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# th

5 International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and Simulation,
10-13 December 2014, India

APPLICATION OF THE PSEUDOSPECTRAL METHOD TO
THE LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS OF NON-UNIFORM
RODS
P.SRI HARIKRISHNA1 , G.SUDHEER2 and R.Y.VASUDEVA3
1

Department of Applied Mathematics, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India.
E-mail: harikrishna.ps@gmail.com
2
Department of Mathematics, GVP College of Engineering for Women, Visakhapatnam, India.
E-mail: g_sudheer@hotmail.com
3
School of Basic Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, India
E-mail: ryvasudeva@iitbbs.ac.in
ABSTRACT
Rods with variable area cross-sections are structural components in many engineering structures.
A study of the vibration characteristics in these structures is of great importance in designing the
structures and in monitoring their performance as well. We present an application of a numerical
method - the Pseudospectral (PS) method - to study the vibrations of an elastic rod of non uniform
cross section material citing literature that shows recent interest in this area of study. One of the
main advantages of the PS method is in its simplicity and ease of computation. The natural
frequencies of the rod under varying end conditions are calculated. Results show good agreement
with previous available analytical solutions. This work demonstrates the efficacy of the PS method
in obtaining numerical solutions that are as good as exact solutions in practically used frequency
ranges in the case of vibration problems of structural elements.
Keywords: longitudinal; vibration; non-uniform; rods; pseudospectral method.

Introduction
The longitudinal vibration of rods is a subject of considerable scientific and practical interest that
has been studied extensively [Kumar and Sujith (1997)]. In [Eisenberger(1991)], the exact
longitudinal natural frequencies of a variable cross-section rod with polynomial variation in the
cross-sectional area and mass distribution along the member is obtained. The results show that
natural frequencies are only slightly affected by taper. This study evoked interest in the study of
vibration of non-uniform rods and beams. In [Abrate (1995)] it was shown that there is a class of
non-uniform rods and beams for which the equations of motion can be transformed into the
equations of motion for a uniform rod or beam. It is further shown that when both ends of the rod
are fixed the natural frequencies of such non-uniform rods are equal to that of a uniform rod and for
fixed-free, free-free ends the natural frequencies are determined by solving a simple transcendental
equation. The exact solutions for the longitudinal vibration of non-uniform rods is presented in
[Kumar & Sujith (1997)]. The frequencies of non-uniform rods for different end conditions are
calculated and their dependence on taper is also discussed. A family of exact solutions for the

1

the pseudospectral approach is especially attractive. The Pseudospectral Method Finite differences and finite element methods have long histories as particularly flexible and powerful general purpose numerical solution methods in solving ordinary/partial differential equations that arise in different areas of Science and Engineering. There are different approaches used in the implementation of the Pseudospectral (PS) method. K a N ) = Lu N − f . The effects of cross sectional area variation of rods on natural characteristics are studied with numerical examples. a1 . The different spectral and Pseudospectral methods differ mainly in their minimization strategies [Boyd (2000)]. A brief review of the pseudospectral method is outlined below: Consider the equation L u (x ) = f ( x ) (1) Where L is the operator of the differential or integral equation. In the pesudospectral method. owing to the ease with which it can be applied to variable coefficient problems and non linear problems. i.e.5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation longitudinal vibrations of variable area rods was presented by [Anil Raj & Sujith (2005)]. The longitudinal natural vibration frequencies of rods with variable cross sections are obtained in [Yardimoglu & Aydin (2011)] from the exact solutions of differential equations of motion based on transformation method. The present paper is aimed at investigating the performance of a spectral collocation method in studying the vibration characteristics of rods. The straight forward implementation of the PS method utilizing thte trigonometric form of Chebyshev polynomials is used in the present paper. we may select N − 1 points {x1 . In recent years.al. In a collocation method. the differentiation matrices approach [Trefthen (2000). the unknown solution to the differential equation is expanded as global interpolant such as a trigonometric or polynomial interpolant [Weidmann & Reddy (2000)]. Of them. x ∈ [ − 1. K . The basic idea in a spectral method is to assume that u (x ) can be approximated by a sum of N + 1 N basis functions φ n (x ).(2007)] to obtain the vibration characteristics of non-uniform elements such as beams and rods. u (1) = b. The residual function is given by n=0 R (x . Weidmann & Reddy (2000)] is widely used. Among spectral methods. This transforms the differential equation into an analogous set of algebraic equations in terms of the discrete values of the function 2 . A differential quadrature method was used in [Al-kaisy et. The differential quadrature method was found to give an approximate solution that is in good agreement with exact solution. a 0 . and are very much successful for the numerical solution of ordinary or partial differential equation. The method requires that the governing equation (differential equation) is satisfied in the nodes of a certain grid and the boundary conditions are enforced explicitly. u ( x ) ≈ u N (x ) = ∑ a n φ n (x ) .1 ) and (N − 1) points in addition to require u N (x ) to satisfy the differential equation (1) at these satisfying the boundary conditions. spectral and in particular pseudospectral methods have emerged as intriguing alternatives in many situations [Fornberg (1996)] . xN −1} in (− 1. The idea is to choose the series coefficients {a n } so that the residual function is minimized. A straight forward implementation is generally found to enhance the accuracy of the solution [Lee 2003].1 ] and u (− 1) = a . The spectral methods arise from the fundamental problem of approximation of function by interpolation on an interval. The eigenfrequencies of rods with certain area variations subjected to classical boundary conditions were obtained.

