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Edexcel

AS
Geography
CD-ROM for students
Advice for students, questions
and answers
Cameron Dunn, David Holmes, Simon Oakes and Sue Warn

Contents
Advice for students

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2

The AS exams in brief

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Exam technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
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Command words
Key words

Dissecting exam questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Using the exam resources
Answer style

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Locational knowledge
Timing

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Key geographical terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
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Revision: the final piece of the jigsaw
Questions and answers
Introduction

Unit 1 Global challenges

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World at risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Going global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
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Crowded coasts

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Unequal spaces

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Unit 2 Geographical investigations
Extreme weather

Rebranding places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

978-0-340-94931-3 Edexcel AS Geography Student Unit Guide: Unit 1
978-0-340-97109-3 Edexcel AS Geography Student Unit Guide: Unit 2 Geographical Investigations

Edexcel AS Geography

© Philip Allan Updates

P01178

For further questions and answers with examiner comments, and specific content guidance on
each unit, see our Student Unit Guides for Edexcel AS geography (available from autumn 2008).
For more information and to order copies online, visit www.philipallan.co.uk , or contact
Bookpoint on 01235 827720.

1

Advice for students
The AS exams in brief
The Edexcel geography specification has two exams at AS. The format of the exams is shown in
Table 1.
Table 1 AS exam formats

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit title

Global challenges

Geographical investigations

Topics

World at risk
Going global

Either Crowded coasts or Extreme
weather (Section A in the exam)
and
Either Unequal spaces or Rebranding
places (Section B in the exam)

Exam length

1 hour 30 minutes

1 hour

Percentage
of AS marks

60%

40%

Exam
demands

Students answer all questions in
Section A. These questions assess the
breadth of knowledge and understanding. They are short questions with data
response resources.

Students answer one question on each
of their two chosen options. This means
one question from Section A and one
from Section B.

Students choose one question from
Section B. This section assesses depth of
knowledge and understanding. The
questions are longer, with data stimulus
resources.

The questions require longer responses.
There are data response resources.
It is important to use information from
fieldwork, virtual fieldwork and
research in your answers.

Exam technique
Good exam technique is vital at AS. You should not be short of time in the exams, as the exam
papers have been designed to fit the allocated time. However, you should still be careful not to
waste precious minutes. Use revision and exam practice to develop your exam skills, so that you
spend all the available time in the exam producing quality answers to the questions set.
Good exam technique is rather like a jigsaw of skills, as shown in Figure 1. Each skill needs to be
developed so that they all fit together perfectly in the exam itself.

Command
words

Key
words

Timing

Locational
knowledge
Key
geographical
terms

Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students

Use of
resources

Figure 1
The exam skills
jigsaw

© Philip Allan Updates

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Command words
Command words are instructions that tell you how to answer a question. Examples are ‘describe’
and ‘explain’. A common cause of under-performance in exams is misinterpreting a command
word. One of the most frequent errors is explaining something when the question has asked you
to describe it — in other words, saying why, when you should have been saying what. This also
happens in reverse — i.e. describing when you should have been explaining.
Command words that are used at AS are defined in Table 2.
Table 2 Command words

Command word

Meaning

Annotate

Label a diagram, image or graphic. The labels should explain features, rather
than just identify them.

Compare

Identify similarities and differences between items.

Consider

Describe, and give your views on a subject.

Contrast

Point out the differences only between two or more items.

Define

State the precise meaning of a concept.

Describe

Say what something is like, and how it works.

Discuss

Give both sides of an argument (for and against), and come to a conclusion.

Examine

Investigate in detail, offering evidence for and against.

Explain

Provide a detailed set of reasons for something.

Identify/what/name

Find key relevant points and say what they are, briefly and clearly.

Illustrate

Use an example to show how a concept or process works, or to prove the
subject of the question.

Justify

Give reasons why something should be done, and why other options
should not.

Suggest reasons

Provide an explanation; say why.

Summarise/
outline/state

Provide a brief overview of all the relevant information.

Key words
Key words are instructions that tell you what to write your answer about. They provide you with
the focus of the question. They are often common words, but it can be difficult to explain their
meaning. Some key words that are used at AS are defined in Table 3.

Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students

© Philip Allan Updates

3

Table 3 Key words

Key word

Meaning

Anomaly

A significant departure from an overall trend or pattern.

Appropriate

Solutions that are fit for purpose and realistic.

Benefits

The advantages/positive impacts of something (social, economic,
environmental).

Causes

The reasons why something happens.

Challenges

Difficult, large-scale problems that require solutions.

Changes

Transformations that take place over time.

Characteristics

The key features of something.

Concerns

Aspects of an issue or problem that are worrying.

Conflicts

Issues over which two or more groups disagree.

Consequences

The results of a change or process; they can be positive or negative.

Costs

The disadvantages/negative impacts of something (social, economic,
environmental).

Distribution

The geographical pattern, most often on a map.

Effects

The results of a process (come after causes).

Factors

The underlying causes of a problem or process.

Impacts

The results of a process or change on people and the environment. They
can be positive or negative.

Interrelationships

Links between two or more features, such that changing one feature leads
to changes in the others.

Issues

Concerns; problems that are worrying.

Management

Using policies and strategies to minimise or reduce problems.

Pattern(s)

The distribution of something; where things are — most often on a map.

Problems

Issues that worry people; the negative results of a process or change.

Process

A sequence of events that causes a change to take place.

Relationships

Usually used to mean the link between a cause and its effects.

Scale(s)

The size of a feature — local, regional, national, global.

Spatial

Variation in space (across an area).

Strategy

A method used to manage a problem.

Structure

How parts of something are arranged in relation to each other, and the
links between the parts.

Temporal

Over time — usually referring to change over time.

Trend(s)

The general direction of a change — rising, falling, fluctuating.

Variation

How far something differs from the norm or the average.

Some of these key words may seem rather broadly defined and do not give much away in terms
of what you should be writing about. One tip is to remember that ‘results’ words, such as consequences and impacts, can be both positive and negative. Another is always to have a structure in
mind when you are reading a question. For most geography topics, this will be based on the
aspects shown in Table 4.

Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students

© Philip Allan Updates

4

have social. can help provide you with a structure for your answer. health. it is important to recognise which part of the process the question is asking you about. work. and then thinking about the command and key words. education and prosperity. challenges. and offer evidence for and against. air and resources. Figure 3 How to dissect an exam question The example shows how dissecting the question. You may be asked to explain causes. This is explained in Figure 2. Economic To do with money. economic and environmental. industry. effects and issues. Key words. It is a good idea to take highlighter pens into the exam. Dissecting exam questions When you first read an exam question. Examine some of the impacts of global warming in the Arctic. It tells you to investigate in detail. These give you the topic (global warming) and the location you must discuss. A further way to help you understand key words is to examine the geographical process. The changes often have… …consequences. then to describe changes. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 5 . Remember that impacts can be both positive and negative. and second on thinking about them. Environmental To do with plants. consequences. their quality of life. Key word. jobs and prospects. Highlight the command words in one colour and the key words in another colour. the sequence of questions in an exam is logical. Knowing what ‘impacts’ means should help you to identify a range of possible impacts (perhaps one each from social.Table 4 Aspects of geography topics Social To do with people. This will focus your mind. these can be positive or negative (problems) for people and/or the environment… …the problems and issues require management to find solutions and minimise conflict Figure 2 The geographical process In the exam. you should dissect it — in other words. Many of the topics you study fit into a sequence. These can be changes to natural or human systems. and could be social.e. Geographical issues begin with causes. when linked to key words such as problems. next to identify problems. economic and environmental) and to write a balanced answer (i. cut it up into its component parts and try to understand each one. Command word. impacts. first on spotting these words. water. As an example. and finally to suggest solutions. In general. Processes then occur which lead to… …changes taking place. economic and environmental aspects. animals. Many topics. consider the question in Figure 3. including some positive and some negative impacts).

Short questions are often data response questions. Photographs Photographs are not just included on exam papers because they look good. for example ‘examine’ or ‘discuss’. If examiners want you to include ‘what’ and ‘why’. If we reword the question as: Suggest why earthquakes and volcanoes frequently occur in the same areas. you should think again. The range of resources you could be asked to interpret and use is large. The successful use of photographs involves examining them carefully. If you do this and the question does not make sense with the new word. this means taking information from the resource and incorporating it into your answer. or to provide a structure for your answer. physically. they usually word the question in this way: Describe and explain the distribution of earthquakes. However. You might use the resource to get some ideas. Data stimulus command words are more open. with a greater number at destructive boundaries compared to constructive ones. mid-plate earthquakes are uncommon. or better still. A correct answer to this question would first say what the distribution of earthquakes is: most occur at tectonic plate boundaries. It would then go on to say why they occur in these places: friction is caused by the descending plate at a destructive plate boundary. Students often miss a command word when there are two in the question. In Figure 4. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 6 . Usually. because ‘describe why’ combines ‘what’ and ‘why’.To clarify the meaning of some exam questions. and by the movement of magma and faulting at a constructive boundary. the complex photograph has been broken down into its key parts. Data response command words include ‘describe’. ‘state’ and ‘summarise’. Resources are used in two main ways — as data response resources or as data stimulus resources:  Data response resources should be used directly in your answer. Consider this question: Explain why earthquakes and volcanoes frequently occur in the same areas. or: Why do earthquakes and volcanoes frequently occur in the same areas? the question still makes sense. it now does not make sense. Using the exam resources You must take a structured and careful approach when using the resources you are asked to study in the exam. They contain key information that you will need to use to answer fully the questions linked to them.  Data stimulus resources can be used more indirectly. if we reword the question as: Describe why earthquakes and volcanoes frequently occur in the same areas. as in the ‘describe and explain’ example above. it can be helpful to try to replace a command word with another similar word. and either mentally. noting all their key features.

