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Example 4

In this example, we simulate the planar extrudate swell (slit die) for a Newtonian liquid. In
Fig. 1, we display the finite element mesh and the flow boundary conditions. As five different
types of boundary conditions are involved, we define five boundary sets. Such a simulation
problem is characterized by an unknown boundary (the free surface of the jet), the shape of
which is part of the problem.
In this example, non-dimensional values are used.

2D extrusion, Newtonian fluid, remeshing technique: spines.

swell.msh, swell.dat, swell.cons, swell.lst, res, cfx.res

Together with the free surface boundary condition, we introduce the concept of fixed and
moving subdomains. Indeed, as the shape of a boundary set is deformed, the finite element
mesh in the neighbourhood of that boundary region is also deformed.
As it is not necessary to remesh the whole domain, but the region adjacent to the free surface
only, two subdomains are defined. The first one corresponds to the so-called fixed domain,
whereas the second is called the moving domain. It is obvious that all free surfaces (in this
example, there is only one free surface) must belong to the boundary of the moving domain.
Let's note the i-th subdomain 'Si' (or 'SDi') and the j-th boundary set 'BSj'.

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Example 4


(boundary 4)

p lan e o f sy m m e try (b o u n d a ry 5 )


free s u rfa ce (b o u n d ary 3 )


rig id wa ll (b o u n d ary 2 )


I : fixed subdomain
II : mobile subdomain

(boundary 1)

Fig. 1. a) Finite element mesh, b) Flow geometry and boundary conditions.

The initial mesh is included in the box x=[0, 1], y=[0, 8].

- Read a mesh: swell.msh
- Create a new task: 2D planar, steady-state.
- Create a sub-task: Isothermal Generalized Newtonian
- Domain: whole mesh (S1+S2)
- Material data
Constant viscosity: fac = 1 Poise
No density, no inertia and no gravity
- Flow boundary conditions
BS1: inflow: Volumetric flow rate Q = 1 (automatic, volumetric)
BS2: vn = 0, vs = 0
BS3: free surface
see note 1
Boundary conditions
Free surface starts at intersection with BS2

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Example 4

BS4: fn = 0, fs = 0
BS5: fs = 0, vn = 0
- Remeshing
Domain: S2
Method of spines.
Inlet: intersection with S1
Outlet: intersection with BS4
- Assign stream function.
PSI = 0 at the node closest to coordinates (1, 0)
- Outputs
Default output : CFD-Post
System of units for CFD-Post: metric_cm/g/s/A+Celsius
Probe (optional)
probe 1: prefix: swell_1 location: (1, 8)
probe 2: prefix: swell_2 location: (0, 0)
- Save and Exit
Mesh file: swell.msh
Data file:
Result file: res
CFD-Post: cfx.res

see note 2
see note 3

Note 1: free surface along boundary 3

The free surface is a streamline, along which we integrate the kinematic equation. That
equation, when no surface tension is specified, is hyperbolic, and requires an initial condition
at the starting point of the free surface. The boundary set 3 is the free surface, along which
fluid particles move from point (a) to point (b), according to Fig. 1b. The initial point of the
free surface (point a) is fixed. This point of the free surface is located at the common point
between current boundary set 3 and boundary set 2.
Note 2: fn & fs imposed along boundary 4
We impose a zero traction along the exit. Note that in the case of a Newtonian fluid, an
outflow condition could also be used along the exit, as outflow means zero tangential
velocity and zero normal traction. However for a viscoelastic model, the outflow condition
can no longer be used as, in that case,outflow means a fully developed profile as explained
in Example III.
Note 3: Remeshing with the method of spines
The flow boundary conditions involve a free surface, the shape of which is unknown. The
corresponding boundary side is deformed while the finite element mesh should be deformed
accordingly, in order to ensure that the elements maintain a proper shape.
In 2D extrusion, the method of spines is the default option. In many situations, it is also the
most efficient method. This technique is applied along a set of slices, in the flow direction.
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Example 4

The fluid enters the remeshing domain at its intersection with subdomain 1: this line is the
inlet of the system of spines. The fluid leaves the remeshing domain along boundary set 4:
this line is the outlet of the system of spines.

The two input files for POLYFLOW are SWELL.MSH and SWELL.DAT. The latter is taken as
the standard input data file for POLYFLOW. As standard output file, the listing, we select the
name SWELL.LST. POLYFLOW also generates a result file RES for a possible restart, together
with files for graphic post-processing.

In Fig. 2 a-c, we display the deformed mesh, the streamlines, and the contour lines of the
vertical velocity component.



Fig. 2. Die swell of a Newtonian liquid:

a) Deformed mesh, b) Streamlines (init. val. = 0, incr. = 0.1, fin. val. = 1.),
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Example 4

c) Contour lines of the vertical velocity component (init. val. = 0, incr. = 0.15, fin. val. = 1.5).

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