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EXAMPLE 4

PLANAR DIE SWELL FLOW OF A NEWTONIAN LIQUID

DESCRIPTION

In this example, we simulate the planar extrudate swell (slit die) for a Newtonian liquid. In

Fig. 1, we display the finite element mesh and the flow boundary conditions. As five different

types of boundary conditions are involved, we define five boundary sets. Such a simulation

problem is characterized by an unknown boundary (the free surface of the jet), the shape of

which is part of the problem.

In this example, non-dimensional values are used.

KEYWORDS

2D extrusion, Newtonian fluid, remeshing technique: spines.

FILENAMES

swell.msh, swell.dat, swell.cons, swell.lst, res, cfx.res

NEW CONCEPTS

Together with the free surface boundary condition, we introduce the concept of fixed and

moving subdomains. Indeed, as the shape of a boundary set is deformed, the finite element

mesh in the neighbourhood of that boundary region is also deformed.

As it is not necessary to remesh the whole domain, but the region adjacent to the free surface

only, two subdomains are defined. The first one corresponds to the so-called fixed domain,

whereas the second is called the moving domain. It is obvious that all free surfaces (in this

example, there is only one free surface) must belong to the boundary of the moving domain.

Let's note the i-th subdomain 'Si' (or 'SDi') and the j-th boundary set 'BSj'.

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Example 4

a)

b)

outflow

(boundary 4)

p lan e o f sy m m e try (b o u n d a ry 5 )

II

free s u rfa ce (b o u n d ary 3 )

(b)

I

rig id wa ll (b o u n d ary 2 )

(a)

I : fixed subdomain

II : mobile subdomain

inflow

(boundary 1)

**Fig. 1. a) Finite element mesh, b) Flow geometry and boundary conditions.
**

The initial mesh is included in the box x=[0, 1], y=[0, 8].

POLYDATA SESSION

- Read a mesh: swell.msh

- Create a new task: 2D planar, steady-state.

- Create a sub-task: Isothermal Generalized Newtonian

- Domain: whole mesh (S1+S2)

- Material data

Constant viscosity: fac = 1 Poise

No density, no inertia and no gravity

- Flow boundary conditions

BS1: inflow: Volumetric flow rate Q = 1 (automatic, volumetric)

BS2: vn = 0, vs = 0

BS3: free surface

see note 1

Boundary conditions

Free surface starts at intersection with BS2

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Example 4

BS4: fn = 0, fs = 0

BS5: fs = 0, vn = 0

- Remeshing

Domain: S2

Method of spines.

Inlet: intersection with S1

Outlet: intersection with BS4

- Assign stream function.

PSI = 0 at the node closest to coordinates (1, 0)

- Outputs

Default output : CFD-Post

System of units for CFD-Post: metric_cm/g/s/A+Celsius

Probe (optional)

probe 1: prefix: swell_1 location: (1, 8)

probe 2: prefix: swell_2 location: (0, 0)

- Save and Exit

Mesh file: swell.msh

Data file:

swell.dat

Result file: res

CFD-Post: cfx.res

see note 2

see note 3

**Note 1: free surface along boundary 3
**

The free surface is a streamline, along which we integrate the kinematic equation. That

equation, when no surface tension is specified, is hyperbolic, and requires an initial condition

at the starting point of the free surface. The boundary set 3 is the free surface, along which

fluid particles move from point (a) to point (b), according to Fig. 1b. The initial point of the

free surface (point a) is fixed. This point of the free surface is located at the common point

between current boundary set 3 and boundary set 2.

Note 2: fn & fs imposed along boundary 4

We impose a zero traction along the exit. Note that in the case of a Newtonian fluid, an

“outflow” condition could also be used along the exit, as “outflow” means zero tangential

velocity and zero normal traction. However for a viscoelastic model, the “outflow” condition

can no longer be used as, in that case,“outflow” means a fully developed profile as explained

in Example III.

Note 3: Remeshing with the method of spines

The flow boundary conditions involve a free surface, the shape of which is unknown. The

corresponding boundary side is deformed while the finite element mesh should be deformed

accordingly, in order to ensure that the elements maintain a proper shape.

In 2D extrusion, the method of spines is the default option. In many situations, it is also the

most efficient method. This technique is applied along a set of slices, in the flow direction.

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Example 4

**The fluid enters the remeshing domain at its intersection with subdomain 1: this line is the
**

inlet of the system of spines. The fluid leaves the remeshing domain along boundary set 4:

this line is the outlet of the system of spines.

RUNNING POLYFLOW

The two input files for POLYFLOW are SWELL.MSH and SWELL.DAT. The latter is taken as

the standard input data file for POLYFLOW. As standard output file, the listing, we select the

name SWELL.LST. POLYFLOW also generates a result file RES for a possible restart, together

with files for graphic post-processing.

**GRAPHIC POST-PROCESSING
**

In Fig. 2 a-c, we display the deformed mesh, the streamlines, and the contour lines of the

vertical velocity component.

a)

b)

c)

**Fig. 2. Die swell of a Newtonian liquid:
**

a) Deformed mesh, b) Streamlines (init. val. = 0, incr. = 0.1, fin. val. = 1.),

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Example 4

c) Contour lines of the vertical velocity component (init. val. = 0, incr. = 0.15, fin. val. = 1.5).

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