the compacted sub-base requiring little compaction. loose material.2 Double drum smooth-wheeled vibratory rollers of minimum 80 to 100 kN static weight are considered to be suitable for rolling the Roller Compacted Concrete. Special care and attention shall be exercised during compaction near joints. While being placed. free from movement under roller and free from ridges.7. ruts or other defects. cracks. The total requirement of rollers for the job shall be determined during trial construction by measuring the in-situ density and the scale of the work to be undertaken. The final surface shall be inspected immediately on completion and all loose. placing Compaction 7. by the roller at these points. etc. In addition to the number of passes required for compaction there shall be a preliminary pass without vibration to bed the lean concrete remove roller marks and to smoothen the down and again a final pass without vibration to surface. the concrete shall be rodded with suitable tools so that the formation of voids or honeycomb pockets is avoided. kerbs. Compaction by vibratory roller 7. The number of passes required to obtain maximum compaction depends on the thickness of the concrete. This period may be reviewed in the light of the results of the trial length but in no case shall it exceed 2 hours. compacting and finishing of the concrete shall be carried out as rapidly as possible and the operation shall be so arranged as to ensure that the time between the mixing of the first batch of concrete in any transverse section of the layer and the final finishing of the same shall not exceed 90 minutes when the concrete temperature is above 25 and below 30°C and 120 minutes if less than 25°C.1 shall RCCP. and the weight and type of the roller. The spreading. In case any other roller is proposed. if available. After compaction has been completed. segregated or defective areas shall be corrected by using fresh lean concrete 28 . channels. In is not achieved The final concrete surface on completion of compaction shall be well closed. Work shall not proceed when the temperature of the concrete exceeds 30°C. the compatibility of the mix. roller shall not stand on the compacted surface for the duration of the curing period except during commencement of next day's work near the location where work was terminated the previous day in the case of 7. pot-holes. case adequate compaction use of plate vibrator shall be made.7 The compaction be carried out immediately after the material is laid with necessary surcharge (extra loose thickness) and leveled.7. materials results.IRC:SP:62-2014 The and spreading can be done by a paver. low spots. or by manual means.

the surface regularity also should be checked with 3 m straight edge.8 In Finishing the case of normal concrete just before the concrete becomes non-plastic. 7. 7.0 m longer than the width of the slab.IRC:SP:62-2014 and compacted. may be caused by accidentally disturbing particles of coarse aggregate embodied near the surface. The belt shall be operated with short strokes transverse to the carriageway centre line and with a rapid advance parallel to the centre line. The broomed surface shall be free from porous or rough spots. The densities achieved from the edge shall not be less than 95 percent of that achieved during the trial 7.4 Compaction by screed construction. vibrators Compaction shall be achieved by a vibrating hand screed. Hand belts shall have suitable handles to permit controlled uniform manipulation. it shall be struck off uniformly and screeded to the cross-section desired. the pavement shall be given a broom finish with an approved clean steel or fibre broom not less than 450 mm wide. After belting 29 . and brooming have been completed. Similarly. in combination with a series of lifts and drops alternating with lateral shifts. irregularities. if any. concrete with aggregates of size 10 mm and below shall be spread and compacted. Needle vibrators may be employed to ensure compaction near the forms.7.. the compaction shall be continued so as achieve 97 percent of the compaction achieved at the edges. depressions. The entire surface shall then be vibrated with screed resting on the side forms and being drawn ahead with a sawing motion. and small pockets. and not more than 1. The broom shall be pulled gently over the surface of the pavement from edge to edge. Any level/thickness deficiency should be corrected after applying concrete with aggregates of size 10 mm and below after roughening the surface. but before the concrete has taken its initial set. The deficiency should be made up with concrete with aggregates of size 1 0 mm and below during the rolling material laid operation. Brooming shall be perpendicular to the centre line of the pavement and so executed that the corrugations thus produced shall be uniform in character and width.5 m in the trial length. the edges of the slab shall be carefully finished with an edge tool of 6 mm radius. the surface shall mm wide and at least 1 . Adjacent strokes shall be slightly overlapped. The surface shall then be closely inspected for any irregularities with a profile checking template and any needed correction made by adding or removing concrete. followed by further compaction and finishing in the second run. For repairing honeycombed surface.e. be belted with a two-ply canvas belt not less than 200 and as soon as surplus water.7. The aim of this first operation being compaction and screeding to the approximate level required. has risen to the surface. It is necessary to check the level of the rolled surface for compliance. After belting.3 to In the case of roller compacted concrete. such as. As soon as concrete is placed. 0. i. and the pavement edge left smooth and true to line.5 mm deep. Brooming shall be completed before the concrete reaches such a stage that the surface is likely to be torn or unduly roughened by the operation.

The surface of the concrete laid subsequently shall conform to the grade and cross-sections of the previously laid pavement. The width of the expansion be 20 mm. HDPE strips 3 mm to 5 mm wide also can be used for creating contraction joints. If strips of HDPE 3 mm to 5 mm wide are used. The wetted burlap also shall be placed for 14 days. Transverse construction joints shall Expansion joints are provided joint shall The at abutments of bridges and culverts. These joints shall be provided at the location of contraction joints. the final curing shall 30 . concreting to an additional 1 or 2 m length may be carried out to enable the movement of joint cutting machine so that joint grooves may be formed and the extra 1 or 2 m length is cut out and removed subsequently after concrete has hardened. At all construction joints. curing shall commence. The depth of sawing should be from 1/4 to 1/3 of the depth of the slab. The sawing operation should be completed within 24 hours. 5(a) to (o). the joint be placed wherever concreting is completed after a day's work or is suspended for more than 90 minutes.9 The mm wide be cut as soon as the concrete has undergone initial hardening and is hard enough to take the load of the joint sawing machine without causing damage to the slab.10 Curing As soon as the concrete surface is compacted. 7. Such thin joints have better riding quality and no further widening is necessary. be done by ponding or continuing with wetted burlap. to seal the joints. Metal strips of 3 mm to 5 mm width can also be placed before placement of concrete. contraction joints 3 to 5 shall can also be formed by pressing a mild steel T-section into the fresh concrete. Ponding shall consist of constructing earthen dykes of clay of about 50 mm height transversely and longitudinally. The initial curing shall be done by the application of curing compound followed by covering the pavement surface entirely with wetted burlap or jute mats. When positioning of bulk-head/stop-end is not possible. The burlap shall be placed from suitable bridges without having to walk on the freshly laid concrete. Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) can be hot poured. durability and it is resistant to age hardening. Due care is to be exercised to remove bulging which may affect the riding quality. spreading a blanket layer of sand over the exposed pavement and thoroughly wetting the sand covering for 14 days. After the initial curing. no sealing is necessary since the strips are left embedded in the concrete. steel bulk-heads shall be used to retain the concrete while the surface is finished. typical details of various joints are given from Figs. A thin synthetic rope should be inserted into the groove to prevent sealing compound from entering into the cracks. Alternatively. The covering shall be maintained fully wetted and in position for 24 hours after the concrete has been placed.IRC:SP:62-2014 Transverse Joints 7. CRMB has the flexibility.

