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# SAT II PHYSICS

1.1ver

Vector and Forces

torque=force  length of moment arm
the sum of the clockwise moments=the sum of the counterclockwise moments
Motion and Forces
distance covered
time required
displacement
average velocity=
time
distance covered=average speed  time
S=v avt
average speed=

acceleration=
v f  vi

change in velocity
time required for change

 v
t
t
Motion with constant acceleration (starting from rest)
a

vav  v f / 2
v f  at (v f  gt )
S
vf 2

1 2
1
at ( S  gt 2 )
2
2
2
 2as (v f  2 gs )

vav  average speed
v f  final velocity
a  acceleration
t  elapsed time
s  distance covered
vav 

vi  v f
2

v f  vi  at
1
S  vi t  at 2
2
2
2
v f  vi  2as
Ft  change in momentum=mass  change in velocity
momentum=mass  velocity
Centripetal Force
ac 

v2
r

SAT Online Physics Practice Tests:
http://www.cracksat.net/sat2/physics/
SAT Physics Practice Test: Kinematics
SAT Physics Practice Test: Newton's Laws
SAT Physics Practice Test: Work, Energy, and Power
SAT Physics Practice Test: Linear Momentum
SAT Physics Practice Test: Curved and Rotational Motion
SAT Physics Practice Test: Oscillations
SAT Physics Practice Test: Electric Forces and Fields
SAT Physics Practice Test: Electric Potential and Capacitance
SAT Physics Practice Test: Direct Current Circuits
SAT Physics Practice Test: Magnetic Forces and Fields
SAT Physics Practice Test: Electromagnetic Induction
SAT Physics Practice Test: Waves
SAT Physics Practice Test: Optics
SAT Physics Practice Test: Thermal Physics
SAT Physics Practice Test: Modern Physics
SAT Physics Subject Test: Full-length Practice Test 1
SAT Physics Subject Test: Full-length Practice Test 2

SAT Online Practice Tests: http://www.cracksat.net/tests/
SAT Subjects Tests: http://www.cracksat.net/sat2/
For more SAT information, please visit http://www.cracksat.net

mv 2
r
2 r
v
T
4 2 r
a 2
T
Gravitational Fields
Fc 

Gm1m2
r2
GM s
v
r
Work, Energy, Simple Machines
F

work  force  distance
gravitational potential energy=wh=mgh
1
kinetic energy= mv 2
2
energy produced=mc 2
force of friction during motion
normal
work against friction=friction  distance object moves
1
elastic potential energy= kx 2
2
work
power 
time
force  distance
power 
time
coefficient of sliding friction=

AMA=

resistance
actual effort

FR
FE

work output=resistance  distance resistance moves
work output=FR R R
work input=effort  distance effort moves
work input=FE S E
Under ideal conditions there is no useless work. Then
 work output=work input

 FR SE
 F  S  IMA(ideal mechanical advantage)
 E
R
For a machine
work output
efficirncy=
work input

efficiency=

AMA ideal effort

IMA actual effort

weight of object length of plane

 IMA
ideal effort
height of plane
Fluid Mechanics

mass
volume
For solids and liquids:
density 

density of substance
 sp.gr.  density of water

weight of substance
 sp.gr. 
weight of equal volume of water

mass of substance
 sp.gr. 
mass of equal volume of water

F
A
P  hdg (h=height, d=density)
F  hdgA
P

F A (diameter of large piston) 2
IMA   
f a (diameter of small piston) 2
For a solid that sinks in water:
weight in air
sp.gr. 
apparent loss of weight in water
For a liquid:
apparent loss in weight of solid in liquid
sp.gr. 
apparent loss in weight of solid in water
Heat, Temperature, Thermal Expansion
change in length=oringinal length  coeff. of expansion  temp. change


p1V1  p2V2  V=volume, T=absolute temperature, P=pressure
p1V1 p2V2 

T1
T2 
Measurement of Heat
heat required for melting=mass  H F
V1 T1

V2 T2

heat required for vaporization=mass  H V
heat gianed(or lost)=mass  sp.ht.temp.change
+mass melted  heat of fusion
+mass vaporized  heat of vaporization
Heat and Work; Heat Transfer

