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Bleiker/Kulyrrych Index
What do you getwhenyou crcrsli,l"*". with a Kulr.nychi)

Da Bleikcr!
Narrativel{clativisrrr lla<I... IlegernonicDiscoursc...... A"l' F'orr<::rult/PoMcl thcxrght C)rrrI)iscorrse Solves... Mobilc Subje<rivitics... Ag c n c ya n <lD i sse n l ...... N < r r r r :rclo rrg l rt... th 'l'a<tical Rcsistance......... ..............1 ......2 ............3 .......... X ...5-6 .7- lI ...........I2 l:l-16



Perlirrrnative ltcsisuur('c... .......17-26 Irrl<rrrn:rl I'<>litir:al [):u1i<:i1l:r1ion...... ..27-32 A' l ' : I l ab crma s/l trl e s()o o d ... ..........113 K <>l''lirpi<:alit1'... ....11l, ()ovcnuncnt... Wc:rrc thc .......35


is l,]rrocentric

(rrcither llleikcr rror Kulynych)....

-Ebony B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttingCards

The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File

Narrative relativism inevitably ends up in an disasterand is one step from the brink of nihilism
Bleiker 1999 (Roland Professor the School Political at of Science. University Queensland of Brisbanearticle , , "Discourse Human and Agenqt" Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(2547) page-!6_)


are also objectionsfrom thosewho alreadypursuequestions of agency. They often bestow the human subject and hisiher o.iion, *iitr a reratively large senseof autonomy. This epllomr izes e -uaer0*z e sa lfr a r o t ' r e l r t i v i

statt. - anchoring de'ices deemednecessarv to_exert 1"9=ooj5r'I:iglldatrons nur hy' ilisrn.TowarCs s,n.Towardsscholars who represent suchpositions. taskconsists demonstrating discourse* my of that - "A is, indeed,a conceptthat can be highly usefulto rheorize humin "r";;;. i.i-i,r-rF. the , D., -fautgnom.y ii&man action, I am followinguutho.ii.h u, B.rnstein fl9g-l). l-.-' Bourdieu(1990)and white (2000),for whom rhe central oono.rition,rr,,i l"---


It wo n up- the tes to a mass of relativistic ravi to which 'anvlhins ooiq' 'any and n-I r s a s y a h d a $ a n o t h e r ' ( O s t e r u d 9 9 6 . 9 6 ) .S u c ha p a t l i i t 1 3 is ' (Keohane, t989.

@* rn.ur qljis'cou.Gt *oul@o arnolvti.ol thT r"pr.:r b.rnilg..rn"trt tt Co ot "

ir.^or"rr"a t in

no more "ii

cl:l::*::1i:13,1r one !r{ne'-qhe h"r"""nm'-i' mrsl€adJng. is Ir
undation. orl



Knqwtedge In sta

A ( in_iselljgt of a sedrlcti'e dichotomythat is articurateJ in Eittql Or extr6mEilcithcil is an uFmate possibiliflTf !6uniins t l--i--


full int. ,*ihilitt u... th.." u." no Eith"to. extremes. 1n " Th-gre:nly shadcs diff'erence contradlcttt ia.u of an exclusionary of that v' qr' !^v'Is'rvrrqrr " vantase-Doint. nroreidln__l I relativismrevolves around two propositions, which I sustai' and expand
aonfommrarv Political Thmrv 2{X}3 2

My own attdnpt at overcoming the dichotomy between objectivism and

-Ebonv B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttineCards

The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File As in society there is a hegemonic discoursethat in debatehas the power and the ability to exclude others into exile this leadsto the norrns acceptedas normal while change becomesimprobable
Bleiker 1999 (Roland Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland , of Brisbanearticle , "Discourse HumanAeenc.v"Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,2,(2547) pageL6_)

notes, 'that power ano ther.' The work of the of what is at stake in questions r epitomizes

discourseand a

talk nd wrtt tion of discou

y. In
n -- which otre are ile ot ich that


This Pr


.rnrrn of discourses ts

tttc s' felrq, t hey gutoc ffi..

ts most

imported. valucd. a p r c v r o u b ' ! t r v u r or foreig.n.cut':l::,1::-":t'^o ltssr.ss4(M i"iioa' " ' ' - ' , ; ; a ( s e eF o u c a u l t ' 1 9 6 9 ''or'' 9 9 l ' [ fr;'i'. l97l are forgotten or negle(
Coiltcmponry Politicd