2006 Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 7 . They may also be included to allow you to contrast or compare something. Examples would be a pair of photographs showing hurricane damage in the developed world versus the developing world.000 501–2.001–90. It shows GNP per capita in 2006. or pair of photographs. All maps require a structured approach. including using grid references. These demand a slightly different approach because they usually accompany questions on patterns and distributions. world maps are used on exam papers. so it is important to brush up your map skills. Maps Ordnance Survey maps sometimes appear on exam papers.Historic buildings Flagship store (NEXT) Trees Street café Pedestrianised area Figure 4 Interpreting photographs With any photograph. You should look carefully at the:  scale  orientation  key  annotations on the map  date(s) Occasionally. Figure 5 is an example of this type of map. you should ask yourself:‘why have I been given this?’ Photographs are commonly used to illustrate a process or a change. GNP per capita 10.501–10. or a glacier in 1900 versus 2000 to show how global warming has led to glacial retreat.500 0–500 No data Figure 5 World map showing GNP per capita.000 2.

with an accumulated cyclone energy of only 20.When studying Figure 5. In this example. with south and west Asia being significantly poorer than east Asia. 300 Above normal Near normal 250 Below normal 200 150 100 50 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Figure 6 Trends in tropical cyclone (hurricane) energy in the Atlantic. you should:  Examine both axes. but also to look in more detail for less obvious patterns. The highest year was 2004. the southern hemisphere has lower incomes than the northern hemisphere). The year 1994 might be considered an anomaly. the trend appears to be upward. The range is therefore about 260. but some have higher GNP. the lowest year was 1983.  There is also variation in Asia.  Compared to ‘normal’ conditions.g. the left half of the graph shows activity that is mostly below normal. whereas the right half shows activity that is usually above normal. This is partly because they contain a lot of information and can look ‘dull’. Accumulated cyclone energy (index) Graphs and tables Of all resources.  Look for variation and range. it is important to consider overall patterns (e. as might 1996. Equally. they often demand numeracy skills. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 8 . In this example. For instance:  Most countries in South America have moderate GNPs per capita.  Look for a trend and any anomalies. but is variable.  In Africa. graphs and tables generate the most errors of interpretation. and mistakes in this area are common. 1979–2004 Figure 6 shows the annual total energy released (accumulated cyclone energy) by tropical cyclones (hurricanes) in the Atlantic between 1979 and 2004. with an accumulated cyclone energy of around 280. to note the units of measurement that are used. there is much variation: many countries have low GNP per capita.  Some middle eastern countries have high GNPs per capita and are therefore anomalies within the developing world. If you are asked to study a graph like this.

0 Tables like Table 5 can be daunting.5 12.5 5 Mumbai 7.9 16.2 35.4 10.2 8 Kolkata 7. New York.0 10. Osaka.7 11.0 10.8 15 Osaka 9.1 13.6 15.4 21.4 16.7 19.1 10.0 18.1 14.2 14. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 9 . or are projected to be stable by 2015. Remember.0 10.e.4 11 Dhaka 2.1 18.9 4 São Paulo 9.1 13. Table 5 Population change in the world’s 20 largest cities.9 13.  Note that these cities have populations that are growing only slowly.1 16.9 17.7 11.7 18. facts and figures) from the resource in your answer.e.1 18 Beijing 6. To analyse a table such as this.6 7 Shanghai 7.0 9 Jakarta 4.6 13. Kolkata.4 11.8 10 Buenos Aires 8. You should try to break them down into more manageable chunks.6 3 New York 15. Shanghai. Los Angeles.0 9.3 17.  A starting point might be to highlight developed world cities (i.8 12 Los Angeles 8.9 11.5 17.1 17 Lagos 1. patterns and anomalies.7 12.3 13. Dhaka) are projected to grow rapidly. it is always good practice to quote data (i. Delhi.1 13 Karachi 4.Table 5 shows the changing population size of the world’s megacities.9 19 Manila 5.g.6 10.3 11.2 10.2 11. Moscow). 1975–2015 Ranking Megacity 1975 Population (millions) 2000 2005 2015 1 Tokyo 26.2 14 Rio de Janeiro 7.8 12.6 34.6 10.9 6 Delhi 4.4 10.8 11.9 8.4 12.4 15.3 13.  There are only two African cities in the list — Cairo and Lagos. you could use a highlighter pen to pick out trends.4 35. with tables and graphs.0 11.7 12.2 21.1 18.5 2 Mexico City 10.2 12.9 20 Moscow 7. Tokyo.6 17.8 18.  Cities in developing Asia (e.3 16 Cairo 6.3 20.1 19.8 12.8 11.8 10.2 16.8 11. Mumbai. Lagos has the most rapid growth of any city listed.

Many diagrams are labelled with key terms and words.Diagrams Diagrams can be confusing. bullets can be a useful way of making sure you write three distinct points.g. Avoid informal words. Answer style Exam questions should be written in a formal.e. They include:  disaster hotspots: the Californian coast and the Philippines  climate impacts: the Arctic and Africa  EU migration from eastern Europe  EU migration to Mediterranean locations Drawing maps and diagrams in your answers You will be given credit for including maps and diagrams in your answers. using past papers.e. Ask yourself the following questions before deciding to include a map or diagram:  Will it provide better geography than using words?  Can I draw it more quickly than writing it? Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 10 . in longer answers you should only use a list of bullet points like this if you run short of time. LEDCs. You should write in continuous prose and use technical geographical terms as much as possible. However. The cartoon is often linked to a question along the lines of ‘state the message of the cartoon’. This is a good skill to practise before the exams. NICs) It could also be about type of place:  urban area.g. rather than just descriptive. You need to make your annotations explanatory. and you should take your time when examining them. Locational knowledge It is important that you approach the exams as a geographer. i. Are there any features that can be used to work out the scale?  Key terms. e. This is especially important for longer answers to questions worth 5 or more marks. Look for:  Perspective. To produce a top-level answer you need to link ideas. precise style. an expert on places. from the side) or a plan (i. so you should expect exam questions specifically about these. MEDCs. e. These often give clues to help you understand the diagram. Cartoons Cartoons are sometimes used on exam papers. from above)?  Scale. Occasionally. worldwide)  national (country or countries)  local (small area) It could be about levels of development:  developed world (FCCs.e. you might be asked to annotate a diagram. and lists of points work against this. Is the diagram a section (i. world city  rural area. Exam questions often ask for what can be termed ‘locational knowledge’. These do not have to be of artist quality but they do need to be clear. slang and colloquialisms. This is asking you to state in words what the cartoon is saying visually. Bullet points and numbered points are acceptable in shorter answers. remote rural locations On this specification there are some compulsory case studies. RICs. This could be about scale:  global (world. If you are asked to describe the key features of a map or graph for 3 marks. G8 countries)  developing world (LDCs.

 Do not use colour but a black or blue pen. Figure 7 Map showing the California multiple hazard zone Figure 8 Graph showing internet use in the developed and developing worlds Examples and case studies You should take every opportunity to mention specific places in your answers. You could achieve this by using examples (which are relatively brief.  Use the ‘three-lines’ rule: your map or diagram should be given its basic structure by three quickly drawn lines. You should get into the habit of using them as a matter of course. You should stick to a few basic rules:  Keep maps and diagrams simple. Figures 7 and 8 show a simple map and diagram.‘the map below shows…’ to link your drawing to the rest of the answer.  Make sure you include a sentence in your answer that says something like. suitable for exam conditions.  Can I remember enough detail to make it worthwhile? Will I refer to the map or diagram in my written answer? If the answer is yes to all these questions a diagram or map may be useful as part of your answer. For example. It is important that you do not wait to be asked to use examples. you could be asked a question such as: Define the term megacity. (2 marks) Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 11 .  Maps without scales and orientation arrows are next to useless.  Your diagram should take at most 1 or 2 minutes to draw. perhaps a few lines) and case studies (which are longer and more detailed) to illustrate and support your understanding of processes.

Do not spend 10 minutes on a question worth 3 marks. but you could also add. Key terms are important for two reasons: (1) If your geographical vocabulary is poor.  If there is a choice of questions (as there is in Unit 1. when and what happened?  Establish the context of the case study — is it in a developing or developed country.  Identify clearly the key points the case study illustrates. Timing You should have enough time in the exams. and you have 90 minutes in the exam. Key geographical terms Key geographical terms are defined for you in the textbook. Diagrams You can also use your own diagrams in your answers. It is vital you understand fully the exam format and have some experience of working under exam conditions. read all the questions before you choose which one to answer. You should learn these and be prepared to use them. (4 marks) A good answer might suggest that sea levels could rise as ice shelves and ice sheets melt. you will need to use detailed locational evidence to access the top bands in the mark scheme.‘New York is an example. there is a danger that you will not understand some questions. This is where your case studies can be used to full effect.You might answer.and long-term impacts and changes.  Always be precise. ‘nice’ and ‘a lot’. and across the Unit 2 exam). You will need to learn key facts and figures. you need to:  State the basic facts — where. and naming endangered species such as polar bears and Arctic foxes provides additional geographical detail that will make your answer stand out. your answers may be imprecise and poorly expressed. not just repeat what you have already written. or that habitats for key species might be lost. Try to design your diagrams to fit the question. Using examples of threatened low-lying areas such as Bangladesh or Florida.  As a guide. is it unusual. with a population of 18. They should be quick to draw and add something to your answer. In Unit 2 there are 70 marks available and 60 minutes in the exam — a little less than 1 minute per mark. which are worth 10 or more marks. These are especially useful in the more extended writing questions. (2) If you do not use geographical terminology. When using case studies. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 12 . Another question could be: Explain how Arctic warming will have consequences for the wider world. You must avoid using words such as ‘bad’. did it lead to changes in how the issue was dealt with later?  Use data and statistics to add weight to your case study. but you can get into difficulties and be forced to rush if you do not follow some guidelines:  Use past papers to practise timed exams. This translates as 1 minute per mark.‘A megacity is a city with a population of over 10 million’. or 3 minutes on a question worth 10 marks. and keep them simple.  Be guided by the number of marks available for each question and the number of lines you have to write on.7 million in 2005. In the more extended writing sections of the exams (Section B on the Unit 1 exam. in Unit 1 there are 90 marks available. as these are vague and non-geographical. you are ensuring that you get the full 2 marks.’ By using an example. causal factors and short. Section B).