The interpolation points are transformed from [ l1 . t ) ∂ u ( l 2 . ∂l ∂l ∂l Here u ( l .e. N u N ( x ) = ∑ a k Tk (x ) i.. Assuming the displacement function to be varying harmonically with time i. l2 ] .1 ] using 2 dl dl the transformation l= hx + l1 + l 2 where h = l2 − l1 . we are operating in the domain [ 0 . area rod is given as [Anil Raj & Sujith 2005] ∂ ∂l ∂ u ( l1 .e this polynomial is approximated by N + 1 Chebyshev coefficients. Letting θ = cos −1 x .. we choose the collocation points to be the turning points of  (N − i )π  Chebyshev polynomial ( T N ( x )) of order N . t ) = 0 and Free – Free bar: = = 0. we have Tk ( x ) = cos( k cos −1 x ) i.e. l2 ] to [ − 1. t ) = the cross sectional area of rod. t ) = u ( l2 . π ] . N − 1 N   Application to vibration of a rod The governing differential equation for the free longitudinal vibration of finite isotropic variable ∂u  ∂ 2u   E A(l ) ∂l  = ρ A(l ) ∂t 2 on l1 < l < l2 . i. In the present work. xN −1} then it yields a pseudospectral method representation of the polynomial. The best choice of φn (x ) are the eigen functions of a singular Sturm-Lioville problem such as the Legendre or Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. u ( l . x ∈ [ − 1. x i = cos  . By definition of Chebyshev polynomial Tk ( x ) = cos( k cos −1 ( x )) . ρ the density of material rod and l1 and l 2 are the end positions of rod..1 ] 2 3 . We consider Chebyshev polynomials of first kind Tn ( x ) to be the basis functions. i = 1. 2 . equation is A dl d 2W dW + B (l ) = −Ω 2W . The collocation points can be chosen to be the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial or the turning points of Chebyshev polynomial. l ∈ [ l1 . t ) represents the longitudinal displacement of a rod section at a time constant t . Suppose k =0 we represent it by its two values at the boundary points x0 and x N and also at (N − 1) internal collocation points {x1 . t ≥ 0   The classical boundary conditions are : Fixed – Fixed bar: u ( l1 . t ) = W (l ) e iωt We have d 2W  1 dA  dW + + Ω 2W = 0  dl 2  A dl  dl (2) Where W (l ) represents the mode shape and Ω = ω ρ E where ω is the angular frequency. The cross sectional area A (l ) is chosen a specific form and then denoting 1 dA = B (l ) .5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation u (x ) at prespecified discrete points of the solution domain.K .e. E the Young’s modulus of material. t ) = 0 . A (l ) Fixed – Free bar: u ( l1 .K. i. t ) ∂ u ( l2 .e.

