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TOPICS: Developing Students’ Knowledge (K3) of 2013 Curriculum
Developing Students’ Knowledge (K3) of 2013 Curriculum from the
Results of Scaffolding in English Teaching
Diah Gusrayani
S3 English Department

# First Annotation
1. Author
2. Date
3. Title
4. Pages
5. Publisher

: Wendy Cumming-Potvin (Murdoch University)
: 2007
: Scaffolding, Multiliteracies, and Reading Circles
: 24 pages
: Canadian Journal of Education 30, 2

Cumming-Potvin, 2007. “Scaffolding, Multiliteracies, and Reading Circles”: Using a
social-constructivist perspective of learning, the researcher investigated a grade-7 boy,
Nicholas, who was identified as challenged by the literacy curriculum. From classobservation, interviews, work samples, note taking and video-taping, in-depth
descriptions of participants’ literacy practices were noticed. A spiralling cycle of four steps
are conducted (planning, acting, observing and reflecting) involving Mrs. Parker as the
teacher, 12 male and 9 female students. Discourse analysis is also employed to examine
transcripts and on both textual and contextual levels. The analysis utilizes a multiliteracies
framework and the four resourcing model to interpret Nicholas’ progress during reading
cycles. Scaffolding, diverse texts and meaningful tasks are applied as continuous
treatments involving Nicholas’ parents (mother), the teacher and the researcher. Nicholas
multiliteracies in home and at school are carefully noted and analysed. Speech patterns
were deconstructed in terms of microelements such as the use of grammar, syntax, and
rhetorical devices. The scaffolding provided covers: reading picture books, short stories,
and extracts from the novel to the students; demonstrating various strategies for effective
reading with the four resources reading model; self- audiotaping; giving challenging
questions; organizing a listening post. The teacher also provided an online component,
involving a class Reading Web Page for children and parents, to access literacy materials
at home and/or school. Scaffolding is also provided at home. Nicholas’ mother provided
him a dictionary, helped him with the reading of the text, and played active support
assistance and support for her son’s literacy practices. The results shown that
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direct. Date 3. positional and task/object.Annotation multiliteracies and interweaving scaffolding and diverse texts in meaningful tasks can encourage agency in student learning across contexts. nature also supports human development. The zone proximal development is varied in relation to interpersonal relationships.scaffolding refers to the way in which products of the individual’s own actions create conditions that direct and support the production of novel forms of action and meaning. Self. social scaffolding and self-scaffolding. Title Scaffolding 4. Title 4. Jacobs : Winter. # Second Annotation 1. Pages : Geralyn M. interaction between participants. Author 2. Naturalistic scaffolding involves the use of naturally occurring environmental features in their unaltered state to aid in acting. In this sense. #Third Annotation 1. and contexts of learning. Author 2. Mascolo (Merrimack College) : 1 August. Scaffolding”: : Michael F. Meanwhile positional scaffolding refers to the ways in which an individual’s physical position or orientation in relation to a task. Pages 5. Social scaffolding refers to the processes by which co-regulated exchanges with other persons direct development in novel directions. 2006 : Change Processes in Development: The Concept of Coactive : 12 : Elsevier “Change Processes in Development: The Concept of Coactive A coactive systems model of development provides a framework for examining other ways in which person-environment relations may scaffold development. object or social context functions to organize. 2006. Ecological scaffolding comprises three types of scaffolding: naturalistic. features of proposed tasks. Date 3. bridging and annalogical mappings. Publisher Mascolo. Self-scaffolding comprised into: cognitive self-scaffolding. Task/object scaffolding refers to the ways in which the task itself or the objects of action structure the construction of novel ways of acting and thinking. Ecological scaffolding refers to the ways in which one’s relation to or position within the broader physical and social ecology moves action toward novel forms. Three broad categories (and subtypes) of coactive scaffolding proposed here are: ecological scaffolding. 2001 : Providing the Scaffold: A Model for Early Childhood/Primary Teacher Preparation :5 Page | 2 . or make an action easier to perform.

