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1

That the NATO violated the international law by bombing the FRY in 1999 was
clearly recognized in March 2014 by at that time Germany's cancellor (the PM)
Gerhard Schreder (ɇɨɜɚ ɫɪɩɫɤɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɦɢɫɚɨ, March 10th, 2014:
11

WKDW DW WKH HQG RI WKH WK FHQWXU\ WKH IDWH RI H[<XJRVODYLD ZDV
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6HFXULW\ &RXQFLO VDQFWLRQV DQG SHUPLVVLRQ DQG DOVR ZLWKRXW DQ
RIILFLDO SURFODPDWLRQ RI WKH ZDU ZH FDQ FDOO WKLV PLOLWDU\
http://www.nspm.rs/hronika/gerhard-sreder-intervenicija-na-krimu-je-krsenjemedjunarodnog-prava-ali-to-je-bilo-i-nase-bombardovanje-srbije-1999.html). On this
LVVXH VHH GRFXPHQWDU\ PRYLH  LQ WKUHH SDUWV Ä1$72
V ,OOHJDO :DU $JDLQVW 6HUELD³
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=joaNkHKxapk;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gaz8rzUW0Lc;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4vzr8l3FvU). On the identity and politics in the
post-Yugoslavia's successor states, see: Robert Hudson, Glenn Bowman, After
Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States, LondonNew York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
2 
On the issue of destruction of ex-Yugoslavia and Kosovo question, see: F. Stephen
Larrabee (ed.), The Volatile Powder Keg: Balkan Security after the Cold War,
Washington, D.C.: The American University Press, 1994; Susan L. Woodward,
Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War, Washington, D.C.: The
Brookings Institution, 1995; Richard H. Ullman (ed.), 7KH :RUOG DQG <XJRVODYLDµV
Wars, New York: A Council on Foreign Relations, 1996; James Gow, Triumph of the
Lack of Will: International Diplomacy and the Yugoslav War, London: Hurst &
Company, 1997; John B. Allcock, Explaining Yugoslavia, New York: Columbia
University Press, 2000; Jelena Guskova, Istorija jugoslovenske krize 19902000, III,
%HRJUDG,*$³0³,DQ.LQJ:KLW0DVRQPeace at Any Price: How the World
Failed Kosovo, London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, 2006; David Chandler,
From Kosovo to Kabul and Beyond: Human Rights and International Intervention,
LondonAnn Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2006; David L. Phillips, Liberating Kosovo:
Coercive Diplomacy and U.S. Intervention, Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center for
Science, 2012; Misha Glenny, The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers
18042011, New YorkLondon: Penguin Books, 2012.
3
See: Ken Booth (ed.), The Kosovo Tragedy: The Human Rights Dimensions,
LondonPortland, OR: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, 2001.
4
2QWKHLVVXHRIWKH1:2DQGWKH5XVVLDQ%DONDQSROLF\VHH9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLü
Ä7KH1$72:RUOG2UGHUWKH%DONDQVDQGWKH5XVVLDQ1DWLRQDO,QWHUHVW³9ODGLVODY
%6RWLURYLü Balcania: Scientific Articles in English, Vilnius: Lithuanian University
RI (GXFDWLRQDO 6FLHQFHV 3UHVV Ä(GXNRORJLMD³  SS 129; James Headley,
Russia and the Balkans: Foreign Policy from Yeltsin to Putin, London: Hurst &
Company, 2008.
12

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5

&RVWLV +DGMLPLFKDOLV Ä.RVRYR  'D\V RI DQ 8QGHFODUHG DQG 8QMXVW :DU $
*HRSROLWLFDO &RPPHQW³ European Urban and Regional Studies, 7 (2), 2000, pp.
175180.
6
On the issue of used depleted uranium by the NATO during the Persian Gulf War
DQGWKH.RVRYR:DUVHH'DUU\O3$UIVWHQ.HQQHWK56WLOO*OHQQ'5LWFKLHÄ$
Review of the Effects of Uranium and Depleted Uranium Exposure on Reproduction
DQG)HWDO'HYHORSPHQW³Toxicology and Industrial Health, 17, 2001, pp. 180191. It
KDVWREHQRWLFHGWKDWWKHGHSOHWHGXUDQLXPZDVXVHGE\WKH1$72µVIRUFHVLQ
bombing of the FRY in armour-penetrating munitions, military vehicle armor, and
aircraft, ship and missile counterweighting and ballasting applications. The combat
applications of the depleted uranium alloy in the Persian Gulf War and the Kosovo
:DU UHVXOWHG LQ KXPDQ DFXWH H[SRVXUH WR WKH GHSOHWHG XUDQLXPµV GXVW YDSRU RU
aerosol, and to the chronic exposure from tissue embedding of the depleted uraniuPµV
shrapnel fragments.
7
On the universal human and minority rights, see: Will Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of
Minority Cultures, OxfordNew York: Oxford University Press, 2000; Jan Knippers
Black, The Politics of Human Rights Protection, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2010; Dinah L. Shelton, Paolo G. Carozza, Regional
Protection of Human Rights: Basic Documents, OxfordNew York: Oxford
University Press, 2013. It has to be stressed that the Albanian minority in Serbia
within the region of Kosovo & Metohija in the Socialist Yugoslavia enjoyed all kind
of minority rights according to the international law and even above it. The region has
its own president, constitution, parliament, police, academy of science, law, press,
education system, etc. In the other words, Albanian-run and dominated Kosovo &
Metohija was in fact an independent political subject in Yugoslavia equal with all
Yugoslavia's republics. Within such political conditions Kosovo Albanians developed
a high range of the policy of the oppression and expulsion from the region of the
ethnic Serbs with a strong tendency to separate the region from the rest of Serbia and
include it into a Greater Albania. What MiloãHYLü¶V JRYHUQPHQW GLG LQ  LW ZDV
abolishment of just political independence of both autonomous regions in Serbia ±
Vojvodina and Kosovo & Metohija in order to protect the country from territorial
destruction. However, even after 1989 Kosovo Albanians enjoyed minority rights
according to the basic standards of the international law. Many minorities in Europe
or elsewhere today can just dream about minority rights left to Kosovo Albanians by
6HUELD¶VJRYHUQPHQWLQ)RUWKHPDWWHURIFRPSDULVRQIRULQVWDnce, the Kurds in
13

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+RZHYHU WKH PRVW WHUULEOH LQ WKH VHULHV RI .RVRYR $OEDQLDQ
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RUJDQL]HG DQG FDUULHG RXW EHWZHHQ 0DUFK WKWK  KDYLQJ
DOO WKH IHDWXUHV RI WKH 1D]LVW\OH RUJDQL]HG SRJURPV 'XULQJ WKH
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Turkey (from 1999 a candidate country for the EU membership) enjoy no single
minority right for the very reason as they are not recognized as minority group at all.
From the legal point of view by the Turkish government, the Kurds do not even exist
in Turkey as the ethnocultural and linguistic group. For this reason, the process of
Kurdish assimilation in Turkey is on the way on. On the Kurdish question in Turkey,
see: Metin Heper, The State and Kurds in Turkey: The Question of Assimilation, New
York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007; Cenk Saraçoglu, Kurds of Modern Turkey:
Migration, Neoliberalism and Exclusion in Turkish Society, Tauris Academic Studies,
2010; Michael M. Gunter, The Kurds: The Evolving Solution to the Kurdish Problem
in Iraq and Turkey, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011; Noah Beratsky (ed.), The
Kurds, Greenhaven Press, 2013; Ramazan Aras, The Formation of Kurdishness in
Turkey: Political Violence, Fear and Pain, LondonNew York: Routledge, Taylor &
Francis Group, 2014.
8
On this issue, for instance, see: ɆɢɪɤɨɑɭɩɢʄɈɬɟɬɚɡɟɦʂɚɄɨɫɨɜɨɢɆɟɬɨɯɢʁɚ
ɡɥɨɱɢɧɢɩɪɨɝɨɧɢɨɬɩɨɪɢ ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɇɈɅɂɌ
Video: Boris Malagurski³Kosovo: Can You Imagine"´Canada, 2009
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9nHWsWOgtiw&index=2&list=PL999EB6ACC
07FC959);
Video³La Guerra Infinita´First part, RAI, Italy
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ho2yXwa2dtE&index=21&list=PL999EB6ACC
07FC959);
Video³La Guerra Infinita´Second part, RAI, Italy
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EnMJXvK7Bw&index=37&list=PL999EB6AC
C07FC959).
14

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ɑɢɝɨʁɚɲɬɚɦɩɚp. 61.
11
On Tito's biography, see: Jasper Ridley, Tito. Biografija, Zagreb: Prometej, 2000;
ɉɟɪɨ ɋɢɦɢʄ Ɍɢɬɨ Ɏɟɧɨɦɟɧ  ɜɟɤɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɋɥɭɠɛɟɧɢ ɝɥɚɫɧɢɤɋɜɟɞɨɰɢ
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ɢɡɞɚʃɟ ɨɤɬɨɛɚɪ p. 38.
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On terrorism in Yugoslavia, see: Ɋɚɞɨɫɥɚɜ Ƚɚʄɢɧɨɜɢʄ ɇɚɫɢʂɟ ɭ ȳɭɝɨɫɥɚɜɢʁɢ,
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19

On this issue, see: 3HWDU9*UXMLüKosovo Knot, Pittsburgh: RoseDog Books, 2014.
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20

On Kosovo's transition to (quasi)independence, see: Aidan Hehir (ed.), Kosovo,
Intervention and Statebuilding: The International Community and the Transition to
Independence, LondonNew York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. On the
question of contested states, see: Deon Geldenhuys, Contested States in World
Politics, LondonNew York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
22

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21

James Pettifer, The Kosova Liberation Army: Underground War to Balkan
Insurgency, 19482001, London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, 2012, the back
cover. This book is official history of the KLA ordered and financed by the Albanianrun Kosovo government composed by the KLA veterans.
22
Sinisa Ljepojevic, Kosovo Murky Reality, Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorsHouse,
2008, p. 1.
23
See pro-Albanian and pro-western points of view on historical background for the
KLA with described its activities up to and including the NATO intervention: Henry
H. Perritt Jr. Kosovo Liberation Army: The Inside Story of An Insurgency, University
of Illinois, 2008. The Albanian KLA is not lesser separatist and terrorist than, for
instance, the Kurdish PKK. However, it is allowed for the Turkish government by the
ÄLQWHUQDWLRQDO³FRPPXQLW\WRXVHDOOOHJDODQGRWKHUPHDQVWRILJKWWKH3..LQFOXGLQJ
and a clear violation of the human rights. On the question of the PKK party, see: Ali
Kemal Özcan, 7XUNH\¶V .XUGV $ 7KHRUHWLFDO $QDO\VLV RI WKH 3.. DQG $EGXOODK
Öcalan, LondonNew York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006; Aliza
Marcus, Blood and Belief: The Kurdish Fight for Independence, New YorkLondon:
New York University Press, 2007; Abdullah Öcalan, Prison Writings: The PKK and
the Kurdish Question in the 21st Century, London: Transmedia Publishing Ltd, 2011;
Charles Strozier, James Frank, The PKK: Financial Sources, Social and Political
Dimensions, VDM-Verlag Dr. Müller, 2011.
23

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24
On Lega Nord, see: Anna Cento Bull, Mark Gilbert, The Lega Nord and the
Northern Question in Italian Politics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001; Thomas
W. Gold, The Lega Nord and Contemporary Politics in Italy, New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003; Manlio Graziano, The Failure of Italian Nationhood: The
Geopolitics of a Troubled Identity, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010; Andrej
Zaslove, The Re-Invention of the European Radical Right: Populism, Regionalism,
and the Italian Lega Nord, Montreal & KingstonLondonIthaca: McGill-Queens
University Press, 2011.
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26

On the ISIS, see [Lincoln J., ISIS: The Rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria,
Kindle edition, 2014; Knight J. C., ISIS: Origin of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria,
Kindle edition, 2014; Sekulow J., ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore, New York:
Howard Books, 2014; Fisk Z., The Terror of ISIS: Assessing the Real Threat Posed by
the Islamic State, Blowfish LLC, 2014].
32

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27

Ä)UDQFH'LMRQ'ULYHUWDUJHWVFLW\SHGHVWULDQV³>KWWSZZZEEFFRPQHZVZRUOGeurope-30571911].
28
A Court of Appeals in Bosnia-Herzegovina sentenced Jasharevic to 15 years in jail
IRUDFULPLQDODFWRIDWWDFNLQJWKH86(PEDVV\LQ6DUDMHYR>Ä%RVQLDQ86(PEDVV\
Attacker Gets 15 Years in Jail³ KWWSZZZUIHUORUJFRQWHQWERVQLD-us-embassyattack/25174652.html].
29
On the Dayton Accords, see [Cousens M. E., Towards Peace in Bosnia:
Implementing the Dayton Accords, International Peace Academy Occasional Paper
Series, 2001; Chollet D., Road to the Dayton Accords: A Study of American
Statecraft, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005].
33