31 in may be . joints with concrete saw. the ends shall be cleaned and any honey-combed areas pointed with 1 :2 cement-sand Forms shall mortar. Surface Regularity 7. The exceed 8 mm. They shall be carefully removed without causing damage to the edge of the pavement. as early as 6-7 hours in this In case the slab is constructed continuously with a view to cut exercise should be done soon after the concrete sets. A reference may be made to IRC:57 for details. The sealant shall be poured from a kettle having a spout.12 The to Traffic freshly laid concrete shall be protected by suitable barricades exclude to No traffic. Tractor trailers without any construction materials and light commercial vehicles may be allowed 14 days.IRC:SP:62-2014 Removal of Forms 7. summer months. In case the adjoining soil has more than 0. Quality Control 7. After the removal of forms.15 At least six beams each work.16 specimens shall be may be taken from IRC:SP:11 "Handbook of Quality Control for Roads and Runways".11 be removed only after the concrete has set for at least 12 hours. after which the sides of the slab shall be covered with earth to the level of the slab. shall A beam and for cube specimens 7 day and 28 day strength six be sampled. Further guidance Construction of 7. the sides may be painted with bituminous tack coat. Precautions wide can be filled with hot poured crumb rubber or be taken so that the sealant shall not spill on the exposed surface of the concrete. one set of three cubes and tests for every 100 cum of concrete or a day's shall quality control chart indicating the strength values of individual maintained.5 percent sulphates.14 The surface tolerance shall in this be checked for surface regularity with length shall not a straight edge of 3 m length. Protecting green concrete by mist spray of water or by covering with wet hessian helps avoiding formation of cracks. Cracks in Concrete Slabs The cement concrete slabs may develop cracks if construction stage or during post-construction period.13 Sealing of Joints The sawn joints which are 3 to 5 mm polymer modified bitumen. after 7. proper care is not taken either during The cracks develop in cement concrete slabs primarily due to plastic shrinkage or drying shrinkage soon after the construction. heavy commercial vehicles carrying construction materials shall be allowed for a period of 28 days. Opening 7.

2) Bhatnagar. Fine crazy cracks. and Barenberg.M. are not serious. length of cracks with depth of crack less than half the depth a panel shall not be more than 1250 mm. 3) Bradbury. Transportation Engineering. 13-23. (1938).. M. (1991). in Concrete Pavements". Tech.R. "Westergaard Solutions Reconsidered." Technical Report Structures 1. Y.C. Vicksburg. with and 3. Thesis. R.T (1981). R.C.. Experiment Station.K. for . IIT-Kharagpur. E. 2. however. Transportation Research Board. 1043. A." Transportation Research Record. other cracks which are deep and are likely to it amounts progress in to structural failure. May. M. Cracks can appear generally due a) to the following reasons: due Plastic shrinkage of concrete surface to rapid loss of moisture during hot summer b) Drying shrinkage c) High wind velocity associated with low humidity d) High ambient temperature e) Delayed sawing of joints f) Rough and uneven surface base on which concrete slabs are of the constructed g) The slabs with Combination of the above factors full depth cracks are totally unacceptable as Besides.J. even less than half of the slab depth. "Stresses loannides. depth with time are also be considered as serious in nature. S. 4) Washington. Miss.. Reinforced Concrete Pavements. "Structural Analysis Computer Programs Component Pavement WESLAYER. Chou. The acceptance criteria for cracked concrete slabs are: to i) The length of single crack though ii) depth The cumulative of slab iii) its in is in any panel shall not be more than 750 mm. D..17 Concrete slabs Criteria for Cracked Concrete Slabs may develop cracks of minor to serious nature unless appropriate precautions are taken to prevent their occurrence either during the construction phase or post-construction period. (1985).D. Slabs with cracks which are penetrating to more than half of the slab depth shall not be accepted. REFERENCE 1) Thompson.. D. Washington.IRC:SP:62-2014 Acceptance 7. 32 Rigid WESLIQID Multi and Army Engineering Waterways Discontinuities U. Wire Reinforcement Inst.

