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Obstacle Detection in Images

T.H .H Methmal (Reg No. 2010/CS/181, Index No. 10001816)
University of Colombo School of Computing
hasangamethmal@yahoo.com, 0711361409

A Literature Survey
Presented to University of Colombo School of Computing
in partial fulllment of the requirements
for the Degree of Bachelor in Computer Science
SCS3013 Literature Survey Courses
Adviser: Prof. N. D. Kodikara

Used harvard referencing style
4300 of word count
Lyx tool used for format
December 11, 2013

Copyright

©

2013 by Hasanga Methmal. All rights reserved.

Abstract
In this survey, we research about ways of obstacle detection technics in detail. Study will
go through the importance of obstacle detection, various applications which are included
obstacle detection kits and various technics to achieve obstacle detection. Mainly survey
will discuss about three main areas of obstacle detection. Applications which are innovate
to assist visually impaired people, Path planning using obstacle avoidance of mobile robots
and various kinds of autonomous vehicles has built in obstacle detection system. As well
as survey will review main obstacle detection technics such as monocular technics, stereo
technics, depth maps generating technics etc. In the discussion all the technics will be
compared and consider their pros and cons briey. Later part of the survey discusses
about future enhancements and challenges in obstacle detection.

i

whose support. D. Kodikara . for his experienced guidance and constant support throughout the period .Acknowledgements I would like to thank my advisor. ii . well wishes and encouragements to brought me here. Prof. N. I also be obligated to thanks to my family members and friends.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1 Ground/Non-ground Segmentation. . . . .2. . . . . 8 3. . . . . .5 Shape-based Recognition Filter. . . . . 12 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. . . .3 Size lter . . . . . .2 Stereo Measurement .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Region Filtering and Merging . . . . . . 1 2 Background 2 2. . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Abstract i Acknowledgements ii List of Figures v 1 Introduction 1 1. . 9 3.2. . .1 Depth image segmentation. . . . 7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .2.2. . . . . . . . . . 11 3. . . .1. . . . . iii . . . . . . 2 2. . 2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 Method introduction . . . . . . .3 Candidate Classication . . . . .4 Haar-like features with cascade classier . . . . . . . . . 11 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. . . . . .2 Color base obstacle detection 12 3. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Obstacle detection using Equivalent points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 0bject collision detection algorithm based on disparity images. . . . . . . . . . .2 False Negative . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Obstacle detection using 3D grid and 2D grids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4 . . . . . .5 Fast Human Detection for Indoor Mobile Robots Using Depth Images . . . . . . .4 Appearance-based Recognition Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Multi-cue Visual Obstacle Detection. . . . . . . . . . .1 Applications . . . . . . . . 2 2. . . . . . . . . .3 3 Approaches to obstacle detection 3. . . . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . 8 3.3 Noise and Non-Linearities . 3 3D versus 2D . . . . . .1 False Positive . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Geometric obstacle detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. . .1 Motivation . . . . . . . . .2. . . .7. . . .2 Background Subtraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. . .2. . . . . .7. 5 Obstacle detection by using sequence of lters . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. . . . 7 3. . . . . . . . . 4 3.

4 Discussion 13 5 Conclusion 14 6 Future works 15 References 16 iv .

. . . . . . . . 8 3. . 5 3. . . . . .12 False negative and false positive . .10 Identifying the corresponding regions of distinct object in depth images . . . . . . . .1 Gate. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Depth image . . . 12 v . . . . .7 Implemented series of lters. . . . . . . obstacle. . . . . . . .5 3D grid . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Algorithm owchart . . . . . . . . . 4 3. 6 3. . 5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. . 6 3. . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 3. 10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Flowchart of the motion planning method . . . . . . . . . .6 C-Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Takes all measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. . . oor and bump regions that robots can move through. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Robot can see obstacles . . . . . . .11 Image after omit unnecessary lines . . . . . . .