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30

On Islamic terrorism at the Balkans, see [Shay Sh., Islamic Terror and the Balkans,
Transaction Publishers, 2008]. On radical Islam today, see [Pargeter A., The Muslim
Brotherhood: From Opposition to Power, London: Saqi Books, 2013; Wickham R.
C., The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement, Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2013].
31
On the Afghan Taliban-Bosnian Bosniak connections, see [Kohlmann F. E., AlQaida's Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network, New York: Berg, 2004]. On
the Al-Qaeda's network in Bosnia-Herzegovina, see [Schindler R. J., Unholy Terror:
Bosnia, Al-Qa'ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad, St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2007].
32
On the national identity of the Rashka's district (Sanjak of Novi Pazar) Slavic
Muslims, see [Fridman F., The Muslim Slavs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (With
Reference to the Sandzak of Novi Pazar): Islam as National Identity, Nationalities
Papers, 2000].
34

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33

On the radical Islam at the Balkans and its ideology and doctrine, see [Deliso Ch.,
The Coming Balkan Caliphate: The Threat of Radical Islam to Europe and the West,
:HVWSRUW&RQQHFWLFXWí/RQGRQ3UDHJHU6HFXULWL,QWHUQDWLRQDO%HUJHP3 HG 
Talibanistan: The Borders Between Terror, Politics, and Religion 2[IRUGí1HZ
York: Oxford University Press, 2013].
34
On historical development and identity of Bosnia-HeU]HJRYLQD¶V 0XVOLP
community, see [Donia J. R., Fine Jr. J., Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Tradition
Betrayed, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994; Pinson M. (ed.), The Muslims
35

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of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Their Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the
Dissolution of Yugoslavia, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996]. On
dissolution of ex-Yugoslavia, see [Woodward L. S., Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and
Dissolution After the Cold War, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1995;
Owen D., Balkan Odyssey, London: Indigo, 1996; Finlan A., The Collapse of
Yugoslavia 19911999, Ospray Publishing, 2004; 6RWLURYLü B. V., Emigration,
5HIXJHHV DQG (WKQLF &OHDQVLQJ 7KH 'HDWK RI <XJRVODYLD í, Vilnius:
Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences Press, 2013; Mikasinovich B.,
Yugoslavia: Crisis and Disintegration, Plyroma Publishing Company, 2014].
35
See [Lings M., Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Inner
Traditions, 2006; The Quran, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008; Husain E., The
Islamist, New York: Penguin Group, 2008; Euben L. R., Zaman Q. M. (eds.),
Princeton Readings in Islamist Thought: Texts and Contexts from Al-Banna to Bin
Laden, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009; Spencer R., Islam: Religion
of Bigots, Sherman Oaks, CA: David Horowits Freedom Center, 2013].
36

ȳɟɜɬɢʄ M. Äɂɫɥɚɦɫɤɚ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɚ ɚɥɛɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɫɟɰɟɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɟ
ɋɪɛɚ³ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ National Interest), vol. 17, no. 2, Belgrade: Institute
IRU 3ROLWLFDO 6WXGLHV  í Davidson L., Islamic Fundamentalism: An
Introduction, Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013.
37
7KHUH LV D VKRUW GRFXPHQWDU\ PRYLH  PLQ  PDGH E\ WKH %ULWLVK ³6.< 1HZV´
after the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina about the Arab Mujahedeens fighting in BosniaHerzegovina on the side of the Army of Bosnia- Herzegovina led by the Muslim
government in Sarajevo and about the impact of the Wahabbies on the Muslim society
in
post-war
Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The
movie
is
available
on
[http://vimeo.com/8482257]. On the holy war of Jihad, see [Firestone R., Jihad: The
Origin of Holy War in Islam 2[IRUGí1HZ <RUN 2[IRUG 8QLYHUVLW\ 3UHVV 
Cook D., Understanding Jihad %HUNOH\í/RV $QJHOHV &DOLIRUQLD 8QLYHUVLW\ RI
California Press, 2005; Kepel G., Jihad: The Trial of Political Islam, London: I.B.
Tauris & Co Ltd, 2006; Bonner M., Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice,
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008; Bostom G. A., The Legacy of Jihad:
Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims, New York: Prometheus Books, 2008;
Lindsey H., The Everlasting Hatred: The Roots of Jihad, Washington, D.C.: WND
Books, 2011; Kemp A., Islam's 1,300 Year War on Western Civilisation, CreateSpace
Independent Publishing Platform, 2013].
36

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38

On Wahhabies and their mission, see [Algar H., Wahhabism: A Critical Essay,
Oneonta, NY: Islamic Publications International, 2002; DeLong-Bas J. N., Wahhabi
Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad, Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2004; Bradley R. J., Saudi Arabia Exposed: Inside a Kingdom of Crisis, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2006; Allen Ch., God's Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden
Roots of Modern Jihad, Da Capo Press, 2007; Ayoob M., Kosebalaban H. (eds.),
Religion and Politics in Saudi Arabia: Wahhabism and the State, Lynne Rienner Pub.,
2008; Commins D., The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia /RQGRQí1HZ <RUN
I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2009; Hegghammer Th., Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and
Pan-Islamism since 1979, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010; Lacroix S.,
Awakening Islam: The Politics of Religious Dissent in Contemporary Saudi Arabia,
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011; Dillon R. M., Wahhabism: Is It a
Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism? Kindle edition, 2012; Salvato F., The
Muslim Brotherhood & Wahhabism in America, Virginia Beach, VA: BasicProject,
2012; Peskes E. (ed.), Wahhabism: Docrine and Development, Critical Surveys in
Islamic Denominations Series, 2014; Crawford M., ,EQµ$EG $O-Wahhab, London:
Oneworld Publications, 2014; Subhani J. A., Wahhabism, CreateSpace Independent
Publishing Platform, 2014].
39
$ERXW:DKDEELHV$O4DHGD-LKDGLVWVDQG0XMDKHGHHQVLQ.RVRYRVHH>³$O4DHGD
LQ.RVRYR´DWhttp://www.serbianna.com/columns/mb/035.shtml].
40

On destruction of the Serbian Christian property and pogrom of the Serbs by
Kosovo Muslim Albanians see, for instance [March Pogrom in Kosovo and Metohija.
March 1719, 2004 with a survey of destroyed and endangered Christian cultural
heritage, Belgrade: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia0XVHXPLQ3ULãWLQD
(displaced), 2004].
37

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example,
on
the
Jihad
in
Bosnia-Herzegovina,
see
[http://www.nspm.rs/komentar-dana/dzihad-u-sarajevu.html]. About the CIA and Al
Qaeda at the Balkans, see [http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1394711/posts].
38

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Ä'DQJHU RI 5DGLFDOL]DWLRQ RI ,VODPLF <oXWK LQ .RVRYR DQG %L+³
[inserbia.info/today/2014/09/danger-of-radicalization-of-islamic-youth-in-kosovoand-bih/].
43
See more in [ɉɨɬɟɠɢɰɚ Ɉ Äȼɚɯɚɛɢɬɢ ɩɪɢɞɨɲɥɢɰɟ ɧɚ Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɭ³
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44
On Mother Teresa, see [Spink K., Mother Teresa: An Authorised Biography, New
York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011; Scot D., The Love That Made Mother Teresa:
How Her Secret Visions and Dark Nights Can Help You Conquer the Slums of Your
Heart, Manchester, NH: Sophia Institute Press, 2013; North W., Mother Teresa: A
Life Inspired, North Wyatt, 2014].
39

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About the Pan-Slavism, see in (Kohn, 1960).
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About the Russian history, see in (Riasanovsky, 2006).
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49
About Ukraine-Russian identity relations, see in (Plokhy, 2008; Plokhy, 2010).
48

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About the spiritual and geopolitical rivalry in the Balkans by the great European
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49

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52
About history of the Cold War, see in (Lewis, 2005; Zubok, 2007).
53
About the end of the USSR, see in (Plokhy, 2014).
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54
About different opinions on the nature of Yugoslavia, see in (Allcock, 2000;
Sabrina, 2006).
55

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6RWLURYLü, 2013a).
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56

About Peter the Great and his reformes in Russia, see in (Hughes, 2000; Cracraft,
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57

About the idea of the Holy Russia as a Third Rome, see in (Johnson, 2004).
$ERXWWKH86¶SRVW-Cold War imperialism and global hegemony, see in (Kiernan,
2005; Baron, 2014).
58

53 

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59

About the Pax Americana, see in (Dorrien, 2004; Clarke, 2008; Parchami, 2009;
Roncallo, 2014). On the remaking of the World Order, see (Huntington, 2002;
Kissinger, 2014). On the post-Cold War US-5XVVLD¶V UHODWLRQV XS WR WKH 
Ukrainian crisis, see in (Stent, 2014).
60
$ERXWWKH³.RVRYRSUHFHGHQW´DQGWKHHWKQRSROLWLFDOFRQIOLFWVLQWKH&DXFDVXVVHH
in (Weller, 2009; Tsurtsumia, 2010; Hehir, 2010; Francis, 2011; Souleimanov, 2013;
6RWLURYLü, 2013b).
61
$ERXW 5XVVLD¶V IRUHLJQ SROLF\ VHH LQ Donaldson, 2014). About Russia and her
closest neighbours, see in (Szajkowski, 1994; Hungtington, 2011, pp. í 
About Russia and the Balkans after 1991, see in (Ekinci, 2013).

54

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About Boris Yeltsin and Russia in his time, see in (Colton, 2008; Curtis, 2014).
$ERXW WKH 1$72¶V PLOLWDU\ intervention in 1999 against Serbia and Montenegro,
see in (Gibbs, 2009; Phillips, 2012).
57
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About this issue, see more in (Headley, 2008).
About the globalization of the NATO pact, see in (Kitchen, 2010; Nazemroaya,
2012).
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After the final withrowal of all military forces from Kosovo-Metohija in 2003,
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About discussion on the origins of the WWI, see in (Ȼʁɟɥɚʁɚɰ, 2014).
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On the NATO-Russia peacekeeping cooperation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Kosovo-Metohija, see more in (NATO and Russia).
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About this issue, see more in (Mendeloff, 2008; Kanet, 2010; Leichtova, 2014).
About the Bosniaks, as a matter of comparison, see in (Donia & Fine, 1994; Pinson,
1996).
61

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About the problems and challenges of the Balkan security and Russia in the 1990s,
see in (Shoup, 1990; Ƚɭɫɶɤɨɜɚ í /DUUDEHH  Ȼɨɞɫɨɧ, 1996; Gow,
1997).
76
A same kind of just declarative support to Serbia was expressed by a President of
the Gazprom Republic of Russia ± Vladimir Putin in Belgrade on October 14th, 2014.