ASCE. Srinivas. "Design Guidelines for the Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways"." Journal. B. loannides. 146-154. "Stresses in Concrete Pavements"." Transportation Research Record. (1991). Lime and Flyash". P. X. in Concrete Pavements of Venkatasubramanian. M. S. and Y.IRC:SP:62-2014 Choubane. 113. Washington. of Road Fwa. (1991).. D. 3''' Revision. DC. D. Vol. Transportation Engineering." Journal of Transportation Engineering. May.C..A. 33 . Pavements Wang. "Westergaard Solutions Reconsidered. Indian Roads Congress. 97-98.M. (1973).. Draft Final report. 1964. Westergaard. V. R." ASCE Transactions. "Wheel Load and Temperature Stresses Concrete Pavement. D. IRC:58-2011. Washington. 122(2). Thompson..R. Tech. Transportation Research Board. 11=19. and Tia." Highway Research Bulletin No.T.. IRC:SP:89-2010. Jan/Feb 1995. "Guidelines and Granular Material for Soil Stabilization Using Cement. The Design and Performance Pavements. Suresh. T. and Barenberg. Washington. Washington. (1996)." Transportation Research Record 485. (1985). Thesis (Unpublished).. K. ASCE..B. "Finite-Element Analysis of Rigid Partial Subgrade Contact.P and Tan. and Pandey.. 75-81. B. Bhatnagar. "Investigation on Temperature and Friction Stresses in Bonded Cement Concrete Pavements". D. 425-444. Y. and Wang...H. "Analysis of Concrete Pavements by Rectangular Thick-Plate Model. "Finite-Element Analysis of Concrete Slabs and its Implications on Rigid Pavement Design. 77 (2007). M. National Highway Research Program. 466. "New Formulas for Stresses Airfield.H. Ph. Shi. Thesis. 1043. B. Transportation Research Board. McGraw-Hill Book Cokg/cm2ny. 73. (1948).C.2005. M. (1974). and Croney.B. D.M. Design Guide: Design of NCHRP New and NCHRP (2004) '2002 Rehabilitated Structures'.C. "Non-Linear Tenriperature Gradient Effect on IVIaximum Warping Stresses in Rigid Pavements. pp 49-58.F. S.. IIT-Kharagpur. E.K. pp 11-24. (1992). in IRC. "Warping Streses HRB in Concrete Pavements- A Re-Examination" No. with Transportation Research Board.. 13-23. and Tia. Huang. T. B." Transportation Research Record 1370. Transportation Engineering.J. M. Vol. Huang. Choubane. Pandey. IIT-Kharagpur. India. A. "Analysis and Verification of Thermal Gradient Effects on Concrete Pavement. Transportation Engineering. S. 55-79.T. Croney. 39-54." Highway Research Record. (1995). H. Study 1-37 A.

Computer Programs "Structural Analysis Component Pavement WESLAYER. 1995.C." Transportation Research Record 1370. 27) Specifications A." State-of-the-Art Technical Committee. 140-147. France. and Croney. (1995). ASCE.. 1999. R. 11-19.M.D. V. No. concrete: 28) & and Tamimi. of Tests. "Self-Leveling Concrete . Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete.K. (1981). May 2005.K. Properties". 29) Yurugi. 97-98. M.. The Design and Performance of Road Pavements. 50-54. May. Published by Indian Roads Congress 34 . "Self-Compacting Concrete. and Pera." Journal of Transportation Engineering.. H. (1938). A.T. (1992).. Bartos. Proceeding of the International U. France. Dundee. Workability Performance High Concrete. Iwai. No. D. 75-81. Development...Specification. 34) Specifications on Rural Road. 2000. Okamura.. Concrete Library of JSCE. PJ. M. Report. RILEM Compendium TC 145-WSM. M. 31) Okamura. Report of "Self-Compacting and Rheology of Fresh RILEM Technical Committee. J. October. D. Chou. O. B.19.Design and Concrete Science & Engineering. pp. McGraw-Hill Book Cokg/cm2ny. pp 97-104. and Tia. Production & Use. H. Sakata. C. USA.. Sonebi. Ohno. Publish. 24) EFNARC 25) The European Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete . Reinforced concrete pavements.. V.. July 1997. 2002. Rols. pp. U. M. Jan/Feb 1995. "Non-Linear Temperature Gradient Effect on Maximum Warping Stresses in Rigid Pavements.. 25. and Tia. Washington. "Self-Compacting Concrete. Feb 2002.." Technical Report Structures with and 1. A.. 26) Skarendahl. D. Report 23. pp 107-120. for Experiment Station. M. "Trends in Research into Polycarboxylate-Based Super plasticizer in Japan". 30) Ambroise.. J. 7. and Sakai.. September. B. Stockholm. 174-SCC. Workable Conference on Concrete. Sweden. First International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete. 22) Choubane. 2000..IRC:SP:62-2014 19) Bradbury. 21) Choubane. 2005. pp 3-14. Miss. Wire Reinforcement Inst. June. 2. M. N.. 32) Okamura. Fourth International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete. Ministry of rural development (under revision). 23) Croney. Transportation Research Board. 1. "Mix Design for Self-Compacting Concrete". 33) Sugamata. and Ouchi. T. S. S. and Ouchi. Y.. Petersson. Vicksburg. Evanston. 20) Washington. and Ozawa. Rigid Multi WESLIQID and Army Engineering Waterways Discontinuities 3. (1991). "Analysis and Verification of Thermal Gradient Effects on Concrete Pavement. P. "Mix Proportion of Highly Concrete".." Concrete International. G. M. H. K. 1999. Present Use & Future".

22 Design Thickness for Trial Traffic of thickness = 150 45 mm. heavy trucks.2). having traffic volumes of (i) 45 Roads (ii) 140 and (iii) Design Design wheel load = 50 kN.IRC:SP:62-2014 Appendix I (Refer Clause 4.10 x 3. temperature stresses need not be considered since occurrence of heavy vehicles and maximum temperature gradient at the same time is least likely 35 . like.75 mm Since the volume of traffic = 45 CVPD. 75 mm water bound macadam grade III over (i) 100 mm GSB and (ii)1 50/200 mm cementitious granular are to be used as subbases (ref Clause 3.6. Tyre pressure = 0. 28 day flexural strength = f^ = 0.834 MPa MPa MPa CVPD joint spacing = 3.20 x 35 = 42 MPa/m mm cementitious subbase = 2 x 35 = 70 is little 2. the k value corresponding to a MPa CBR value of 4 = 35 MPa/m Sub-base 75 mm thick WBM over 100 mm GSB/150 mm/200 mm cementitious subbase Effective k Value The k value over granular bases can be increased by 20 percent (para Effective k value = Effective k over Minor variation 150 mm/200 in k value 1 .7 90 day flexural strength = 1. light goods vehicles. = 3.834 4.5) effect MPa/m on stresses Concrete Strength Adopt a 28 day compressive strength of 30 MPa.80 From Table 1. agricultural tractors/trailers. The soil has a soaked GBR value of 4 percent. buses.5) ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OF DESIGN OF A CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR RURAL ROADS Example Cement concrete pavements are to be designed for Rural in Uttar Pradesh 200 commercial vehicles per day consisting vehicles.