"OtY *rri.rr r^ntt:::t ji?I rtu.r 'ned,

\ Not everything is discourse,but everything is in discourse.Things exist of them through the lenses but independenilyof discourses, we can only assess we which ,Jiscourse, through the practicesof knowing, perceivingand sensing, have acquired over time. Discoursesrender social practices intelligible and rational - and by doing so mask the ways in which they have been constituted and framed. Sytte-t oi at*in"tl silentlv penctrate.uClllotpgg1gf society.They cling to the most lZt on..**"d it''ull t .@1983,


"1on* ur. ,ruour,,, ,d-6r,rrated.nilh-r*ulon thut thti,. tttrn"nce out of lmDrohable. I becomes thereby unreason

-Ebony B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttingCards

TheLab of Love & Hippies Da BleikerFile A/2 FOUCAULT--& OR POSTMODERN THOUGHT
Bleiker 1999 tRoland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article ana Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(2547) page_30_) _Djscourse Aunan ep

preoccupation discourses with o f l e a v i n gu s w i t h a n i m a g eo l rhE the itv for human is all but era byT6rc.sthat arenot only impenetrab t also elude human hension. In-EisleadingifNie , for instance,F f
things (as the conceptofgoodness)as taking in a void

forms of domination, a

ofThe strong and the reactionof thffio

not meet


directly in this interstice, so we read, no one is responsible for its outcome. 'only a singledrama is ever stagedin this "non-place," the endlesslyrepeated p l a y o f d o m i n a t i o n s '( F o u c a u l t , 1 9 8 4 ,8 5 ) . If power and domination are so omnipresent, A_$vgfAihle--h9gJould anyt[jng_Jyery change? If, as Foucault imfrlicitly suggests.thcre is no conversatron. no common langllage. nor evetr_a_JjsihlE jilgg$IveJlggting o e l w c e nt n e I n s t c l e n d t h e o u t s r d c .t h c c c n l . r c n d t h e m a r s , i n . o w c o u l d o n e a a h



street and shake, successfullyor not. the foundations of the establishedorder? These questionsprompted many critics to dismissapproachesthat revolve around discursiveexplanations of social dynamics. Countless authors haye Foucault for putting us in a situation in w

which the potential for human rg..ey seems to have vanishe.l elrogert;r. I{artsock, examplc. lor cond s one in which s peoplc, whichthe subiec rn potent passive object. S ver

us-aworldin -

. I

ourselvesin a conceptualorder dominated by overarchingdiscursivesyslems. People are reduced to mere bystanders, passive and irrelevant. crushed into

1e66,3e8). _

:T,T:: l;il'':' "' J;; !ffi1 1' r""i IJ;::"n ;&:iin::iE:il::ll

;, n'#:'*i' i,', ::. *"'J;;rr ;T';'::f i, i::? us into an it:: 1 9: ;;;li;.1;*?:J," lng liii**::'.ilg'" which'man

cared discourse so :,t'#1, ir:| || fi:,'1,:'':".?:'j't^:;'i,.specrre rearry

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose

The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File We can use our counter hegemonicdiscoursesto resist a systemthat is thin, unstable,and fragmented-only this can lead to opportunities that are transformative
Bleiker 1999 tRoland Professor the School Political at of Science, , University Queensland of Brisbane, articte " Discourse HumanApencv" Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,Z, (25-47) page_32)

-Ebonv B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttinsCards

The Lab of Love & Hippies Da BleikerFile -this The potentialfor resistance in our ability to employs"mobile subjectivities" lies means travelingacross alongthe axesof power,domination resistance and and while destabiling system the same the at time
Bleiker 1999 (Roland Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of , Brisbane, article "Discourse HumanAsenc:r'"Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-47) page_33_)

i, the potential for resistancecontained in these hyphenated fifihatixu"ily identities'JHow can they lead to expressionsof human agency? Some ll I' of the above feminist authors claim convincingly that hyphenated identitiesopen up chancesfor undermining the regulatory norms established by these very identities. They grte inaitiOuats t to seekout its cracks and weaknesses. -suffocatingimpact of di

b,yd l o r t h a m o n s v a n o u s an


re Tfenabling

gerlj-nJhem.Ferguson employsthe i bili ties that arisefrom?iifrE*bfck
ntities and its correspondingmental

restingplaces.This power, domination and resistange, that have been constr


l/ -)


redraw the political boundarlqsql identities. Haraway talks in a similar vein of 'situated knowledges,' of how moving back and forth between various subjectivitiescanopenupmultiplevisions.T@,.', not to ground one's knowledge in galle standpoints, butloJipiore vi$ns change that unfold through multidim 3!Lways t i t y ( H a r a w a y , 1 9 9 1 , 1 8 3 - 2 0 1 ) . o t e n t i a lf o r h u m a n P in the transqression boundaries that has been of enabled through an awarenessof the l'lexibility coqtained in various formJif ldentltres. 1
Contemporary Political Thcory 2fi)3 2