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About the post-Cold War western supremacy in the global politics and international
relations, see in (Mayer, 2014; Pijl, 2014). About a typical example of the western
WKH86¶ FRORQy in the region, Kosovo-Metohija as a part of the Pax Americana, see
in (Hofbauer, 2009). On the relations between the NATO and the European Union,
see in (Simon, 2013). About the history of a greater concept of the East Europe
between the Germans and the Russians, see in (Bideleux & Jeffries, 1999; Janos,
2000).
64

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The region of Kosovo (under such name known in the western politics and science)
is traditionally and historically called by the Serbs as Kosovo-Metochia, while by the
Albanians as Kosova or Kosovë. The western portion of the region is Metochia and
the eastern one is Kosovo.
81
³ɘɠɧɭɸɈɫɫɟɬɢɸɫɦɟɪɢɥɢɤɨɫɨɜɫɤɢɦɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɦ´, Ʉɨɦɦɟɪɫɚɧɬ, 15. 11. 2006:
http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/721626.
82
On history, antropology, religion and ethnography of the Caucasus, see: N. Griffin,
Caucasus: A Journey To The Land Between Christianity And Islam (Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 2004); B. Grant, L. Yalcin-Heckmann (eds.), Caucasus
Paradigms: Antropologies, Histories and The Making of A World Area (LIT Verlag,
2007); Ch. King, The Ghost of Freedom: A History of The Caucasus 2[IRUGí1HZ
York: Oxford University Press, 2008); Th. De Waal, The Caucasus: An Introduction
2[IRUGí1HZ <RUN 2[IRUG 8QLYHUVLW\ 3UHVV   - )RUV\WK The Caucasus: A
History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); A. Tsutsiev, Atlas of The
Ethno-Political History of The Caucasus (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014);
G. M. Hahn, 7KH &DXFDVXV (PLUDWH 0XMDKHGLQ*OREDO -LKDGLVP LQ 5XVVLD¶V 1RUWK
Caucasus and Beyond (McFarland & Company, 2014). On ethnopolitical conflicts in
the Caucasus, see: S. E. Cornell, Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of
Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus /RQGRQí1HZ <RUN 5RXWOHGJH&XU]RQ
2001); E. Souleimanov, Understanding Ethnopolitical Conflict: Karabakh, South
76

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Ossetia, and Abkhazia Wars Reconsidered (New <RUNí/RQGRQ3DOJUDYH0DF0LOODQ
2013).
83
On self-SURFODPDWLRQ RI WKH VWDWH¶V LQGHSHQGHQFH E\ $ENKD]LD DQG 6RXWK 2VVHWLD
and followed war between Georgia and Russia in August 2008, see: S. E. Cornell, S.
F. Starr (eds.), 7KH *XQV RI $XJXVW  5XVVLD¶V War in Georgia (M. E. Sharpe,
2009); R. D. Asmus, A Little War That Shook The World: Georgia, Russia, and The
Future of The West (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2010); D. Gierycz, The
Mysteries of The Caucasus (Xlibris Corporation, 2010).
84
Up today there are more than 100 states in the world, according to Kosovo Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, who recognized this territory as an independent state. Among them
are and 26 EU member states. However, Kosovo is not still a member of any
international political, economic or sport organization. The first two states which
recognized Kosovo proclamation of independence in February 2008 were Afghanistan
and the USA. The number of states who really recognized Kosovo independence is
very questionable.
85
Moscow used the domino effect principle in the case of unification of the Crimean
Peninsula with Russia in the spring 2014 and can use the same principle for the
unification with Russia of any other region of Ukraine or other ex-Soviet republics
with significant number of the Russian-speaking population or at least to support their
autonomous or separatist political movements.
77

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86

There is a claim that the Ossetians are only European nation in the Caucasus, but
this claim is up to now not scientifically proved. The Ossetians themselves believe to
originate from the Sarmatian tribe of Alans. The Ossetians speak a language that is
remotely related to the Persian.
87
See: Ph. M. Parker (ed.), 2VVHWLD :HEVWHU¶V7LPHOLQH+LVWRU\í (ICON
Group International, Inc., 2010).
88
The Serbian Christian Orthodox cultural heritage in Kosovo-Metochia is of the
crucial importance for the national identity of all Serbs (ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɪɟɜɢʁɚ Ɍɟɦɚ
ɛɪɨʁɚ Ʉɨɫɨɜɨ ɢ Ɇɟɬɨɯɢʁɚ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɬɟɬɚ ɢ ɫɪɩɫɤɨɝɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ
(Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɡɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟɫɬɭɞɢʁɟvol. 35, no. 1, 2013)).
89
Ɇ. ȿɤɦɟɱɢʄ Ⱦɭɝɨ ɤɪɟɬɚʃɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɤɥɚʃɚ ɢ ɨɪɚʃɚ ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɋɪɛɚ ɭ ɇɨɜɨɦ
ɜɟɤɭ í  Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞȿɜɪɨíȭɭɧɬɢ í
78

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90

On history of Georgia, see: R. G. Suny, The Making of The Georgian Nation
(Indiana University Press, 1994); D. Rayfield, Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia
(London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2012); S. F. Jones, Georgia: A Political History Since
Independence (I. B. Tauris, 2014).
91
For instance, see: + +DGåLEHJLü $ +DQGåLü ( .RYDþHYLü XUHGQLFL  Oblast
%UDQNRYLüD2SãLUQLNDWDVWDUVNLSRSLVL]JRGLQH (Sarajevo: Orijentalni institut u
Sarajevu, 1972).
92
About this issue, see: Ʉɚɜɤɚɫɤɢ Ⱥɥɛɚɧɰɢ ɥɚɠɧɢ ɂɥɢɪɢ ɉɪɨɲɢɪɟɧɢ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɢ
ɪɟɮɟɪɚɬɚ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɯ  ʁɭɧɚ  ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɧɚ ɦɭɥɬɢɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɨɦ ɨɤɪɭɝɥɨɦ
ɫɬɨɥɭ ɭ ɋȺɇɍ ÄɆɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ Ⱥɥɛɚɧɚɰɚ³
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɉɟɲɢʄ ɢ ɫɢɧ  ȳ. ɂ Ⱦɟɪɟɬɢʄ Ⱦ. ɉ Ⱥɧɬɢʄ ɋ. Ɇ ȳɚɪɱɟɜɢʄ
ɂɡɦɢɲʂɟɧɨɞɨɫɟʂɚɜɚʃɟɋɪɛɚ (Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɋɚɪɞɨɧɢʁɚ).
79

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93

Before 1945 it was hardly known what the exact borders of this province have been
as it historically depended on the power of the local feudal lords (ex. the Brankoviü¶V 
or foreign power (ex. the Kosovo Vilayet in the Ottoman Empire) which was
administering the province.
94
The Albanian minority in Serbia within the region of Kosovo-Metochia in the
Socialist Yugoslavia enjoyed all kind of minority rights according to the international
law and even above it. The region has its own president, constitution, parliament,
police, academy of science, law, press, education system, etc. In the other words,
Albanian-run and dominated Kosovo- Metochia was in fact an independent political
VXEMHFW LQ <XJRVODYLD HTXDO ZLWK DOO <XJRVODYLD¶V UHSXEOLFV :LWKLQ VXFK SROLWLFDO
conditions Kosovo Albanians developed a high range of the policy of the oppression
and expulsion from the region of the ethnic Serbs with a strong tendency to separate
the region from the rest of Serbia and include it into a Greater Albania. What S.
MiloãHYLü¶VJRYHUQPHQWGLGLQLWZDVDEROLVKPHQWRIMXVWSROLWLFDOLQGHSHQGHQFH
of both autonomous regions in Serbia ± Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metochia in order to
protect the country from territorial destruction. However, even after 1989 Kosovo
Albanians enjoyed minority rights according to the basic standards of the international
law. Many minorities in Europe or elsewhere today can just dream about minority
ULJKWV OHIW WR .RVRYR $OEDQLDQV E\ 6HUELD¶V JRYHUQPHQW LQ  )RU WKH PDWWHU RI
comparison, for instance, the Kurds in Turkey (from 1999 a candidate country for the
EU membership) enjoy no single minority right for the very reason as they are not
recognized as minority group at all. From the legal point of view by the Turkish
government, the Kurds do not even exist in Turkey as the ethnocultural and linguistic
group. For this reason, the process of Kurdish assimilation in Turkey is on the way on.
On the Kurdish question in Turkey, see: M. Heper, The State and Kurds in Turkey:
The Question of Assimilation (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007); C. Saraçoglu,
Kurds of Modern Turkey: Migration, Neoliberalism and Exclusion in Turkish Society
(Tauris Academic Studies, 2010); M. M. Gunter, The Kurds: The Evolving Solution to
the Kurdish Problem in Iraq and Turkey (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011); N.
Beratsky (ed.), The Kurds (Greenhaven Press, 2013); R. Aras, The Formation of
Kurdishness in Turkey: Political Violence, Fear and Pain (LondonNew York:
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014). On Slobodan MiloãHYLüIrom the western
perspective, see: L. Sell, Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia
(DurhamLondon: Duke University Press, 2002); A. LeBor, Milosevic. A Biography
(LondonBerlinNew YorkSydney: Bloomsbury, 2012).
80

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95

The Kosovo Albanian birth-rate after the Second World War is highest in Europe
and even higher than in Albania for the very political reason to claim KosovoMetochia to be exclusively Albanian territory ± a claim to be based on the ethnic
rights as the Albanians do not have any historic right on this province ((39*UXMLü
Kosovo Knot (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: RoseDog Books, 2014)).
96
The South Ossetian referendum is called by Georgia as illegal like Kosovo
$OEDQLDQUHIHUHQGXPLVDOVRFDOOHGE\6HUELD¶DDXWKRULWLHVDVQRWOHJDOO\based. At the
moment of the Kosovo Albanian referendum this South Serbian province did not have
any political autonomy. Kosovo-Metochia enjoyed very wide political autonomy until
1989 when it was cancelled by Belgrade in order to prevent separation of the province
from the rest of the country. It was left to Kosovo-Metochia after 1989 cultural and
education autonomy for the local Albanians ± the right which they enjoyed in
Montenegro and the FYR of Macedonia. The South Ossetia was never enjoying such
wide political autonomy (semi-independence) in the USSR as it was the case of
Kosovo-Metochia in the Socialist Yugoslavia till 1989.
97
On the Kosovo Liberation Army, see, for instance pro-Albanian and pro-western
points of view on historical background for the Kosovo Liberation Army with
described its activities up to and including the NATO intervention: H. H. Perritt Jr.,
Kosovo Liberation Army: The Inside Story of An Insurgency (University of Illinois,
2008); J. Pettifer, The Kosova Liberation Army: Underground War to Balkan
Insurgency, 19482001 (London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, 2012). The last
book is official history of the Kosovo Liberation Army ordered and financed by the
Albanian-run Kosovo government composed by the Kosovo Liberation Army
81 

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veterans. The Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army is not lesser separatist and terrorist
than, for instance, the Kurdish PKK. However, it is allowed for the Turkish
JRYHUQPHQWE\WKHÄLQWHUQDWLRQDO³FRPPXQLW\WRXVHDOOOHJDODQGRWKHUPHDQVWRILJKW
the PKK including and a clear violation of the human rights.
98
About the case of the Republic of Serbian Krayina see: ȼ ȭɭɪɢʄ Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ
ɋɪɩɫɤɚɄɪɚʁɢɧɚȾɟɫɟɬɝɨɞɢɧɚɩɨɫɥɢʁɟ (Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ÄȾɨɛɪɚɜɨʂɚ³ Regarding
the case of destruction of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s, see: J. Guskova, Istorija
MXJRVORYHQVNH NUL]H í  ,í,, %HRJUDG ɂȽȺɆ 2003). Up today, the
Republic of Kosova is not a member of any international political, sport, cultural or
economic organization.
99
According to 1989 data, ethnic breakdown of Georgia was: the Georgians 69%,
Armenians 9%, Russians 5%, Azerbaijanis 3%, Ossetians 3%. In 1993 it was 146.000
refugees in Georgia. At the same time about one million persons left Georgia, live in
break-away regions or were expelled after 1989 (I. Ivekovic, Ethnic and Regional
Conflicts in Yugoslavia and Transcaucasia: A Political Economy of Contemporary
Ethnonational Mobilization (Ravenna: Longo Editore Ravenna, 2000), 18.
82

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100

See: C. Francis, Conflict Resolution and Status: The Case of Georgia and
$ENKD]LD í (Academic & Science Publishers, 2011); A. Saparov, From
Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: The Soviet Union and the Making of Abkhazia,
South Ossetia and Nagorno Karabakh 1HZ<RUNí/RQGRQ5RXWOHGJH 
101
Neue Zürcher Zeitung (14. 05. 2004).
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An unrecognized the Republic of Pridnestrovje, the break-away region of the
Republic of Moldova is very good example of transitional, or uncompleted statehood.
It is de facto not under Moldovan control, possessing all formal attributes of a
VRYHUHLJQVWDWHOLNHWKH³5HSXEOLFRI.RVRYD´3ULGQHVWURYMHRU7UDQVGQLHVWULDIRUPV
part of the world-ZLGHEHOWRI³SVHXGRVWDWHV´ 9.RORVVRY³$6PDOO6WDWHYVD6HOIProclaimed Republic: Nation-Building, Territorial Identities and Prospects of Conflict
Resolution (The Case of Moldova-7UDQVGQLHVWULD ´ 6 Bianchini (ed.), From the
Adriatic to the Caucasus: The Dynamics of (De)Stabilization (Ravenna: Longo
Editore Ravenna, 2001), 87). Abkhazia, the South Ossetia and Pridnestrovje are the
RQO\ ³VWDWHV´ LQ WKH ZRUOG ZKR UHFRJQL]HG WKH VHOI-proclaimed independence of the
Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh in 1991. However, it is not done up today by any of
the UN member states.
103
On the issue of violation of minority rights in Albanian-governed KosovoMetochia, including and the policy of ethnic cleansing, see, for instance: The March
3RJURP LQ .RVRYR DQG 0HWRKLMD 0DUFK í   ZLWK D VXUYH\ RI GHVWUR\HG
and endangered Christian cultural heritage (Belgrade, 2004); H. Hofbauer,
Experiment Kosovo. Die Rückker des Kolonialismus (Wien: 2008); M. ɑɭɩɢʄ
ɈɬɟɬɚɡɟɦʂɚɄɨɫɨɜɨɢɆɟɬɨɯɢʁɚ ɡɥɨɱɢɧɢɩɪɨɝɨɧɢɨɬɩɨɪɢ (Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɇɨɥɢɬ
2006 í 9%6RWLURYLü ³.RVRYR 0HWRKLMD7HQ<HDUV$IWHU 7KHµMarch
3RJURP¶´ɋɪɩɫɤɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚɦɢɫɚɨ(Serbian Political Thought), vol. 43, no. 
%HOJUDGH,QVWLWXWHIRU3ROLWLFDO6WXGLHV í. Such policy of violation of
minority rights including and ethnic cleansing, at least at such extent, is not recorded
in the cases of the South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Pridnestrovje. According to Miroljub
-HYWLü ERWK .RVRYR $OEDQLDQ VHFHVLRQLVP DQG GHVWUXFWion of Serbian Christian
Orthodox national and cultural heritage in this province have Islamic background (Ɇ
ȳɟɜɬɢʄÄɂɫɥɚɦɫɤɚɫɭɲɬɢɧɚɚɥɛɚɧɫɤɨɝɫɟɰɟɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɚɢɤɭɥɬɭɪɧɨɧɚɫɥɟɻɟɋɪɛɚ³
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ National Interest), vol. 17, no. 2 (Belgrade: Institute for
Political Studies, 2013) í). On Islamic fundamentalism, see: L. Davidson,
Islamic Fundamentalism: An Introduction (Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013).
84