22 MPa hence safe for a thickness of cementitious subbase.34 for a dual applied by a single wheel of a tractor trailer is stress is 4. K = 70 MPa (Cementitious subbase) Stress for a dual wheel load of 50 kN = 3. the temperature differential.93 < 4. and hence the design 36 is 50 kN dual wheel the design slab For the to mm safe.22 MPa. Hence Bradbury's coefficient is computed for the longitudinal edge. tyre pressure is only MPa) (4.89 MPa.5 m. hence the mm thickness stress 160 is safe for 160 mm slab laid over 75 Concrete keeps on gaining strength with time and one year higher than the 28 day strength The designer has design traffic Consider a = 140 trial Temperature to exercise his/her judgment in mm WBM and 100 flexural strength the estimation of traffic is mm GSB. edge load stress wheel load = 4.75 m. 20 percent and thickness CVPD thickness of 170 differential 't' ( mm and joint spacing of 3. The load stresses is maximum when the wheel is at the longitudinal edge.64 MPa and hence due the joint spacing of 3.75 m For UP. = 1 from Table 4. wheel load stress = 3. inputted.22 MPa. Zone no. increase the thickness to 180 computed stress = 3. All computation is done on the Inputting the 't' excel sheet Granular subbase = 175 K = 42 MPa/m over mm.5 sheet. the 0.25 > 4.22 MPa and hence the design is unsafe. If the joint spacing is 2. Cementitioius subbase = 200 mm granular subbase K = 70 MPa/m over cementitious subbase Granular subbase The total of wheel load and the temperature stresses = load 4. Stronger subbase gives a reduced bending stress Trial thickness = 160 mm for GSB Stress due to dual wheel load of 50 kN. is safe for 170 mm .1) is automatically Zone number in the excel yields.22 MPa/m for a tractor trailer carrying the same load at a lower tyre pressure.985 mm over 150 150 mm MPa < 4.IRC:SP:62-2014 Edge Load Stress k = 42 MPa/m From the excel If the same load MPa.37 MPa > MR unsafe for k = 42 Hence the design is The pavement unsafe even is subbase for granular MPa>MR whose = 4. the stress = 3.

50 is m safe since cumulative fatigue designer can exercise various options of damage joint is 0. adoption of the types of joints.75 can thus be seen that for m 3. unsafe since the cumulative = 9.75 m joint spacing < 4.50 subbase m joint spacing while 1 80 mm is needed spacing Cemented subbase Temperature curling stresses can be reduced by adopting a lower load also reduces marginally by decreasing the spacing K = 70 MPa/m Trial for thickness = 170 Stress = 4.49.75 1 m joint spacing 70 mm slab is for granular safe for 2.5 m.62 spacing of 2. It mm GSB should be less than 1 a joint spacing of 2.15 MPa Designers have strips to can be used mm 150/200 spacing while wheel cementitious subbase mm for 3. to create shorter joint spacings.22 MPa. 37 .31. m over 250 unsafe. Every designer can develop his/own computation since the approach fatigue mm damage and a is spacing of 4 joint 193. hence safe consider all the factors in selecting the joint spacing. Pavement damage is still is 2. there end of Design The pavement life entire for the shown in even though fatigue analysis indicates the excel sheet. Since concrete = 20 years spread sheet Assume is in unsafe safe since the cumulative fatigue mm for 4.01 spacing using the spread sheet and adopt the thickness and transverse joint spacing according his/her resources. is Hence it is simple.00 joint spacing. Total of wheel load and temperature stresses are considered strength even after 90 days. of joint It is necessary Saw cutting Cost and convenience to provide a non-erodible will or plastic determine the subbase to avoid lack subgrade support Pavement design for traffic = 200 CVPD Fatigue fracture of concrete should be considered for design.IRC:SP:62-2014 Adopt 180 It mm with 3. is still Take thickness = 220 damage Consider a joint The pavement A is a thickness of 200 The pavement fatigue residual strength keeps on gaining life computation The cumulative Assume fatigue analysis.

(c) and (d).2 mm thick slab.2 38 mm Concrete Slab March 30-31. The total stress due to thermal-loading condition is obtained by adding algebraically the bending stresses due to the linear temperature and the nonlinear temperature part. 1/4^^ depth. 11-2 Temperature Variation (°C) in a 203. Fig. (b) (a) Fig. When the surface of the concrete has its maximum or minimum daily temperatures. 1963 . The actual temperature variation across the depth of a pavement (Fig. 11-2 (Venkatasubramanian 1964) shows temperature measurements made at the surface. The 11-1 Components due bending stresses due total stress linear of Nonlinear Temperature to thermal-loading condition to linear (d) (c) is Distribution during Day Time obtained by adding algebraically the temperature part which extends through full depth of slab and temperature part which extends only to top half of the slab.1 The temperature distribution across the slab thickness is usually non-linear though linearity has been assumed in thickness design in earlier versions of IRC:SP:62 and IRC:58. the 3/4^^ depth and at the bottom for a 203. the temperature difference between the surface and the mid depth can be more than double the difference between the mid depth and the bottom. In the present analysis it is considered that the temperature difference between the top surface and the mid depth is double that between mid depth and the bottom during the day hours when the traffic is higher on low volume roads.1. Temperature fC) Fig.2. The measurements were made at Kharagpur in Eastern India. 11-1 a) can be taken as the sum of a uniform and a nonlinear temperature variation.2) Analysis of Stresses Caused by Non-Linear Temperature Distribution 2. The nonlinear variation can be further approximated by bilinear variation and the temperature variation can be split as shown in Figs. the mid depth. Similar observations were reported by Croney and Croney (1991).IRC:SP:62-2014 Appendix II (Refer Clause 4. 11-1 (b).