(Ferguson,1993, 158-163).By_-being--a.ware_d arbitrary and excluding the not@ns,such u sc l a s s , r a c e o in the possibility taking part the possibility of .taking part in daily processes dailv nrocesses that slowly but constantly that slowlv bul constantlv

-Ebony B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttingCards


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File

When individuals employ their mobile subjectivities we can engagein every day forms of resistance like speaking,singing,or dwelling
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article " Discourse HumanAgencv" Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,2,(2547) page_34_)

---Do,rnination and Resistance: kssons from the Everyday

I n d m u s t b e r e n : r o v c t o c n a b l ea c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i oo f \l . - . -V-o -r-"- - -l .a y e r so f a b s r r a c t i o n . -=i shlft of i;m \\ h- u- m a n a g e l l c y . r r c e d c d :i s a t :r:o: t h e r : , : r. --:--,.:tr=-l:.lll71Fiiil.'oin


m;dantTtiltlEdrces 5Y vtt'gr'

'l"l' ting, dt l concePtual level of dtnn-natron. I embq$ on-lXllnqove--9lllrves(rBi{trrrg'at a "YllYl'll


f-r'.i1to"'rot'nt 6T t- One c-nvtrPnl0qqL' can .find such shapeand reshap-e.thetr peopleconstantly Yttlry' laug![!9. / J,-_neori:_su$e4Jrsuchas)speaking.\writing/
r.rirt.* activities. * counrless

g r a d u a l l yt r a n s l o r F/or him, a



. . Klnange. rlel ffi +l/t)--


thc ground for more qpen lorm this domain of everydayness away lrom .rddressing n tradition in gencral, the

by those and bv of s" ,iiffitglirhkeilhad to be transcended poets- tl-rjnkers, dangers but from thi seductive suffocating tffiFlves ruti6;;. ableto"distance

, '

T h e f e a s i b i l i t ya n d o f t h e h c r d i n s t i n c t ( s e eW h i t e ' 1 9 9 1 , 2 0 0 0 ' | 3 1 - 1 3 3 ) . desirabilityofsuchamovecan'ofcourse,bediscussedatlength.Less insight into l}eing and identity can, even disputable,though, is that Heidegger.s markerslo understandoolitical I as usleful their original intention, serve ergainst de Certeau shows us why and hoy--*-j dynamics of the everyday. Michel

-Ebonv B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttinsCards


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File

We do not acceptthe task as a "passive on looker" for we are active producersand Poets in our own affairs
Bleiker 1999 tRoland.Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbanearticle , " Discourse HumanAsency" Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,2, (2547) page_34_J

d. Certeau, .S retuttng the wides

llli*T:*t* "1" affairiFthfind..
S|;).. O e \'erreau ooes, however,remain r t uc

l?::1,:1":""*':::.1,.i11-concearmenro';ffi IJ rneEhanllrn-ef-disqrli (de c..t"u r- i ssI;; that mani the ne

lt:,,::l::".::,::-a'^?.a.ult's Foucault'snotion of a panopticaldiscourse, one that sees everything' considers He unwisery spending one'sentireenergy"#;J#:;: the anarysing multitudeof minuscule techniques disclpline subjecfu"rra that the frrutyr. t.. him in a web of microrever power relations. Suchan upp.ouct oe certeau i argues' unduryprivileges productive the apparatus. tnrteua', suggests if he that 'discipline' *rld of is becomingincreasingry exrensive, is ail rhe more ir :T for reasons a sociery not tota'y subo.dinated why is ro this iT"TtlX:.::-::"i:h

- ^ ) in the anchored : , -- , Nietzschean tradition. researc,h rurning it upside down. He by opposes

., ;,'##:;^:,1t ty.(de-Grr



r' ) P ' % conrteLls!!-l!rrrough

va. ous

(1990, catls-TEeh. xi)
Contcmporary Political Thmry 2fi13 2



rhc cxisrinq di

the space rder. The question now is hoi to


Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose

The Lab of [,ove & Hippies Da Bleiker File Everyday resistance like demandsin debateroundsis the MOST effective kind
Bleiker 1999 tRoland, hofessorarthe School PoliticalScience, Brisbanc,articlc of University ofQueensland "Discourse HunanApetq" Contemporary PoliticalTheory20O3, (254'l) page_35_) 2, atd \ \