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104
On the case of Nagorno Karabakh, see: H. Krüger, The Nagorno-Karabakh
Conflict: A Legal Analysis 6SULQJHUí+HLGHOEHUJí'RUGUHFKWí/RQGRQí1HZ <RUN
Springer, 2010); B. Balayev, The Right to Self-Determination in the South Caucasus:
Nagorno Karabakh in Context (Lexington Books, 2013).
85

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105
On political history of Azerbaijan since 1991, see: Svante E. Cornell, Azerbaijan
Since Independence (M. E. Sharpe, 2010).
106
Azerbaijan did not apply fot the NATO help for at least three reasons: 1) not to
spoil good relations with Russia; 2) not to provoke Iran ± a country which was
supporting Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia; and 3) the NATO at that time was
not ready for the confrontation with Russia in the region which was de facto
recognized by Brussels and Washington as the Russian zone of interest. On the
Kosovo-0HWRFKLD:DULQíLQWKHFRQWH[WRIGHVWUXFWLRQRIH[-Yugoslavia,
VHH & +DGMLPLFKDOLV ³.RVRYR  'D\V RI DQ 8QGHFODUHG DQG 8QMXVW :DU $
*HRSROLWLFDO &RPPHQW´ European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2,
(2000), 17580; T. Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge (New HavenLondon: Yale
University Press, 2002); A. Finlan, The Collapse of Yugoslavia 19911999 (Ospray
3XEOLVKLQJ 2QWKH1$72¶VDLUZDUIRU.RVRYR-Metochia in 1999, see: T. G.
Carpenter (ed.), 1$72¶V (PSW\ 9ictory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War (Cato
Institute, 2000); B. S. Lambeth, 1$72¶V $LU :DU IRU .RVRYR $ 6WUDWHJLF DQG
Operational Assessment (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001); D. Henrikson, 1$72¶V
Gamble: Combining Diplomacy and Airpower in the Kosovo Crisis 19981999
$QQDSROLV0DU\ODQG1DYDO ,QVWLWXWH3UHVV 2QWKH1$72¶VÄKXPDQLWDULDQ³
intervention in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999, see: D. N. Gibbs, First
Do No Harm: Humanitarian Intervention and the Destruction of Yugoslavia
(Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2009).
86

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The author of this article has strong belief that the USA and the Russian
administrations simply decided in 2008 to recognize at the moment de facto situation
upon the Balkans and the Caucasus affairs: Kosovo-Metochia will be recognized as
the USA domain, while the South Ossetia and Abkhazia as the Russian one. By now,
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Diplomatic Archives of Serbia, Archives of ,OLMD*DUDãDQLQ%HOJUDGH³$FRS\RI
report of Russian consul in Rumelia and central Albania to the director of the Asiatic
Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign $IIDLUV´ %LWROD 0RQDVWLU  0DUFK
15th/27thʋ WUDQVODWHGIURP5XVVLDQ 
111
Poulton H., The Balkans. Minorities and States in Conflict, London, 1994, p. 117.
112
Archives du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, Paris, vol. Turquie, Belgrade,
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113
The first official Ottoman .RVRYRFHQVXV GDWDFRYHULQJWRGD\.RVRYR¶V RI
territory, done in 1455, is up to now the most important and reliable historical and
statistical source on Kosovo during the first years of the Ottoman rule. According to
the Yugoslav scientific experts, the analysis of the names and surnames from this
census book (Defter) it is clear that in Kosovo at that time lived only 2% of Albanians
and all of them in the area of Djakovica that is a town very close to the border with
the present day Republic of Albania. The rest of Kosovo population was composed by
overwhelming Slavic (Serb) majority (2EODVW%UDQNRYLüD2SãLUQLNDWDVWDUVNLSRSLVL]
1455 godine, 1, Orijentalni institut u Sarajevu, Sarajevo, 1972 [âDEDQRYLü + HG 
102

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$OEDQLDQV LQ $XVWULD DQG LQ RWKHU (XURSHDQ FRXQWULHV HYHQ QRZ
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Monumenta Turcica, Historiam Slavorum Meridionalum Illustranta, Tomus tertius,
serija II, Defteri, knj. 2, sv. 1]. Original census book is in the Turkish language and
archived in Istanbul).
114
The Autonomous Province of Kosovo from 1974 till 1989 had its own President,
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Constitution), police forces, territorial defense forces, Academy of Science and Arts
and the PrishWLQD 8QLYHUVLW\ 2Q WKH IHGHUDO OHYHO .RVRYR¶V YRWH ZDV HTXDO ZLWK DOO
other votes by all six Socialist Republics and the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
with the veto rights power. In practice, Kosovo at that time was enjoying the same
level of political-administrative independence as all other Yugoslav republics and
Vojvodina province. Nevertheless, the fact was that autonomous provinces in the
post- <XJRVODYLD ZHUH FUHDWHG RQO\ ZLWKLQ 6HUELD 6XFK ³SULYLOHJHG´ VWDWXV
however, no single other YugoslDYLD¶VUHSXEOLFHQMR\HG6XFKDV\PPHWULFIHGHUDWLRQ
was probably very unique case in history of applied federalism. On the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, see: (J. R. Lampe, Yugoslavia as History: Twice
There Was a Country, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000; J. B. Allcock,
Explaining Yugoslavia, New York: Columbia University Press, 2000; ȺɇȾɪɚɝɧɢʄ
Ɍɢɬɨɜɚ ɨɛɟʄɚɧɚ ɡɟɦʂɚ ȳɭɝɨɫɥɚɜɢʁɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɑɢɝɨʁɚ ɲɬɚɦɩɚíɁɚɞɭɠɛɢɧɚ
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɢɰɚ[in original: Alex N. Dragnich, 7LWR¶V3URPLVHG/DQG<ugoslavia];
L. Benson, Yugoslavia. A Concise History, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004).
115
0DUFK 3RJURP LQ .RVRYR DQG 0HWRKLMD 0DUFK í  :LWK D 6XUYH\ RI
Destroyed and Endangered Christian Cultural Heritage, Belgrade: Ministry of
Culture of WKH 5HSXEOLF RI 6HUELDí0XVHXP LQ 3ULãtina (displaced), 2004; Ⱦ Ɍ
ȻɚɬɚɤɨɜɢʄɄɨɫɨɜɨɢɆɟɬɨɯɢʁɚɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚɢɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢʁɚȾɪɭɝɨɞɨɩɭʃɟɧɨɢɡɞɚʃɟ
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɑɢɝɨʁɚ ɲɬɚɦɩɚ ; H. Hofbauer, Eksperiment Kosovo. Povratak
kolonijalizma, Beograd: Albatros Plus, 2009 [in original: Hannes Hofbauer,
Experiment Kosovo. Die Rückkehl des kolonialismus].
103

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The customary laws are still followed to various degrees by many Albanians in all
lands populated by this ethnolinguistic nation in the Balkans but more and more and
104

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in those European countries in which the Albanians today live. The fact is that these
laws have survived very much, and even in many cases replaced, the implementation
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their importance for the Albanian society everywhere. The issue is that in these
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influential written form of the Albanian customary laws is a codex by Lekë
Dukagjinit (Sh., Gjeçovit, Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit, 2014).
105

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On political Islam, see: (M. Ayoob, The Many Faces of Political Islam. Religion
and Politics in the Muslim World, The University of Michigan Press, 2008; K. Hroub
(ed.), Political Islam. Context versus Ideology, London: The London Middle East
Institute, 2010; F. Volpi (ed.), Political Islam. A Critical Reader, New York:
Routledge, 2011; P. Mandaville, Islam and Politics/RQGRQí1HZ<RUN: Routledge,
2014).
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On geopolitics, see: Klaus Dodds, Geopolitics: A Very Short Introduction,
OxfordNew York: Oxford University Press, 2007; Jeremy Black, Geopolitics,
London: The Social Affairs Unit, 2009; Saul Bernard Cohen, Geopolitics: The
Geography of International Relations, Lanham, Maryland: The Rowman & Littlefield
Publishing Group, Inc., 2009; Eric Walberg, Postmodern Imperialism: Geopolitics
and the Great Games, Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 2011; Colin Flint, Introduction to
Geopolitics, New York: Routledge, 2012; Harvey Starr, On Geopolitics: Space,
Place, and International Relations, Paradigm Publishers, 2014.
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On this issue, see: Robin W. Winks, Susan P. Mattern-Parkes, The Ancient
Meditteranean World: From the Stone Age to A.D. 600, New YorkOxford: Oxford
University Press, 2004; Ralph W. Mathisen, Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations:
From Prehistory to 640 CE, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011; Thomas S.
Parker (ed.), History of The Ancient Mediterranean World, Kendall Hunt Publishing,
2011.
122
See: Alastair Finlan, The Gulf War 1991, Osprey Publishing, 2003; Richard S.
Lowry, The Gulf War Chronicles: A Military History of the First War with Iraq,
Lincoln, NE: Iuniverse, 2008.
123
See: Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge, New HavenLondon, Yale University
Press, 2002; Alastair Finlan, The Collapse of Yugoslavia 19911999, Ospray
Publishing, 2004.
124
See: John Lamberton Harper, Cold War, New York: Oxford University Press,
2011; Carole K. Fink, Cold War: An International History, Boulder, Colorado:
Westview Press, 2014; William T. Walker, America in the Cold War: A Reference
Guide, ABC-CLIO, 2014.
112

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On the NATO Cold War strategy, see: Mark Smith, NATO Enlargement During
the Cold War: Strategy and System in the Western Alliance, New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2000.
126
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International Spectator, No. 4, 1992, p. 5.
127
On the US navy presence in the Mediterranean Sea area, see: Importance of United
States Naval Forward Presence in Mediterranean Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School:
Pennyhill Press, 2014.
128
On the post-Cold War Mediterranean security challenges, see: Nikolaos A. Stavrou
(ed.), Mediterranean Security at the Crossroads: A Reader, Duke University Press,
1999; Stephen C. Calleya, Security Challenges in the Euro-Med Area in the 21st
Century: Mare nostrum, New York: Routledge, 2013.
113

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Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man, New York: Avon Books,
Inc., 1992; Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of
World Order, New York, NY: Touchstone Rockfeller Center, 1997; Susanne Peters,
7KH ³:HVW´ $JDLQVW WKH ³5HVW´ *HRSROLWLFV $IWHU WKH (QG RI WKH &ROG :DU,
Geopolitics, 1999; Kanayo Nwankwo, The West and the Rest: In the Wells of Hell,
Charleston, SC: BookSurge Publishing, 2008; The Clash of Civilizations? The
Debate: Twentieth Anniversary Edition, Foreign Affairs, 2013.
130
Richard Rosencrance: A New Concept of Powers, Foreign Affairs, New York,
1992. However, more accurate term for the post-Cold War international relations
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Balcania. Scientific Articles in English, Vilnius: Lithuanian University of Educational
6FLHQFHV3UHVV³(GXNRORJLMD´SS129).
131
Richard FalN³,Q6HDUFKRID1HZ:RUOG0RGHO´, Current History, Philadelphia,
April 1993, p. 145.
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132
On the problem of migration and security, see: Elspeth Guild, Security and
Migration in the 21st Century, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009; Thanh-Dam Truong,
Des Gasper (eds.), Transnational Migration and Human Security, BerlinHeidelberg:
Springer-Verlag, 2011.
133

