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Physics
Advanced Level
Unit Test PHY4

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Thursday 16 June 2005 – Morning
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Instructions to Candidates
In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initial(s) and
signature.
Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided in this question paper.
In calculations you should show all the steps in your working, giving your answer at each stage.
Calculators may be used.
Include diagrams in your answers where these are helpful.

Information for Candidates
The marks for individual questions and the parts of questions are shown in round brackets.
There are eight questions in this paper. The total mark for this paper is 60.
The list of data, formulae and relationships is printed at the end of this booklet.

Advice to Candidates
You will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions and
arguments clearly and logically, taking account of your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

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*N20860A0116*

................................................................. Scale reading = .............................. ............................................................................. Calculate the resultant force on the girl necessary for this circular motion.............................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................. The girl has a mass of 60 kg................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................Leave blank 1...... (2) (iii) If the girl were to stand on weighing scales calibrated in newtons.................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... what reading would they give? .......................................................................................................... . .......................... ............................................................................................. (2) (b) (i) A girl standing at the equator is in circular motion about the Earth’s axis........ Force = .................... .................................................................................. (a) Explain why a body moving at constant speed in a circular path needs a resultant force acting on it.......................................................................................................... ............................................................................ (3) (Total 9 marks) 2 *N20860A0216* Q1 .............. (2) (ii) The radius of the Earth is 6400 km....... .......................... Calculate the angular speed of the girl...................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................ Angular speed = ......................................................................

Radiation Typical wavelength Visible light Source Very hot objects Gamma 100 m High frequency electrical oscillator 10–6 m Q2 (Total 6 marks) *N20860A0316* 3 Turn over .Leave blank 2. Complete the table by filling in the missing types of radiation. The table below summarises some features of the electromagnetic spectrum. wavelengths and sources.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 × 1017............................................................................................................................................... Find the average energy of the photons in electronvolts.......................................5 m above the floor.. It is 6........................................... .................................................................................... (3) (Total 6 marks) 4 *N20860A0416* Q3 ...................................0% efficient at converting electrical energy to visible light............................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Intensity = ........ Calculate the visible light intensity at the floor directly beneath the bulb.............................................................................. .Leave blank 3.............................................. ............................ ......................................... ................... ............................... ............................................................................... (3) (b) The number of photons hitting a square metre in one second at this distance from the bulb is 2.......... .............................. (a) A 100 W ceiling light bulb is 2........................ Average energy of photons = ........................

......................................................... (a) Define the term amplitude............................. – Displacement / cm – 4 Stationary wave 3– Progressive wave 2– 1– – – – – – – – – – C – – B – – – – – A – Distance / cm – – – – (3) Q4 (Total 7 marks) *N20860A0516* 5 Turn over ................................ B and C on the distance axis at this same instant................. (1) (b) The graph below shows the positions of the stationary wave and of one of the two progressive waves at a particular instant................................ (3) Plot these displacement values on the graph...... .............................. Hence draw one complete wavelength of this progressive wave................................................................. . A stationary wave of amplitude 4..................... Displacement at B ......................0 cm is produced by the superposition of two progressive waves that travel in opposite directions....... Apply the principle of superposition to determine the displacement of the other progressive wave at positions A.......................................... Displacement at C .................................................................................................................................................................................... Displacement at A ........Leave blank 4..............................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... You may wish to illustrate your answer with the help of a simple diagram....................................................................... ......... ...................................................... Difference 2 ..... .................................................................................................................................... (a) Explain what is meant by the term transverse wave................. (3) (b) State two differences between a stationary wave and a progressive wave........................................................................... (2) 6 *N20860A0616* ....... Difference 1 ............................................................. ................................ ....................................................................................................................................................................Leave blank 5....................................

....................................... ................25 cm of thread (i) Explain why droplets form only at these points.................................................... Early in the morning droplets of moisture are seen evenly spaced along the thread when prey has been trapped.......................... (4) Q5 (Total 10 marks) *N20860A0716* 7 Turn over ............................... When the threads are disturbed by trapped prey..... Use the diagram to help you determine the frequency of the stationary wave..........................................................8 cm s–1..................................................... progressive transverse waves are transmitted along the sections of thread and stationary waves are formed............................................................................................................................ ... ...............Leave blank (c) Spiders are almost completely dependent on vibrations transmitted through their webs for receiving information about the location of their prey..................................................................................................................................... Frequency = ............................................................................................ Droplet of water Thread 1 cm on diagram represents 0..... ........ ................................................................................... ................ (1) (ii) The speed of a progressive transverse wave sent by trapped prey along a thread is 9.................................................... The threads of the web are under tension................