For most students 15–30 minutes is enough.  Use several different coloured pens to identify patterns and links. but driving is a complex skill that most students of A-level age can master quickly — partly because it uses most of your senses. then get help — borrow a friend’s file or ask your teacher for help. However. using subheadings.Revision: the final piece of the jigsaw Few students enjoy revision. However. Reading only uses one sense — sight. including examples. environmental and economic. you are using sight and touch. of course. and test your understanding. you cease to take much in. You may be able to use these in the exam. Set aside days and times for all subjects that you need to study. you are also using hearing. If you read and write.  Use A3 paper to give you plenty of space with which to work. Move into another room. Beyond this time. learn it. such as social. and your powerful brain quickly learns to assess all these signals. have a dance! The more you can take your mind off revision. or developed world and developing world. (3) Just reading your class notes does not work. Every student has to decide his or her own revision strategy. Do not just open your file anywhere and start revising — make your revision structured and logical. (4) Try to revise using as many of your senses as possible. Try to pare down the information in your file to key points and important facts and figures. and the exams are fast approaching.  (5) Make mind maps and spider diagrams:  Take a topic such as the impacts of climate change and make it the centre of a spider diagram or mind map.  Next. If you revise with a friend from your class and occasionally test each other or read out your notes. For instance. This makes reviewing your notes easier.  Break impacts down into a structure.  Use numbered or bullet points. the fresher you will be when you go back to it. use your file to add specific impacts to the structure. You might think this is silly. (2) Plan your revision. take the dog for a walk. which helps you to learn. key facts and figures. and stick to your timetable. Break down your notes into bite-size chunks. (3) Set yourself clear goals. If your file is poorly organised. Some suggested revision strategies (1) Start by getting organised. and write down their definitions.  Pick out key words and process terms. Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 13 . there are a few rules that work for most students: (1) Revise in short bursts. it is vital that you review your work.  Redraw key diagrams in a simplified way. This will allow you to continue to do all the other things you enjoy. (4) Make notes on your notes:  Use an exercise book or note pad — this will help keep things organised. (5) Revision involves taking the large volume of material from your course and condensing it into a form you can more easily learn and recall in the exam. make a cup of tea. Make sure your class notes are clearly sorted. you might allocate one revision session to revising the causes of climate change. This is a long-term strategy. for instance making revision notes from your file. and fit in revision as well. (2) Try to do something active between revision sessions. Your job is to identify strategies that will allow you to do this in the least painful way.

Edexcel AS Geography Advice for students © Philip Allan Updates 14 . You will find you can condense your notes into something much easier to review. (6) Make your own flash cards:  You can use large Post-it notes or postcard-sized pieces of card. but they are one of the best ways to revise and practise your exam skills.  Ask to do practice exam questions. as you have limited space. You may not like these.  Working with someone else can be more motivating.Spider diagrams can be a useful way to organise a mass of notes into something more coherent from which it is easy to revise.  Flash cards are ideal for key case studies. Try to look at exam mark schemes so you can understand how marks are awarded. key processes. and to highlight areas on which you need to work. This will make you much more confident in using the technical language of geography. Make a note of any problem areas as you revise. although this does not work for everyone. You can use them as posters and put them up on the wall. and recalling it in the exam will be easier. Glancing at them repeatedly will help the visual ‘picture’ stick in your mind. which helps you learn. matching key words to their definitions.  Forcing yourself to explain a process or case study to a friend is a good way to learn yourself. key terms and definitions. and important diagrams. and ask your teacher to go over these in class.  You can also ask your family to give you quick quizzes on key terms.  Ask to have regular key terms tests at the start and end of lessons. Revising with someone else has some advantages:  If you get stuck your friend may be able to help. (8) Use your friends and family. and less lonely.  Making flash cards forces you to include only key information.  You can ask each other questions and test each other. This uses more senses. (7) Use your teacher:  Teachers like nothing better than being asked questions. Some students find they can revise with a friend. These can be done using Post-it notes — for instance. than sitting on your own trying to revise.

Question 7 25 marks 25 minutes Going global Question 8 25 marks 25 minutes Going global Question 9 25 marks 25 minutes World at risk Question 10 25 marks 25 minutes World at risk Unit 2 Geographical investigations In the Unit 2 exam you must answer two questions: one from Section A and one from Section B. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 15 . The total number of marks available for this section is 65.Questions and answers Introduction In this section of the CD-ROM there are sample questions for you to work on. The total number of marks available for this unit is 70. and the mark allocation. longer responses. Question 1 13 marks 13 minutes World at risk Question 2 10 marks 10 minutes World at risk Question 3 10 marks 10 minutes World at risk Question 4 10 marks 10 minutes Going global Question 5 10 marks 10 minutes Going global Question 6 12 marks 12 minutes Going global Section B In the exam you will be required to answer one question from Section B. The questions will generally require longer answers. They are similar in style to those that will appear on the exam papers. This section tests the breadth of your knowledge and understanding. This section tests the depth of your knowledge and understanding. The tables below show the questions. The questions are based on the content in the specification and your textbook. and will be worth 10 or 15 marks. the time you should spend on each question. reasoned. Section A In the exam you will be required to answer all six questions in Section A. Each question is likely to be worth 1–6 marks. The total number of marks available for this section is 25. Unit 1 Global challenges The total number of marks available for this unit is 90. and your ability to produce structured.

Long answer questions.  The answers. Question 3 35 marks 30 minutes Unequal spaces Question 4 35 marks 30 minutes Rebranding places About this section of the CD-ROM The structure of this question and answer section of the CD-ROM is as follows:  The resource for the question. For long answer questions. are still awarded marks. you will be shown how to achieve maximum marks. but not developed. there are notes on each question. These take into account the quality of your written communication skills — your spelling. Question 1 35 marks 30 minutes Extreme weather Question 2 35 marks 30 minutes Crowded coasts Section B: either Unequal spaces or Rebranding places The total number of marks available for this section is 35. For short answer questions. style. such as ‘in the Philippines’. This ensures that all examiners mark to the same standard.  The question itself. simple point. You must bear this in mind when you are writing your answer. plus a detailed outline of what examiners might expect for each level of the mark scheme. Marks are often awarded for using an example. and therefore do not appear in the mark scheme. These are indicated by the icon e.Section A: either Extreme weather or Crowded coasts The total number of marks available for this section is 35. or for writing a more extended point. Mark scheme Examiners use a detailed mark scheme that has been agreed by senior examiners. The response may not be logical or structured. and there are frequent written language errors. Examiners read your answer and decide which level it is in. you should try to add an example or go into more depth. are point marked. Explanations are weak and often unclear. Short answer questions. clarity. The comments highlight problem areas and common mistakes. grammar. which are generally worth 5 marks or more. The points are stated. Typical levels are shown below:  Level 1 Answers generally contain simple material. If you make a relatively short. organisation and correct use of geographical terms. punctuation. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 16 . then decide on the exact mark within that level. are marked using levels. This means that examiners give you a mark for each correct point you make. as well as giving tips on exam technique and understanding resources. The examples used are vague and generalised. which are usually worth up to 4 or 5 marks. and you should try to make the same number of different points as there are marks available. These notes are not intended to be model answers but to help you understand what would constitute a weak or strong answer. Examiners’ comments The answers are followed by examiners’ comments. Note that responses which are correct but unusual. Geographical terms are used rarely.

but could be developed further. which is shown through a range of points and examples. Geographical terms are used with accuracy and confidence. It is logical and structured. Some geographical terms are used and there are a few written language errors. and written language errors are rare. but other parts less effectively. there may be four levels in the mark scheme. Level 3 Answers are detailed and supported by ‘real world’ case studies and examples. There is depth of knowledge and understanding. The answer is likely to provide an overview and to link different aspects of the question. There is more detailed explanation. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 17 . The examples show some depth. Note that for longer questions worth 15 or 20 marks. The answer may be unbalanced. addressing some parts of the question well. but also breadth. with some clear reasoning.  Level 2 Answers contain more detail and have some structure and logic.

by putting the letters into the table provided. (4 marks) d Explain how local sustainable strategies might reduce the negative impacts of climate change. which shows climate change impacts on the continent of Africa. (3 marks) (2 marks) Table 1 Measures of climate change (1) Coastal erosion rates (2) Marine biodiversity losses (3) Reduced average life expectancy (x) Coral bleaching (y) Sea-level rise (z) Spread of malaria c Explain how the impacts of climate change shown in Figure 1 could lead to a lower quality of life for vulnerable people in Africa.Unit 1 Global challenges World at risk Question 1 Study Figure 1. b Match the three measures of change to the most appropriate climate change impact. North Africa West Africa N Central Africa 0 East Africa km 1000 Indian Ocean islands Deforestation and loss of forest quality Sea-level rise Coral bleaching Desertification Spread of malaria Southern Africa Figure 1 Climate change impacts on the continent of Africa a Describe the pattern of climate change impacts shown in Figure 1. (4 marks) (Total: 13 marks) Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 18 .

People’s health can be affected. destruction of fishing grounds (coral bleaching). Small-scale energy developments (e. e.     e To answer this question. such as planting drought-resistant crops.      e Again. This can affect nutrition as well as income. e. but you could use ideas from the rest of the developing world. and more extended points and examples will gain 2 marks.g. up to a maximum of 3 marks. Try to be precise about location. Named examples would be particularly useful.g. which causes further pressure on resources. due to deforested land. by extending deserts. Incomes could be reduced. replanting and soil conservation would manage desertification. rather than 3.You can get either 1 out of 3 correct.You should make the focus of your answer Africa.g. basic points will gain 1 mark. micro-hydro/biogas) would provide alternative fuel sources to wood NGOs could provide aid/technical help in low income areas. d Afforestation/forest management would help to maintain a key resource. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 19 . This is because the task is relatively straightforward. rather than stating ‘in the middle’ or ‘towards the top’. and food supply runs short. you could either make four distinct points or examine two points in depth. or all 3 correct. such as conflict over resources and migration. There are also wider implications. Increasing healthcare would help to deal with the malaria threat. Reduced fresh water supplies could cause disease to spread and affect people’s ability to grow crops. loss of resources and degraded farmland. and direct loss of farmland through coastal erosion. as malaria spreads. Farming practices could be altered. (1) Coastal erosion rates (y) sea-level rise (2) Marine biodiversity losses (x) coral bleaching (3) Reduced average life expectancy (z) spread of malaria e There are only 2 marks available here. c Food supply may be reduced. e.g. using examples and looking for a sequence of events that could lead to a lower quality of life for vulnerable people in Africa.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Answers to Question 1 a      e b Desertification in a belt from west to east Africa (the Sahel) Deforestation in a central belt from coast to coast Coral bleaching along the eastern coastline Malaria spread concentrated in southern Africa Sea-level rise lacks a pattern There is 1 mark available for each point. and harvesting and storing water.