2Q WKH ³$UDE 6SULQJ´ VHH Brynen Rex, Pete W. Moore, Bassel F. Salloukh,
Marie-Joelle Zahar, Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism & Democratization in
the Arab World, Lynne Rienner Publisher, 2012; Paul Danahar, The New Middle
East: The World After the Arab Spring, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013; Fawas
A. Gerges, The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World, New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
134
Mark Gasiorowski (ed.), The Government and Politics of the Middle East and
North Africa, Boulder, Co: Westview Press, 2014.
135
On this issue, see: Bruce K. Rutherford, Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam,
and Democracy in the Arab World, PrincetonOxford: Princeton University Press,
2013; John McHugo, Syria: From the Great War to Civil War, Saqi Books, 2014.
136
On Taliban case, see: Robert D. Crews, Amin Tarzi (eds.), The Taliban and the
Crisis of Afghanistan, Harvard University Press, 2008; Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: The
Power of Militant Islam in Afghanistan and Beyond, LondonNew York: I.B.Tauris,
2010.
115

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137
On Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic fundamentalism, see: Ray Takeyh,
Hidden Iran: Paradox and Power in the Islamic Republic, New York: Times
BooksHenri Holt and Company, 2006; Lawrence Davidson, Islamic
Fundamentalism: An Introduction, Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013.
138
See: Hesham Al-Awadi, The Muslim Brothers in Pursuit of Legitimacy: Power
and Political Islam in Egypt under Mubarak, I.B.Tauris, 2014.
116

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139
Isa Eraslan, Turkey-NATO Relations After the Cold War: Ascending Importance of
Turkey Within the Changing Mission of NATO After 9/11, Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing, 2013.
140
Janne Haaland Matláry, Magnus Petersson, 1$72¶V (XURSHDQ $OOLHV 0LOLWDU\
Capability and Political Will, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
141
Graham E. Fuller, The New Turkish Republic: Turkey as a Pivotal State in the
Muslim World, Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2008; Soner Cagaptay,
The Rise of Turkey: The Twenty-)LUVW&HQWXU\¶V)LUVW0XVOLP3RZHU, Potomac Books,
2014.
142
Republic
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Turkey,
Ministry
of
Foreign
Affairs
(http://www.mfa.gov.tr/nato.en.mfa).
143
On tKLV LVVXH VHH 0DULD +DGMLSDXORX ³7KH &\SUXV &RQIOLFW 5RRW &DXVHV DQG
,PSOLFDWLRQVIRU3HDFHEXLOGLQJ´Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2007, pp.
349365; Jan Asmussen, Cyprus at War: Diplomacy and Conflict During the 1974
Crisis, I.B.Tauris, 2008; Andreas Constandinos, America, Britain and the Cyprus
Crisis of 1974: Calculated Conspiracy of Foreign Policy Failure?, Central Milton
Keynes: Authors House, 2009; Clement Dodd, The History and Politics of the Cyprus
117

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Conflict, New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2010; Andreas Constandidos, Britain and
WKH &\SUXV &ULVLV RI  ³5HVSRQVLELOLW\ :LWKRXW 3RZHU´, Saarbrücken: LAP
Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011.
144
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8QLRQ´ International Spectator, Roma, 1995, No. 3, p. 34.
145
On this issue, see: Mirela Bogdan, Turkey and the Dillema of EU Accession: When
Religion Meets Politics, I.B.Tauris, 2010; Kenan Aksu (ed.), Turkey-EU Relations:
Power, Politics and the Future, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars
Publishing, 2012; CRC Report for Congress: European Union Enlargement: A Status
5HSRUW RQ 7XUNH\¶V $FFHVVLRQ 1HJRWLDWLRQV 0DUFK  -RS22517, BiblioGov,
2013.
146
On the question of democratization of the Turkish society and policy and the
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Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005, pp. 167 &LJGHP .HQWPHQ ³'HWHUPLQDQWV RI
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6XSSRUW IRU (8 0HPEHUVKLS LQ 7XUNH\´ European Union Politics, Vol. 9, No. 4,
2008, pp. 487 $OSHU .DOLEHU ³&RQWH[WXDO DQG &RQWHVWHG 5HDVVHVVLQJ
(XURSHDQL]DWLRQLQWKH&DVHRI7XUNH\´International Relations, Vol. 27, No 1, 2012,
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147
On the question of PKK party, see: Ali Kemal Özcan, 7XUNH\¶V .XUGV $
Theoretical Analysis of the PKK and Abdullah Öcalan, LondonNew York:
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006; Aliza Marcus, Blood and Belief: The
Kurdish Fight for Independence, New YorkLondon: New York University Press,
2007; Abdullah Öcalan, Prison Writings: The PKK and the Kurdish Question in the
21st Century, London: Transmedia Publishing Ltd, 2011; Charles Strozier, James
Frank, The PKK: Financial Sources, Social and Political Dimensions, VDM-Verlag
Dr. Müller, 2011.
148
On the Kurdish question in Turkey, see: Metin Heper, The State and Kurds in
Turkey: The Question of Assimilation, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007; Cenk
Saraçoglu, Kurds of Modern Turkey: Migration, Neoliberalism and Exclusion in
Turkish Society, Tauris Academic Studies, 2010; Michael M. Gunter, The Kurds: The
Evolving Solution to the Kurdish Problem in Iraq and Turkey, New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2011; Noah Beratsky (ed.), The Kurds, Greenhaven Press, 2013; Ramazan
Aras, The Formation of Kurdishness in Turkey: Political Violence, Fear and Pain,
LondonNew York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.
149
'R\JX%D]RJOX6H]HU³7XUNH\LQWKH3RVW-Cold War Era: Evolving Domestic and
)RUHLJQ 3ROLF\ 7UHQGV DQG &KDOOHQJHV´ The Southeast European Year Book,
19941995, p. 527; Kerim Yildiz, The Kurds in Turkey: EU Accession and Human
Rights, Pluto Press, 2005.
120

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Lambert M. Surhone, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation,
Betascript Publishing, 2011; Markus Philipp Vogtenhuber, Analyse der Black Sea
Economic Cooperation (BSEC), GRIN Verlag, 2012.
151
Stephen J. Blank, Stephen C. Pelletiere, William T. Johnsen, 7XUNH\¶V 6WUDWHJLF
Position at the Crossroads of World Affairs, Strategic Studies Institute: CreateSpace
Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.
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On this issue, see: Ruud van Dijk (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Cold War, New York:
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2008; Keith Lowe, Savage Continent: Europe in
the Aftermath of World War II 1HZ <RUN 6W 0DUWLQ¶V 3UHVV  $QQH
Applebaum, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 19441956, New York:
Anchor Books, A Division of Random House, Inc., 2012.
153
On the post-Cold War Greek identity and politics, see: Vangelis Calotychos, The
Balkan Prospect: Identity, Culture, and Politics in Greece after 1989, New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
154
Gregory Zorzos, The Greek Debts 18212010 and the New Seventh Bankruptcy,
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010 (Greek edition).
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IURP*UHHFH´5REHUWR$OLERQL Hd.), Southern European Security in the 1990s, Pinter
Pub Ltd, 1992, pp. 6263.
156
See, for instance: Costis Hadjimichalis, ³.RVRYR'D\V RIDQ8QGHFODUHGDQG
8QMXVW:DU$*HRSROLWLFDO&RPPHQW´European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol.
7, No. 2, 2000, pp. 175180.
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157
On this issue, see: Loring M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic
Nationalism in a Transnational World, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
1995; Hugh Poulton, Who Are the Macedonians?, Hong Kong, 2000; James Pettifer
(ed.), The New Macedonian Question, London: 2001; Victor Rounometof, Collective
Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the
Macedonian Question, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2002; P. H. Liotta, Cindy R.
Jebb, Mapping Macedonia: Idea and Identity, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers,
2004; George C. Papavizas, Claiming Macedonia: The Struggle for the Heritage,
Territory and Name of the Historic Hellenic Land, 18622004, Jefferson, NC: Mc
Farland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2006; Andrew Rossos, Macedonia and the
Macedonians: A History, Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2008;Ernest N.
Damianopoulos, The Macedonians: Their Past and Present, New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2012; Zhidas Daskalovski, Marija Risteska (eds.), The Macedonian
Question: 20 Years of Political Struggle Into European Integration Structures,
Rangendingen: Libertas, 2012.
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After the Balkan Wars of 1912 ³JHRJUDSKLF-KLVWRULFDO´ 0DFHGRQLD ZDV
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the Balkan Wars, see: Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars 19121913: Prelude to the
First World War, LondonNew York, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2000;
Jacob Gould Schurman, The Balkan Wars: 19121913, A Public Domain Book, 2013.
159
6HHIRULQVWDQFHWKHERRN³The Falsification of Macedonian History, which with
reliable proofs clearly demonstrates the Hellenic origin and national feeling of the
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prize was awarded to the author at the Festive Plenary Session of the March 25 th,
1985 (Nicolaos K. Martis, The Falsification of Macedonian History, Athens: Graphic
Arts of Athanassiades Bros. S.A., 1984).
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(NDYL $WKDQDVVRSRXORX ³7XUNH\ DQG WKH %DONDQV´, The International Spectator,
Roma, No. 4, 1994, p. 57.
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6HUJLR5RPDQR³,WDO\¶V1HZ&RXUVHLQWKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQ´, Australian Outlook,
Canbera, No.2, 1987, p. 101.
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conflict and the present-day US/NATO peace-keeping mission in the region, see:
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(original title: Experiment Kosovo: Die Rückkehr des Kolonialismus).
164
On this issue, see: John A. Agnew, Place and Politics in Modern Italy, Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 2002.
165
On the politics in the Maghreb, see: Michael J. Willis, Politics and Power in the
Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco from Independence to the Arab Spring,
London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, 2012.
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On this case, see: Michael K. Bohn, The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the
Politics and Prejudice of Terrorism:DVKLQJWRQ'&%UDVVH\¶V,QF
167
On Iraq-Iran War, see: Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military
Conflict, New York: Routledge, 1991; Efraim Karsa, The Iran-Iraq War 19801988,
Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002.
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On the Italian Balkan policy, see: Paolini Margharita, Italy and the Balkans, Center
for Strategic & International Studies, 1998.
169
2Q WKH 1$72¶V DLU ZDU IRU .Rsovo in 1999, see: Ted Galen Carpenter (ed.),
1$72¶V (PSW\ 9LFWRU\ $ 3RVWPRUWHP RQ WKH %DONDQ :DU, Cato Institute, 2000;
Banjamin S. Lambeth, 1$72¶V $LU :DU IRU .RVRYR $ 6WUDWHJLF DQG 2SHUDWLRQDO
Assessment, Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2001; Dag Henrikson, N$72¶V *DPEOH
Combining Diplomacy and Airpower in the Kosovo Crisis 19981999, Annapolis,
Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2007.
170
-RKQ=DPHWLFD³,WDOLMDQVNRLVNXVWYRVD%DONDQD´, Politika, Belgrade, November
13th, 1992.
171
On this issue, see: Arrigo Petacco, A Tragedy Revealed: The Story of Italians from
Istria, Damatia, and Venezia Guilia 19431956, TorontoBuffaloLondon:
University of Toronto Press, 2005.
172
On Tito¶s biography, see: ɉɟɪɨ ɋɢɦɢʄ Ɍɢɬɨ Ɏɟɧɨɦɟɧ  ɜɟɤɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ
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Cold War confrontation between the East and the West (on this issue, see: Tony Judt,
Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945, New York: Penguin Books, 2005). The
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Italian territory on the eastern side of the Adriatic. This included the Dalmatian city of
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well as the formerly contentious city of Rijeka/Fiume, and, further north, western
Slovenia and part of Istria. The fate of Trieste and its immediate hinterland remained
undecided. Consequently, it was transformed into a Free Territory administered by
Anglo-$PHULFDQ IRUFHV LQ WKH QRUWK DQG E\ <XJRVODY IRUFHV LQ WKH VRXWK´ 3DXO
Robert Magocsi, Historical Atlas of Central Europe. Revised and Expanded Edition,
Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002, p. 187).
174
On this issue, see: Anna Cento Bull, Mark Gilbert, The Lega Nord and the
Northern Question in Italian Politics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001; Thomas
W. Gold, The Lega Nord and Contemporary Politics in Italy, New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003; Manlio Graziano, The Failure of Italian Nationhood: The
Geopolitics of a Troubled Identity, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010; Andrej
Zaslove, The Re-Invention of the European Radical Right: Populism, Regionalism,
and the Italian Lega Nord, Montreal & KingstonLondonIthaca: McGill-Queens
University Press, 2011.
175
Paul Ginsborg, Italy and its Discontents 19802001, London: Allen Lane The
Penguin Press, 2001, pp. 179212.
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176