......... .. ....... (i) Add to the free-body force diagram the component of weight that is equal in magnitude to the tension T at this instant.... (1) (ii) Add to the same diagram the component of weight that acts perpendicularly to the line of action of the tension..........................................0° and then released so that it oscillates along a small arc with centre O.................................................... The mass is slightly displaced through an angle of 4...................... Acceleration = ...............Leave blank 6......... .......................................................... Label it B....... (1) 8 *N20860A0816* ... A simple pendulum of length l consists of a small mass m attached to the end of a thread.......... The other end is fixed............................0° l ▲ Weight mg O Mass m (a) The free-body force diagram for the oscillating mass at its maximum displacement is drawn alongside..... (1) (iii) Determine the magnitude of the instantaneous acceleration of the mass........ (2) (iv) State the direction of this acceleration................................................................... Tension T ▲ 4................................................... Label it A............................................

............... .......2 s..........................................................................0 m the period becomes 3........................................ (3) Q6 (Total 8 marks) *N20860A0916* 9 Turn over ................................................... ............ .......................... .. When the length l is shortened by 1....................................... but you are not expected to perform the final calculation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Show how this data can be used to determine a value for the acceleration of free fall...........................7 s................... You should obtain an appropriate equation and substitute the data... ............................................................... ................................................................................................Leave blank (b) The period of the pendulum is 4.......................

...................... ............. (2) (c) The diagram gives values of wavelength for part of the electromagnetic spectrum................. State two of these conclusions...................................................................................... (2) (b) Edwin Hubble reached a number of conclusions as a result of observations and measurements of red-shift............................. ............................................................. Estimate the maximum velocity the galaxy could have so that visible light could still be detected as it moves away from the Earth................................................................... ...... ................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................. (a) What is meant by the Doppler effect (electromagnetic Doppler effect) when applied to light? ..................................................................................................................................................................Leave blank 7........................................................................................... .. Wavelength/10–9 m 200 300 UV 400 500 600 700 Visible IR A very hot distant galaxy emits violet light just at the edge of the visible spectrum.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................... .................................... (4) 10 *N20860A01016* ..............

...................................................................................... (2) Q7 (Total 10 marks) *N20860A01116* 11 Turn over ...................................................................................................... What is meant by the critical density of the Universe? ..Leave blank (d) The fate of the Universe is dependent on the average mass-energy density of the Universe....................... ............................................................................................................. .....................................................................................

............................................... Below are two features of the photoelectric effect......... (2) (b) Feature 2: Incident light with a frequency below a certain threshold frequency cannot release electrons from a metal surface.................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................ Explanation ................... ........................ For each feature explain why it supports the particle theory and not the wave theory................................. ........................... ............................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. Explanation ....................... .................................................................................................................................................... (2) (Total 4 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER: 60 MARKS END 12 *N20860A01216* Q8 ............................................................................................. (a) Feature 1: The emission of photoelectrons from a metal surface can take place instantaneously........ The photoelectric effect supports a particle theory of light but not a wave theory of light..................... .......... ..............................................................................................................................................Leave blank 8........................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

List of data.11 ×10 −31 kg Electronic mass Electronvolt Unified atomic mass unit Molar gas constant 1 eV = 1.99 ×10 9 N m 2 C −2 Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π× 10−7 N A −2 Rectilinear motion For uniformly accelerated motion: v = u + at x = ut + 12 at 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2ax Forces and moments Moment of F about O = F × (Perpendicular distance from F to O) Sum of clockwise moments Sum of anticlockwise moments about any point in a plane = about that point Dynamics Force Impulse F =m ∆v ∆ p = ∆ t ∆t F ∆t = ∆p Mechanical energy P = Fv Power Radioactive decay and the nuclear atom Activity A = λN Half-life λt 12 = 0.69 (Decay constant λ) *N20860A01316* 13 Turn over .00 ×108 m s −1 Gravitational constant G = 6.85 ×10 −12 F m −1 Coulomb Law constant k = 1/ 4π ε 0 = 8.60 ×10 −19 J u = 1.81 N kg Elementary (proton) charge e = 1.60 ×10 −19 C (close to the Earth) (close to the Earth) me = 9. formulae and relationships Data Speed of light in vacuum c = 3.31J K −1 mol −1 Permittivity of free space ε 0 = 8.67 ×10 −11 N m 2 kg −2 g = 9.66 ×10 −27 kg R = 8.81m s −2 Acceleration of free fall −1 Gravitational field strength g = 9.