1 bn tonnes Savings by economic sector ct io n Industry savings 6. e Remember to look carefully at graphs like Figure 2. which shows how carbon dioxide emissions savings stack up. (1 mark) (4 marks) (4 marks) (Total: 10 marks) Answers to Question 2 a Industry.4 bn Agriculture savings 3.2 bn 20 Forestry savings 2. select the two gases that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect:  oxygen  methane  nitrogen oxide  sulphur dioxide  argon c Using a named example of a renewable energy source.1 bn Building cuts 4.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Question 2 50 43.4 bn tonnes 10 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year Figure 2 Reducing carbon dioxide emissions a In which sector of the economy can the greatest savings of carbon dioxide be achieved? (1 mark) b From the list below.3 bn tonnes 30 Renewable energy 5. explain how carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 20 . suggest why its development is economically and environmentally controversial.7 bn 18. Total savings 26.7 bn Waste savings 2. d Choose two economic sectors other than renewable energy from Figure 2.7 bn tonnes 40 2006: 27.5 bn Pr ed i Carbon dioxide (bn tonnes) Study Figure 2. For each.3 bn Transport cuts 3. as it is easy to make a simple mistake.

solar) are expensive compared to other sources. increase taxation on flights to discourage airline use. reduce waste by cutting down on packaging. wind. Land may be lost to some energy developments (e. recycle paper and cardboard to reduce demand for wood. as fossil fuels are still relatively cheap and the technology used to generate power with them is simple.g. make greater use of public transport. You should consider all of the economic sectors before choosing two of them. solar). Forestry: reduce deforestation. biogas.g. Give some thought to which you know most about. A key issue is economic viability. Note that the question contains two parts (economic and environmental controversies). biogas).       e You will gain 1 mark for a basic point. solar. make more efficient use of machinery.g.e. d Agriculture: cut methane emissions by farming fewer cattle or finding alternatives to paddy-field rice.g. Waste: use methane produced from landfill sites as a fuel source. Transport: use clean energy technologies. energy-saving bulbs and grade A efficiency appliances). and 2 marks for a more extended explanation/use of examples. i. use recycled materials in construction. Some renewable energy sources (e. farm organically because it has lower energy inputs. such as hybrid or electric cars. e You will gain 1 mark for a basic point. uses fewer chemical fertilisers and pesticides. practise afforestation and sustainable management of forests. wind). and there are aesthetic objections to others (e. Some sources are relatively untested (e. and 2 marks for a more extended point. and some do not have a constant supply (e. you must cover both equally to gain full marks. reuse and recycle products.g. hydroelectric. fit scrubbers on power stations. switch to alternative energy sources. water recycled within buildings. c Choices could include wind.g. wave) and others are currently small-scale (e. hydroelectric. wave power.g. Building: create energy-saving buildings and utilities (e. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 21 . Some people fear biodiversity could be harmed by wind turbines or flooding to create reservoirs. wind).World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges b Methane and nitrogen oxide. Industry: cut down on the use of fossil fuels. and whether you could use examples for them. more efficient toilets.

(3 marks) (5 marks) (Total: 11 marks) Answers to Question 3 a Floods. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 22 . such as those shown in Figure 3. Earthquakes show no clear trend. but it is more variable than that for floods. 1980–2000 a Which of the three types of natural disaster shown has the strongest upward trend between 1980 and 2000? b Match the three hazards shown in Figure 3 to the most appropriate at-risk area. (1 mark) (2 marks) Table 3 Hazards and at-risk areas At-risk area Hazard Low-lying coastal land in the tropics Urban areas with high building and road density Mountainous areas close to plate margins c Explain how improved data-collection and recording could affect hazard trends. which shows global trends in reported natural disasters. d Explain the contrasting impacts of cyclones in the developed and developing worlds. 1980–2000. e The trend for cyclones is upwards.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Question 3 Major disasters (recorded number) Study Figure 3. 200 Floods 150 100 Cyclones 50 Earthquakes 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Figure 3 Global trends in reported natural disasters.

The recovery time in the developing world can be long. such as CRED. Level Marks Descriptor 3 5 A range of clear economic and human contrasts explained. Improved databases. Stating that the trends could be caused by a combination of natural variation. Disease is frequently an issue too.    e There is 1 mark available for each basic point.World at risk b Unit 1 Global challenges At-risk area Hazard Low-lying coastal land in the tropics Cyclones Urban areas with high building and road density Flooding Mountainous areas close to plate margins Earthquakes e Identifying three correct hazards will gain 2 marks. and an additional mark for the use of examples (such as types of technology or communication). economic damage exceeds human impacts because people own more property.g. Better preparation and evacuation procedures further reduce direct human impacts. Note that the question asks for the ‘most appropriate’ hazard — while cyclones can occur over urban areas. so you should try to use words such as ‘but’. In the developed world. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 23 . in countries such as Bangladesh or Honduras. some examples given. Food production and the basic subsistence economy suffer. Bhola. 2 3–4 Human and economic impacts clearly stated. collecting data from around the world is now easier than it was in 1980. the internet). tend to have high human impacts (injuries and deaths). As communication improves (e. 1 1–2 A few impacts stated. and identifying one correct hazard will gain 1 mark. Note that the question asks for contrasting impacts. with examples. low-lying tropical areas are more at risk from them. mean that more events are recorded so that the quality of hazard data improves. Insurance claims will be high. flood risk is heightened in urban areas. Mitch.g. for instance if farmland has been flooded. human influence and improved recording of events would show your understanding. ‘however’ and ‘in contrast’ in your answer. d Cyclones in the developing world. c Technology such as satellites and remote sensing equipment may mean that more events are detected. Katrina) to illustrate your points. Andrew.    e This question is a perfect opportunity to use examples of named hurricanes/cyclones (e.

(10 marks) b With reference to either the Philippines or California.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Question 4 Study Figure 4. which shows global risk of mortality and economic loss for all natural hazards.e. explain why they are considered to be hazard hotspots. risk of death) and economic loss risk from all natural hazards. (15 marks) Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 24 . (a) Risk of mortality Risk High Moderate Low (b) Risk of economic loss Figure 4 (a) Global risk of mortality and (b) of economic loss owing to natural hazards a Compare and contrast the global distribution of mortality risk (i.

the reverse is true — the risk of economic loss is low. but not in full. Since the Philippines is on a destructive plate margin. The resource for this question is challenging.g. Geographical terminology used with accuracy. lahars can be mobilised by cyclones and tropical storms. Start in one place (e. Areas where both risks are high (e. This may be due to low hazard frequency and magnitude. hazards are likely to be frequent and potentially of high magnitude (e. Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy.g. and comments effectively on these. 1 1–4 Largely random in nature.  People’s vulnerability to hazards is high (because of poverty) and the country’s capacity to deal with hazards is typical of the developing world. there are some written language errors. which can also be mobilised by heavy rain. the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991.g. earthquakes in Indonesia. but cannot prevent loss of property. Philippines  Hazards are common. In areas where either or both risks are high. written language errors are rare. In some areas. identifies a few contrasts of a descriptive nature with little further comment. there is volcanic activity. These are areas where hazard management systems prevent high mortality rates. The Philippines’ numerous small islands make dealing with hazards problematic.g. There are frequent written language errors. and perhaps triggered by the frequent earthquakes.  The Philippines is in a tropical cyclone track. EU countries). because volcanic eruptions generate explosive activity. from hurricanes or tornadoes. as you have to compare the maps. the hazard management systems and safety nets are virtually nonexistent. Some similarities and differences are identified. the risk for both mortality and economic loss is low. Identifies located similarities and differences. In other regions. Use a pen or highlighter to make notes on the map as you do so. pyroclastic flows and lahars. 2 5–7 Some comparison of areas on the map. May lack clarity on terminology such as ‘demography’. e. b Both locations are hotspots owing to the combination of natural hazards that might occur there. Europe) and work clockwise around the maps to look for patterns and contrasts. e.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Answers to Question 4 a      There are some areas where risk of mortality is low but risk of economic loss is high (e. Here. Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 An accurate comparison across the whole map.You will not be able to make an accurate comparison of the maps simply by glancing at them. This is damaging. China.g. Poverty means that there is little in the way of economic damage. floods in India). hurricanes on the USA’s east coast. commentary is more descriptive.g. Reliance on subsistence crops makes people extremely vulnerable to drought and famine. sub-Saharan Africa). parts of India and the Brazilian coast) are developing countries that have economic wealth to lose but do not have welldeveloped hazard protection systems.This will help you to structure your final answer. so the risk of death is high. The young volcanic rock is prone to landslides. but the risk of mortality is high (e. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 25 . although the risks are different in each location.g. Uses named examples of hazards to illustrate. USA.

