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TUTORIAL 2

Engineering Technology
Mathematics 2
Limits and Continuity
Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute,
Technical Foundation,
Mathematics Unit,
norhayatibakri@mfi.unikl.edu.my

The surest way not to fail is to determine to succeed

Refer to the graph and answer questions (a) – (c) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -3 at x = −2 : (b) at x = 1 : (c) at x = 3 : -1 0 1 2 3 4 lim f(x) .5 (iii) f(2) (iv) f(3) (v) f(4) 2 1.Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 1. lim + f(x) .5 (ii) 3 f(1) 2.Limits and Continuity 2.5 4 f(0) 3. (a) -2 1 . (e) What is the limit of f(x) as x approaches 2 from the left? The right? (f) What is the limit of f(x) as x approaches 2 from both sides? Explain why. lim f(x) and f( −2) x → -2 − x → -2 x → -2 lim f(x) . lim f(x) and f(1) x → 1− x→ 1 x→ 1 lim f(x) . lim+ f(x) . lim+ f(x) .5 1 0. lim f(x) and f(3) x → 3− x→ 3 x→ 3 Refer to the graph and answer questions (a) – (f) (a) Determine (i) 4.5 0 -1 0 1 2 3 4 (b) What is the limit of f(x) as x approaches 0 from the left? (c) What is the limit of f(x) as x approaches 1 from the left? (d) Does the limit exist as x approaches 1 from both sides? Explain why. ETM2 .

Sketch the graph of a function f that satisfies all of the following conditions: (a) Its domain is the interval [ 0 . lim f(x) = 2 (d) x→1 lim f(x) = 1 (e) x→ 2 lim f(x) = 2 x→ 3 In the exercise below the graph of a function is given. State whether or not lim f(x) x→ 3 exists. 4 ] (b) f(0) = f(1) = f(2) = f(3) = f(4) = 1 (c) 4.  − x + 1 if x < 1  g(x) =  x − 1 if 1 < x < 2  2  5 − x if x ≥ 2 (a) lim g(x) x→ 1 (b) g(1) (c) lim g(x) x→ 2 (d) g(2) ETM2 .Limits and Continuity 5. if the value is not defined write “undefined”. and if it does. If the limit does not exist. give its value. 2 .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 3. Sketch the graph of the piecewise function below and then find each of the following limits or function values. write “DNE”.

Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 7. Use the Principal Limit Theorem to find each of the following limits.Limits and Continuity 6. Justify each step with a named rule. lim e x→ 4 lim x→ C 2f(x) − 4g(x) x→ C (b) (c)  2f(x) + 3g(x)   lim  x → C  g(x) − f(x)   (d) (e) lim (f(x) ⋅ g(x) + 3) (f) x→ C lim (f(x) + 1)3 x→ C lim (f(x) ⋅ 2g(x)) x→ C  f(x)2   lim  x → C 1 − g(x)     ax + b − 2   =1 Find the numbers a and b such that : lim   x→ 0 x   ETM2 . (a)  3x  lim   x→ 4  x − 3  (b)  3  lim   x→ 2  x − 2  (c)  x 3 − 27   lim   x→ 3  x −3  (d)  x 2 − 5x   lim  2 x → 5 x − 25    (e)  x 89 + 2x 56 − 6x18 − 7   lim  59 x → −1 x + 3x 46 − 17x + 19   (f) (g)  (x − 1) 4 lim  4 x →1 x − 1  (i) (k) (h)  1− 2  x  lim  x→ 2  x 2 − 4     x 4 + 3x 3 − 13x 2 − 27x + 36   lim  2  x →1 x + 3x − 4   (j)  12 − x 2 lim  x→ 3  x4   x +3 − 3  lim   x→ 0  x   (l)  5 − 25 − x lim  x→ 0  x              Find the limits if lim f(x) = 2 and lim g(x) = −3 x→ C (a) 8. 3 .