D. Certeau focuses primarily on the u^ses spa.cein Western consurner of \ societies, on how everyday practices like walking, shopping, dwelling or --_./ \ooking become arts of manipulation that intervene with the prevalent I discursive order. Other authors locate daily practicesof subversionin different r spheresof life. JamesScott has dealt in detail with everyday forms of peasant l'. v rcsistance. For him too, the big events are not peasant rebellions or ( revolutions. They occur rarely anyway- What deserves olr attention- he D the constant u sc.e (Scott, 1985, xv*xvi). Y. wlEGEIilFfTfEF Through cxtensive, detailed and highly compclling research, bll iggrnJ strates the e v a l e @ f r e s s t a n c e . T h e s e r t h e c r i t i q u e s 1 s t r a t e s t h e p r orevalenceof ilour=nrofileformsaoferesistance.Theseare the crilioues



spokei-behind tLc_bqg!_gl--qwcr. A Ithough such-uucra n6s a-E:ftf,Tl?cly '---------'-exprcssed opcnly, they are neverthelessin the open. Indeed, this form of

. d - - - - - - - - - - - -

in in h gltique is almost omnipresent folk culturs-dlseuised mE-trrad S?s jokes.talesq!_Soggs. arethevehicles the powerless gossip, They of by i1€ + rumours. ,
I wrucn tney

a cflttque ol po@tty


F, U"[in

ct'(Scotr,1990, 19,136xiii,


F l-.t,/ -

tf v 182). We hnd a perfect cxample of sucE a practice in Margaret Atwood's fictional blt all too real authoritarian word (1985,234):

\ \ \ \ \

Therc is something powerful in the whispering of obscenitiesabout those in po*"r. There's something delightful about it" something naughty, secretive, forbiddcn, thrilling. It's like a spell, of sorts. It deflatesthcm, reducesthem to Lthe common denominator where they can be dealt with. In the paint of the washroom cubicle someone unknown had scratched: Arnt Lvdia 4 was like a flag waved tiom a hilltop in rcbellion.

he of an obscenity :nough to

-Ebony B. Rose GoshI ShouldGetPaidFor CuttingCards

The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File Laugher and mockery can open up a glimpse of utopian freedoms-That becomesa revolutionary act which can slowly enter political spheres
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article " Discourse Human and Agenc-v"Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(2547) page_36_) acesand aspects French writer Fri

llffi'"':r morngq!3 for a short
L d c a t n . Laug! dca(t.-. a u

t p c u a nrttr ) ' , I r o m r 'y rified from dogmatlsln ano tng

r.fil4irlq:-aa19n -lt ql$iiii r@



and in horhDracrce wrirrng.


." ."i.

a arilrs!-uesqnes

ttott"tt'ffit", rev6iiltionaryerct-one that slowty


God,lire \ _yg[anschauung' death of


gradual decay of

to and mou"meni contribuied rheeventual humanirt theocentrtc
an unchallenged

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File Discursive dissenthappenseven in those circumstanceswhere domination seemsall but total-We as ordinary citizens can constantly reshapeour environment and challenges authority with insignificant acts
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article "Discourse Human and Agenc.v"Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-4j) page_36_)

--Discursiv. ftil.nt ---::---------:- ttupp."t "u"n in tn I r . s e e n L e;l l b u t r " i a l . D o c k e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) .f o r i n s t a n c e d i s c o v e r e d e s l s t a n c en t h e ,
where he r""-i.,gty homogenizingforcesof popular culture, such as television, detects, much like Rabelais did half a millenniurn before' carnevalesque challengesto the narrow and single representationof reason in the public /bphere. The f u s t o n a n Kotkin t o u n q s l g n s ( ) l I e s l s t a u u € lin d very u r r r L r u r t r 0 l r a v E r y different $ p h e r e . I h e historian K . o t K l n found signs of resistance in great detail aspectsof everyday life in the ( [uffocating ;ontextle€nalysed

nqgglil-gltJ=o f M agni Sou:g!_!
this period almost perfectly epitomized ment in which they lived. 'New categories

tnougn llle ourlllg

e s p o t i cc h a r a c t e ro f S t a l i n i s m .

life that devqlopedwithiqlhe crusadeof building socialtsm.