using examples. combined with seasonal rainfall.  The arid climate and steep coastal slopes. but disaster can still strike and cause many deaths. Geographical terminology used with accuracy. Links made between hazards and risk explained for the chosen location. when climate norms are reversed. there are some written language errors of a minor nature. explanations are clear but links are less common. 2 5–8 A general account. Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. This is particularly the case in an El Niño year. Geographical terminology is used infrequently and sometimes in error. 3 9–12 Some examples used to illustrate hazards in the chosen locations. However. as you will be expected to show detailed knowledge and understanding when answering questions about them. frequent. 1 1–4 Basic description of one or two hazard events. without reference to the hotspot concept. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 26 . make the area prone to flash floods. Planning and construction methods reduce risk. volcanic activity does not occur. unbalanced and focusing on a particular hazard type.  The coastline is in the path of tsunamis generated elsewhere in the Pacific. written language errors are rare.There are frequent written language errors.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges California  Since California is on a conservative plate margin. You need to learn these case studies thoroughly. landslides and fires. Level e Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Wide-ranging explanation which refers to a range of hazards. Liquefaction is a major problem on the coast. This question is on a compulsory case study. there are some written language errors. using descriptive examples. unpredictable earthquakes are common (the most severe ones being in 1906 and 1989) and potentially destructive in economic terms.

b With reference to examples. written language errors are rare. The house reflects the new climate and the need to conserve energy and resources. which shows a typical UK house and garden in the year 2087. Solar panels ‘Green’ roof planted with moss and grasses Balcony facing south Wall made from compacted soil excavated from pond Small wind turbine Walls made from 50% recycled rubble Triple-glazed windows Compost bin Mediterranean trees and shrubs Patio decking made from recycled materials Underground tanks: collect rainwater and house waste water for recycling Figure 5 The 2087 house and garden a Explain how the house and garden address the challenges of climate change. there are some written language errors. explain how climate change poses different challenges for different countries. and the answer is more of a list at the lower end of the mark band.There are frequent written language errors. with a structured range of detailed explanations related to climate change futures. 1 1–4 A few general points related to some aspects of the figure. All of these help to reduce carbon dioxide output. The house and garden contain recycled rubber. the insulating ‘green’ roof and triple glazing) and to exploit renewable energy (solar and wind power).Variable detail and less structure. the water recycling systems and the south-facing balcony. these include the types of trees and shrubs planted. and to minimise waste. Various adaptations have been made to suit the new climate. Level Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Uses the resource in full. Geographical terminology used with accuracy. 2 5–7 Uses the resource effectively. The house utilises a range of technologies to reduce energy use (e. May lack clarity on terminology.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges Question 5 Study Figure 5. (10 marks) (15 marks) Answers to Question 5 a     The 2087 house and garden have been built under the assumption that the future climate will be warmer and drier. Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 27 . water is also recycled. but not in full. soil and other materials.g. Lacks any structure.

Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. Contrasts and differences are only implied. Both cities and farmland will be affected. but some contrasts are made. physical geography and climate change impacts. All of these present challenges to insurers. Australia is an example of a country that may be facing a drier climate in the future. Developing countries may face direct threats to farming as climate belts shift. climate change could pose a threat to human life. builders. skiing). This could also affect tourism (e. there are some written language errors. so you must use a range — three would be ideal. Look for links between the captions. 2 5–8 Response lacks structure. with more frequent gales and flooding. Examples are used but in isolation. Geographical terminology used with accuracy.World at risk Unit 1 Global challenges e The resource for this question contains a good deal of text. The question instructs you to use examples. the Netherlands and the Maldives) will face a direct threat from rising sea levels. Developed countries are more able to adapt (they have the wealth and technology to do so). so make sure you read it carefully. the availability of technologies. and drier summers. b The challenges of climate change are related to the physical nature of countries.g. written language errors are rare. More variable detail.Try to make these contrasting in terms of their level of development. Your use of examples in this question is crucial. contrasting exemplar countries. Geographical terminology is used infrequently and sometimes in error. councils and individuals. If these countries lack the capital to invest in new technologies. and the types of expected impacts. which presents significant challenges for its water supply. Coastal low-lying countries (e. The UK may face a more extreme climate. Bangladesh. their level of development. 3 9–12 Some structure and some examples used.g. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 28 .g. whether to spend a greater proportion of national budgets on water supply and flood defences. but the costs could be high and hard choices will have to be made — for instance.There are frequent written language errors. 1 1–4 Outlines climate impacts for one or two places only. and structure your answer around overall themes. Chile and Peru) may face reduced water supply as glaciers retreat. India. A number of different challenges are considered. there are some minor written language errors.      Level e Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 A structured response using a range of detailed. You need to avoid simply listing each caption from the figure and then explaining it. Mountainous countries (e. good awareness of the range of climate futures.

b Using Figure 6. e Definitions questions are common. cultural and political) is global. (3 marks) (Total: 10 marks) Answers to Question 6 a A world city is a city whose influence (economic. (1 mark) (2 marks) Table 6 Identifying world cities Description City The only African city A developed world city in Asia. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 29 . classed as a world city A secondary world city in the developing world c Outline the ways in which the world cities in Figure 6 are connected into a global network of cities. which shows the distribution of three types of city.Unit 1 Global challenges Going global Question 6 Toronto Montreal Boston ldo Ba Zu ric h nic h Bangkok Budapest me Madrid Caracas Hong Kong Prague Mu Geneva Frankfurt Osaka Shanghai sse Du Paris Seoul Tokyo Beijing Warsaw Ro Mexico City Brussels na Mi lan San Chicago New York Francisco Washington Los Atlanta Angeles Dallas Miami Houston Moscow London rce lo Minneapolis Am ste rda rf H m am bu r g St Be rlin ockh o Co lm pe nh ag en Study Figure 6. Istanbul Taipei Manila Kuala Lumpur Jakarta Singapore São Paulo Sydney Buenos Aires Johannesburg World cities Secondary world cities Santiago Melbourne Other important cities Figure 6 The distribution of world cities. identify the cities in Table 6. 2005 a Define the term ‘world city’. (4 marks) d Explain why urbanisation in many areas of the developing world is occurring so rapidly. You should build up a glossary of key terms to help you in the exam. secondary world cities and other important cities.

such as the stock exchanges in London. Many of the reasons for this are economic. People are pushed from rural areas and pulled towards urban areas. and. c World cities are connected by financial markets. Internet and satellite connections ensure cheap. Remember to look at resources carefully. so try to name cities. and 2 marks for an extended point or example. and is often said to account for about 40% of growth. The cities all have major airport hubs. Transnational company headquarters are often located in world cities.This type of question cries out for the use of examples. and are connected directly to many other world cities by non-stop flights. rapid communication between cities. several times.Going global b Unit 1 Global challenges Description City The only African city Johannesburg A developed world city in Asia. internal growth occurs as a result of high birth rates. stock exchanges.     e You will gain 1 mark for a basic point. which are fuelled by a young immigrant population. New York and Tokyo. airlines and transnational companies to add weight to your answer. and 2 marks for an extended point (such as the percentages) or example (for instance naming a developing world city). Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 30 . Within cities. classed as a world city Tokyo or Singapore A secondary world city in the developing world Mexico City or São Paulo e There is 1 mark for each correct answer. if necessary. whose opening times overlap. Key workers move between the cities frequently. You might not have spotted this at first glance. There is 1 mark for a basic point. The resource for this question is a simple map. with one colour for the developing world and one for the developed world. Both reasons — migration and internal growth — are required to gain maximum marks. d The urbanisation process is made up of two growth elements:   e Rural–urban migration has a significant impact. with key regional offices located in other world cities.

d Explain why many of the eastern European migrants are located in rural areas (4 marks) (4 marks) (Total: 10 marks) Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 31 . which shows the location of the highest concentration of post-accession east European migrants in the UK. Areas of highest concentration of east European migrants as percentage of population Edinburgh Glasgow Newcastle Manchester Hull Liverpool Norwich Birmingham Cardiff London Source: ONS population trends. 129 Figure 7 The location of the highest concentration of post-accession east European migrants in the UK. No.Going global Unit 1 Global challenges Question 7 Study Figure 7. b Which one of the following types of migration does Figure 7 show? (1 mark) (1 mark)  retirement migration  environmental refugees  economic migration  asylum seekers c Briefly describe the location pattern of the highest concentration of migrants. 2006 a Give an example of a likely source country for these migrants. 2006.

such as the Wash in East Anglia and the Midlands (Hereford and Worcester). it is important that you read your answer quickly to check that you have made four points. e. d As these are economic migrants. There are some isolated pockets containing high numbers of migrants.When answering a question like this. they move to where jobs are available: Many work in low-paid jobs linked to the farming industry. fruit and vegetable picking or food processing. With shorter questions which are point-marked.Going global Unit 1 Global challenges Answers to Question 7 a Any one of: Latvia. Cardiff and Birmingham.g. plus 1 mark for the overall pattern described. not to explain. They are not concentrated in one particular location or region. so take care not to drift into giving reasons. Some of the areas with the highest number of migrants are cities. London. such as the extreme west of Cornwall and west Wales.      e You will gain 1 mark for each valid explanation and 2 marks for a more extended explanation which could use an example or explain a point in more depth. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 32 . Poland. As the migrants are white Europeans. The jobs in rural areas may be familiar. rather then level-marked. they may feel more comfortable in rural areas than other migrant ethnic groups. e You will gain 1 mark for each accurate location given. Bulgaria and Romania cannot be accepted. or at least two extended points.You will not gain any marks for doing so. migrants might have done similar work in their home countries. it is usual to be able to gain 2 marks in this way. The work is relatively low skilled and does not require language skills. Estonia. Czech Republic.g. e You will gain 1 mark from naming any one of the east European countries that joined the EU in 2004. These jobs are generally available because the host population does not want to do them. Hungary and Slovenia. Note that you are only asked to describe. e. In the Highlands of Scotland many work as fish processors. Lithuania. Slovakia. c     Migrants can be found throughout the UK. as do some other rural areas. The northern parts of Scotland have high numbers of migrants. b Economic migration.

g. internet. help to maintain the company’s presence and brand around the world. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 33 . (3 marks) d Outline the possible costs and benefits to developing countries when TNCs locate factories there.   b Africa. as well as customers. Give two characteristics of a TNC.000 employees Sells in 140 countries 7 million vehicles per year Figure 8 Toyota’s global manufacturing operation a Toyota is a car manufacturing transnational company (TNC). The global airline network allows people and small parts to be moved rapidly between locations. (2 marks) (1 mark) b In which continent does Toyota have the lowest presence? c Explain briefly the role of technology in helping to connect Toyota’s global manufacturing network. c     Communications technology (e. (6 marks) (Total: 12 marks) Answers to Question 8 a Two from:   company has global network/reach large in terms of number of staff and turnover present in many markets — a global brand often involved in many market sectors e You will gain 1 mark for each valid characteristic. satellites) allows Toyota’s head office to communicate with suppliers and branch plants. Shipping and ports (containers) are crucial for moving parts and final products to factories and markets. 50 plants in 26 countries 264. which are also global. The media. which shows Toyota’s global manufacturing operation.Going global Unit 1 Global challenges Question 8 Study Figure 8.