1 Motivation Vision base obstacle detection truly motivated by nature. Such as military. Recently robots are hugely involving industrial production and military activities. Because it is a very crucial gadget to have when it in the unknown world. Navigating through obstacle lled environments is a big challenge to mobile robots. Recently obstacle detection is a quit interesting topic among the researchers. Now days there are lots of unmanned vehicles are produced for dierent kind of purpose. 1 . So there are so many technics to apply to mobile robots to make easier the navigating task. Actually obstacle detection system is an important sensor in robots and autonomous vehicle. Eyes are giving us remarkable 3D information to us for obstacle detection. 1. So assisting applications detect various obstacles and analyze and present with details to the user. So vision base obstacle detection directly commit to the safe operation of mobile robots and autonomous vehicle 1. Most animals gain dierent kinds of vision systems in nature. It may deliver very important information about its surrounding to succeed the navigation. Also it is discussed about technics which are used in obstacle detection in images.1 Introduction This survey refers how obstacle detection is done by various application areas. Most of the vision systems of mobile robots are contain an obstacle detection system. Flying insects have optimal ows which are giving them absurd navigation and obstacle detection capabilities. farming and whether forecasting elds are using many aircrafts and vehicles which are come up with obstacle detection systems. As well as there are so many applications which are using obstacle detection system to assist visually impaired people. Research question of this literature survey is the most suitable real time technic is for navigating and path planning purposes to mobile robots. So survey will discussed mainly about three areas. Those people suering from lack of information of their surroundings. As humans we got eyes which providing amazing images. Numerous applications are innovated dierent areas which are included obstacle detection kits.2 Objectives Main aspiration of this survey is discuss about pros and cons existing algorithms and analyze their eciency.

2.2. Those helicopters have immediate landing emergency in case of dierent situations.They are suering from lack of information of their surroundings. In those situations your devices can be harmed because of undetected obstacles. There are so many unmanned autonomous vehicles are using obstacle detection systems. But your system not detects it.1 False Positive There can be an error that your obstacle detection system output has an obstacle. Mainly mobile robots have obstacle detection system[1] [2] [7]. As well as obstacle avoidance is help to planning their path and reach to the destination[1].2 False Negative There may be an error that truly environment has an obstacle. It is an false negative error.2 Errors When we work with train data there can be some errors obviously. As well as vision system use for create applications to help visually impaired people[3] [4] [7]. But actually robot can easily walk on that paper. In military services use unmanned aircrafts for spy enemy activities. For Example if there is a paper on the oor system may be detecting it as an obstacle. But In the real environment there is nothing. It can safely navigate through the fruit trees[11] . Then helicopters have to nd minimum obstacle area to landing[10]. When there is no one to control that vehicle has to have a good vision to navigate through the obstacles. So it is false positive behavior. When mobile robot enter to an unknown environment his vision system is very helpful to do their operations and survive in that environment.2. In vision obstacle detection has mainly two kinds of errors. 2. As well as there are applications that creates for farming purpose. There is an autonomous vehicle that has a vision system to obstacle avoidance. Especially military services use these kinds of robots for dangerous operations[2]. Because there are so many applications have vision system these days. So there are applications for detecting staircase with details[4]. 2 .2 2. 2. Staircases are really challenging to go through for a visually impaired people. Researchers have invented applications that can detect obstacles and give them a message where the obstacle is.1 Background Applications Vision obstacle detection is a very interesting topic in recent past.

3 Noise and Non-Linearities Noise is dened as some random dierences in brightness information of the image.2. 2.2. But in 3D obstacle detection system have to picture the whole scene. 3 .3 3D versus 2D Many robots have 2D obstacle detection system. Researchers use dierent technics to eliminate the Noise and Non-Linearities. Solving 2D obstacle detection problem is much easier than solving 3D obstacle detection. Those noises are generated in lm grains or electronic noise in your input stereo camera. It check whether obstacles to be identied and not identied. Very rst image indicates changes in the scene. Random Gaussian noise and Kalman Filter are some of them. 2D detection system always deals with intensity map at each pixel in the particular picture.