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File We can work within existing webs of power to investigateour possibilities for human agency
Bleiker 1999 tRoland, Professorthe School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane , article "Discourse Human and Asencv"Contemporary Political Theory 2003, (2547) page_38_) 2, Butler(1992,3*7) speaks cqntingent of fou-ndations. de Like t66 bcrieves that the Fo'"uu@er pervades a'

:e a o I n t o l


a nlhlllstlc abyss. lt merely shows lhat oolitical closrrreoc.rrrc



n ls not to do away with to

lgower. However


*lg!.d t-,ia-Tffi6y

tz-ll) arsues persuasively that'rhe 3:t::.:: collt{uled ltrAl4cter of thc subject is rhe verv /-

the,contrary' 3-sller @2,


discourse a reworki

rr n a r a n s e o u l o l. - . e -r-l-s t r n g _ ] y e b s f p o w e r a n d o must scrutinizehow -o by

the power regi-rnres-TFat conitltu-te our su6jectivitr(Butlei,


Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cuttins Cards-Ebonv B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File We must engagein Nomad thought becauseit allows us to createa otherwise unlikely encounterwith those who might not agreewhat we are going with our use of a performative metaphor
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article " Discourse Human and Agenc!" Contemporary Political Theory 2003, (25-47)page 38-39 2, )


r a t t e rt h r e e .t

?*g:onoGil .!i7orn$th.,

rff iff ff : il'1or: ei., n"t 3:"*ll* lil ffiil,1 ,XiflT,l,X'il.ji: ut'ov' uu.r, n@ini. 11
thought,ro.animage ot'the wortd in which,11 l:.,1,:,t"trived systemof
a subterranean Crq-slclgyays, ha^s rhizome. It multiDle ent".^,,Dr,.._r:e


/' o

rhiz-9me, oeGf* aiFGund



*'*--'.i' - \;W,l*::afi::ffik1#j*:ffi :jTl'
suggestions. thd

of difference muttipriciue, not prevenr and rri,n r.nn-'"tu;#il:::l <toes for or. against issuei. specific what heo*, rr.*.,',r;#:'i'?:t p.,liticai

m ot thinking constitutes process mav he tor; process constitutes grounding A or^rrn,-{:-,, may be reftopen," question. a ;:,r':l::tlc Juqglng trom Deleuze,s lrom Deleuze's is clear, however,_*.,;,l^,o "r"-r^" Judging"rr." that own u/ArL own wo.k ir ii tt".^plo.,'Yrr'


s o u r c e sof i n t sources f inL&?loi o

tn" (zooo, ;ascared .weak .li,':,'ff:Hll' e-s) "" *'t l" *iil. white a onadvancine ,& comm.itment" oin..nuil" 'i]l.i'l,"lf.'li* ,Ht"l::ts *,iii", thatthese.or.itr.nt, historical and
essenrialv "*.rt"t;;.' fitf:'Xq u[

N", ,ri and ,t;';::::t"T:es,between und.,,tundin;:i{i:',!,l;:! above'authors rheir "i j,i"fi',}'::iilffi#i1:xr.*.'#';11

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da BleikerFile We don't haveto identityan endresultin our useof humanagency
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article " Discourse Human and AgencJt"Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-47) page_40_)

ConceptualizingHuman AgencY
most Il bTh. lott, and PerhaPs left. gency. Ensuing attemPts

lounr contingent lscTem.s. rn."-


causal that is,in teleological' action, of human

e traditional Pnt]"::.?:^l

' - Alr:gi;"tt,tnlttlitt and intentional terms (see Bubner, 1982. 125-156). links between establish h to unders form of and niAan---s ends; it do:g-lg!-3 and-ir-docr-lgLhmtt ideiTiffiSiETgent : @e: ._-..----. intentton. with a declared nes to agency tnott,oulto,t thatliiidli?Eiaiion ,,,,, -=r=r., ,=,== ,r,-,r"r,- , , Fr;;ifv ,F-Frdtid.n, to " n @ . n " y .be' a . s t r a t e g i c f o r m o f d i s sisn t , a g e n t a n d articulatea causal the targetcan I . separateJ-and attempt e usuallymade (as a protest march) exeJts relation betweenthem. An identifiable-agent by.thcmarch') in policy desired ti6(Iilliinge on influence an identifiabte *uttt l' duality of cause.ilnd glTectas we The rurioni. strate$t! an9_cals9!-j | a. \new. ,t perccrvc dlGlor .^;t,. Nl.rrrchslTE-82 127- 3l) alreadJ. commonty comPlexfryigl fi"* which wc Wit