An extra ordinary feature of Bosnia-Herzegovina is that it covers the fault lines
between three major confessions: Roman Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Islam. From
this point of view, local nationalism(s) are not only ethnic; they are even more
confessional ones.
177
Lexical differences have been a primary criterion for the establishment of a
separate Bosnian language.
178
However, both Serbs from Eastern Herzegovina (regularly) and Western Serbia (in
many cases) are using future tense construction ³MDüXNXSLWL/kupit üX´OLNHLQVWDQGDUG
Bosnian and Croatian.
147

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179
Former Serbo-Croat language was composed by (officially) three dialects:
Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian. The last one became standardized literal
language for Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins and Muslims/Boshnjaks. Shtokavian dialect
was/is subdivided into three sub-dialects: Ijekavian (mlijeko = milk), Ikavian (mliko)
and Ekavian (mleko). Ikavian is not standardized.
180
Similar policy of using alphabet in Bosnian language was pursued by AustroHungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1878±1918.
181
Besides these mentioned, historically, on the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina have
been used and Glagolitic and Greek scripts.
182
According to the Constitution of Bosnia-Herzegovina official languages are:
Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian. Such constitutional-linguistic situation in Bosnia148

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Herzegovina is quite similar to the Swiss one ± Italian, French and German (plus
Romansh, spoken by very small community).
183
During the Bosnian-Herzegovinian civil war of 1992±1995 BosnianHerzegovinian Serbs tried unsuccessfully to purify their language by elimination of
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new neologisms (ex: þDUDSH socks, ãHüHU=sugar, pamuk=cotton, etc.). It is interesting
that common nickname for Bosnian Muslims given by the local Christians, but also
and as a group name used by Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslims to identify themselves,
was Turci (the Turks). The Bosnian-Herzegovinian Christians used and the term
poturice (those who became the Turks, i.e. convertors). The Bosnian-Herzegovinian
Muslims, on the other hand, called the real ethnolinguistic Turks (Turkish language
speakers) from Anatolia as TurkuãHor 7XUMDãL.
149

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184

In historical sources the name Bosanski jezik (Bosnian language) is mentioned for
the first time in the year of 1300. It is true that the earliest Slavonic philologists like P.
J. âDIDĚtN-'REURYVNê and J. Kopitar used the term Bosnian language but only as
provincial speech of all inhabitants of the Ottoman Pashaluk of Bosnia but not as a
language of Bosnians in ethnic term.
185
For instance, according to the decree of 1880 for Austro-Hungarian administration
in Bosnia-Herzegovina existed only Boshnjaks who are by confession divided into
those of Muslim, Catholic and Orthodox denominations. In general, AustroHungarian administration in Bosnia-Herzegovina very much favored local Roman
Catholic and Muslim inhabitants at the expense of the Orthodox.
186
It has to be emphasized that even before Austro-Hungarian administration in
Bosnia-Herzegovina the local population used the terms Bosnian ³ERVDQVNL´ IRUWKH
language and Bosnians ³%RVDQFL´  IRU WKHPVHOYHV DV LQKDELWDQWV RI WKLV SURYLQFH
alongside with more pure ethnic names Serbian/Serbs and Croatian/Croats.
187
Ottoman Pashaluk of Bosnia before 1683 encompasses and parts of historical
territories of Croatia and Dalmatia.
150

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188
Vinko Pribojeviü, a Dominican friar from the island of Hvar in Dalmatia in his De
origine successibusque Slavorum (Venice, 1532) pointed out that Ottoman sultans
appointed many South Slavs as the commanders of his army and that 20.000 of his
guard (the Janissaries) are recruited among the Thracians, Macedonians and Illyrians
IRU 3ULERMHYLü DOO RI WKHP KDYH EHHQ 6RXWK 6ODYV ± aboriginal Balkan people,
VSHDNLQJRQHODQJXDJHWKDWZDVODWHURQFDOOHG³6HUER-&URDW´ :LWKWKHKHOSRIWKHP
the Ottomans subjugated many states and peoples in Europe.
189
Mavro Orbini, a Benedictine abbot from Dubrovnik, in his famous pan-Slavic
ERRN ³WKH %LEOH RI SDQ-6ODYLVP´  De regno Sclavorum (in Italian version Il regno
degli Slavi), printed in Pesaro in 1601, was very clear telling that all South Slavs are
speaking the same language and composing one nation within a wider network of
united ethnolinguistic Slavdom. More precisely, he inclined to call all speakers of exSerbo-Croat language of Shtokavian dialect as the Serbs. However, a Croatian
nobleman of German origin from Senj, Pavao Ritter 9LWH]RYLü ±1713) in his
political-ideological-programmatic book Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno
Caesare, Zagreb, 1700 claimed that all Slavs, including and those in the Balkans,
originated from the Croats and speaking in the essence Croatian language with
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writings is that all South Slavs (especially the Shtokavians) are composing one
ehnolinguistic group (in modern sense - nation).
190
³/LQJXLVWLF HQJLQHHULQJ´ RI &URDWLDQ ODQJXDJH FDQ EH IROORZHG HYHQ IURP 
when a majority of the most important Croatian scientific, literal and cultural
institutions signed a Declaration upon the name and position of Croatian literal
language ³'HNODUDFLMDRQD]LYXLSRORåDMXKUYDWVNRJNQMLåHYQRJMH]LND´ UHTXLULQJWR
151

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191
Croatian neologisms in fact have to replace both the international words (not
translated in Serbian) and common Croato-Serbian words in order to make a deeper
distance between Croatian and Serbian languages for the sake of lesser understanding
as a crucial proof that these two languages and ethnic groups are separated. For
instance: korjenoslovstvo (etymology), narjeþRVORYVWYR (dialectology), WRþQR]RU
(sniper), vrhoskuplje (summit), odmoridbenik (tourist), veleprevrat (revolution), etc.
There were and such proposals for neologisms which hardly took roots like:
RNRORWUEXãQLKODþRGUåDþ(belt for trousers), uljudba (civilization), vrtolet (helicopter),
prosudba (mark), etc.
152

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192

The first President of post-Yugoslav independent Bosnia and Herzegovina and a
leader of ruling Muslim political Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija
Izetbegoviü, was known as an author of nationalistic Islamic Declaration from 1970
according to which any form of multiculturalism and multiconfessionalism was not
possible for the Muslims who have to establish pure Islamic society firstly by
Islamization of the whole Muslim community.
193
The most problematic and unproved in the sources hypothesis upon the ethnic
origins of the Boshnjaks (supported by, for instance, Bosnian linguist 'åHYDG-DKLü) is
that they are posteriors of the mediaeval Bosnian Bogumils who allegedly have been a
separate ethnic group, i.e. not Serbs or Croats.
153  

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194

It is believed that the Vlach PHDQV HLWKHU ³IUHH SHRSOH´ ³VKHSKHUGV´ RU IRUPHU
worshipers of the pagan god of herders ± Volos.
195
In Greek language Koutsos PHDQV³ODPH´7KHVlach is considered as a synonym
for the shepherds.
196
This ethnonym is used by the community itself in most cases. According to the
Vlach tradition, the Armanian PHDQV ³D IUHH PDQ´ ³D SHUVRQ ZKR KDV UHPDLQHG LQ
RQHSODFH´DQG³a non-5RPDQLDQ´
197
It means those who have been living at the Mt. Grammos that is on the border
between Albania and Greece.
198
The ethnonym Cincars or Tsintsars is given to the Vlachs probably because the
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one of the hypotheses, the Tsintsars is derived from the Roman Fifth Legion (tsintsi,
means five) since it is believed that the Vlachs are descendents of the Roman soldiers
from this legion, which operated in the Balkans during the time of the Late Roman
Empire.
199
The Choban PHDQVD³KHUGHU´LQ7XUNLVK$OEDQLDQDQG6RXWK6ODYLFODQJXDJHV
This term is of the Oriental origin.
156

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200

On the Balkan Wars and the First World War, see [Gerolymatos A. The Balkan
Wars: Conquest, Revolution and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twenthieth
Century and Beyond, New York: Basic Books, 2002; Gilbert M., The First World
War: A Complete History, New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 2004; Hooton
R. E., 3UHOXGHWRWKH)LUVW:RUOG:DU7KH%DONDQ:DUVí, Fonthill, 2014;
Schurman G. J., 7KH%DONDQ :DUV í, CreateSpace Independent Publishing
Platform, 2014].
201
During the last half of the century the natural increase (birth-rate) of the Vlachs is
negative since the parents (remarkably from the urban environments) opted to have a
single-child family.
202
Besides the Vlach geographical dispersion across the Balkan Peninsula, the fact
that they traditionally migrated in summer and winter time makes one of the pivotal
difficulties to fix their real number.
157

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203

Traditionally, the attitudes and policies of regional majority groups towards their
own minorities have been more emotional than rational. Participation of the members
of minority communities into the state institutions was all the time limited and
restricted especially in the periods of political troubles. In general, the idea of
widespread and broad minority rights is not very popular among the macrocommunities in the Balkans. One of the crucial reasons for such attitude (especially
toward those minorities who live territorially in compact masses) is a fear of the
³&\SUXVV\QGURPH´
204
Ⱦɟɪɟɬɢʄ ɂ ȳ, Ⱥɧɬɢʄ ɉ Ⱦ., ȳɚɪɱɟɜɢʄ Ɇ ɋ, ɂɡɦɢɲʂɟɧɨ ɞɨɫɟʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɋɪɛɚ,
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, 2009.
158

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205

Ɂɟɦʂɚɧɢɱɤɢ ȼ Ȼ ɋɪɛɢ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɟɞɟɨɰɢ Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɚ ɢ ɉɚɧɨɧɢʁɟ ɭ ɜɨʁɧɢɦ ɢ
ɰɢɜɢɥɧɢɦɞɨɝɚɻɚʁɢɦɚɫɚɊɢɦʂɚɧɢɦɚɢɏɟɥɟɧɢɦɚɨɞI ɞɨ X ɜɟɤɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞ
206
See more in [Koukoudis I. A., The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, Zitros
Publications, 2003; Koukoudis I. A., The Life of the Vlachs in 1900, Kapon Edition,
2008].
159

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207
They were breeding the horses and sheep on natural pastures in the two main
seasons (summer and winter). The food, cloths, furnishing and transportation were
provided primarily from the horses and sheep. One of the main characteristics of the
Vlach livelihood and lifestyle was that they had in most cases a permanent summer
and winter camps, which have been the only territorial communities (independent and
isolated from both one another and settlements of the other ethnic groups).
208
On the Ottoman-Habsburg wars, see in [Anscombe F. F. (ed.), The Ottoman
%DONDQVí, Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2006; Wheatcroft A.,
The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, New York:
Basic Books, 2009; Aksan H. V., 2WWRPDQ :DUV í $Q (PSLUH %HVLHJHG,
New York: Routledge, 2013].
160

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209
For instance, they were summering on the Mt. Osogovske (2084 m.) in the Eastern
Macedonia, but wintering as far as an area of the city of Salonika (Thessaloniki) in
Greece.
210
As a result of the Romanian-language and the school curricula education and
propaganda a huge number of educated Vlachs received at the beginning of the 20th
century a Romanian ethnocultural feeling. It produced the Vlach (Aromanian)
national revival movement that was based on the self-awareness of the Romance
origin. This trend brought the Vlachs closer to the Romanians who formed in the mid19th century a national state (in 1859). Consequently, there was a deep distinction
concerning the Vlach self-determination since some of them identified themselves as
the Aromanians while the others did it as the Romanians. In the course of time a trial
161

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self-identity was present in many of the Vlach families: Aromanian in the private
sphere, Romanian in intra-community sphere, and as a member of macro-community
in the public sphere.
211
The Christianity was always one of the crucial ethnic determinations of the Vlach
self-identity. Consequently, there were some cases that the Vlach women from
nomadic communities had been tattooing crosses on the foreheads and hands. The
most important collective celebrations of the Vlachs are Christmas, Easter, St
*HRUJH¶V'D\DQG 6W 3HWHU¶V'D\7KHFXOWV RIWKH0RWKHURI*RG DQG6W 3HWNDDUH
also very much celebrated in majority of the Vlach nomadic communities. However,
it should be stressed that coming to the churches and having regular contacts with the
priests for the Vlachs was rather complicated because their communes have been
living faraway from the population settlements. Permanent contacts with the church
had only the urban Vlachs.
212
In this region the Vlachs developed very profitable trade that was mainly based on
flourishing sheep/horse-breeding, but as well on crafts and cartage.
213
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Macedonia for the reason to escape a tyrannical rule of the Ottoman governor of
Ioanina, Ali-Pasha.
162