in order to help them to plan inviting learning environments that encourage active learning and exploration. #Fourth Annotation 1. teacher has to be equipped with inclusion and multicultural concept of the class so that they arse ready to challenge it to become a potential for class development. active environments especially for young children must equipped themselves with the foundation of the scaffold in theory and developmentally appropriate practice. so that they will be no longer unfamiliar with the condition they are going to face.Annotation 5. Teachers who are able to effectively create and teach in multicultural. For the final touch of the scaffolding. inclusive. Title : Putting scaffolding to work: The contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education Page | 3 . When students have a clear understanding of child development. engaging. Date : April 2005 3. Second. Author :Jenny Hammond (University of Technology. enhancing the role of technology. No. Training in the latest technological advances will help students to be able to use technology for their own purposes and to help their future students make the best use of it. “Providing the Scaffold: A Model for Early Childhood /Primary Teacher Preparation. They should be given the space to do reflection both the theory and practice they have learned and experienced. both in the field and in the classroom. As a major part for scaffolding to prepared teachers. Sydney) 2. This article offers scaffolding as a model to be taking into account for the early childhood and primary teacher preparation. so that they can learn various strategies and techniques. they have to possess strategies and skills. Publisher : Early Childhood Education Journal. First. the teachers should be introduced with learning centres and modelling authentic assessment. 2001. An in-depth practicum in the third year of teacher preparation can provide students with needed opportunities to practice writing and carrying out lesson plans and developing their observation and assessment skills.2 Jacobs. such as providing and facilitating prepared teachers the knowledge of child development and national standards. Teacher preparation programs should provide future teachers with experiences. and modelling appropriate practices. hands-on. prepared teachers should be provided a time for reflection. they are better prepared to work effectively with children in their individual zones of proximal development. Sydney) Pauline Gibbons (University of Technology. they should be equipped with experiences in field. In modelling appropriate practices. Scaffolding for teachers to be are also necessary. Vol 29.

meditational texts. Classroom learning to be most effective. In specific discussion. Hammond and Gibbons come up with the idea of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ scaffolding. 2006. but within their ability to complete when scaffolding is provided. “Putting scaffolding to work: the contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education. the author examines specific types of scaffolding to promote linguistic and academic development. appropriating. Page | 4 . selection of tasks.I Hammond and Gibbons. therefore is called designed in scaffolding. teaching and learning tasks should be ahead of students’ abilities to complete alone. recasting. from macro level planning of curricula to micro level moment-to-moment scaffolding and the contingent variation of support responsive to interactions. individuals. how classrooms are organised and in the selection and sequencing of tasks. Title : Scaffolding Instruction for English Language Learners: A Conceptual Framework 4. Publisher : The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Walqui. Drawing on sociocultural theory. the actual carrying out of particular activities in the class. is not pre-scripted or pre-planned. Pages : 22 5. by their nature. Whereas micro –scaffolding relies in the interactional forms of students and teacher which. Pages 5. cued elicitation. Publisher : 25 : Prospect Vol. collaborative nature of support and development. recapping/meta comment. 2006. Scaffolding work this way: students are . No. rather than within. Date : 2006 3. Effective teaching is not simply the transmission of information from one individual to another. Effective scaffolding should also results in ‘handover’ with students being able to transfer skills and understanding to new tasks in new learning contexts. Walqui presents a model of scaffolding that emphasises the interactive social nature of learning and the contingent. but is a collaborative and negotiated social process where knowledge is constructed between. And third.provided with similar tasks later in new contexts. weaving together several levels of pedagogical support.” It is only when support is required that new learning will take place. First. thereby becoming increasingly independent learners. scaffolding can be thought of as three related pedagogical ‘scales’. Macro-scaffolding is consciously planned by the teacher. # Fifth Annotation 1. Second. The realisations of interactional scaffolding reveals in the absence or presence of: linking to prior knowledge/pointing forward. and increasing prospectiveness. since the learner is then likely to be working within the ZPD. metacognitive and metalinguistic awareness. participant structures. the meaning of providing a support structure to enable certain activities and skills to develop. sequencing of tasks.Annotation 4. 20. “Scaffolding Instruction for English Language Learners: A Conceptual Framework”. there is the assistance provided in moment to moment interaction. semiotic systems. Author : Aida Walqui 2. macro scaffolding deals with the presence or absence of: students’ prior knowledge and experience. In his view. The realisations of designed-in scaffolding can be found in the ways in which classroom goals are identified. The model conceives of scaffolding both as process and structure.