Temperature change ∆Τ) Change of state: Heating and cooling: θ /°C = T/K − 273 Celsius temperature Kinetic theory of matter Temperature and energy T ∝ Average kinetic energy of molecules Kinetic theory p = 13 ρ 〈 c 2〉 Conservation of energy ∆U = ∆ Q + ∆ W Change of internal energy Efficiency of energy transfer Heat engine: = maximum efficiency = Circular motion and oscillations (Energy transferred thermally ∆Q. V = ε − Ir Σε = ΣIR Resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + R3 Resistors in parallel 1 1 1 1 = + + R R1 R2 R3 (E.m.f.m. Work done on body ∆W) Useful output Input T1 − T2 T1 Angular speed ω= ∆θ v = ∆t r Centripetal acceleration a= v2 r Period T= 1 2π = f ω (Radius of circular path r) (Frequency f ) Simple harmonic motion: displacement x = x0 cos 2 πft maximum speed = 2πfx0 acceleration a = −(2πf )2 x 14 For a simple pendulum T = 2π l g For a mass on a spring T = 2π m k *N20860A01416* (Spring constant k) .f. Internal resistance r) Heating matter energy transfer = l ∆m (Specific latent heat or specific enthalpy change l) energy transfer = mc∆T (Specific heat capacity c. ε .Electrical current and potential difference I = nAQv Electric current P = I 2R Electric power Electrical circuits Terminal potential difference Circuit e.

Fringe width x. numerically for radial field (Gravitational constant G) Electric fields E = F /Q Electrical field strength for radial field E = kQ / r 2 for uniform field E = V /d For an electron in a vacuum tube (Coulomb law constant k) e∆V = ∆ ( 12 mev 2) Capacitance Energy stored W = 12 CV 2 Capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + C3 Capacitors in series 1 1 1 1 = + + C C1 C 2 C3 Time constant for capacitor discharge = RC *N20860A01516* 15 Turn over .Waves Intensity I= P 4πr 2 λ= xs D (Distance from point source r. Slit separation s. Slits to screen distance D) Quantum phenomena E = hf Photon model Maximum energy of photoelectrons = hf − ϕ (Planck constant h) (Work function ϕ) hf = E1 − E2 Energy levels λ= de Broglie wavelength Observing the Universe h p ∆f ∆λ v = ≈ f λ c Doppler shift v = Hd Hubble law (Hubble constant H) Gravitational fields Gravitational field strength g = F /m g = Gm / r 2 . Power of source P) Superposition of waves Two slit interference (Wavelength λ.

f.Magnetic fields F = BIl Force on a wire Magnetic flux density (Magnetic field strength) in a long solenoid B = µ0 nI near a long wire B = µ0 I /2 πr Magnetic flux Φ = BA E.m. induced in a coil ε = − N ∆Φ ∆t (Permeability of free space µ0) (Number of turns N) Accelerators ∆ E = c 2 ∆m Mass-energy Force on a moving charge F = BQv Analogies in physics Q = Q0e −t / RC Capacitor discharge t 12 RC = ln 2 N = N0e–λt Radioactive decay λt 1 = ln 2 2 Experimental physics Percentage uncertainty = Estimated uncertainty × 100% Average value Mathematics sin(90 ° − θ ) = cos θ ln( x n ) = n ln x ln(e kx ) = kx Equation of a straight line Surface area y = mx + c cylinder = 2 πrh + 2πr 2 sphere = 4 πr 2 Volume cylinder = πr 2h sphere = 43 πr 3 For small angles: sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ cosθ ≈ 1 16 *N20860A01616* (in radians) .