alreadv made oursetve@

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cuttine Cards-Ebonv B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File We must understandhuman action in tactical terms rather than strategicterms---only then can we manipulate our environment in order to createopportunities for societal change
Bleiker 1999 (Roland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbanearticle , " Discourse Human and Agenc!" Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-47) page_4O_)

tln.K.ustws:l'r':""1':;::i::"':--::; t in tactlcal.l . a t h e rt h a n s t r a t e g t ce r m s ' I n e in tactica r

subt tactical,o,n'l, o, o,rr",t-ili?l---ff*ed'
4 ^--



have no clearl
Gilt causal

Ceiteau exPlains'tactigal ert fied t of will and t relation betw'een

I hey be autonomousfro!l-..1!be!L.l!alget'


iGffielverinto the beingableto keeptheir but yet without

distance(de Certeau, 1990,xlvi)' and environmentallyaware Take the rather mundane example of a critical consumerinanindustrializedsocietywhorefusestobuymilkthatisbottledin

t:"L:"j"i?riiii:l::ilTl this r,u::l,on" shopper non-reusable gen:v a


::;'tt*-:tii:'li.:ln:::::fiJFi:l'$T'':' ;r[hll"*kil.,'1"f, j:.'YJ,1]I#ffir :H'iif-:l"jJiF*
ilT-:filffi 'i,.;;; u'.11l,,YiJiilT; H:,'Jrt,-t"ff Ti,i; ;' b", *'"-; i."-";i.- o"':'n*],Tl'
:l'fi"'' iJ'i' li;.'' mr *q *;:q{ffii$ :*\:l' f:"''"'il'i; * :ti :;;i;;irh:ll:lil;, *'I
lTr.:: :ft"*:::*::',';n:t*;; :"'iil."'ii-":y.',';1ilH'li.Hlru:.iiJi.oo"risas ff societY at

whcre :: :t, Jli'lr',] ::ll' ;:*-$.:l'.liil,,ll!;, is :'li


even the


cracks that o

tunities fot'



Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cuttine Cards-Ebonv B. Rose


The Lab of Love & Hippies Da Bleiker File Tactical action can transform values over time and over a extendedperiod of time can effect practicesof protection, trade, investmentsand the like ---debatechangescan only be capturebe by the ballot
Bleiker 1999 tRoland Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article , "Discourse HumanAsency" Contemporary and PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-47\ page_41_) It is through the concept bf tenlpbrality that we can appreciate the ways in which tactical actions unleash their transformative potential. The causality entailed in such manifestationsof human agency,as far as one can speak of causality in this diffused context. is always mediated through time. Tqjical 'indeterminate trajectories.'This operatesalong de Certeau stresses,

, tbgLillrarsfsrms
values and becomesvisible and effective on

a l@srance--tSc-indeterm

i nacy of

o . Expressed in de Certeau's somewhat idiosyncratic language, tae6gal actions cannot be perr:eivedas a conventional successionof but tlrloqgh space. Rather, they evoke a tempgqal events in . The latter view. de Certeau stresses,would make the mistake of reducing a 'temporal articulation of placesinto a spatial sequence points' (de certeau, of 1990,58-59).
[O ClaflfV thL' SUrtgcqfi^n thal

,eJp n l

factical mrnilesrqrinnc ^f h,,-^-

fot Tttld

th. btspatial dy,namics.

n agencl/are




r shopping


politi"ul una


e effectof

operate along an indeterminate trajectory insofar as they promote a slow translbrmation of values whose effects transgressplaces and become visible and elfective only by maturation over time. In the case of tactical protest actions of environmentally sensitiveconsumers,it may still be too early to ascertain a definitive manifestatior.r human agency. However, vanous of indicators render such an assertion highly likely. chinging attitudes and consumption patters, including an increasingconcern for environmental issues, have produced easily recognizablemarketing shifts in most parts of the industrial world. For instance,hearthfbod sections are uow o.o--on feature in most supermarkets. And there is empirical evidence that suggests that consumer preferencesfor costly 'ethical' production technologies can lead to increased competition between producers. which, in turn, may graduaily increasethe level of adoption of such ethicar technology lNoe and Rebello,

Ou. ction with similaractrons-such tactfcal dissent -ry r enr. advertiseqrent the ljke. The manifestations issuefrom suchactions and that




