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1.1ver

Vector and Forces

**torque=force length of moment arm
**

the sum of the clockwise moments=the sum of the counterclockwise moments

Motion and Forces

distance covered

time required

displacement

average velocity=

time

distance covered=average speed time

S=v avt

average speed=

acceleration=

v f vi

change in velocity

time required for change

v

t

t

Motion with constant acceleration (starting from rest)

a

vav v f / 2

v f at (v f gt )

S

vf 2

1 2

1

at ( S gt 2 )

2

2

2

2as (v f 2 gs )

**vav average speed
**

v f final velocity

a acceleration

t elapsed time

s distance covered

vav

vi v f

2

v f vi at

1

S vi t at 2

2

2

2

v f vi 2as

Ft change in momentum=mass change in velocity

momentum=mass velocity

Centripetal Force

ac

v2

r

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**

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SAT Physics Practice Test: Kinematics

SAT Physics Practice Test: Newton's Laws

SAT Physics Practice Test: Work, Energy, and Power

SAT Physics Practice Test: Linear Momentum

SAT Physics Practice Test: Curved and Rotational Motion

SAT Physics Practice Test: Oscillations

SAT Physics Practice Test: Electric Forces and Fields

SAT Physics Practice Test: Electric Potential and Capacitance

SAT Physics Practice Test: Direct Current Circuits

SAT Physics Practice Test: Magnetic Forces and Fields

SAT Physics Practice Test: Electromagnetic Induction

SAT Physics Practice Test: Waves

SAT Physics Practice Test: Optics

SAT Physics Practice Test: Thermal Physics

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mv 2

r

2 r

v

T

4 2 r

a 2

T

Gravitational Fields

Fc

Gm1m2

r2

GM s

v

r

Work, Energy, Simple Machines

F

**work force distance
**

gravitational potential energy=wh=mgh

1

kinetic energy= mv 2

2

energy produced=mc 2

force of friction during motion

normal

work against friction=friction distance object moves

1

elastic potential energy= kx 2

2

work

power

time

force distance

power

time

coefficient of sliding friction=

**actual mechanical advantage(AMA)=
**

AMA=

resistance

actual effort

FR

FE

**work output=resistance distance resistance moves
**

work output=FR R R

work input=effort distance effort moves

work input=FE S E

Under ideal conditions there is no useless work. Then

work output=work input

FR SE

F S IMA(ideal mechanical advantage)

E

R

For a machine

work output

efficirncy=

work input

efficiency=

**AMA ideal effort
**

IMA actual effort

**weight of object length of plane
**

IMA

ideal effort

height of plane

Fluid Mechanics

mass

volume

For solids and liquids:

density

density of substance

sp.gr. density of water

weight of substance

sp.gr.

weight of equal volume of water

mass of substance

sp.gr.

mass of equal volume of water

F

A

P hdg (h=height, d=density)

F hdgA

P

**F A (diameter of large piston) 2
**

IMA

f a (diameter of small piston) 2

For a solid that sinks in water:

weight in air

sp.gr.

apparent loss of weight in water

For a liquid:

apparent loss in weight of solid in liquid

sp.gr.

apparent loss in weight of solid in water

Heat, Temperature, Thermal Expansion

change in length=oringinal length coeff. of expansion temp. change

p1V1 p2V2 V=volume, T=absolute temperature, P=pressure

p1V1 p2V2

T1

T2

Measurement of Heat

heat required for melting=mass H F

V1 T1

V2 T2

**heat required for vaporization=mass H V
**

heat gianed(or lost)=mass sp.ht.temp.change

+mass melted heat of fusion

+mass vaporized heat of vaporization

Heat and Work; Heat Transfer

**heat flow=change ininternal energy+work done by system
**

Q= U+W

**Wave Motion and Sound
**

Periodic Motion

For a stretched spring:

F kx

m

T 2

k

For waves:

1

T

f

v f ( =wavelength)

the number of beats=the difference between the two frequence

Closed Pipes

=4l

a

Vibrating Air Columns Open Pipes

=2l

a

=2ls

**Geometrical Optics: Reflection and Refraction
**

For a special mirror the focal length is equal to one-half of the radius of the spherical shell

f R/2

Law of Refraction

sin 1

n

(n index of refraction)

sin 2

**speed of light in vacuum(or air)
**

speed of light in the substance

n2 sin 1

n1 sin 2

n

**Images Formed by Lenses
**

1

1

1

object distance image distance focal length

1 1 1

p q f

size of image image distance

magnification(m)

size of object object distance

OBJECT DISTANCE

IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS

Convex Lens(or Concave Mirror)

greater than 2f

real, smaller, between f and 2f, inverted

2f

real, same size, 2f, inverted

between f and 2f

real, larger, greater than 2f, inverted

less than f

virtual. ;larger, q more than p, erect

Concave Lens(or Convex Mirror)

any distance

virtual smaller, erect, q less than p

**focal length of the objective
**

focal length of the eyepiece

intensity of source

illmination

distance 2

telescopic magnification=

Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction

x

d L

wavelength

d=distance between the two silts

L=distance between the barrier and the screen

x=distance between the central maximum and the first bright fringe

Static Electricity—Electric Circuits

kq1q2

d2

E F / q (E=electric field intensity,F=the force exerted on positive charge q)

work

potential difference=

charge

work

V

q

E V / d (E=electric field intensity,V=the difference of potential between the plates)

work

V

q

F

L length in meters

kL R=resistance in ohms

R

A A=cross-sectional area in meter 2

k=a constant for the material and is called resistivity; unit is ohm-meter

IT VT / RT

RT VT / IT

VT IT RT

series circuit

parallel circuit

series-parallel circuit

current

IT I1 I 2

IT I1 I 2

IT I 3 I1 I 2

resistanc

e

RT R 1 R2

1

1

1

RT R1 R2

RT R3

R1 R2

R1 R2

voltage

VT V1 V2

IR-drop

VT IT RT ;V1 I1 R1 ;V2 I 2 R2 , etc

symbols

I1 current through R1 ;V2 potential difference across R, etc.

VT V1 V2

VT V1 V3 V2 V3 ;V1 V2

VT emf Ir

H 0.24 I 2 Rt

H I 2 Rt

P VI ; P I 2 R; P V 2 / R

energy power time

Magnetism; Meters, Motors, Generators

F ILB ( L the length of wire in the magnetic field, B=the flux desity)

F qvB (v=velocity)

second emf number of turns on secondary

primary emf

number of turns on primary

power supplied by secondary=efficiency power supplied to primary

when the efficiency is 100%, Vs I s V p I p

Vs I s V p I p efficiency

2 / T 2 f

I I max sin t

V Vmax sin t

V I max R sin t

P I 2 R I 2 max R sin 2 t

1 2

I max

2

1 2

I rms

I max 0.0707 I max

2

1

Pavg I 2 rms R I 2 max R

2

Vrms 0.707Vmax

I2

Elements of Electronics

Capacitors and Capacitance

Q=CV

1 farad 106 microfarads

1

potential energy= CV 2

2

1

1

1 Q2

2

P.E. CV QV

2

2

2 C

**Photons, Atoms, Nuclei
**

Ek hf W

Ek kinetic energy

h=Planck's constant=6.63 10-34 joule-second

W=work

f=frequency

Planck's constant

momentum of the photon=

wavelength

h

p

h

mv

E mc 2

Special Relativity

L L0 1 (v 2 / c 2 )

t

m

t0

1 (v 2 / c 2 )

m0

1 (v 2 / c 2 )

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