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214

One of the negative results of these migrations was that many Vlach families
became divided: elders stayed in the old environment while the young men emigrated.
This break-up of kinship network dealt both a psychological and economic blows to
the Vlach community, which felt a great sense of personal insecurity either in old or
new environment.
215
Hostility to the urban Vlachs was primarily directed towards those pro-Greek
members of the Vlach micro-community who did not drop their cultural and political
loyalty to Hellenism. It is true particularly at the turn of the 20th century when the
Serbs, Bulgarians and Greeks struggled over territorial division of geographic
Macedonia, Albania, and Thrace. In this respect, the Vlachs have been pejoratively
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163

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216
Traditionally, the family was the main protector of the Vlach language, customs
and ethnic features.
164

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217
For instance, majority of young Vlachs prefer to speak the language of the macrocommunity instead of the Vlach one.
218
On language and identity, see in [Joseph E. J., Language and Identity: National,
Ethnic, Religious /RQGRQí1HZ <RUN 3DOJUDYH 0DFPLOODQ  (GZDUGV -
Language and Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009; Watt D.,
Llamas C. (eds.), Language, Borders and Identity, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2014].
219
The South Epirus is part of Greece. Epirus was divided between Albania and
Greece after the Second Balkan War in 1913 when the independent state of Albania
EHFDPH UHFRJQLVHG E\ WKH JUHDW (XURSHDQ SRZHUV $OEDQLD¶V independence was
proclaimed in the city of Vlorë on November 28th, 1912). On Epirus, see [Hammond
L. G. N., Epirus. The Geography, The Ancient Remains, The History and The
Topography of Epirus and Adjacent Areas, Clarendon P., 1967; Potts J., The Ionian
Islands and Epirus: A Cultural History, Oxford: Signal Books Limited, 2013].
220
See the map on page 194 in [Poulton H., The Balkans. Minorities and States in
Conflict, London: Minority Rights Group, 1994]. The number of the Slav
Macedonians in Albania ranges from 4,000, according to the Albanian sources, to
100,000, according to the Macedonian sources. Most probably, the real figure is
15,000.
165 

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221
Albania has an area of 28,748 sq. kms. and, according to the census from 1981 it
had a population of 2,752,300 with the highest population growth rate in Europe
together with Kosovo. The figure of 35,000 Vlach community in Albania is claimed
in [Horak M. 6 ³1DWLRQDO 0LQRULWLHV LQ $OEDQLD ±´ +RUDN 0 6 HG 
East European National Minorities: 1919±1980, Colorado, 1985]. The other two
figures are put by the independent researchers and the international institutions and
organisations for protection of human and minority rights. There are even some
DXWKRUV ZKR XQMXVWLILDEO\ FODLP WKDW PDMRULW\ RI $OEDQLD¶V 2UWKRGR[ EHOLHYHUV DUH
originally ethnic Vlachs. This claim is surely not supported by historical sources.
222
This Greek claim is based on the fact that before the Second World War there were
400,000 Orthodox believers in Albania who have been registered as the members of
the Independent Orthodox Church in Albania, which used exclusively the Greek
ODQJXDJH LQ VHUYLFH 0DMRULW\ RI $OEDQLD¶V 2UWKRGRx population attended the Greek
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according to the religious affiliation into the Roman Catholics (10%), Orthodox
(20%) and Muslims (70%). The Orthodox population, according to the ethnic
belonging, was composed by the Greeks, Vlachs, Montenegrins and Macedonians (i.
e., the Macedonian Slavs). The Serbs officially do not live in Albania, while the
Montenegrins are separated from the Serbs. Nevertheless, after 1967, when Albania
officially proclaimed to be the first world atheist state, there is no available records on
UHOLJLRXVDIILOLDWLRQRI$OEDQLD¶VFLWL]HQV RQWKHLVVXHRISROLWLFDOLPSULVRQPHQWRIWKH
ethnic minorities members, see in [Amnesty International, Albania: Political
Imprisonment and the Law, AI EUR, 11. April 1984, p. 13]). For sure, the biggest part
RI $OEDQLD¶V 2UWKRGR[ LQKDELWDQWV LV RI WKH *UHHN RULJLQ $FFRUGLQJ WR WKH 
FHQVXV WKH\ UHSUHVHQWHG  RI WRWDO $OEDQLD¶V SRSXODWLRQ $FFRUGLQJ WR WKH 
census there were 95% of total population who declared themselves to be the ethnic
Albanians. The 5% belonged to the ethnolinguistic minorities. After 1967 there were
more than 600 Orthodox churches destroyed and other 600 converted to other
purposes like the grain store-houses, theatres, coffee shops, stables, etc. [Human
Rights in Albania: Hearing Before the Sub-Committee on Human Rights and
International Organizations of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, statement by
Nikolaos A. Stavrou on January 25th, 1984].
166

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223
He was born in 1908 in Gjirokastër, exactly in the southern part of Albania where
the most Vlach concentration has been and died in 1985 in Tiranë. E. Hoxa ruled
Albania from 1946 to 1954 as the prime minister and from 1954 to 1985 as the first
secretary of the Communist Party of Albania [D. Crystal (ed.), The Cambridge
Encyclopedia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 543]. On Enver
+R[D¶V $OEDQLD VHH LQ >3HDUVRQ 2 Albania as Dictatorship and Democracy,
/RQGRQí1HZ<RUN7KH&HQWUHIRU Albanian Studies, 2006].
224
7RJHWKHU ZLWK WKH 9ODFK PLQRULW\ DOO $OEDQLD¶V PLQRULW\ DV ZHOO VXIIHUHG IURP
such policy. For instance, many Christian Orthodox geographical and settlement
names adopted the Albanian ones (for example, the ethnic Greek village of Agios
Nikolaos, that is St. Nicolas, became renamed into Albanian Drita, what means the
³OLJKW´ +RZHYHU DW WKHVDPHWLPHWKH0XVOLP SHUVRQDO QDPHV DQGVXUQDPHVKDYH
not been changed. It can be explained with the fact that traditionally the Islam was
one of the crucial components of the Albanian national identity within the Ottoman
Empire (the Albanians have been surrounded with hostile non-Muslim neighbours of
the Christian Orthodox creed: the Greeks and the Slavs from Serbia, Macedonia and
Montenegro).
225
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167

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IURP WKH FRXQWU\ RI WKH WKRXVDQGV RI $OEDQLD·V FLWL]HQV DPRQJ
WKHP WKHUH ZHUH RQO\ LQ WKH ODWH  DQG WKH HDUO\ 
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226
Amnesty International, Albania: Political Imprisonment and the Law, AI EUR,
April 11th, 1984. The Greek national identity as minority group in the South Albania
(and other Balkan states as well), where the Greeks live mixed with the Vlachs, is
closely connected with the adherence to the Christian Orthodox Church, the use of the
Greek language and the use of the Greek forms of personal names, surnames,
geographical names and names for the settlements (i.e. villages).
227
Prifti P., Socialist Albania since 1944: Domestic and Foreign Developments,
Cambridge, Mass, London, 1978, p. 164.
228
(QV ' ³*URZLQJ UHOLJLRXV IUHHGRP LQ $OEDQLD´ News Network International,
May 17th, 1990.
229
&RZHOO ³$ +LQW RI &KDQJH LQ WKH $OEDQLDQ $LU´ New York Times, June 220th,
1988.
230
BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, Eastern Europe/0983 I, January 30th, 1991.
168

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About the minority rights, including and those on the education in the mother
tongue, see in [Fishman J., Language and Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic
Perspectives, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 1989; Kymlicka W., The Rights of
Minority Cultures, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000].
232
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of minority rights, but general European standards in the field may be found in several
Europe-wide instruments which can provide the basic guidelines for minority
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protection of each European country like: [Framework Convention for the Protection
of National Minorities (accessed on April 26th, 2001); European Charter for regional
or Minority Languages (accessed on April 26th, 2001); European Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (accessed on April 27th,
2001)].
233
In Bulgaria there is a great and even politically coloured debate on the name of the
Vlach minority group: should they be designated by the accepted scientific term
Aromanians or to be called as the Armanians that is the ethnonym used by the Vlachs
themselves.
170

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234
Romania required the north-west Bulgarian province of the South Dobruja (the
North Dobruja was already included into Romania accordiQJWRWKH%HUOLQ&RQJUHVV¶
decision in 1878) in 1913 as a compensation for giving up the Vlachs (Wallachians)
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as a Balkan minority of the Romanian ethnolinguistic origin. The geographichistorical territory of Macedonia was divided in 1913 between Serbia, Bulgaria and
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in division of Macedonia. The South Dobruja was returned back to Bulgaria in 1940
while the North Dobruja remained within Romania up today. The region of Thrace
was divided in 1913 between the Ottoman Empire (the East Thrace) and Bulgaria (the
West Thrace). However, in 1919 the biggest portion of Bulgarian Thrace became
included into Greece. Bulgaria temporally occupied both portions of Dobruja in 1916
DQGWKH:HVW7KUDFHLQDQG7KHPLQRULW\JURXSV¶H[FKDQJHVIROORZHGDOO
of these border changes. For instance, after the First World War there were 250,000
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Bulgaria; 360,000 Turks and Muslims left Macedonia and the West Thrace, 100,000
left Bulgaria and 25,000 left Crete to Turkey; 650,000 Greeks from Smyrna region in
Asia Minor, 260,000 from Trabzon area, 50,000 from the South-East Asia Minor and
260,000 from the East Thrace emigrated from Turkey to Greece after the GreekTurkish War of 1919±1923 and additional 50,000 of the Greeks left Bulgaria to
Greece after 1919 [Westermann Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, Braunschweig, 
S  PDS ʋ 9 .DQHY . ³/DZ DQG 3ROLWLFV RQ (WKQLF DQG 5HOLJLRXV
MinRULWLHV LQ %XOJDULD´ .UDVWHYD $ HG  Communities and Identities in Bulgaria,
Ravenna: Longo Editore Ravenna, 1998, pp. 66±68; Genov G., The Legal Status of
Minorities, Sofia, 1929, p. 125; Ladas S., The Exchange of Minorities: Bulgaria,
Greece and Turkey, New York: Macmillan, 1932, pp. 122±123]. According to the
Greek historiography, in 1923 there were 1,100,000 Greeks who moved from Turkey
to Greece, while some 380,000 Muslims were transferred from Greece to Turkey
[Clogg R., A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1992, p. 101]. The Greek-Turkish population exchange in 1923 was in accordance to
the Convention on compulsory exchange of population between Greece and Turkey,
signed in January 1923. The war was over in July 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne. On
territorial clams by the Balkan nations, see in [6RWLURYLü%9Emigration, Refugees
DQG (WKQLF &OHDQVLQJ 7KH 'HDWK RI <XJRVODYLD í, Vilnius: Lithuanian
8QLYHUVLW\RI(GXFDWLRQDO6FLHQFHV3UHVVSSí].
171

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235
The German linguist, G. Weigand, put the number of 86,000 of a neo-Latin
speakers in Bulgaria around the year of 1900 [Weigand G., Rumanen und Arumunen
in Bulgarien, Leipzig, 1907, p. 104].
236
A leader of Aromanian community in the inter-war Bulgaria, I. N. Ghiulamila,
claimed that in 1928 there were 4,000 sedentary and 9,000 nomadic Aromanians in
%XOJDULD>*KLXODPLOD1,³5RPDQLLPDFHGRQHQLGLQ%XOJDULD´Graiul romanescʋ
2, 1928, pp. 31±33].
237
National Institute of Statistics, Results from the Population Census: Demographic
Characteristics, vol. I (original in Bulgarian), Sofia, 1994, pp. 194, 222. It is
estimated that today there are circa 3,000 people in Bulgaria with the Aromanian selfidentity.
172

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238

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Both of them played an important role in the formation and maintenance of the
Aromanian ethnocultural and linguistic identity. Undoubtedly, due to the activities of
aforementioned institutions, together with the Aromanian Youth Association
(established in 1923), the Aromanian language, traditions and customs were very
much preserved in Bulgaria. These institutions have been closed in 1948 when the
3HRSOH¶V 5epublic of Bulgaria became fully involved into the Soviet politicaleconomic bloc. After 1948 the Aromanians in Bulgaria have been officially
considered as the Vlachs and later as ethnic Bulgarians who spoke a neo-Latin
language.
239
According to J. B. Schechtman, under this treaty it was exchanged circa 61,000
Bulgarians and about 100,000 Romanians (the latter number includes and ethnic
Vlachs) [Schechtman B. J., European Population Transfers (1939±1945), New York:
Oxford University Press, 1946, pp. 406±409].
173