The company may move as costs rise. Traditional working patterns and family structures can be lost. economic and environmental. 2 3–4 Less balance. many examples used. but there is some range of valid points. Environmental Redevelopment of areas may occur to attract foreign businesses. and 2 marks for an extended point/use of an example. Factories may be set up with little regard for the environment. as follows. health and education. so spin-off links are limited. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 34 .Going global e Unit 1 Global challenges You will gain 1 mark for each valid point linked to a technology (of any type). and may increase local pollution levels. Economic Factories provide jobs. one or two (probably very negative) points only. you need to go beyond this and think about other technologies in transport and communication to get 3 marks. Jobs may be low paid. Parts could be shipped in from other countries. plus a range of impacts rather than a narrow focus. Jobs may involve long working hours and hard work. d ‘Benefits and costs’ can be social. Marks would be awarded as follows: Level Marks Descriptor 3 5–6 A balance of costs and benefits. 1 1–2 Unbalanced. Most candidates would probably give the internet as their answer. wealth can bring benefits in terms of housing. may focus on one or two areas only. e Benefits Costs Social As incomes grow. they may also have spin-offs such as local parts suppliers.

It is therefore related to population.6 15.Going global Unit 1 Global challenges Question 9 Study Figure 9.5 10. These developed nations have access to technology and an extensive telecommunications infrastructure. prevent widespread internet use. Some countries.9 9.7 6.4 17.6 8. many internet users are likely to be businesses and transnational companies. Burma and North Korea. The continent is largely ‘switched off’. Globalisation is strongly linked to internet use.8 6. may deliberately discourage internet use for political reasons. as their economies are growing. where computers are common and internet connection is relatively cheap. Consumers increasingly use the internet. Internet use is relatively high in the rapidly developing newly industrialising countries (e. these are the wealthiest nations. 19. China.1 Top 15 nations (numbers show millions of users) Internet use growing Internet use rare Figure 9 Global distribution of internet users.0 5.8 14. b Explain some of the possible effects of globalisation on the lives of people living in poorer countries.1 5. In most of Africa. 2007 (10 marks) a Give reasons for the global pattern of internet users shown.2 11. such as China.g. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 35 .2 135. which shows the global pattern of internet users. Trade and business is dominated by the developed world. as well as possibly a lack of education. (15 marks) Answers to Question 9 a        Internet use is shown as the number of people using the internet in each country. poverty and lack of infrastructure. India and Brazil).9 15. The highest numbers of users are in the USA (135 million) and the EU countries.6 26.

Some written language errors. Some written language errors evident. 1 1–4 Little structure. Descriptive. Level e Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Structured. Major cultural changes can occur. and the general benefits of urban living (education and healthcare). Likely to be evaluative in style. The best answers will quote data from the map.The response is structured. Describes some uses of the internet without any real reference to geographical context or use of terminology. you have the opportunity to be evaluative — you could provide an overview at the end of your answer that briefly considers whether the positives outweigh the negatives.This is also true of ‘impacts’. but with less balance. Minimal written language errors. cultural or political:    Positive effects of globalisation could be people having stable jobs and regular wages while working for transnational companies. and ranges across the whole map. lack of unions).Frequent written language errors. Likely to lack range.Describes one or two real or imagined changes without any real reference to geographical context or use of terminology. explain it. not just one part of it. World maps are common resources in exams. Uses appropriate terms and examples to show understanding. environmental.A narrower range of reasons. as opposed to a life of subsistence agriculture? Expect some consideration of these points at Levels 3 and 4. 1 1–4 Little structure. and industrial disasters such as Bhopal and Harbin. May focus on urban effects of economic development or quality of life working for TNCs.Written language errors are rare. ‘Effects’ can be positive or negative.g. This question contains a potential trap. perhaps focused on wealth more than other factors. In the pressure of the exam. The phrase ‘lives of people’ invites a consideration of who these people are so this question encourages critical thinking. but to do so successfully some description is inevitable. 3 9–12 Structured analysis of the positive and negative effects of globalisation. 2 5–7 Some structure. Negative effects of globalisation are that it can lead to poor conditions in urban centres and exploitation of workers (e. and this leads to unbalanced answers. Are the lives of rural–urban migrants in poor countries improved as a result of working for globalising TNCs. Beware of making this mistake. 2 5–8 Some structure. for instance the loss of traditions and the change to a more Western lifestyle and diet. as it uses the key word ‘effect’. social. With a longer question such as this. wealth and globalisation. Answer has variety (it either gives a range of effects or looks at different groups of people) and uses some examples with appropriate geographical terminology to show understanding. Minimal written language errors. or both. b The effects could be economic. In this example you have to explain the pattern. environmental problems such as poor urban air quality in rapidly industrialising cities. Many globalising countries have moved towards having a democratic government. Frequent written language errors.Becomes descriptive at the lower end but with some geographical terminology used. but with some geographical terminology used. impacts and effects are often seen as only negative. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 36 . detailed account of a range of ways in which societies or social groups are changed by globalisation over time.Covers different parts of the map but not in full. Makes the case that globalisation has largely positive or negative effects.Going global Level e Unit 1 Global challenges Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 A wide range of reasons linked to technology.They will also use examples from the whole map. It is important to note whether you are being asked to describe the pattern. It uses examples and appropriate geographical terminology to show understanding. long hours.

Changing services bring opportunities but also problems.Going global Unit 1 Global challenges Question 10 Study Figure 10. One thousand people around the world were asked to state the population concern they thought would most affect our lives in the future. Birth rates rank as the lowest concern. in the NHS). An ageing population is a concern because it leads to increased dependency levels. There is the possibility of skills shortages as the younger workforce shrinks. (15 marks) Answers to Question 10 a    The survey results highlight an ageing population as the main concern. % 35 30 32% 28% 25 23% 20 17% 15 10 5 0 Ageing population Migration Healthcare Birth rates Figure 10 Results of a global survey on population concerns. which shows the results of a global survey by Zurich Insurance. Strong candidates may link ageing to healthcare. (10 marks) b Using examples. 2007 a Suggest reasons for the order of concerns in the survey results. 2007. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 37 . examine some of the economic and social consequences of recent migrations within Europe. healthcare is a moderate concern and might be linked to the issue of an ageing population. which leads to high healthcare/residential-care demands and costs (e. and increases in the tax burden for the working population to pay for pensions and care. with migration a close second.g. People could be concerned that their pensions will be too small.

thus relieving pressure on resources. The positives include remittances and reduced unemployment. Geographical terminology used with accuracy. Social consequences include a loss of family structure and the experience of older people. because of a high birth rate among immigrants). and these are exemplified. Norfolk. unsociable jobs that are shunned by the host population (e. 1 1–4 No real structure. May lack clarity on terminology such as ‘demography’. Examples include Poles and Czechs moving to the UK. The grey economy might lead to exploitation of migrants. Some candidates might question the results of the survey. care costs are lower and housing is freed up). plumbers) but also take low paid. Migrants’ skills could be developed abroad and taken back home. in the UK. Range of reasons. are unclear. so cultural tensions may emerge. as a higher birth rate might reduce the problem of an ageing population. a low birth rate may be perceived in a positive way as it slows population growth.g. Fears might be expressed that this depresses wages and puts others out of work.g. Better candidates will link ageing to healthcare concerns. Likely to focus on ageing concerns and migration. Host countries might worry about the migration of retired people overheating the housing market.      Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 38 . if present. Migration of retired people to Mediterranean countries could be seen as economically positive for source countries (e. western Scotland). Answers may focus on high birth rates being a problem in the developing world. written language errors are rare. Some description but the answer does suggest reasons. there are some written language errors. The position of migration as a lesser concern than an ageing population might be explained by the perceived benefits it brings. you need to explain why some concerns are higher priorities for some people compared to others. For source countries.g.g. migrants fill a skills gap (e. income is spent abroad). b Answers should focus on movements within Europe. or as economically negative (e. Birth rates is a low concern. Level Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Structured. detailed account across the range of data. e This question contains the idea of ‘order of concerns’.g. somewhat unbalanced and may drift into a migration rant at the lower end. Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. There are frequent written language errors.g. leading to a lack of affordable housing for local people. Other possibilities include cheap migrant labour taking the host population’s jobs and the high costs of providing services (e. including why birth rates is a lesser concern. thus benefiting the source country in the long run.Going global   Unit 1 Global challenges Migration is second in the order of concerns because of the high costs of managing it (e. which is likely to be quoted but not described. Some areas have large concentrations of new migrants and little infrastructure to cope with this (e.g. 2 5–7 Some structure. The costs of care and social infrastructure for these people may be passed on to the host country. Reasons. likely to describe the survey results and point out differences. the negatives are a loss of skilled workers — usually young people — which could alter dependency ratios and lead to an ageing population. border controls) and fears of culture clashes due to lack of integration. Addresses the idea of ‘order of concerns’. To achieve Level 3. For the host country. Concerns have also been expressed about sprawling ex-pat enclaves containing people who fail to integrate with the local community. not migration into Europe. in the hotel industry and farming).