.K 4 . 2 . a matrix eigenvalue equation that is easily solved using a standard eigensolver. In Pseudospectral methods. We examine the accuracy of the proposed method with respect to the two sampling points to have an idea of the features of the points mentioned in literature. 2 . Ω i2 = i2 π 2 . K . N −1 N   The eigenvalues of the longitudinal vibration of a uniform rod are calculated using the two sets of grid points (GP1 and GP2) for the fixed-fixed and fixed-free cases to investigate the accuracy of the PS method. i = 1. i =1. A rod of unit length (L = 1) with material parameters E . The grid points (GP) excluding the end points are  (2i − 1)π   i = 1 . i = 1. The operator L = d2 d + B is denoted by the matrix 2 dl dl L = D (2 ) + BD (1) and equation (2) then reduces to LW = −Ω 2W .5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation m 2 ∴ Dl(m ) =   Dx(m ) where the subscript denotes the differentiation variable and superscript in h bracket denotes the order of differentiation. K The eigen values Ω i2 in this case becomes…. 2 . ρ and cross-sectional area ( A) equal to unity is fixed at x = 0. the corresponding eigen values Ω i2 become Ω i2 = (2i − 1)2 π 2 4 L2 . The exact natural frequencies (ω i ) in the case of fixed-fixed bar is given by [ Provatidis (2008)] ωi = iπ L E ρ . Two alternatives were examined with respect to the other end and they are (1) fixed and (2) free to move axially. 2 . This is to say that equation (2) is solved taking A = 1 and the two boundary conditions fixed-fixed and fixed-free. K L2 In the case of fixed-free bar. 2 . stability and rate of convergence of the numerical solutions depend on the choices of the sampling grid points and it has been suggested that non-uniformly spaced sampling grid points could give better results [Fung (2002)]. generally either the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial or the extrema of the Chebyshev polynomials are used as sampling grid points. K . N − 1 GP1: The zeros of T N −1 (x ) : x i = cos  2( N − 1)   ( N − i )π  GP2: The extrema of T N ( x ) : x i = cos  i = 1 . Results and Discussion Choice of sampling grid points The accuracy.

097e-14 4.163e-30 2 4.832e-10 7 1.708e-13 3.637e-08 1 3. 16 and 20 .960e-07 8.598e-20 5.570e-08 5.729e-05 9. It is observed from the tables that the relative errors in using the PS method utilizing both the sets GP1 and GP2 are more or less the same. it is noted in [ Brutman (1984). Relative error for a uniform rod using the two sets of grid points GP1 Boundary conditions Fixed-Fixed Fixed-Free Modes N=16 GP2 N=20 N=24 N=16 N=20 N=24 1 7. In this case too.635e-31 2.589e-08 1.917e-07 Convergence analysis using Uniform rods To further study the convergence behavior of the PS method.914e-06 1.119e-15 1.522e-18 2.768e-31 2 5.885e-06 2.353e-05 3.120e-05 1. In a similar manner. 21 collocation points for the fixed-fixed case.525e-18 4 1. The relative error for N = 20 is given in the last column of the table. 18 and 20 .028e-07 2.124e-22 3 7.099e-14 1.375e-27 3.267e-14 5 2.643e-09 2.838e-12 1.233e-13 1.591e-10 1. 16 .552e-10 4.759e-13 1.204e-09 1.622e-07 3. The relative error for N = 20 is presented in the last column of the tables reflect the accuracy of the method. 14 .889e-08 2.966e-04 2.5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation The relative errors for the first eight modes calculated using the PS method for N = 16 .962e-03 3.521e-22 8.045e-13 5.436e-11 5.198e-15 5 2.480e-11 1. Belforte et.143e-07 5.096e-19 4. 14 .808e-15 3.092e-05 1.756e-08 7.121e-04 4.627e-12 1.772e-18 5.771e-15 4.463e-10 2.582e-25 5. 5 .al (2000)] that the set of points given by the extrema of Chebyshev polynomials is of considerable interest and has been considered in the present paper for implementing the PS method.410e-03 1.739e-10 8 1.022e-17 5.317e-11 8.462e-31 1.280e-04 2. the calculated eigenvalues using the PS method for the fixed-free case is given in Table 3 for N = 12 .885e-10 1. Table1.e.978e-11 7 9.664e-19 9.451e-18 4 1.124e-11 6.021e-02 1.413e-19 4.951e-10 7.415e-08 5.538e-05 9.591e-13 6 3.626e-07 2.095e-23 3 7. The values are tabulated for N = 12 .209e-06 1.776e-09 8 1.584e-24 4.058e-07 5.251e-07 2.732e-14 7.687e-11 1. The calculated eigenvalues using the PS method for the fixed-fixed case of a homogeneous rod are given in Table 2.711e-06 1.544e-24 2.115e-17 1.738e-21 5.998e-28 2.915e-10 3.298e-06 2.841e-07 2.020e-07 3.896e-12 6 6. The results presented in Table 2 and 3 bring out the convergence behavior of the PS method in the case of uniform rods. Further. good accuracy is obtained in six digits for N = 20 .504e-09 1.200e-11 7. the determination of the eigenvalues of uniform rods is carried out and compared with that of the exact values.046e-10 1.539e-19 1.483e-05 8.398e-08 2.108e-13 6. 20 and 24 for the two sets of grid points are given in Table1. It is observed that accuracy in the six digits is obtained for N = 20 i.038e-15 4.