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240

Before this exodus of 1989 it happened twice in the communist-Bulgaria that
³%XOJDULDQ FLWL]HQV RI  7XUNLVK RULJLQ´ PLJUDWHG WR 7XUNH\ LQ ±1951 (154,000
persons) and between 1969 and 1978 (130,000 persons).
241
In the recent Bulgarian history it occurred twice between 1878 and 1945 that the
Bulgarian government persuaded campaigns of forced conversion and name changes
among the minority groups for the sake of Bulgarization (during the wars of 1912±
1913 and in 1942±1944).
242
The Karakachans and the Vlachs have a common feature in the point of livelihood
and denomination, but these two minority groups differs from one another in the
terms of language: the Vlach language is a neo-Latin, while the Karakachan language
is a neo-Hellenic (it belongs to the northern dialect of the modern Greek language).
The Karakachans are either 1) descendents of the ancient Balkan peoples (the
Thracians, the Illyrians) who have been living in pre-classical and classical times in
the mountainous areas of the southern parts of the peninsula, but became Hellenized;
or 2) they are descendents from sedentary Greek peasants who left their settlements in
the late Middle Ages and became the nomadic shepherds. The Karakachans
themselves believe that the Mt. Pindus in Greece is their original home place. Today
they are living in Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Serbia. At any case, the
majority of the present-day Vlachs and Karakachans is bilingual especially the males.
243
$UWLFOH ʋ  RI WKH &RQVWLWXWion of 1991 recognises the rights of the ethnic,
religious and linguistic minority members in Bulgaria to self-protect and develop their
culture and self-identity by using the mother tongue, along with the compulsory study
of the Bulgarian language.
244
Monitoring the EU Accession Process: Minority Protection 2001, Open Society
Institute, Budapest, 2001.
174

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245

Undoubtedly, the claim by some experts in the Vlach studies that in the North
Bulgaria it can be found about 400,000 Vlachs is overwhelming exaggeration of the
truth [European Parliament Working Document, 2±119/1985].
246
.UDVWHYD $ ³(WKQLFLW\´ .UDVWHYD $ HG  Communities and Identities in
Bulgaria), Ravenna: Longo Editore Ravenna, 1998, p. 19.
175

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Sofia, 1992. The legal provisions, which banned the establishment of political parties
on ethnic basis have been included in the agreement upon creation of the Union of
Democratic Forces (in 1990) in the Political Parties Act (in 1990) and in the postcommunist Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (adopted on July 12th, 1991).
248
Notably, the Bulgarian constitutional and legal provisions from the time of
OLEHUDWLRQLQRQZDUGJXDUDQWHHGWKHHTXDOLW\RIDOO%XOJDULD¶VFLWLzens regardless
on their ethnic, religious or linguistic origin. It included the rights to exercise minority
ethnocultural features, to practice their religion and to speak the mother tongue.
However, in practice, non-Bulgarians have been often under political pressure. The
first Vlach cultural association in Bulgaria was established in 1895 and the first
Romanian-language school in Bulgaria was opened in 1896. Both of them have been
registered with the purpose to develop Vlach education and culture [Hristu V.,
³$URPDQLLGLQ%XOJDULD´Graiul romanescʋ±7, 1931, p. 86].
249
Poulton H., The Balkans. Minorities and States in Conflict, London: Minority
Rights Group, 1994, p. 189.
250
Regardless that some of the Vlach emigrants from Greece claim the figure of
60RIWKH*UHHN9ODFKVWKH³)HGHUDO8QLRQRI(XURSHDQ1DWLRQDOLWLHV´HVWLPDWHG
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the real number of the Vlach population in Greece up to 300,000 [Information,
Federal Union of European Nationalities, Flensburg, Austria, March 29th, 1990, p. 7].
251
Poulton H., The Balkans. Minorities and States in Conflict, London: Minority
Rights Group, 1994, p. 175.
252
Many Vlachs who identified themselves as the Greeks, since received Greek
education and had services in the Greek churches, had significantly contributed in the
Greek struggle for independence from 1821 to 1830.
253
The present-day Vlachs in Greece do not have any separatist intensions since they
are descendents of those Vlachs who opted to stay in Greece at the beginning of the
last century, but not to migrate to Romania.
177

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Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the
Macedonian Question, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2002; Rossos A.,
Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press,
2008; 6RWLURYLü%9Ä0DFHGonia between Greek, Bulgarian, Albanian and Serbian
QDWLRQDO $VSLUDWLRQV í³ Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American
Society for Serbian Studies9ROʋSSíDamianopoulos N.
E., The Macedonians: Thier Past and Present, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012;
<RVPDR÷OX , Blood Ties: Religion, Violence, and the Politics of Nationhood in
2WWRPDQ 0DFHGRQLD í, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014]. On
WKH QHZ ³0DFHGRQLDQ 4XHVWLRQ´ DIWHU  VHH LQ >3HWWLIHr J. (ed.), The New
Macedonian Question, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001].

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of the Vlach language in Greece. However, some of the leading Vlach figures in
Greece did not support those critics and openly defended the standpoint of the Greek
government. Nevertheless, the Vlach émigré organizations in France, Germany, the
179

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USA, etc. on their regular meetings are heavily condemning the Greek linguistic
policy and especially the practice that the Greek Vlachs are pressed to use the Greek
alphabet in order not to antagonize the local authorities. The Vlach diaspora is
fighting for the use of the Latin alphabet like it is a practice in Romania (after 1863).
180

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A geographic-historical Macedonia was divided in 1913 between Serbia, Bulgaria
and Greece. This Balkan province was occupied by the Ottoman Turks in 1371 and
liberated from the Ottoman lordship in 1912. About the Macedonian issue, see in
[Poulton H., Who are the Macedonians?, London: Hurst & Company, 1995; Danforth
M. L., The Macedonian Conflict. Ethnic Nationalism in a Transitional World,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1997; Brailsford N. H.,
Macedonia: Its Races and their Future, London: Methuen & Co., 1909.
257
Andreev V. (and others), The Republic of Macedonia, Skopje, 1995, pp. 2±3.
181

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258

On Kosovo case, see in [Hofbauer H., Eksperiment Kosovo. Povratak
kolonijalizma, Beograd: Albatros Plus, 2009 (Hofbauer H., Experiment Kosovo. Die
Rückkehl des Kolonialismus)].
259
The Romanian struggle over Macedonia lacked in comparison with the Bulgarian,
Serbian and Greek efforts a national clergy, which will attract the Vlachs to the
Romanian church, but not to the Bulgarian, Serb or Greek ones. Anyway, the
Ottoman authorities supported the Romanian efforts at the expense of the Greek
Patriarchate especially in the Bitola district in Macedonia. After diplomatic
intervention in Istanbul by the Romanian ambassador in 1903 it was established a
separate Aromanian ecclesiastical autonomy in Macedonia.
183

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260

It was established in Bucharest at the turn of the 20th century most important Vlach
cultural organization under the name of Macedonian-Romanian Society for
Intellectual Culture. This organization was during the First and the Second Balkan
Wars (1912±1913) the main proponents against territorial division of Macedonia
between Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece. Instead, it fought for Macedonian autonomous
province. The same Vlach organization was presented at the Versailles Peace
Conference in 1919 requiring establishment of the autonomous Macedonia with an
independent canton for the Vlachs, which will include the area of the Pindus Mt. The
,WDOLDQVHVWDEOLVKHGGXULQJWKH6HFRQG:RUOG:DULQ*UHHFHDQDXWRQRPRXV³3LQGXV
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state in this portion of the peninsula. The area of the Principality covered Epirus,
Macedonia and Thessaly. The prince was Alcibiades Diamandi. The Principality had
and its own armed forces ± WKH ³5RPDQ /HJLRQ´ FRPSRVHG E\ WKRVH 9ODFKV ZKR
supported the Italian fascism [Averoff-Tossizza E., The Call of the Earth, New York:
New Rochelle, 1981].
261
Poulton H., Who are the Macedonians?, London: Hurst & Company, 1995, p. 94.
184

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About the ³0HJDOL ,GHD´ LQ FRQQHFWLRQ ZLWK WKH ³0DFHGRQLDQ 4XHVWLRQ´ VHH LQ
[Tatsios G. T., The Megali Idea and the Greek-Turkish war of 1897: The impact of the
Cretan problem on Greek irredentism, 1866±1897, New York: Columbia University
Press, 1984; Dakin D., The Greek struggle in Macedonia 1897±1913, Thessaloniki,
1966].
185

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263

On the ancient Thracians, see in [Hoddinott F. R., The Thracians, Thames &
Hudson, 1981; Fol A., Fol V., The Thracians, Coronet Books, 2005; Dimitrov A. P.,
Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy, Newcastle upon Tyne:
Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009].
186

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For instance, according to the 1981 census, in the district of the city of Bor there
were 10,29% Vlachs.
265
Noe C., Popesco-Spineni M., Les Roumains en Bulgarie, Craiova: Ramuri, 1939,
SSí
266
Statistical Yearbook of Yugoslavia 1988, Belgrade, 1989, p. 442 (in Serbian);
3HWURYLü5(WQLþNLPHãRYLWLEUDNRYLX-XJRVODYLML, Beograd, 1985, p. 32±36.
188

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267
There are Bulgarian scholars who found evidences that parts of the Timok and the
Danubian Vlachs have ethnic Bulgarian origin. They are champions of the theory of
³GRXEOHPLJUDWLRQDFURVVWKH'DQXEH´LHWKDWPDMRULW\RIWKH'DQXELDQ7LPRNDQG
Vidin Vlachs originate in ethnic Bulgarians who once upon a time migrated from
Bulgaria to Wallachia in order to escape from the Ottoman lordship. However, one
part of them became later resettled in the North Bulgaria and the East Serbia while the
other part stayed in the South Romania. Those Bulgaro-Vlachs when became resettled
in the North Bulgaria brought with themselves corrupted Romanian language. This
theory is partially confirmed in the Vlach oral tradition from the area of Vidin.
189

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268
This is an example of applying the rational choice theory to ethnic identity and
interethnic relations. The proponents of this direction of thinking stress that the
individuals are trying always to chose the most optimal option from the corpus of
available alternatives of ethnonational identity; i.e. they are choosing such alternative
which may give them the highest gains and benefits. Accordingly, the ethnic (or
national) group is only a coalition of individuals and a result of their rational way of
thinking, which helps them to obtain as better as position in economic and political
FRPSHWLWLRQ >%DQWRQ 0 ³7KH $FWRUV¶ 0RGHO RI (WKQLF 5HODWLRQV´ +XWFKLQVRQ -
Smith A. (eds.), Ethnicity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 98±104].
According to many authors, the notion of particular ethnicity is a product of social
UHODWLRQVUDWKHUWKDQD³QDWXUDO´ HVVHQFH $WDQ\FDVHWKHFKDUDFWHURIHWKQLFLW\LV D
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identified by the others on the basis of the Us-Them dichotomies established on the
basis of cultural features, which are presumed to have derived from common origins
DQGZKLFKDUHGLVWLQFWLQVRFLDOLQWHUDFWLRQV´>3RXWLJQDW36WUHLII-Fenart J., Théories
GHO¶HWKQLFLWp, Paris: PUF, 1995, p. 154]. On the ethnic and national identity, see in
[Smith A., The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Oxford, 1986; Anderson B., Imagined
Communities /RQGRQí1HZ <RUN 9HUVR  &RUQHOO 6 +DUWPDQQ ' Ethnicity
and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World 7KRXVDQG 2DNVí/RQGRQí1HZ
Delhi: Pine Forge Press, 2007; Jenkins R., Rethinking Ethnicity, London: SAGE
Publications Ltd, 2008; Comaroff L. J., Comaroff J., Ethnicity, Inc., Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 2009; Eriksen H. T., Ethnicity and Nationalism:
Anthropological Perspectives, New York: Pluto Press, 2010; Coakley J., Nationalism,
Ethnicity & The State: Making & Breaking Nations /RV $QJHOHVí/RQGRQ 6DJH
2012; Gat A., Yakobson A., Nations: The Long History and Deep Roots of Political
Ethnicity and Nationalism &DPEULGJHí1HZ <RUN &DPbridge University Press,
2013].
269
In this article we regarded an ethnic group as a part of an ethnie that is living either
in non-national state or in non-national-language environment, but preserved its
language, culture, customs and are aware of its ethnic self-identity.
270
Still the Vlachs identified themselves as different from their neighbors from the
points of language, culture, tradition, customs and origin.
190

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Venetian Dalmatia: Official Reflections on the Morlacci from the Peace of
3DVVDURZLW]WRWKH*ULPDQL5HIRUP´5RNVDQGLü'âWHIDQHF1 HGV  Constructing
Border Societies on the Triplex Confinium, Budapest: Central European University
Budapest, History Dept., Working Paper Series 4, 2000, pp. 47±56.
272
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