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- Decisions which the researcher makes regarding the sources of information
about the study.
- The researcher considers whether there are data already available in one
form or another or whether he must gather new data.
- New data can be gathered according to the researcher’s own specifications in
line with his particular objectives.
- Generated by either questioning people thought on the desired behaviour, or
by observing selected activities.
- Questioning through:
Mail Survey
Personal Interview
Focus Group
Delphi Technique
Projective Techniques
Alternatively, there are many kinds of available information that the
researcher can used:
Public Records
Previous Studies
Company Documents/Annual Reports
Published Data
Government Documents
Trade Publications
- Also may include the thoughts of non-observer.
The combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon. May be
based upon:

Collection of different kinds of data
Multiple viewpoints allows for greater accuracy
Validation process to ensure that the variance reflected that of the trait rather
than the method.

Specifically.It is the process of assigning numbers to represent the properties of persons.They might relate to the following: Scale Reliability Convergent Validation Triangulation in Organizational Research: . . it can be measured” Two principle issues confront all measuring instrument: Is it Reliable? Is it Valid? INSTRUMENTATION It is the process of selecting or developing measuring devises and methods appropriate to a given evaluation problem. The effectiveness of a manager may be studied by interviewing. . or organized plan for classifying (and quantifying) the particular data at hand in terms of the general concept in the researcher’s mind.The empirical definition if measurement does not refer to the theoretical component of the measurement process .Measurement involves an explicit. If it exists in some amount. . events.Refers to the use of multiple methods to examine the same dimension of a research problem. . or perceptions might exist in different individuals. observing. MEASUREMENT . it exists in some amount. eg. objects. and by reviewing performance records. INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENTS “If a variable exists. Developing or selecting instruments to measure the responses.Measurement considerations may help to clarify the theoretical thinking and to suggest new variables that are to be considered.Careful attention to issues of measurement may force a clarification of one’s basic concepts and theories. instrumentation refers to: . attitudes. or states. .These symbols are to have the same relevant relationships to each other as do the things represented.Questions to be asked in order to tap thevariables/concept .To determine to what extent subjective feelings.

.Single-item measures lack precision because they cannot discriminate among fine degrees of an attribute. RESPONSE APPROACH Examines subject and stimuli systematic variations.More likely to represent a complex theoretical concept or attribute. SCALES A scale is an internally consistent plan for developing a measure.  HARDWARE Photographs etc. . SUBJECT-CENTERED APPROACH Examines systematic variation across respondents.A tool of mechanism by which individuals are distinguished based on the variables of interest.Position and spatial arrangement.  SIMPLE OBSERVATION Who spoke to whom.Most prone tomisinterpretation.  ARCHIVES Documents and Records. Not to be taken at facevalue.Single-item scales usually are less reliable than multi-item scales . .The type of scale achieved when we deputize the numerical to serve as representatives for a state of affairs in nature depends upon the character of the basic empirical operations performed on nature. SCALES should composed of multiple items rather than single item because: . The concern is to develop a valid and reliable set of indicators of the theoretical constructs.4 CLASSES OF MEASURES  PHYSICAL TRACES Very Indirect. .Single-item scales provide only a single measurement. Nonverbal cues. TYPES OF SCALING METHODS 1. . All systematic variation is attributed to differences among subjects. 2. Facial and postural clues. Variations across subjects controlled or measured (homogeneous subjects) 3.Indicators of psychological and social processes. STIMULUS-CENTERED APPROACH Examines systematic variation across stimuli. preventing an assessment of their measurement properties.

contingency coefficient. but there are no necessary relations among the categories i. they are identical with respect to a nominal variable. PERMISSABLE STATISTICS INCLUDE.Farenheit and Celsius temperatures are measured with different interval scales and have different zero points. 3. The only arithmetic operation that can be performed on such a scale is a count in each category. they are just different e.  Ordinal Scale: y=f(x) This scale is obtained by ranking objects.  Nominal Scale : y=f(x) The objects are assigned to mutually exclusive labeled categories.FOUR 1. Mode. and marital status are nominally scaled variables. Each classes of scales: Differentiate by the range of variance.e.from highest to lowest. ORDINAL – ‘greater than’ or ‘less than’ for objects. 4. RATIO –True zero point. The difference between “1” and “2” is the same as “2” and “3”. no spacing is implied so the permissible arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as the median or mode. it is doubtful that the intervals betweenm categories are exactly equal. However. Interval scales have very desirable properties because virtually the entire range of statistical operations can be employed to analyze the resulting numbers. brands of frozen vegetables can be ranked according to that -. where b>0 Here. Usually. rg. the location of the zero point is not fixed since zero does not denote absence of the variable. Otherwise. geographic location. including addition and subtraction. but not the mean. 2. but they may not be so equal as to . or arranging them in order with regard to some common variable. no ordering or spacing is implied if one entity is assigned the same number as another.  Interval Scale: y=a +bx. INTERVAL – Equality of differences between intervals. However. This means that differences can be compared. the numbers used to rank the objects also represent equal increments of the attribute being measured. Similarly. The finishing order in a horse race or class standing illustrate this type of scale. The question is whether each object has more or less of this variable than some other object.g gender. and Sets limit to the kind of statistical manipulation that can legitimately be applied. BASIC SCALE METHODS NOMINAL – Equality for placement in the classes. Temperature. A recurring question of most attitude measures is whether they are interval scales. but is only half the distance from ‘2’ and ‘4’.

