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Proctored Exam

General Information

Mary Rose
• one of Henry VII’s heavily armed warships
• ship was slo the crew’s home and workspace
• 185 soldiers
• 200 sailors
• 30 gunners
• since the ship sank into very fine silt, many of the crew’s possessions are very well preserved.
• Little is known of the clothing worn by people in Tudor times
• The recovery of it provided archaeologists with 19,000 Tudor artifacts

Story of the ship

• 34 years of service as flagship
• Sank in 1545
• Raised in 1982
• Built in Portsmouth
• launched in 1511
• sank 2 KM from the entrance to the Portsmouth Harbor
Henry VII & the Mary Rose
• Henry VIII and the Mary Rose
• He inherited several ships from his father
• Earliest reference to the Mary Rose
• appears in a record of payment made by Henry for bringing the ship to the River Thames
• The ship is named after the Virgin Mary, who was also known as “The Mystic Rose”
• By 1520s, Henry had made a permanent ‘Navy Royal’
• The First French War (1512-1514)
• Mary Rose’s first battle in 1512
• A naval operation with the Spanish against the French
• English Channel
• Sir Edward Howard
• Henry’s Lord High Admiral
• Chose Mary Rose as his flagship
• led to the capture of 12 Breton ships

King of France. edge to edge planking.• • • • • • Mary Rose chosen again as flagship against French after taking part in a race against other ships Died trying to board a French galley • Thomas Howard appointed new Lord Admiral • Treaty and marriage of Henry’s sister Mary to the French King Louis XII ended the war The Second French War • 1522 • The Mary Rose escorted troops to France • War ended in 1525 when Francis I. but there could be a number of reasons why she sank. • Theory 1 . pioneer divers John and Charles Deane discovered the site of the wreck • Recovered a bronze demi cannon gun Why did the Mary Rose sink? • Witness • The only eyewitness says that she had fired all of her guns on one side and was turning when she caught a gust of wind • Other accounts agree she was turning.Human Error • Most likely • Captain or crew made a mistake • the admiral: “I have the sort of men that I could not rule” .when planks overlap.Smooth. creating an uneven surface • Carvel . English have less • Battle of Solent • According to French • The calm allowed the French to pound the English ships • The Mary Rose heeled over and sank • Other accounts • French attacked when Henry VIII was at dinner. Shipbuilders would have been able to cut holes in the hull for large guns and fit them with watertight lids The 3rd French war and the final voyage • England Isolated • 1545 • 128 ships to 80 ships. the M R sank towards the evening • Only 25 survivors • Failed salvage • premature confidence • Swallowed by the silts • M R acted as a silt trap for the Solent currents • in 1836. was captured at the Battle of Pavia The refit • Mary rose kept in reserve from 1522 to 1525 • in 1527 she was caulked and repaired • 1535 • may have been altered from clinker planking to carvel planking • Clinker .

1982 • Salvage vessel Sleipner was moored on site • Staf could work in shifts • The Rasing of the Mary Rose: 1982 • They decided to use a purpose-built lifting frame that would be attached by wires to steel bolts passing through he hull • The giant floating crane Tog Mor was used • 570 tonnes • Working Ashore: 1983 .The French • No evidence • French officer claimed he sunk the ship • Theory 4 . which added extra guns • Theory 3 .2012 • The Ship • Wrapped in protective foam • Constantly sprayed • 1985 she was turned upright and titanium supports were installed to support her • 1994 PEG used (wax) • 2004 concentrated PEG • 2013 Dried out • The artifacts • 19.1978 • A trench across the wreck proved that two decks survived (78) • Mary Rose Trust (79) • H.R. and airlifts • Diver Percy Ackland found three of the port frames of the M R in 1971 • The Early Years: 1971 .• • Protect family name? • Theory 2 .2005 • Funding from the Ministry of Defense .000 • Recent Dives: 2003 .Alexander McKee • 1965 he initiated Project Solent Ships • Used sonar scans • Used dredgers.The Wind • Gust of wind • Eye-Witness • She became too heavy after a recent refit.Overloading • If she was overloaded a strong gust of wind could have knocked her over Raising the Mary Rose • The Search: 1965 . Prince Charles as president • Full-Time staf • The Excavation: 1979 .1970 • Dedication of one man . water jets.H.