D = Eh' 11-2 12(1-^1^) Bending Stress. 11-3.2 If the plate direction moment is subjected to the action of tensile or compressive forces acting and uniformly in the x and y distributed along the sides of the plate.al 1993) can be observed that the difference in temperature between surface and underface of the slab is higher during day time as compared to the difference at night.IRC:SP:62-2014 and others (Venkatasubramanian 1964.3 6M 11-3 IF Day and Night Time Curling During the day time. The linear temperature variation over half the depth of the slab causes internal bending stresses in the pavement and was analyzed by using classical plate bending theory. c = 2. Bending of Upper and Lower Halves of Slab 39 When Free to Bend . It can also be observed that during day time the temperature variation is highly nonlinear as compared to night time variation. The reverse is distribution the trend during the night hours as Fig. General Plate Bending Theory Formulation 2. During night time this difference is approximately half of that during day time. the corresponding bending equal to is M = D o w — —wV T^\^ o 11=1 where. Choubane et. 11-3 shown in Fig. 11-4. From the The Fig. the upper half of the slab will tend to bend due to linear temperature between the top and the middle surface but lower half will have no effect and it remains in its original position (horizontal) if free to do so and consequently the upper and the lower halves will tend to have different radii of curvature as shown in Fig. 11-2 it slab with the linear temperature variation extending to the full depth of the slab is analyzed by Bradbury's theory.

20 the two directions are equal. 0—^(1+^1) 40 . 18 .... This causes compressive stresses at the top and the bottom and tensile stresses at mid depth during day time and tensile stresses at top and bottom and compressive stresses at mid depth during night time.. internal C Fig. 19 .. 11-4 The real slab is Bending of Upper and Lower Halves of Slab a monolithic radius of curvature of mass and — and Free to up or warp down as one will curl (Figs. 11-6 Tensile and Compressive Stresses due to Internal Bending Moments During Night time a) In the interior close to the center.IRC:SP:62-2014 M Fig.. 11-5 Tensile and Compressive Stresses due to Internal Bending Moments During Day Time Fig. The values of stresses can be approximately estimated from geometrical compatibility as shown below. the bending Since curvatures M = in moment is given as . 11-5 When 11-6) and Bend unit with internal stresses will a common be set up due to bending moments M as shown in Figs. 11-3 & 2-4 to annul the different curvatures of the upper and the lower parts.

33 -0.000 MPa.44 21 -0. the bending moment b) M = D Edge given as d''w Stress. Interior Curling Stresses. = 0.. curling stresses for 2 Table 1-1 Nonlinear Part Temperature Stresses.43 -0. The compressive curling stresses for various temperature differentials are shown in Table 1-1.61 Temperature Difference °C 41 . 22 EaA. 21 . = 0.20 -0.38 17 -0....53 -0. a = For a = 10 -^ E = 30.23 13 -0. If is the temperature differential |j 6M 3A^.15. Daytime Edge Curling Stresses. is .0767 (Compressive Bradbury's equation is used at the for the bottom) computation of and the compressive curling stress is subtracted to obtain the net curling stresses.IRC:SP:62-2014 Along the edge. MPa (Compressive) MPa (Compressive) 8 -0.

Marginal increased compensated to a great extent considering such advantages as reduction in may finally become construction time and a higher ultimate durability of the structure and cost effective. SCC can thus be a solution for rigid pavement of village roads. not much in terms of performance requirements in hardened state such as strength and durability. properties for rigid pavement of village road noting the fact that a While the material cost of SCC has generally been higher than conventional concrete. SCC mix has special performance attributes of self-compaction/consolidation under the action of gravity. another option considering these dense compacted concrete in line and level is a prime requirement for village road. maintaining homogeneity. Traditionally Placed Concrete (TPC) mix is compacted with the help of external energy inputs from vibrators. tamping or similar actions. but due to development of new admixtures. The difference between the SCC and TPC exists in the performance requirements during fresh state. On the other hand. In it High deformability can be achieved by appropriate employment of super plasticizer. but initial cost is it 42 . is level of slump at fresh state and placing it with the help of external energy. the differential cost is much reduced. These are the basics to achieve the flowability and viscosity of a suspension to achieve self-compacting properties. if needed. therefore.IRC:SP:62-2014 Appendix III (Refer Clause 1. Usage of higher dosages of fly ash in SCC enhances its flow ability which in turn reduces the usage discomfort at construction site. The SCC is. a fresh SCC mix shall have appropriate workability under the action of its self-weight for filling all the space within form work (filling ability). TPC or SCC should have the ability to embedment in fresh state achieved by means of ensuring a minimum the formwork as well as encapsulate reinforcing bars and other case of TPC. However. and reduction of costly labour and noise Improved surface finish and quality of hardened concrete as well as improvement of working condition are few of the great potentials of SCC. Minimum efforts in vibration mean an ordinary screed is enough to get surface in line and level to obtain a dense concrete. The rheological characteristics of fresh concrete mix is not only necessary for workability to achieve desired mould ability but they also help in achieving desired in-situ strength and durability attributes at the hardened state. Standard manual/guidelines for usage of SCC in India are not available. of costly chemical admixtures. passing through the obstructions of reinforcement and embedment (passing ability) and maintaining its homogeneity (resistance to segregation). maintaining and Viscosity Modifying Agent (VMA). low water powder The advantages ratio of SCC are enhanced productivity.2) SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE 1 A INTRODUCTION constant strive to improve performance and productivity led to the development of Self- Compacting Concrete (SCO). For mould fill a concrete mix irrespective of being ability.