Going global Level e Unit 1 Global challenges Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Structured. 2 5–8 Some examples given in an account with limited structure. Remember that ‘consequences’. there are some written language errors of a minor nature. there are some written language errors. illustrated with examples. which you could sketch out in your plan to ensure that you cover all parts:  positive consequences for source countries  negative consequences for source countries  positive consequences for host countries  negative consequences for host countries Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 39 . This question has a clear structure. May lack clarity on terminology such as ‘social’ and ‘economic’. Geographical terminology is used infrequently and sometimes in error. can be both positive and negative. There are frequent written language errors. Some geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. written language errors are rare 3 9–12 Some structure. Has both positives and negatives for host and source countries. and illustrates each with examples. but has some consequences. One example done well can be awarded a maximum 8 marks. Geographical terminology used with accuracy. Answer unbalanced and may see the negative side only. Recognises several types of migration but descriptive. like ‘impacts’ and ‘effects’. there is a balance between economic and social consequences and some recognition of both positives and negatives. in an account with some detail. detailed examination with balance between economic and social factors. 1 1–4 Descriptive account of migrations with no structure and one or two impacts.

which is a concept diagram illustrating ‘extreme weather’. (10 marks) Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 40 . Above average Very extreme — disastrous Extreme — hazardous Noteworthy — potentially hazardous Below average Range of normal variation Not hazardous Noteworthy — potentially hazardous Extreme — hazardous Very extreme — disastrous Time Figure 11 Local weather in the UK (10 marks) a Why is the concept of ‘extreme weather’ difficult to define? b Describe and explain the fieldwork and research you have used when completing your personal weather diary. examine the causes of risks presented by river flooding in the UK. (15 marks) c With reference to examples.Unit 2 Geographical investigations Extreme weather Question 11 Study Figure 11.

e. It is accepted by most of the scientific community that climate change is making weather more extreme. e. written language errors are rare. Geographical terms are used with accuracy.g. It could also include more qualitative observations. as a result of climate change.Very limited attempt to define concept of extreme weather — takes it to mean ‘bad’ or ‘unusual’ weather. Some candidates may refer to a range of interesting weather events (e. anemometer. Some structure. blogs and forums. there are some written language errors. websites. Geographical terminology is rarely used. Fieldwork (primary) This could make use of various local weather instruments. Weather is classed as extreme once it strays outside the expected range of normal variation.g. rather than simply saying ‘the internet’. or over a term or even a year to study longer-term effects. tornadoes in Shropshire in 2007). or video/pictures. Some candidates may recognise that the most reliable records involve a range of techniques and research opportunities. e. e. The definition/interpretation of ‘extreme weather’ may also vary by place. Research (secondary) This could make use of various sources to get a picture of weather. floods in Gloucestershire in July 2007. changes in cloud cover. weather systems. thermometer. whether the house requires heating. rain gauges.Extreme weather Unit 2 Geographical investigations Answers to Question 11 a      Figure 11 illustrates the variability of weather and shows that it only becomes extreme when it enters the ‘hazardous’ zone. specialist weather websites. Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 A structured response with effective use of the resource. Candidates could use it to record changes in air masses. May give some named examples of extreme weather. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. drought in Australia in 2007. whether stars are visible at night. e. 1 1–4 Basic use of figure only. what the weather ‘feels’ like. b The personal weather diary can take a variety of forms and can be conducted over different periods of time. anticyclones etc. newspapers. over a few days to look at changes associated with a depression. The best responses will provide detailed evidence of specific sources. although this is not implicit in the question. The text on graphs is often ignored — make sure you read it carefully. but can be interpreted differently by different people because of their experience of risk.g. written notes. whirling hygrometer. and it contains some important text. The diary could be a web page. 2 5–7 Implied understanding of the resource and explains some of the difficulties referring to natural variability. May recognise that Figure 11 is only one interpretation of extreme weather. May use examples to support response. Lacks structure. Data could also be pooled as a group. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 41 .g. there are frequent written language errors. e.g. hurricanes are extreme. This is difficult to assess as normal variation changes over time — for instance.g. although the evidence for this is possibly controversial.g. Figure 11 gives many clues.

Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. 1 1–4 Very descriptive ‘we did this’ approach. which can raise risk. Geographical terminology is rarely used. the inundation of land not normally covered by water) or economic impact. a wet summer (like that of 2007) and severe storms. high-risk flash versus more predictable riverine flood. medium. Lacks structure. Boscastle in 2004 and Carlisle in 2005. Different flood events will have different causes. climate change. e.e.g. Very limited range of fieldwork and research described. Makes reference to some examples and some reference to cause.g. Instead. development on floodplains increases runoff and therefore the risk of flash flooding. Makes reference to own fieldwork. although they will be associated with extreme precipitation (either in terms of intensity or duration) or rapid snowmelt. look back constantly to the question to make sure you are applying your facts to it. 1 1–4 Very limited focus.Tends to describe a limited range of flood events.and short-term causes. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 42 . Candidates may also refer to different types of flood. e. Response shows some structure. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. there are some written language errors. there are frequent written language errors. Some candidates will distinguish between long-. e. Make sure you do not neglect your fieldwork notes. 3 9–12 Explains a range of fieldwork and research approaches. Likely to appreciate that the diary can take a variety of forms and is essentially a personalised record completed over time. Geographical terms are used with accuracy and written language errors are rare. there are some written language errors. packs and books when revising. but the response is descriptive rather than an examination. there are frequent written language errors.Extreme weather Level Unit 2 Geographical investigations Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Structured account that uses a balanced and wide range of fieldwork and research techniques. but with some clear statements as to either fieldwork or research approaches. there are some written language errors. Likely to be lacking balance. Fieldwork forms a key part of this unit and cannot be ignored. Cause and risk are also closely associated with human activities. 2 5–7 Some structure. Beware of drifting into a description of your case studies. written language errors are rare. A range of UK examples can be used. Another significant cause is the state of the ground before rainfall and antecedent conditions. Expect limited use of terminology. with little or no acknowledgement of a personal approach. c Flooding can be defined in terms of physical impact (i. e. the 2007 Gloucestershire floods. Uses a contrasting range of examples that are well selected and detailed.g. Note that this question does not simply ask ‘using examples. e Questions on your own fieldwork give you the opportunity to shine by using your own examples. describe some floods’.g. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. Shows good use of own fieldwork. Lacks detail and structure. 2 5–8 Somewhat descriptive style. Recognises both human and physical causes and links these to degree of risk. Geographical terminology is rarely used.       Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 A structured response with a genuine examination of the causes. but may lack balance.

suggest reasons why coastal flood risk may increase in the Humber Estuary over the next 50 years. discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various coastal management strategies. (10 marks) (a) 2006 Coastal protection Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Built-up area Selby N Hull Goole Hu m Scunthorpe be rE 0 km 10 stua ry Grimsby Doncaster Spurn Head (b) 2056 Selby Hull Goole Hu m Scunthorpe be rE stua ry Grimsby Doncaster Spurn Head Source: Humber Estuary Shoreline Management Plan (2006) Figure 12 The standard of coastal flood defences in the Humber Estuary c For a stretch of coastline you have studied. Using the figure. (10 marks) Answers to Question 12 a  Ideally. (15 marks) b Study Figure 12. which shows the standard of coastal flood defences in the Humber Estuary. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 43 .Unit 2 Geographical investigations Crowded coasts Question 12 a Describe and justify how you would plan the fieldwork and research to investigate the growth of a coastal resort. as well as other named coastal resorts. you should refer to your own fieldwork and research.

putting more people and businesses at risk. Geographical terms are used with accuracy and show understanding. Gaps in what are currently satisfactory flood defences will have appeared in 50 years time. there are some written language errors. 1 1–4 A few fieldwork and research ideas only. Some reference to real examples. linked to a range of reasons and risk. southeast of Grimsby and around Goole. with limited use of the figure. there are frequent written language errors. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. e. putting pressure on existing defences and increasing the risk of flooding. Geographical terminology is occasionally used. for instance bringing an increased frequency of strong gales. try to avoid writing in the first person (‘I went to Hornsea. Geographical terminology is rarely used.Crowded coasts   Unit 2 Geographical investigations Research relating to growth might include using census data to identify population trends.g. although less explanation. due to global climate change. plus old photographs and sequences of aerial photographs and OS maps to show patterns of growth over time. write in a less personal way: ‘On a recent field visit to Hornsea. Geographical terminology is rarely used. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. those west of Spurn Head. but less depth and more hypothetical. 2 5–8 Descriptive of some research and fieldwork. around Immingham and southeast of Hull. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. This will weaken the flooddefence system as a whole. Historic land-use maps could be compared to your own mapping. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 44 . 2 5–7 Some use of the figure. 1 1–4 Largely one idea. written language errors are rare.g. 3 9–12 Some details from both research and fieldwork. Weather patterns may change. Land-use mapping could be used to indicate growth by showing the ages of buildings and types of development. Sea levels are likely to rise over the next 50 years. written language errors are rare. If defences remain as they are. Level Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Detailed programme with reference to fieldwork and research. e For a question that invites you to discuss you own fieldwork. their condition will have deteriorated in 50 years time. e. there are some written language errors. Visitor surveys and questionnaires could be used to investigate local people’s opinions of growth and changes over time. there are some written language errors. land-use mapping of the resort was completed…’ b Some flood defences that are satisfactory now will be unsatisfactory in 50 years time. with little realism. and I…’). Several ideas on increasing risk but less depth and more unbalanced. there are frequent written language errors. Reasons for data collection are explained and linked to growth. linked to real examples. but more unbalanced.       Level Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Clear and accurate use of the figure. Planning records could indicate the growth of businesses and residential areas. as it is informal. Coastal populations may increase. Instead.