 sinx   = 1 . if lim (x − 4x + 3x − 2) = 10 11. x→ a (a)  5  lim   x → ∞  4x − 1  (b)  4  lim   x → −∞  3x + 7  (c) lim (d)  2 lim  x → ∞  3 5x (f)  3x 2 + 7   lim  2 x → ∞ 2x − 5    (h)  3 + 4x − 5x 2 lim  x → ∞ 2 − 3x 4 + 7x 2  (e)  9 lim  x→ ∞  4 x    (g)   2  lim  x → −∞ (6x − 5) 3     3x 2 + x lim  x→ ∞  x          = 3   12. Find the limits if it exists.  a2 x 2 + bx if x < 1 For f(x) =   ax + b if x ≥ 1 Find numbers a and b so that lim f(x) = 2 x→1 10. determine the following limits.Limits and Continuity x→ ∞ 2x + 1 4 . Given that lim  x→ 0  x  (a)  tanx  lim   x→ 0  x  (b) (c)  sin2x  lim  2  x → 0  2x − x  (d) lim ( x cosx ) x→ 0  tan2x  lim   x → 0  3x  ETM2 . Prove that 13. 3 2 For what real number a is.Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 9.

 3  π   x + x 2 sin    = 0 Use the Sandwich/Squeeze Theorem to show that xlim →0  x  20.Limits and Continuity 14. find lim f(x) 16. 2 Find lim f(x) when cosx ≤ f(x) ≤ x + 1 for all −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 17. Given x 2 − 5x ≤ f(x) ≤ −4x + 5lnx for all x .  4  2   x cos    = 0 Prove that xlim →0  x   ETM2 .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203  x sinx  lim   x → 0  1 − cosx  (g)  sinx  lim   x → 0  2x 2 − x  lim (e x cosx ) (f) x→ 0  sin 2 x   lim   x→ 0  x  (h) Determine the vertical and horizontal asymptotes (if any) of the following functions (a) f(x) = (c) f(x) = (e) f(x) = −2 x −5 3x 2 + 1 2 x + 4x + 6 7x − 1 2x − 3 (b) f(x) = x 4 − x2 (d) f(x) = 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x (f) f(x) = x −1 x 2 − 25 15. (e) 5 . find lim f(x) x→ ∞ (a)  sinx  lim   x→ ∞  x  (b)  x 2 sin3x   lim  3  x→ ∞ 5x   (c)  x 2 sin3x   lim  2  x→ ∞ 5x   (d)  2cosx + 5x 2 lim  2 x→ ∞  x +4     19. 3x − 2 3x 3 + 7 ≤ f(x) ≤ If x x3 18. Find the following limits by using the Sandwich/Squeeze Theorem x→ 1 x→ 0 for all x > 20 .

2 4.5 0 -1 1 2 3 4 Refer to the following figure.Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 21.5 1 0. 3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -3 22.Limits and Continuity 23.5 4 3. Determine the discontinuity of the function f(x) at x = −2 .5 2 1. x = −1 and x = 1 ETM2 . y 4 2 x -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 Explain why the function f is not continuous at x = −3 . -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Determine the discontinuity of the function f(x) at x = 1 . 0 6 .5 3 2.

Is f(x) = x 3 + 2x + 1 continuous at x = 2 ? 27. Given     g(x) =     −x −2 if − 4 ≤ x < −2 − x2 + 4 if − 2 < x < 0 3 if x = 0 − x2 + 4 if 0 < x < 2 x −2 if 2 < x < 4 From the graph. Is f(x) = 28. (a) Determine g(x) (b) Is g(x) continuous at x = 0 ? Explain why. 26.Limits and Continuity x 2 − 16 continuous at x = 4 ? x−4 7 . (c) What value should be assigned to g(0) x=0. Find the values of c and d that make h(x) continuous on ℜ if x < 1  2x  2 g(x) =  cx + d if 1 ≤ x ≤ 2  4x if x > 2  25.Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 24. Is the following function continuous? to make g(x) continuous at  x+3 for x < 2  f(x) =  5 for x = 2  4  x + 11 for x > 2 ETM2 .