After 3D grid is converted in to a 2D grid. obstacle. Flowchart of the motion planning method is mention below. Size and location of the landmarks antecedently.1 Obstacle detection using 3D grid and 2D grids.1: Gate. So it plans the path to destination. bump and gate areas. Robot knows his destination in advance. All the objects in the environment divided into four classes such as oor.1 Method introduction There are some assumption in propose method. 3.(Figure 2) 4 . So robot knows its correct coordination. obstacle. 1.(Figure 1) Figure 3.This method will show how robot identies the obstacles and how plan its path through below mentioned obstacle regions.3 Approaches to obstacle detection 3. 2. It is very important to know about its environment for beep robot while it is seeking path to reach a destination [1]. So robot can recognize objects by shape and distance information. First robot capture images its surrounding and then generates a 3D grid using those images. Specialty of this method is robot can move through above obstacle area and it can measure the obstacle. 3.1. oor and bump regions that robots can move through.

1.3: Robot can see obstacles Figure 3.2: Flowchart of the motion planning method 3.Figure 3.4: Takes all measurements 5 . Then it will convert into the 3D model of the environment as shown in Figure 4 .2 Stereo Measurement Robot gets information about environment using a stereo camera.(Figure 5) Figure 3. Figure 3 shows images of the environment.Then robot can get all the measurements to build the 3D grid.

2D map can be classied into several region.5: 3D grid Method called conguration space (c  space) used for represent the robot.Then it converts to a 2D map.6: C-Space After get all the 3D measurements it will create a 3D grid map as shown in gure 4. Robot can plan its path by using graph traversing technics.Figure 3.space. Figure 6 shows all classied areas in 2D map. It considers the robot as a point without any size. Now onwards 2D grid map recognize as a graph which is including nods and graph. 6 . As well as all the obstacles are call conguration obstacles(c-obstacle) in the environment and they are enlarged based on robot size. Figure 6 shows an example of c. Those unmeasured area will be reduced by continues learning process. Figure 3.

Then extract information of the foreground grouped into the blobs.7: Implemented series of lters. 3. Several nontarget blobs can be eliminated by this process and system can focus on possible targets.2 Background Subtraction.2.1 Ground/Non-ground Segmentation. Distance to the blob will be estimated using stereo. Analyze all the images and all the detected changes grouped into the blobs.2. For this purpose we use a correlation-based pyramidal stereo algorithm to get a threshold. Since this use for mine discovering robot we have to clearly identify the low.2. According to that value we decide if it is a potential target or not. Figure 3.3. First go through with the image Figure 7. Most important thing is this method use series of lters and each model that is learn on the y from the previous model. 3. Give a series of 3D stereo points to algorithm and get an estimate value. 3.3 Size lter In this phase it lters according to the known size of the target object. appearance model and shape model.lying obstacles in the surface. 7 .Mainly this method use a sequence of lters through the color camera lters. Then those blobs will be ltered based on size model.2 Obstacle detection by using sequence of lters This approach is a combination of stereo and monocular image-based vision algorithm[2] . For overcome this problem algorithm create a composite image over the object moving time. We use the RANSAC algorithm to get an estimate ground surface. Main distraction of the ground is moving objects. Also create before and after the object is thrown.

Shape base recognition algorithm use to identify the object from the object classes. We use disparity image or depth map to storing the depth of each pixel in the image.2. But there are more levels have to be added in dierent circumstances such as outdoor scenes or high quality pictures. Proposed algorithm briey 8 . This technics mainly use for detecting obstacles with their depths[3]. One meter depth objects catch as a near closeness and two meter threshold for rst detection.5 Shape-based Recognition Filter.2. Near objects can be seen lighter color and far objects are darker. f is the focal lengths in pixels. 3.3. Depth of a pixel is calculated by following formula. They really want detailed information about their surroundings. z= f ×b d z is the depth. So we have to present all sides of the object to the robot and train to recognize them. This approach was used for an application which helps for the visually impaired people[1]. Robot doesn't' t know how is the target obstacle looks like in advance. Figure 3.3 0bject collision detection algorithm based on disparity images.Figure 8 shows an example.8: Depth image Information about depth maps are stored using 64 gray levels. Most eective way to identify objects is its shape. We use only consider about the color. Each pixel of the depth map corresponding to a pixel in the image. B is the base line in meters and d is the disparity. Because target objects are texture less. Proposed algorithm is detected two levels of objects.4 Appearance-based Recognition Filter. 3.