Coastal management strategies range from ‘do nothing’. particularly those showing how some coastal defences. you must compare the two maps in the figure. You could also complete a quick sketch map of your chosen example. they do involve risk and could potentially result in a hazardous coastal zone. interfere with longshore drift. Holderness and north Norfolk. and some people may be unhappy with the relocation plans. this can incur costs. 2 5–7 Less use of examples. to ‘hold the line’ that involves engineering of some sort. 1 1–4 Likely to focus on one strategy. Geographical terminology is used rarely. as well as compass directions. there are frequent written language errors.      Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Uses detailed examples and a clear assessment of strengths and weaknesses for a range of strategies. This strategy often involves using natural buffers such as sand dunes and salt marshes. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. but often cause conflict with landowners. While ‘natural’. The ‘do nothing’ options may be cheap. residents and businesses. ‘Hold the line’ options are costly: hard engineering is expensive and intrusive. Use the place names in your answer. Managed retreat gives residents time to adjust and allows plans to be made for relocating them. there are some written language errors. ‘softer’ options such as beach nourishment often require repeated implementation. and unbalanced in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Some range of strategies. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 45 . c Many stretches of the UK coastline could be used to answer the question. but defences have to be paid for by someone. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. through ‘managed retreat’. Christchurch Bay. local populations are likely to be satisfied. and may result in compensation claims.Crowded coasts Unit 2 Geographical investigations e To answer this question. but unbalanced. so problems may be created elsewhere. Engineering often interferes with the sediment cell. This question lends itself to annotated diagrams. e. and this can increase biodiversity value.g. However. written language errors are rare. such as groynes. Cost–benefit analysis is commonly used to determine which strategy should be used. some assessment. to indicate to the examiner which part of the map you are referring to.

evaluate the success of different schemes in reducing inequality. such as environmental quality. For one of the indicators shown. built environment/building quality. Rural and urban areas could be studied and compared. whether they are improving or declining). banks or parks. Identify the key differences in the profiles. (10 marks) Answers to Question 13 a     A range of primary survey techniques can be used. (15 marks) b Study Figure 13. (10 marks) Urban Least Rural Most Least Most Total deprivation Income deprivation Employment deprivation Health deprivation Education deprivation Barriers to housing and services Crime Living environment deprivation Source: Office for National Statistics 2007 Figure 13 Contrasting deprivation levels for an urban area and a rural area c With reference to either one named rural area or one named urban area. discuss other possible sources of secondary research information. Transport accessibility could be assessed to determine access to healthcare. which shows contrasting deprivation profiles for an urban area and a rural area. and neighbourhood surveys. Questionnaires could be sent to residents asking for their opinions about local services (i.Unit 2 Geographical investigations Unequal spaces Question 13 a Outline a range of primary survey techniques that can be used to investigate inequality. These are often best done comparatively — for instance. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 46 . Comment on their relative advantages and disadvantages. Services could be mapped using land-use maps.e. in two contrasting wards or streets.

The census could be used to examine economic indicators of deprivation further. written language errors are rare. may drift into secondary data. Barriers to housing and services is the highest indicator of deprivation in rural areas. 1 1–4 A few ideas on primary surveys. there are some written language errors. Several secondary data sources are suggested. Always read questions carefully and use a highlighter to mark double command words (in this case ‘identify’ and ‘discuss’). In urban areas living environment deprivation is high. Level Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 A range of appropriate primary surveys described in some depth and linked to inequality. including the ground floor and first floor). as could the Multiple Deprivation Index. urban areas are much more deprived than rural areas. Environmental surveys also involve judgements. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. Geographical terminology is occasionally used. which is very low in rural areas. urban areas are significantly worse off than rural areas. and as a result of asking leading questions. may suggest the census for second part. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. but has to be done carefully (i.e. and difficult. e Make sure you fully understand the difference between primary data collection and secondary research sources. 3 9–12 Some surveys described in variable depth. Some services that are mobile could be missed. 1 1–4 Points out one or two differences. However.Unequal spaces   Unit 2 Geographical investigations The design of a suitable questionnaire is crucial. there are frequent written language errors. Some suggestion of secondary sources. Inaccurate results can be produced by the influence of people’s perceptions. whereas in rural areas this is moderate. and to make sure you do not miss key parts of the question. b In terms of total deprivation. but less depth. there are frequent written language errors. 2 5–7 Less structure. and at the maximum in urban areas. Geographical terminology is rarely used. implied link to inequality. may provide an accurate list of differences. questionnaires can reveal patterns that would otherwise remain hidden. May point out disadvantages only. and may not be comparable. written language errors are rare. Geographical terms are used with accuracy and show understanding. and linked to the chosen indicator. Advantages and disadvantages are stated clearly. In economic measures (income and employment) and some social measures (health and education). and the lowest indicator in urban areas.       Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Structured response identifying key differences with accuracy. Geographical terminology is rarely used. Advantages/ disadvantages are present but may be unbalanced. The largest difference is in crime. Crime statistics could also be used. This suggests a significant difference between rural and urban areas. there are some written language errors. there are some written language errors. but link to inequality not made clear. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. 2 5–8 Some surveys described accurately. Landuse and service mapping is accurate. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 47 . This question has two parts.

You should outline details of several. details are more descriptive with only implied evaluation.g. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. e. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. scheme within your chosen area. 1 1–4 Describes some schemes. Geographical terminology is rarely used. there are some written language errors. social. Note that the question asks for ‘schemes’. written language errors are rare. e. mobile services within a rural area. details of several different approaches. and attempts at farm diversification. May focus on one scheme only. there are frequent written language errors. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 48 . economic and environmental a weighing up of the named schemes Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 Gives a located example.Unequal spaces Unit 2 Geographical investigations c Answers should give:     a clearly located urban or rural area (the developed or developing world is acceptable) some brief details on existing inequality in this area details of different schemes that address aspects of inequality. and a clear evaluation of extent of success. How successful you are in responding to this question will depend on your chosen examples.g. not just one. sketchy descriptive detail only. 2 5–7 Gives a located example.

Unit 2 Geographical investigations Rebranding places Question 14 a Explain how you would plan a fieldwork and research programme to ‘profile’ an area in need of rebranding. residential. environmental) to assess the range of problems and opportunities in the area. which shows an online advert promoting ‘Rail-Ale Trails’ in southwest England. Questionnaires could target residents and businesses to examine these areas and identify issues. Photographs and videos can capture the area’s image. suggest how the use of ‘image’ can be used to promote rural tourism. (15 marks) b With reference to named examples. You should illustrate your answer with reference to named examples. (10 marks) Figure 14 An online advert promoting ‘Rail-Ale Trails’ in southwest England Answers to Question 14 a    Fieldwork activities could include quality surveys (e. Using Figure 14. shopping.g. (10 marks) c Study Figure 14. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 49 . outline the reasons why rebranding is needed in either urban or rural places.

1 1–4 Lists a few fieldwork options and secondary sources only.g. Likely to refer to real places. Rebranding can involve replacing a declining industry with a new one. may simply outline some problems of an area. there are some written language errors. Areas with an image tarnished by decline need to rebrand to attract new businesses and put themselves back on the map. population growth might mean an area requires a new image and new services to meet the needs of a new population (e. Less strong link to profile. but some fieldwork and research outlines. May use real places as examples. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. 2 5–8 Limited link to profile. An archive search of local newspapers can be used to examine trends in the area. written language errors are rare. b The need to rebrand is strongly linked to economic change. 1 1–4 One or two reasons. linked to detail on chosen area(s) and focusing on rebranding. with variable depth. there are some written language errors. A geographic information system (GIS) such as Google Earth could be used to identify services and their distribution.g. Gives a range of appropriate fieldwork options and outlines research sources in detail. can lead to a residual population and lack of opportunity. describes problems but weaker link to rebranding. graffitti and vandalism could be carried out. This results in the need to attract new people to reinvigorate an area. written language errors are rare. Geographical terms are used with accuracy and show understanding. there are frequent written language errors.g. Rebranding is then needed to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the area. These include digitised health and crime maps. Census data allow an area to be profiled from an economic and social standpoint. This reflects changes in the global economy in developed countries. and some detail on chosen locations. Population change. evidence of jobs losses and population change. including mapping ditribution to identify problem locations. Geographical terminology is rarely used.Rebranding places     Unit 2 Geographical investigations Surveys of litter. e Although the question does not ask for examples.      Level Mark Descriptor 3 8–10 Structured set of reasons.This is a good opportunity to refer to your own fieldwork and research. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 50 . e. Equally. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. there are some written language errors. The loss of traditional industries can lead to a spiral of decline and the loss of an area’s identity. resulting in derelict land and brownfield sites). especially the loss of the young and skilled. as the environment often deteriorates as economies decline (e. 3 9–12 A range of appropriate fieldwork methods and research sources. Level Marks Descriptor 4 13–15 Focuses on socioeconomic and environmental profiling. strong candidates will use these to support their answer. This frequently involves major environmental improvement. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. there are frequent written language errors. 2 5–7 Some range of reasons. food. a different ethnic group). Geographical terminology is used rarely. and house prices may indicate economic trends. such as outdoor or heritage tourism. Geographical terminology is occasionally used. or hi-tech industry. which is appropriate but unbalanced.

The internet. The historic nature of the area is emphasised in the photographs. likely to rely either on the figure or own examples. for instance). Start by briefly describing the figure and the image it portrays. television adverts and brochures are all types of media used to reinforce an area’s new image.      Level e Marks Descriptor 3 8–10 The figure and examples are used to explore in detail how image can generate tourism. 2 5–7 Response is focused on image. c The figure shows how two existing features of an area (in this case. Descriptive rather than explanatory.g. ale logos and rail poster — again appealing to a specific market. Edexcel AS Geography Questions and answers © Philip Allan Updates 51 . speciality food or paintballing). railways and real ale) are linked together to produce an ‘experience’. social.Rebranding places Unit 2 Geographical investigations e The structure for your answer could come from the key word ‘reasons’. special trains or microbreweries could be set up to take advantage of the image. written language errors are rare. Geographical terminology is rarely used. The image could produce spin-offs. Geographical terms are used with accuracy. Geographical terminology is used with some accuracy. there are frequent written language errors. as these could be environmental. Many other rural areas have rebranded themselves in similar ways (‘Herriot Country’ on the North York Moors. 1 1–4 One or two comments about the figure. May comment that image is not everything. for instance. Most National Parks promote a particular image through advertising and the provision of types of leisure activities and farm diversification (e. Notice how the question asks you to ‘use’ Figure 14. then use your own examples to reinforce your points. there are some written language errors. cultural and economic. or a brief description of tourism in a rural area. which is marketed at a particular age group and type of visitor.