2 For the purposes of TERMS AND DEFINITIONS this publication. Fluidity The ease of flow of fresh concrete. Binder The combined cement and mineral admixture. water and air. provided uniform ensured. This publication refers 456-2000 to as: Mineral Admixtures.75 mm.IRC:SP:62-2014 they are available in in developed countries as cited in references and a working detail is given the following. Paste The fraction of the concrete comprising powder. Passing Ability The ability of fresh concrete to flow through tight openings such as reinforcing bars without segregation or blocking 43 spaces between steel . plus admixture. Filling Ability The ability of fresh concrete to flow into and fill all spaces within the formwork. Flow Ability The ease of flow of fresh concrete when unconfined by formwork and/or reinforcement. Finely-divided inorganic material used improve certain properties or pozzolanic materials defined in IS to in concrete in order achieve special properties. Chemical Admixture Material added during the mixing process of concrete in small quantities related to the of cementitious binder to modify the properties of fresh or mass hardened concrete. the following definitions apply: Mineral Admixtures Pozzolanic materials conforming to relevant Indian Standards blending with cement to is may be used. under its own weight. if applicable. Mortar The fraction of the concrete comprising paste plus those aggregates less than 4.

g. completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement. 3 RHELOGY PROPERTIES Rheology 3. mm (125 |j) cement additives as flyash.125 Note It : includes fractions specially crushed in the cement.IRC:SP:62-2014 Powder (Fines) Material of particle size smaller than 0. Segregation Resistance The ability of concrete to remain homogeneous in composition while in its fresh state Slump-Flow The mean diameter of the spread of fresh concrete using a conventional slump cone Thixotropy The tendency SCC) to progressive loss fluidity when energy is applied of a material (e. undisturbed but to regain its of fluidity when allowed to rest Viscosity The resistance Note to flow of a material (e. 44 . In SCC in the V-funnel test : it SCC) once flow has started. SCC can be used in most applications where traditionally vibrated concrete is ability is used. silica fumes and aggregate sand Robustness The capacity of concrete to retain its fresh properties when small variations in the properties or quantities of the constituent materials occur Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Concrete that is able to flow and consolidate under its own weight. whilst maintaining homogeneity and without the need for any additional compaction.g.1 Self-compaction of fresh concrete reinforcing bar/available homogeneity. speed of flow T^^^ in the Slump-flow described in the Annexures III-1 and III-2 can be related to the test or the efflux time Viscosity Modifying Admixture (VMA) Admixture added to fresh concrete to increase cohesion and segregation resistance. The is described as its ability to fill the formwork and encapsulate space only through the action of gravity while maintaining achieved by designing the concrete to have suitable inherent rheological properties.

Rheology rheological of concrete. self-compactability signifies the ability of the concrete to flow after being pump discharged from the fill intended formwork to achieve a zero-defect and uniform-quality concrete. it is essential to reduce the amount of movable water in the mixture. > Bleeding of water > Paste and aggregate segregation > Coarse aggregate segregation leading > Non-uniformity in SCC to blocking air-pore distribution To avoid the segregation of water from the solids.2 In workability terms. Movable water can be reduced by using low water content and low W/P. Self-compactability a fresh state property can be characterized by three functional requirements: spaces in hose. of the following segregation parameters in should not have either flowing or stationary state.125 also be improved by increasing the viscosity of water through the use of 45 VMA. a skip or a similar device only through gravity to in Filling Ability Resistance to Segregation Passing Ability 3. The meaning of the filling ability includes both the flow. . The basic property casting and compaction the development of is its SCC.2. there should be a good balance between the deformation capacity and velocity of deformation. The velocity of deformation can in the same method be evaluated as the time it takes the must be able to deform or change its shape very well concrete to reach a certain deformation.2. in terms of how far from the discharge the concrete can flow (deformation capacity). the deformation capacity can be evaluated as the final flow diameter of the concrete measured after the concrete has completely stopped deforming. Using the slump flow measurement. To achieve a good filling ability. Rheology has thus mortar as well as paste is been central in in all forms of matter.1 SCC Filling ability under its self-weight. and the speed with which it flows (velocity of deformation). Workability 3. Segregation resistance between water and solids can less than 0.2 Resistance to segregation Concrete should not show tendency any to segregate during movement.IRC:SP:62-2014 Rheology is the study of flow and deformations of influencing the performance of the fresh concrete behavior. (Water/Powder) It is also possible to use powder material (Materials having size mm (125 micron) with high surface area since more water can be retained on the surface of the powder material. important for understanding the behavior and optimisation processes. 3.

blocking occur will in the following conditions: > > The maximum The content size of the aggregate is of large-sized aggregates too large is too high The blocking tendency is increased if the concrete has a tendency for segregation of coarser aggregate particles.2.IRC:SP:62-2014 The other categories can be solved by having a paste phase which is capable of carrying the aggregate particles.1 The filling ability and self-compacting concrete stability of in the fresh state can be defined by four key characteristics. 4 SPECIFICATION General 4. Slump flow of 400 mm and V cone of 8 seconds if observed would meet the requirement for village roads as seen by several experiments. Slump Flow & V-funnel 4. Passing 3. This can be done by increasing the cohesion between the paste phase and aggregate phase through the use of low w/p or by using VMA. Since the SCC is intended to be used for rigid pavement for roads and the roads are in grades and camber. the acceptable values of parameters will have to be fixed by trials and carrying out field observations. There should not be any visible signs of segregation.3 For sec of segregation ability with excellent filling & segregation ability resistance. 46 in traditional vibrated concrete . Thus blocking can occur even if the maximum aggregate size is not excessively large.2 test methods for SCC are described Annexures in III-1 and III-2 Segregation Resistance Visual observations during the additional information Slump flow test and/or measurement of the T^^^ time can give on the segregation resistance. Each characteristic can be addressed by one or more test methods: Preferred test method(s) Characteristic Flowability Slump-flow test Viscosity (assessed by rate of flow) T^^^ Passing L-box test ability Segregation Slump-flow test or V-funnel test Segregation resistance (sieve) test The above tests are fully described in EN 12350-2. 5 5.1 The CONSTITUENT MATERIALS General constituent materials for conforming SCC are the same as those used to IS:456.