-I (-L{L--? 4 r _zr\ t

Gosh I Should Get Paid For Cutting Cards-Ebony B. Rose


TheLab of Love & Hippies Da BleikerFile
For Foucault fundamental point of powerrelations lookingat powerfiom the vantage point of institutions one the is so institutions point of powerrelations mustanalyze fiom the stand Bleiker 1999 tRoland,Professor the School Political at of Science, University Queensland of Brisbane, article " Discourse Human and Asenc))" Contemporary PoliticalTheory2003,2,(25-47) page_43_)

.I have usedeveryday forms of resistanceto illustrate how discoursesnot onJy lfame and suhil€are--our--rhouehts behaviour, but also ofler nossibilities and , foJ_bC!0aqgggcy. Needless to sav, disc e of I reSistance that can exert human agenqy There are many political actioqs that . seekimmediatechangesin policy or institution rather than l-nere' thiftr in ro"i.tal ess.Although some of these actions undoubtedly "onr achieve results, they are often not as potent as they seem. Or, rather, their

rather than institutional. -}^ enduringeffectmay well be primarily discursive, ' (1982b,243) already knew that th. g..ut.rr or,. .T-'l'.lietzecheu | ' o u r s t i | | e s t h o u r S w o r | d r e v o l v e s "t"ntr h)loudcstb
'not around thc r

the v one must (poucau-lt, itiT2l), standpoint of power relations t982,


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We must break from t\orm of rational argumentationwith performanceit is within power we will find resistance. Kulvnvch 1997 (Jessica, AssistantProfessor Political Science@ Winthrop University in Rockhill. of Polity,Volume 30, No. 2,
( ennsh I1ro* io con"incingly thematize an alternative to something that is taken for grantedis the very proUem postmodernists haveso often taken up. Habermas also reoogrrizes this problem, as is evident in someof the terminology he employsin describingthe role of public discourses. Dis-

bc<^k -,ru

.7ft1 -


,, 4(th*"(n--' 'w/ FLCI'.^*-, ,v/re "l-n..-

if ,7 - /t,;n
n- i lt #'^/
,', 1 o-5 lnn,,

r*n T

They can be metaphorically descTH as "performances" and "Drgsentatiorrs"that invoke not only "forums" but also "stages" and a'arenas."" Theqq,4lqimgres that imply more than the careful pr€sentlAiditv clairns. Habermas' ti6;f ing" and "innovative" as well as "convincing" and "jrstifiable" more than a action that can the culturally new And compelling lo disciplinary constructionsof such things as gender aifference.-tt isherethat HabermaswoutdEnefit from attcndingto the productivecharacter of disciplinary power in creating distinctly and authentically gendered beingsin thc first place.

IY. Fouceuftrnd Rcslstrna
Fqrcault that the-CgceDt-g!--pplitical action relevant under q is resistancestanffi Foucaultinsiststhat despitethe resisrance. of




of contem@flfi-r,

licle alreadv

a exists

ility for resistance complete_r-4p4!

is exercised

the there are no relations of power without resistances; latter are all the more real and effectira becausethey are formed rieht at the point where rclations of power are exercised;resEglae-lg ryYer to does not have to come from -elsewhere be real' nor N lt lnof power. tt cxorably frustrated through being the cofrffiI existsall the more by bcing in the sameplaceas pow6; hene, like power, resistanceis multiple and can be integrated in global strategies." of Thus even as we recognizethe existence productive and lormalizing





that the "control [of

w€ measurement, canalsor6gfrz,g 1s-

from the toP can Deno power withotrt resistance.

"'s The predominance and over and henceno / without thesestru




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Our performativeact creates resistance and agencyin the face of ubiquitousdisciplinary power. Kulynvch 1997 (Jessica, AssistantProfessor Political Science Winthrop University in Rockhill, of @ Polity,Volume 30, No. 2, winter,pg._)

Q*r 1 r(

e'V trak,
St >izfuce,


ia - 7l6a"AL


I " lt l-{.r,
t)rlt y

{ The notion of political action as performative action has emergedin a number of postmoderntexts. Two facetsof performativity are particularly relevantfor understanding resistance. The first is the notion of performativity employed by Bonnie Honig in her reading of Hannah Arendt.s' Honig derivesher undastanding of performative action from J. L. Austin's distinction betweenperformative and constativespeech acts.'2 ln Honig's reading, a ooratative act is a referenceto the sclfevident,to the "irresistible," an "aoquicc€ne to compulsionand necessity."sr It is a representative act; it is a referencein languageto that which alreadyexistsand cannot be otherwise.A performativeact, on the