 LAW OF THE INSTRUMENT: Using a certain instrument as a means ofsolving all’ problems.weight. ATTITUDE SCALES SCALE is essentially. A score of 4 is two times a score of 2. under-rater. market share.  ‘JOHN HENRY’ EFFECT: Those in the control group are determined to ‘proof’ or to show the ‘experimental’ group. .varying in the degree of objectivity they posses. A good example is a ‘willingness to buy” scale with ten categories labeled from 1 to 10. Firstimpression  RATING ERROR: Over-rater. attitude scales cannot achieve this property. Summated Rating Scales/Likert Scales 2. TYPES OF ATTITUDE SCALE 1. a measuring devise allowing the assignment of symbols or numbers to individuals. central tendency. novelty. .  PLACEBO EFFECT: Expectations and Suggestibility. or their behaviour.  POST HOC ERROR: Assumption about cause-effect relationship. Natural stimulus given as it were the active treatment. modified environment. If this were an interval scale.  HAWTHORNE EFFECT: Under study. where c>0 This is a special kind of interval scale that has a meaningful zero point. With such scales eg. Semantic Differential scales TYPES OF ERRORS  HALO EFFECT: Tendency for an irrelevant feature to influence eg.By rule. or dollars in saving accounts. knowledge of results.  Ratio Scale: y=cX. it is possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object is than another.  SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY: What the researcher ‘expects’. Cumulative Scales/Quttman Scales 4. All methods of observation are inferential. Obviously. we could say that two people with scores of 2 and 4 respectively differed by the same degree of ‘willingness’ as two other people with scores of 8 and 10. such an assignment indicates the individual’s possession of a corresponding amount of whatever the scale is claimed to measure. Equal-Appearing intervals/Thurstone Scales 3.preclude treating it as an interval scale.

Estimates of reliability are derived based on: Average Correlation among Items (Internal Consistency) in the measuring instrument.Reliability concerns with the extent to which any measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials (Time-Associated and Form-Associated). “One validates not the instrument. but not a sufficient condition for validity. consistent.its relevancy. and stable? . RELIABILITY .Validity is defined as the extent to which any measuring instrument measures what it is intended to measure – Concept of REALISM. . The Realism of a certain set of data consists of its connection with some significant problem or with the purpose of the study . 2. . CONTENT VALIDITY: Does the content (items) adequately i) Face Validity measure the concept? The more items. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY: Does the instrument tap the concept asexpected i) Convergent ii) Discriminant Some degree of agreed upon accuracy.Is the measuring instrument accurate. . the greater the validity. TYPES OF VALIDITY TO BE CONCERNED WITH: Statistical Conclusion Validity Internal Validity Construct Validity External Validity 1. The Realism of a certain set of data consists of its correspondence to some facts – its truth.Reliability is a necessary. EXTERNAL VALIDITY: The extent of generalization of the resultsof a causal study to other field setting.The focus of validity should be to ensure that the measurement used is related to an indication of the response expected. or the specific criterion which it is supposed to predict. . is it relevant? . but the interpretation of data arising from the specified procedure”. 3.VALIDITY . CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY: Does the measure differentiate in a manner that helps to predict i) Concurrent The scale discriminates the differences 4.It is identified with “truth”. .Is the instrument measuring what it claims to measure.

The purpose of the pretest is to check whether the ideas in each question are clear to the respondent. The person doing the measuring (eg. ACCURACY: Degree to which a process conforms in effect to a known standard. 3 KINDS OF RELIABILITY 1. after the pilot. If. Different ‘forms’ of an intelligent test). a second pilot may be necessary. different or additional alternatives may have to be included. Yields the same results despite different implementations. means the “constancy of its results” as that variable assumes different values. different eyewitnesses of the same event). The participants in the pilot should be similar to those who will be included in the actual study. The variables usually considered are: The measuring event (eg. it has to be pretested. Before a questionnaire is ready for use.- - Reliability of a measurement with respect to a given variable. Yields the desired results in a variety of circumstances. same person using the same ruler in successive measurements of the same object). Yields the same results at different points in time. The measuring instrument (rg. different locations. PILOT STUDY Study done in advance of the ‘big’ study to find out how the respondents actually think or talk about the topic of interest. a number of significant revisions are made. 2. Repeated measures with the same instrument on a given sample of data should yield similar results. REPRODUCIBILITY: Degree to which a process can be recreated under varying circumstances. STABILITY: Degree to which a process is invariant over time. ie. The pretest may show that some questions should be reworded. involving different material forms. 3. ie. or in the case of multiple-choice questions. ie. .