The durability 5. 1 rheology of the SCC.3 Normal-weight aggregates should conform to IS:383 and meet the durability requirements of IS:456. All normal concreting sands are suitable for SCC. Some of the important requirements of fly ash are listed Fly below: Requirement No. (%) 1 Total Sulpher 2 Total Chloride (%) 3 on 45 m IS sieve 5. 47 is very important of fines (arising from the binders and the .900 m^/kg GGBS Hydraulic conforming to IS: 12089 Fly ash 5.05 LOI (%) Max Max Max 4 Fineness (m^/kg) Min 320 5 Particles retained Max 34 as SO. Limit 0. The addition will also regulate the cement content order to reduce the heat of hydration and in thermal shrinkage. 25 mm is to be considered as powder and A minimum amount sand) must be achieved to avoid segregation.2.2 ash has been shown to be an effective addition for SCC providing increased cohesion and reduced sensitivity to changes in water content. Sr. inert and pozzolanic/hydraulic additions are commonly used to improve and maintain the cohesion and segregation resistance.1. Both crushed or rounded sands can be used.0 5. However.2 Mineral Admixtures 5.IRC:SP:62-2014 Minimum Cement 5.0 Aggregates 5.1 General for the Due to the fresh property requirements of SCC. Fly ash conforming to IS:381 2 (Part-1 ) 2003 shall be used.1 requirements conforming to IS:456 of the minimum cement content given exposure conditions should be adhered to. high levels of fly ash may produce a paste fraction which is so cohesive that it can be resistant to flow. The additions are classified according to their reactive capacity with water: Pozzolanic Fly Ash conforming Silica to Grade 1 of IS:3812(Part-1) fumes Rice husk ash Metakaoline having fineness between 700 .2. The amount for the of fines less than 0.

4.3. precast concrete etc.1 Coarse aggregates conforming influence of fine aggregates on the fresh properties of the SCC is significantly greater mm than that of coarse aggregate. Viscosity Modifying Admixtures and the sensitivity of the mix due (VMA) may also be used to help reduce segregation to variations in other constituents. required consistence retention will depend on the The application. Viscosity modifying admixtures 5. Superplasticiser/high range water reducing admixtures 5. robust and less sensitive to small variations in its fluidity are SCC to minimize size distribution.2 Admixtures that modify the cohesion of the SCC without significantly altering These admixtures are used in fines in the sands or its grain called Viscosity Modifying Admixtures (VMA).IRC:SP:62-2014 Coarse aggregate 5. the proportions and condition of other constituents. High efficiency Poly carboxylate based high range water reducer having a consistent performance should be used.4. the effect of variations making the SCC more in moisture content. Some producers prefer gap-graded sand. volume of paste in SCC mixes helps to reduce the internal friction between the sand particles but a good grain size distribution is still very important. BASIC MIX DESIGN no standard method for SCC mix design and many academic institution and company dealing with admixtures.1 The admixture should maintain its bring about the required water reduction and fluidity but should also dispersing effect during the time required for transport and application.125 include the fines content of the paste and should also be taken into account water powder The SCC. There is 48 . Particles size fractions of less than 0.4 High range water reducing admixtures conforming to IS:9103 are an essential component of SCC. Many SCC mix design methods use blended sands to match an optimized aggregate grading curve and this can also help to reduce the paste content. Fine aggregate/sands 5. Admixtures 5. ready-mixed concrete. especially to moisture content.2 The to IS:383 are appropriate for the production of high in should be calculating the ratio. Mixing Water 5.5 Water conforming to IS:456 should be used 6 in SCC mixes.3. have developed their own mix proportioning methods.

02 0.18 mm 0.13 95.65 50 70 0.52 10 30 0.25 100 100 100 99.00 0.00 8.00 33.0 Cement Fly ash 240 to 290 kg 160 to 210 Kg Paste Volume 34 Max Water/Binder (cement + flyash) Mix proportion for to aggregate as per 18:10262 gives good guidelines 38% 0. Another method is to evaluate and optimize the flow and stability of first the paste and then the mortar fractions before the coarse aggregate is added to SCC and the whole Table mix tested.IRC:SP:62=2014 Mix designs often use volume as a key parameter because of the importance of the need to fill the voids between the aggregate particles.600 mm 0.57 3 15 0.60% Coarse Aggregates 750.4 for the quantity of aggregate which can be followed.15 15 35 0.150 0. Some methods try to fit available constituents an optimized grading envelope.65 100 48.00 0 0.0 27.600 Constituent Fine Aggregates 40 . Sieve 20 mm III-2 10 Combined Gradation of Aggregate for Mix Design M30 to M40 Grade of Concrete mm Crushed sand Natural sand Combined (as adopted Recommended upper limit of Recommended lower limit in lab trial) % age 20 mm 10 mm 4.00 39.00 0.90 100.00 10.00 7.5 0 49 .16 6.30 0.300 0.40 91. limits and the range of mix composition typical combined grading in is a given trial are Table in shown III-1.00 21.03 95 100 1. Table IS A of concrete.00 4.4 4.075 m m 97.50 100.40 100.06 25 45 0.1000 of the total Aggregate weight 270 .00 0.95 100.76 to 1.28 62.36 mm 1. in The upper Table III-2 and III-1. Several experiment of mix design can be done and upper and lower bound of aggregate size curves established by series of trial mixes for M30 to M40 grade and lower Fig. Typical III-1 Range SCC of Mix Composition for M30 to M40 Grade of Concrete Quantity (kg/m^) Quantity (Ltrs/m^) Water 155-175 155-175 Powder 375 .35 100.75 100 100 64.00 14.00 19.00 0.75 mm 2.63 35 55 0.00 13.360 w/p (water/paste volume) 0.00 0.0 0.

36 0. These can ratio and the lack all CURING concrete but especially so for the top-surface of elements made with dry quickly because of the increased quantity of paste.6 171 w/c 0.IRC:SP:62-2014 Gradation curve 0. III-1 Upper and Lower 100 Sieves Limits of aggregate gradations and Combined gradation for SCC mixes can be evolved for M 30 grade of concrete and typical proportion of various ingredients are given in Table III-3 can form the basis for different trials Trial mixes-Several trial Table III-3 Ingredient Quantities of Materials for Trial Mixes Trial 1 kg/Cubic Meter Trial 2 kg/Cubic Meter Cement 260 270 ash 200 180 988 893 mm Coarse aggregate 10 to 20 mm coarse aggregate 221 384 664 473 Water 165.9% Fly Crushed sand (0 to 4.75 mm) 5 to 10 8 Curing is important for SCC.1 10 1 IS Fig.8% 0. Initial curing should therefore soon as practicable after placing and finishing in order to minimise the and shrinkage cracks caused by early age moisture evaporation. 50 risk of commence as surface crusting . the low water/fines of bleed water at the surface.38 Special admixture 0.