and knitted garments • Entertainment • Men relaxed with books. and fought in cramped conditions on board Life on board • The Crew • 415 Crew members • during wartime that number could be as high as 700 • Only men • Identical objects • arrow bits • wooden dishes • standards of production and quality of goods • Food and Drink • Fine pewter dishes were used by officers • Wooden dishes • everyday domestic objects were normally just thrown away rather than kept for posterity • Cooked in two large cauldrons • animals were butchered to meet standards • no marrow bones as they would have gone of more quickly than other bones • Clothing • Wool. jerkins.• • 50 cms of sediment • Facts/Figures • Excavation work between 79 and 82 took 28. found in a chest on the orlop deck • Played pipe while beating on the drum . worked.000 dives and 12 man years on the seabed • 60 million people watched the raising of the hull • a portion of the port side bow structure was reburied using Terram Image Gallery Artefacts Her crew • • Key Facts • Final recoreded crew list contained 185 soldiers. 200 mariners. and games • Backgammon • Morris boards scratched into a barrel • Dice • Musical instruments • Three tabor pipes and a tabor. or drum. silk and leather survived well • No garments of linen survived • Shoes. and 30 gunners • Most people were late teens or early twenties • only 25 to 30 people survived the sinking • Lived. music.

and depth tools found The Men of the Mary Rose • The Carpenter • Tools • Mallet. distance. silver coins. or the growth of new bone (heavy work) • Powder monkey • young boy who carried gunpowder • Master Gunner • Wore two jerkins stained by gunpowder • in charge of all guns • trained • whistle • The Archers • 130 longbows and several thousand arrows found • Skeletons show that many men had os acromiale (shoulder blade disorder in archers) • The Surgeon • Highly skilled • in his cabin • acted as a doctor. and a sundial • Wealthy • The Master Gunner and crew • group of six skeletons found near a 2 tonne gun on the main deck • five were strong men • vertebrae in spines show signs of ossification. planes. a book. and a mortise gauge • kept his prized pewter safely locked away in a chest • with jewelry. and parmacist . brace. dentist. rulers. and a leather pouch. and ink was also found • but not everyone could read and right • graffiti was a personal mark to show that they owned something Navigation • Three compasses • Earliest known gimbaled compasses • Two pairs of dividers • earliest known dividers • No deep-sea navigational equipment • Time.• • • • • Two fiddles also found Shawm • most exciting musical discovery • early form of oboe • extra hole for thumb • perhaps there was a band Leather books. pens. direction.

28 had personal possessions inside • chests belonged to wealthy officers and gentlemen • The Officers • A chest had two swords and a mould for making shot for swivel guns • the owner organizes the fighting crew • Could have been a quartermaster. bowls. a whetstone. responsible for all the mariners stationed below decks during a battle to fix any damage • This is why so many men were found below decks Skeletons • A unique resource • Crew all died at once • cross section of community at one time • The skeletons • bones of a total of 179 people • 92 fairly complete skeletons • some were 13 years old • 80 % younger than 30 • English origin. keeping accounts of stores. most likely from West Country • Some of the crew hailed from continental Europe • Current work • See what illnesses people had • Indication of profession • Fusing of vertebrae can indicate that someone was involved in heavy manual work ‘Hatch’ . and cooking tools • Two ovens • Built into each was a very large brass cauldron • Graffiti shows that his name was Ny Cop • The Purser • Store on the orlop deck • Chest contained gold and silver coins • Responsible for paying and mustering the crew. buying supplies and issuing food and drink according to the rations list • May have also been a money changer (ox with a set of scales) • The ‘Gentleman’ • of the 50 chests. and a bowl to collect blood. Also had two metal syringes.• • • • • Chest which contained canisters filled with ointments. in charge of a quarter of the fighting men on board • A fifth ‘quarter’ was recommended with a pattern of the hold. His equipment included razors. and a shaving bowl The Cook • Paid the same as the Master Carpenter and the Master Gunner • Made more elaborate meals for the officers • worked in the Galley (lowest area of ship) • hundreds of plates. surgical tools. as well as peppercorns which were used as a medicine.