heat flow=change ininternal energy+work done by system
Q= U+W

Wave Motion and Sound
Periodic Motion
For a stretched spring:
 F   kx

m
T  2
k

For waves:
1

T 
f

v  f   ( =wavelength)

the number of beats=the difference between the two frequence
Closed Pipes
 =4l
a

Vibrating Air Columns Open Pipes
 =2l
a

 =2ls

Geometrical Optics: Reflection and Refraction
For a special mirror the focal length is equal to one-half of the radius of the spherical shell
f  R/2
Law of Refraction
sin 1
n
(n  index of refraction)
sin  2

speed of light in vacuum(or air)
speed of light in the substance
n2 sin 1

n1 sin  2

n

Images Formed by Lenses
1
1
1

object distance image distance focal length
1 1 1
 
p q f
size of image image distance

 magnification(m)
size of object object distance
OBJECT DISTANCE
IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS
Convex Lens(or Concave Mirror)
greater than 2f
real, smaller, between f and 2f, inverted

2f
real, same size, 2f, inverted
between f and 2f
real, larger, greater than 2f, inverted
less than f
virtual. ;larger, q more than p, erect
Concave Lens(or Convex Mirror)
any distance

virtual smaller, erect, q less than p

focal length of the objective
focal length of the eyepiece
intensity of source
illmination 
distance 2
telescopic magnification=

Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction

x
d L
  wavelength
d=distance between the two silts
L=distance between the barrier and the screen
x=distance between the central maximum and the first bright fringe

Static Electricity—Electric Circuits

kq1q2
d2
E  F / q (E=electric field intensity,F=the force exerted on positive charge q)
work
potential difference=
charge
work
V
q
E  V / d (E=electric field intensity,V=the difference of potential between the plates)
work
V
q
F

 L  length in meters

kL R=resistance in ohms
R

A A=cross-sectional area in meter 2
k=a constant for the material and is called resistivity; unit is ohm-meter
IT  VT / RT
RT  VT / IT
VT  IT RT
series circuit

parallel circuit

series-parallel circuit

current

IT  I1  I 2

IT  I1  I 2

IT  I 3  I1  I 2

resistanc
e

RT  R 1  R2

1
1
1
 
RT R1 R2

RT  R3 

R1 R2
R1  R2

voltage

VT  V1  V2

IR-drop

VT  IT RT ;V1  I1 R1 ;V2  I 2 R2 , etc

symbols

I1  current through R1 ;V2  potential difference across R, etc.

VT  V1  V2

VT  V1  V3  V2  V3 ;V1  V2

VT  emf  Ir
H  0.24 I 2 Rt
H  I 2 Rt
P  VI ; P  I 2 R; P  V 2 / R
energy  power  time
Magnetism; Meters, Motors, Generators
F  ILB ( L  the length of wire in the magnetic field, B=the flux desity)
F  qvB (v=velocity)
second emf number of turns on secondary

primary emf
number of turns on primary
power supplied by secondary=efficiency  power supplied to primary
when the efficiency is 100%, Vs I s  V p I p
Vs I s  V p I p  efficiency

  2 / T  2 f
I  I max sin t
V  Vmax sin t
V  I max R sin t
P  I 2 R  I 2 max R sin 2 t

1 2
I max
2
1 2
I rms 
I max  0.0707 I max
2
1
Pavg  I 2 rms R  I 2 max R
2
Vrms  0.707Vmax
I2 

Elements of Electronics
Capacitors and Capacitance
Q=CV

1
potential energy= CV 2
2
1
1
1 Q2
2
P.E.  CV  QV 
2
2
2 C

Photons, Atoms, Nuclei
Ek  hf  W
Ek  kinetic energy
h=Planck's constant=6.63  10-34 joule-second
W=work
f=frequency
Planck's constant
momentum of the photon=
wavelength
h
p

h
mv
E  mc 2



Special Relativity

L  L0 1  (v 2 / c 2 )
t
m

t0
1  (v 2 / c 2 )
m0
1  (v 2 / c 2 )