The construction of the plate shall be such as to prevent distortion. The plate surface with a except as detailed below: of 2 shall mm. The deviation from flatness shall not exceed 3 mm at any point when a straight edge is placed between the centres of opposing sides. 3. surface shall not be readily attacked by cement paste or be liable to rusting.2 Rule. 0.3 Stop Watch. . diameter of the flow spread of the concrete and the diameter of the spread at it are then measured and the mean is The right largest angles to the slump-flow.1 s. Graduated from 0 3. at Least 9 kg. It is based on the slump test described in EN 1 2350-2. Having a Mass of Note : 1 mm. The result is an indication of the filling ability of self-compacting concrete. 2 Principle The fresh concrete is poured into a cone as used for the IS:9103 slump test. 1.1 in accordance with made from a flat EN 12350-2 minimum thickness 900 mm x 900 mm smooth and non-absorbent plate with a plane area of at least on which concrete can be placed. The test is not suitable when the maximum self- size of the aggregate exceeds 40 mm.4 Weighted Collar (Optional). See Fig. the lines of which run parallel to the edges of the plate and with circles of 200 mm diameter and 500 mm diameter having their centres coincident with the centre point of the plate.IRC:SP:62-2014 Test Methods TESTING FRESH CONCRETE SLUMP-FLOW TEST : - Introduction The slump-flow diameter is a test to assess the flowability and the flow rate of self-compacting concrete in the absence of obstructions. Measuring to 3. The centre of the plate shall be scribed with a cross. Scope 1 This document specifies the procedure for determining the slump-flow diameter for compacting concrete. the weighted collar allows the test to be carried out by 51 one person. mm to 1000 mm at Intervals of 3. Apparatus 3 The apparatus shall be Baseplate. The have a flat.

d) Slump-flow to the nearest e) Any 10 mm. indication of segregation of the concrete. Fit the collar to the cone if being used. measure the largest diameter of the flow spread and record as to the nearest 10 mm. Without disturbing the base plate or concrete. ensuring that no concrete can leak from under the cone. one movement without interfering with the flow of concrete. Then measure the diameter of the flow spread at right angles to d to the nearest 10 mm and record as d to the nearest 10 mm. Lift the cone vertically in Check the concrete spread The cement paste/mortar may segregate from for segregation. c) Date when test performed. the coarse aggregate to give a ring of paste/mortar extending several millimetres beyond the coarse aggregate. TEST RESULT 6 The slump-flow is the mean of d^ and 7 The d^ expressed to the nearest TEST REPORT test report shall include: a) Identification of the test sample. b) Location where the test was performed. Place the cone coincident with the 200 mm circle on the base plate and hold in position by standing on the foot pieces (or use the weighted collar). Base 1 Plate Reference Clause 4. 52 10 mm.IRC:SP:62-2014 Fig. Report that segregation has occurred and that the test was therefore unsatisfactory.1 TEST SAMPLE 4 The sample shall be obtained in accordance with IS: 11 99. Fill the cone without any agitation or rodding. during this time plate is damp all remove any spilled over but without any surplus water. . cone to stand for not more than 30 concrete from the base plate and ensure the base Allow the filled s. and strike off surplus from the top of the cone. PROCEDURE 5 Prepare the cone and base plate as described in EN 12350-2. Segregated coarse aggregate may also be observed in the central area.

IRC:SP:62-2014 f) Time between completion g) Any The deviation from the procedure report may Time j) in this tests. 1. also include: The temperature 1) and performance of the of mixing of the concrete at the time of test. document.1 V-funnel. The V-funnel shall be made from metal. of test. the surfaces shall be smooth. 1 SCOPE This document specifies the procedure for determining the V-funnel flow time for self -compacting concrete. made to the 3. '-^ 1 I hinged trapdoor Fig. for Striking off Concrete Level with the to 0. 2 A V-shaped funnel of the funnel is is filled PRINCIPLE with fresh concrete and the time taken measured and recorded as the V-funnel flow for the concrete to flow out time. 1 V-Funnel 53 Top of the Funnel .1 s.4 Straight Edge. TESTING FRESH CONCRETE V-FUNNEL TEST : - 2 Introduction The V-funnel test is used to assess the viscosity and ability filling of self-compacting concrete. measuring 3. watertight gate at its base and supported so that the top of the funnel is horizontal. and not be readily attacked by cement paste or be liable to rusting.3 Stop watch. 3.2 Container. APPARATUS 3 dimensions (tolerance ± 1 mm) in Fig. fitted with a quick release. to hold the test sample and having a volume larger than the volume of the funnel and not less than 12 liters. 3. The test is not suitable when the maximum size of the aggregate exceeds 20 mm.

REFERENCES 1.Part 54 Sampling. the dampen all the inside surface including the gate. Place the container 6 The TEST REPORT test report shall include: a) Identification of the test sample. IS: 11 2. t^ is the V-funnel flow time.IRC:SP:62-2014 TEST SAMPLE 4 A sample of at least 12 Itrs shall be obtained. After a delay of (10 ± 2) s from filling the funnel. EN 99. also include: h) The temperature i) Time of the concrete at the time of test. c) Date when d) V-funnel flow time (tj to the nearest 0. of test. report may and performance of mixing deviation from the procedure s. funnel. . b) Location where the test was performed. Close the gate and pour the sample of concrete into the funnel. from opening the gate to when it is possible to see vertically through the funnel into the container below for the first time.1 s. of the tests.1 e) Time between completion f) Any The test performed. without any agitation or rodding. open the gate and measure the time t^. to 0. Testing fresh concrete - Part 1: 9103. in this document. then strike off the top with the straight edge so that the concrete is flush with the top of the under the funnel in order to retain the concrete to be passed. PROCEDURE 5 Clean the funnel and bottom gate. 2: Slump test. Testing fresh concrete .