826439 157.0253 0.685025 120.206609 61.305545 9.3687 Table 3.740109 355.859229 298.902263 199. 6.826439 157. Exact N=12 N=14 N=16 N=18 N=20 9.478417 88. Table 2.826438 157.828590 297.478417 88. 4.913828 246.913665 246.467401 22. is set as the unit value by taking l 0 = 0 .206609 61.739983 355.555478 0. 3.478417 88.0e007 * 0. The length of the rod described by L = l 2 − l1 .467401 22.740110 355.859488 298.310568 9.540329 2.902653 199.148832 2. The calculated eigenvalues of fixed-free uniform rod for varying N Modes Exact N=12 N=14 N=16 N=18 N=20 Relative Error 1. The corresponding eigenvalues for the fixed-free case 6 .869604 39. 2.443342 9.740899 355.467401 22. given by ΩL = ωL ρ .5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation Rods with sinusoidal variation of cross-section area The longitudinal vibration of fixed-fixed and fixed-free and free-free non-uniform rods with sinusoidal variation of cross-section of the form A(x ) = A0 sin 2 (ax + b ) is analyzed in this section by computing the non-dimensional frequencies using the PS method. 2.869604 39.478417 88.0081 0.685027 120.869604 39.0020 0.0e006 * 1.826439 157. 6. 2 and b taking the value 1 is presented in Table 4.913670 246.556564 2. Yardomoglu (2011)]. 4. computed using the PS method are E compared with the values given in [ Kumar & Sujith (1997).0081 0. The nondimensional exact natural frequencies presented in [ Kumar & Sujith (1997)] have some numerical errors [Yardimoglu (2011)].467401 22.826477 157.859502 298. l1 = 1 .0074 0.869604 39. The calculated eigenvalues of fixed-fixed uniform rod for varying N Modes 1.0405 0.0405 0.373094 9.863138 298.206609 61.467401 2.478417 88.869604 39.740114 355.575317 358.206609 61.305758 9.725571 2. 3.911703 246.0675 0.685027 120.206609 61.685027 120.305771 Relative Error 1.902653 199.902653 199.913670 246.1520 0.478418 88.826439 157.467401 22.859489 298.902666 199.4053 0.1839 The non-dimensional natural frequencies of fixed-fixed rods with a taking the values 1. 5. 5.555533 2.913670 246.The numerical values of the non-dimensional natural frequencies.685027 120.911556 199. 2.685100 120.206609 61.869604 39.

702145 7.566371 15. Table 4.517638 4.210127 12.8495559 Sujtih (1997) 2.2831853 9.137167 17.6946412 14.757860 17.203097 9.8539816 10.5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation for a =1.276280 1.9916207 14.526519 15.2030974 9.4227266 5.134120 17.849556 1 PS method Kumar & 3. Non-dimensional natural frequencies of fixed-fixed rods with A(x ) = A0 sin 2 (ax + b ) a 0 Mode Kumar & 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sujtih (1997) 3. 2 and b = 1 with N = 29 is presented in Table 5.9563762 9.5176373 4.6760999 18. It is observed that the frequency values obtained using the PS method are almost identical to the numerical values given by exact solutions.978189 6.1415926 6.7079632 18.5707963 4.1371669 17.5357623 8.283185 9.1485596 5.694640 14.2101269 12.707963 18.830600 2.580119 18.7021448 7.3715761 12.535762 8.5663706 15.7578582 17.995574 14.8483109 10.4061948 15.570796 4.2787595 Sujtih (1997) 1.4247779 12.141593 6.9781881 6. The results presented in Tables 4.848311 10.278760 1.991620 14. Non-dimensional natural frequencies of fixed-free rods with A(x ) = A0 sin 2 (ax + b ) a 0 1 2 Mode Kumar & PS method Kumar & PS method Kumar & PS method 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sujtih (1997) 1.422727 5.148560 5.676100 18.371576 12.9955742 14.406195 15.1341233 17.743152 2.956376 9. 5 and 6 for sinusoidal area cross section brings out the accuracy of the PS method.6328112 11.823011 2 PS method Kumar & PS method 2.712389 7.5265186 15.5801190 18. The non-dimensional natural frequencies of free-free rods for the same cross section with the same parameter values as in the other two cases in given Table 6.853982 10.8305968 7 .7123889 7.424778 12.2762824 Sujtih (1997) 2.8230114 Sujtih (1997) 2.632812 11.7431522 Table 5.