Human error. In May 1545. 1971 by ackland 2. 1545 during the 3rd french war 5. In which battle did the Mary Rose sink? 1. or overloading 7. French. In 1545. What was a “fifth” quarter? . but they had premature confidence 8.6582 71 OPSSB TFS Key Questions 1. including the Mary Rose. known as “the Mystic Rose” 4. For whom was the Mary Rose most likely named? 1. When did the Mary Rose sink? 1. The English fleet mustered at Portsmouth under Viscount Lisle. What are the possible reasons for the Mary Rose sinking? 1. Were attempts made to salvage the ship shortly after sinking? 1. and the companions of witches Remember 545. Virgin Mary. but retreated into Portsmouth harbor as the fighting vessels were most effective in sheltered water. When was the Mary Rose raised from the seabed? 1. 1836 deane 3. When was the first modern dive on the remains of the Mary Rose? 1.• • • Who was ‘Hatch’? • The ratter • unofficial mascot • young adult male • classed as a terrier-type. intending to land troops on English soil. 1965 by Alexander McKee 2. why did the English fleet retreat into Portsmouth harbor? 1. Battle of Solent 6. most closely related to the Jack Russell • Hereditary disease called hyperuricosuria • Kindey and bladder stones • Inbreeding Where was he found? • Outside the Carpenter’s Cabin Why a ship’s dog? • Cats aren’t good at ratting • Pope Innocent VIII declared cats unholy. the French navy gathered in the Seine estuary. wind. The English had 80 ships in place to oppose them. In early July the French fleet set sail and entered the Solent with 128 ships on 16 July. 9. Raised in 1982. Yes. Allowed to do this because the salvage vessel Sleipner allowed staf to work in shifts 3.

planes. a leather pouch. in 1527. and issuing food and drink according to the rations list. Morris. Carvel planking allowed shipbuilders to cut holes in the hull for large watertight guns. He was wealthy. jewelry. and a blood bowl. Again. the skeletons. which is a shoulder blade disorder still found in modern day archers. and a sundial hidden in his chest. . Clinker is when planks overlap. silk. Two fiddles were also found. What did the surgeon’s wooden chest contain? 1. He had books. Canisters filled with ointments. No garments of linen survived. keeping accounts of stores. Quartermasters were in charge of a quarrying of the fighting men on board. This is why so many men were found below decks. He had tools such as Mallets. Three tabor pipes and a tabor. responsible for all the mariners stationed below decks during a battle to fix any damage. 12. 18. Why did the Mary Rose carry a ship’s dog rather than a ship’s cat? 1. coins. He also had two metal syringes. whetstone. 17. as well as peppercorns which were used a a medicine. Dice 19. MR was altered from clinker to carvel. What is clinker planking compared to carvel planking? 1. and shaving bowl. surgical tools. The wood. creating an uneven surface. What musical instruments were found onboard the Mary Rose? 1. What do we know about the carpenter? 1. and leather. How do we know that some of the remains belonged to archers? 1. 10. What are some of the materials preserved by the silt covering the ship? 1. He also may have been a money changer. The fusing of vertebrae indicates someone was involved in heavy manual work. 15. How do we know that some of the remains were involved in heavy work? 1. wool. We can look at the skeletons. Responsible for paying and mustering the crew. What were the purser’s duties? 1. 11.1. What types of games were played onboard the Mary Rose? 1. while Carvel is when the planking is smooth edge-to-edge. The Shawn was the most exciting musical discovery. Backgammon. buying supplies. and a mortise gauge. braces. 14. rulers. He most likely played the pipe while beating on the drum. They show that many men had os acromiale. because it was an early form of the oboe with an extra hole for a thumb and implied that there may have been a band. or drum. He was a ratter. Perhaps a razor. A fifth ‘quarter’ was recommended with a patter of the hold. 16. 13. Cats aren't actually good at ratting and the Pope Innocent VIII declared cats unholy and the companions of witches.