1.9: Algorithm owchart 9 . in this case we got one and two meters. Because always good to have a higher detection rate in staircase detection applications. For overcome this false detection.4 Haar-like features with cascade classier When a visually disable person walking through an area staircase is a major obstacle for him to go through[4]. After that training is done until calcied into 18 layers. we use cascade classiers create from training session and the 40 * 40 sub windows with dierent sizes for scanning. That's why we have to come up with such algorithm. Note that Stereo camera system produces very poor results for staircase detection although it gives very informative results with less false detection rate. 2.[1] Main object of the technic is improving the accuracy of detection. Haar detector creates multiple hits in the staircase region and false detection has single isolated detection. Output disparity images ltered to dispose of higher frequency and noise. 3. Figure 3. So there are application which detect various staircases to assist them. When detection staircase most of time detect similar regions like staircase and they call candidate detection. To achieve this target we have to collect set of positive image set which are containing 4 to 5 steps and photos should be taken on various conditions. Finally combine all the information of depth maps and apply into real image to excerpt real object information. As well as we have to collect set of negative samples also which not contain any staircase.All the stages of the algorithm is shown in Figure 9. Dene two regions of interests (ROIs) to detect nearby objects in two levels. Note that training is performed in fewer steps than a normal application. Breakdown disparity image with 2D Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. 3.

So detecting those various kinds of humans is very challenging task.1 Depth image segmentation. 3. Accurate way is sub sample the depth image and then does the segmentation. Figure 3. So depth camera is gives depth images. sitting. For this approach we use Microsoft depth camera to detect humans.(Figure 10) But resolution of depth images get poor with the distance.3.5.5 Fast Human Detection for Indoor Mobile Robots Using Depth Images One of the biggest challenges for mobile robots is detect moving humans[5]. 10 . This algorithm is scanning the depth images and identies the human in it. Even some are seen in partially. So that is not necessary to segment those images at larger distance. Mainly algorithm has three phases. Because Humans can be appear in dierent postures like walking.10: Identifying the corresponding regions of distinct object in depth images Purpose of this step is identifying the corresponding regions of distinct object in depth images.

If someone takes picture from dierent distance those places no longer equivalent.3 Candidate Classication In the nal step we use a support vector machine to decide whether the detected object human or not. We have to cut those regions out. Since we take those two images using two cameras there are regions that are exist in rst picture and not exist in second one. We named these points as equivalent points. Researcher has found three regions that object can exist.(Figure 10) 3.6 Obstacle detection using  Equivalent points .11: Image after omit unnecessary lines In this phase algorithm take Figure 10 as input and omit unnecessary lines which are highly unlikely humans and merge into the remaining regions. 3.3.2 Region Filtering and Merging Figure 3. 11 . After that we separate equivalent region from others and blacken the rest of image. Then we have to convert the image into binary mode by changing value of pixels into 0 and 1. Firstly we have to take a photo of an object by using two cameras this object will specify a particular place for itself in the pictures taken by cameras[6].5. In this approach we can tell object whether exist or not and the region that obstacle exist.5. So we have to stretch the images and make them standardize to comparable. We should identify the object which we interested about and draw a box around them. Since we are using two cameras in two positions to take the photo one might be bigger than other.

3. Figure 3.1 Geometric obstacle detection For do this we have to make an assumption that oor is nearly planar. In the algorithm two camera images are map in to another by 3d points. 12 . As well as if there is obstacle which is same color as oor robot will not detect it. Algorithm determines a new position for each pixel point. Classication process divides into two phases. Both algorithms will produce binary images that are consisting of white areas which represent the obstacles. So it is a false positive. But higher lightning conditions algorithm may give more false positive results. In rst stage check every pixel with particular value in histogram. After that those pixels are check again as a 4 * 4 pixel block.7. Color base only approaches are copiously gives false negatives and false positives. 3. 3. Example instances have been mentioned in below Figure 12.7.12: False negative and false positive Even geometric only approaches can be given many false negative results.7 Multi-cue Visual Obstacle Detection. There are dierent approaches to detect them. Visual detection algorithms are mainly base on color and geometric information[7]. If those all pixels are checked as an obstacle then determine as an obstacle. If value is less than the threshold detected as obstacle. Training is done selecting three region of the ground and all the result put into a three dimensional histogram. It is false negative.2 Color base obstacle detection First of all we have to take several images of the ground and do the training process. Obstacle detection is done wrapping one of the images to other and comparing two images. If there is a paper of another color on the oor robot will detect it as an obstacle. This approach has two kinds of obstacle detectors both color base and geometric base.