Journal of Approximation theory. M.375209 9.2834986 13. References Al Kaisy. 703-716. 8 . (1991).C. (2002). Engineering Mechanics.1415926 6. Boyd. Cambride University Press. The method is finally applied to obtain the non-dimensional frequencies of a non-uniform rod with sinusoidal variation of cross section.368917 19. Journal of Sound and Vibration.8812395 Sujtih (1997) 4. Chebyshev and Fourier Spectral Methods . “A Note on polynomial interpolation at the Chebyshev extreme nodes”. B. A. Belforte.317980 16.4873625 12. P.2831853 9. 1st Edition.209604 7. Anil Raj and Sujith. M. USA.3179805 16. Lee. “Exact longitudinal vibration frequencies of a variable cross-section rod”. 1311-1331.7079632 18. New york. (2005).M. 4. Applied Acoustics.8495559 Sujtih (1997) 3. Non-dimensional natural frequencies of free-free rods with A(x ) = A0 sin 2 (ax + b ) a 0 Mode Kumar & 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sujtih (1997) 3. “Closed – form solutions for the free longitudinal vibration of inhomogeneous rods”.6136484 15. Stability and accuracy of differential quadrature method in solving dynamic problems”.4247779 12. 123-130.881240 2 PS method Kumar & PS method 3. The results bring out the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method. Nassar. Fornberg.3689177 19. 1015-1030.283498 13. Eisenberger. L.613648 15. (2003) “Eigen value analysis of rectangular Midlin plates by Chebyshev Pseudospectral method”.849556 1 PS method Kumar & 3. (1995). 42. 283. (2007). and Esmaeel.259860 10.2598601 10. Brutman. A convergence analysis of the method is carried out for the case of a uniform rod together with an analysis of the sampling grid points generally considered for Chebyshev collocation methods.3090698 6. 17(3).7459134 18.4353365 Conclusion A novel straight forward implementation of the PS method is presented in the paper. (2000).745913 18. 117. Journal of Sound and Vibration. M. Computer Methods for Applied Mechanics and Engineeering 191. Gay. Dover Publications. G. 14(5). “Vibration of non-uniform rods and Beams”. J. T.A.309070 6. Applied mathematics and computation. (2000).707963 18. J. 34. R. Ramadan A.2096042 7.P.487363 12. (1996).566371 15. G. Fung. 370-379. 175-181. 283-292.5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation Table 6. (1984).3752084 9. and Mongegato. “Some new properties of Chebyshev methods”.283185 9. Internaltional Journal of KSME.424778 12. A practical guide to pseudospectral methods.435335 4.141593 6. 303-310... Abrate S. “Application of the differential quadrature method to the longitudinal vibration of non – uniform rods”.I.5663706 15.

I. (2000). 9 . J. and Reddy. (1997).C. and Aydin. SIAM.A. R. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software. Weideman. S. “Exact longitudinal vibration characteristics of rods with variable cross – sections”. and Sujith. 555-562. (2011). 465-490.5th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation Kumar. B. “A MATLAB differentiation matrix suite”. 26. L. Spectral methods in MATLAB. Yardimoglu. 18 . Trefethen.N. L. USA. “Exact solutions for the longitudinal vibration of non – uniform rods”. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 207(5). B.C. Philadelphia. Shock and Vibration.M. 721-729. (2000).