ETM2 .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 Is the following function continuous?  x 3 − 1 f(x) =   x 2 + 14 30.Limits and Continuity 29. for x ≥ 3 Is there a way to define f(C) for the following function so that f(x) is continuous at x = C? f(x) = 31.  2x − 1 for x < 1 Assume f(x) =   x 2 for x ≥ 1 32. find k. for x < 3 Consider the function x 2 − 16 x−4 at C = 4 . 8 . is f(x) continuous at 1? Why? 2 if x ≠ − 3 if x = − is a continuous function. 2 3  lnx f(x) =  2  ax + b if 0 < x < 1 if x ≥ 1 If f(2) = 3 determine the values of a and b for which f(x) is continuous.  9x 2 − 4  Assume f(x) =  3x + 2  k  33.

lim+ f(x) = 9 . (a) (b) (c) 2. = lim+ f(x) = 1 x → 2− x→ 2 does not exist because lim− f(x) ≠ lim+ f(x) x→ 2 3. (a) (c) 1 2 3 lim f(x) = 4 (b) lim f(x) does not exist (d) x→3 x→3 x 4 lim f(x) = 2 x→3 lim f(x) = 4 x→3 ETM2 . f(1) = 2 .Limits and Continuity 0 9 . f(3) = 1 . f(4) is undefined (b) does not exist (c) 1 (d) yes. (e) (f) lim f(x) = 1 because lim− f(x) = lim+ f(x) = 1 x→1 x→ 1 x→ 1 lim f(x) = 4 .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 a n s w e r s – Tutorial 2 1. lim f(x) does not exist and f(3) is undefined x → 3− x→ 3 x→ 3 (a) f(0) = 1 . lim f(x) = lim + f(x) = lim f(x) = 5 and f( −2) is undefined x → -2 − x → -2 x → -2 lim f(x) = lim+ f(x) = lim f(x) = 2 and f(1) = 2 x → 1− x→1 x→1 lim f(x) = 8 . f(2) = 3 . x→ 2 f(x) 2 1 4.

b = 5 10. (d) (g) −1 or a = 4 . 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 (a) 12 (b) (d) 1 2 (e) (g) 0 (h) (j) 1 3 (k) (a) 4 (b) (d) −12 (e) 1 2 3 4 (c) 27 (f) e (i) −8 (l) 1 10 27 (c) 1 −3 (f) 1 does not exist 2 − 19 1 8 1 2 3 8. 7.b=4 9. (a) 0 (b) 0 (c) (d) 0 (e) 0 (f) (g) 0 (h) 0 (a) 1 2 3 (b) 0 (c) −2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (h) 0 13.Limits and Continuity 5. 10 . a = −3 . a=4 .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 (a) (c) lim g(x) = 0 (b) g(1) undefined lim g(x) = 1 (d) g(2) = 1 x →1 x→2 -2 6. a=4 11. b = −2 does not exist 3 2 ETM2 .

x = −2 . yes . removable discontinu ity . lim− f(x) ≠ lim+ f(x) 30. lim− f(x) ≠ lim+ f(x) x →3 22. VA : x = −5 . no . 5 (c) does not exist 7 2 . lim f(x) ≠ f( −3) x → −3 x = −1 . f(2) = lim f(x) 27. −4 16. x →2 x = −3 . x →3 x = 1 . 1 17. jump discontinu ity . c=2. no . b = −1 g(0) = 3 x→ 2 x→ 2 (b) Not continuous. f(4) = 8 31. VA : x = −2 . VA : x = 5 (b) HA : y = 0 . 3 18. lim− f(x) ≠ lim+ f(x) x →2 23. (a) HA : y = 0 . lim− f(x) ≠ lim+ f(x) x →1 24. removable discontinu ity . jump discontinu ity . removable discontinu ity .Engineering Technology Mathematics 2 FKB20203 14. f(4) undefined 28. yes . k = −4 33. removable discontinu ity . f( −1) undefined x = 1 .Limits and Continuity x →1 11 . lim g(x) ≠ g(0) (c) x→0 x→ 3 x →1 g(0) = 4 x→ 3 x →1 ETM2 . (a) 21. a = 1 . lim f(x) = f(2) 29. 3 (e) HA : y = (f) HA : y = 1 . (a) 26. lim− f(x) = lim+ f(x) 32. yes . 2 (c) HA : y = 3 (d) HA : y = 0 . VA : x = 0 . VA : x = 3 2 15. lim f(x) ≠ f(1) x →1 x = 2 . f( −2) undefined 0 (b) 0 (d) 5 x = 3 .d=0 25. jump discontinu ity .