Because it has many steps and can be given many false negative results. Problem is when not complete the training process there may be some unknown objects around the robot.4 Discussion As I mentioned in chapter 03 there are many approaches to detect obstacle detection in images. Shapes of the mines almost same. But those sensors are very expensive.In the appearance model obstacle detection done by color detection. But in high lightning area is not given very accurate results. Because of that many devices have a pair of stereo cameras and most of the time running an ecient algorithm on stereo images. When I do the literature survey I identied few main obstacle detection algorithms that often use in applications. Other than that user can gain more details from the depth map.Because Robot creates a 3D grid map all over the environment and build a 2d grid map according to that. Otherwise may be destroyed your application. Then it is very dicult to user to identify the place of the object. Human detection application in [5] also uses depth image segmentation. 13 . Other than that this is very ecient path planning approach to robots. But again there can be so many exceptions. Since it detect only human obstacles task is much harder than other approaches. Problem is this method after two layers again it similar to rst layer. But in the end both two applications success and obstacle detection is done with minimum error percentage. Obstacle detection using depth maps and disparity image is quit famous method among the researchers. I think it very inecient approach to detect a mine. As well as it can be trained only for very few items at once. These days there are lots of sensors are using in commercial devices like unmanned military aircrafts. When we got a Disparity images it should be ltered by a proper algorithm to reduce the noise. This approach use for mine explore robot in this literature survey[2]. Object detection using ltering is a not very ecient approach to real time applications. Because mines are existing in dierent colors. In [3] is use 2D EEMD algorithm to lter the noise. In this case robot know not only his front but also he knows what are the objects that around him. User can determine the shape of the obstacle as well as the depth of the obstacle. In mobile robot path planning application using 3d and 2D grid maps obstacle detection is done successfully than depth maps[1]. When your robot play with mine like dangerous things it should be 100% present accurate.

Among those elds robotic technology. Other approach is using Equivalent Points. But this method detects only the obstacle. I think this is a good approach because user can get all the information that which shape obstacle is and how many meters to the obstacles. When user knows the obstacle exist in two meters away he has a time to change his path. There are two approaches mainly discussed in applications about blind people. Advantage is user can see the obstacle in two depths. But only disadvantage is when we add a new obstacle in to the environment robot have to generate all the grid maps again. In mobile robot area most of the time use 3D and 2D grid maps [1] and depth images[5]. But this approach much slower than grid maps. Problems are the accuracy of the algorithm depends on image brightness and pixel size. First one is using depth images[3]. So considering these two approaches you can realize using the depth map will be a better approach. Depth can't be measured. Because in grid maps robot train for his current environment and he knows the all the obstacles. In depth images robot real time detect the obstacle and path his plan. I think most ecient way of path planning and obstacle avoidance technic is using the grid maps.5 Conclusion As I mention earlier obstacle detection is most important topic in many elds. I must say this is a much brought area in vision and recent past many researchers are involved to this elds to explore new methods and approaches. unmanned aircrafts in military services and Applications that are helps to blind people are very important. Although have many technics and algorithms to obstacle detection there are some suitable approaches depends on the application which are use them. 14 .

But they are very expensive at the moment. They are scanning the whole area before landing the aircraft[12]. LADAR system using for determine the distance to an object. For an example LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) sensors are using for unmanned aircrafts for emergency landing. Besides of that there are so many obstacle detection sensors in the market.6 Future works This literature survey has described how obstacle detection done by using a camera. 15 . That's why many application running with stereo camera. Benets of the LADAR system can get the image of the target while it is calculating the distance for the target. That functionality can use for obstacle detection purposes.

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