other hand,is one *tti"tt Urin"r into U"ingtEilT ensibly Ifets.Honi sionof the Declaration Independence.-Honig that theopening of argues
c]|the Dclaration ("We hold these formativE
are t'

to be self wident") is a "s Thesewords they being that to
is no t'wett;


as such to the Aso utiti action in her reading of the performanceof drag. B , which are tlpically understoodas const@ array of performativities: expresions of gender bring into being the they purport to represent.Accordingly, generallyconstrued,are performativein acts,gestures, enactments,

or thesense the esserye igenlitythat theyotherwise that marnfacturedanEustained th express fab;m;; arc porealsigggld perform4[ye
t Thus, p which the action refers, as in the theatrical reFrent. The characterto f. portray performativity, applied to Foucault's notion of resisThis notion of tance, bett€r explainsthe ctraracterof such resistance.McCarthy's critique asumes that if Foucault is conect about disciplinary power, that it is capillary, reactringinto the inncrmostcornersof otr livesand combining to form complexesof subjectionthat are invasive, prodrctive, and imperviousto citizen influence,then there are no "acting" citizensavailable to resist, only "cultural dopes." Howwer, if we under$and resistanceperformatively, then we seethe acting otizen asbrought into bFr$ byTer r-esistanTe Butler arguesin Bodies tlut Motter, there need nor fu from which action or resistancegmanatesin order fiTllEFliidntitv for it to he real McCarthy's question revealshow funda-




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mentally indebtedtothe modern Grtesian version of agcncyour understanding of political action is. many of our dissolvingfirm boundariesbetweensocializationand domination, tney ao not ne*ssarity Sga wholesale ution of has ;' thafi sees in its versal core of As explains, but orir actions are on a conti ngent ry identitv that is simul acuon. resisthat that is an "effect of

is instead

creation of a

categoryas a site of by resistance name$ srmu

rrse ThG subioct created

that the

what is

resisrcd. Accord-

ing to Butler, "that the q)ncan neverbe is the dition of its pdlitical efficacv.l. to .an impartial of descriptionshoresitself that "o McCarthy is to identify "just what it is that "6r but that that identification is conting€nt and provisional in no way forecloses possiuitity ttre

Performative resistancebrings into being the citizen it actor in the moment of himself seemed to -..this sort of notion aclon tn nrs locus on aET6r Tre selfand gn an aestheticof "" In theselater thoughts,Foucault seems clearlyto be searching a way to understand ror innovative and experimentalsubjectivitiesthat are not a return to the idea of a liberatedhuman essenc€. focus on the activeconstitution of His tht.r"lf i-r addition"l *id** of n" notion of registance. he stated in a 1984interview, As I would saythat if now I am interested, fact, in the way the subin ject constituteshimself in an activefashion, by the praclicesof the self, thesepracticesare n€v€rtheless somethingthat the indinot vidual invents by himself. They arc patterns that he finds in his culture and which are proposed,suggested imposedon him by and his culture, his society, and his social group.62 as we look of the subjoct, is right: the suggested, and imposed, would label autonomous. we of self-creation then the of a resistant lor the resistant r , sin@ the citizen as -/





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Performative resistanceworks on the margins of discourseto exposewhat is being sai< via mockery and demonstration ratherthan logic and objecti"ity, it is preciselythe non rational aspects deliberationthat have a potentialfor innovation. of Kulvnvch 1997 (Jessica, AssistantProfessor Political Science Winthrop University in Rockhill, of @ Polity,Volume 30, No. 2, winter,pg. )

It I i |L^,e
y'arLs (1 of protest.

..i6 , to demonstr4e means
p-iltesters ,"t'In this sense,

I lt ^^ng'^ , a| / ' ; r , o 4"{("v l."rj g
b, ,*) ,,1,,1.

4emrlnstrationhal ats-o gTl_@4e"r' an arternativemeaninfl. a meaninoderived frnas Chaloupka seesit, a demonstrationis also ..a ls not an ex ion but embodied actioi'ff,ilT in f " The demon-

::X':: ::1"*a_ffi 11_T which alreadyexists,,


n,yi"'r,lriji oo,n,,

u" -ltV, t//

the protestor's usagemovestoward the contingent rearmof strategies and emotions. flgg jemonstlation does not establishobiectively getting in ttre waVS

Ir'e n,,A

Thus neprorestor nottrffio rs

to"+< +)d -t6. ,+ 4- PL3,
to{;n ,


maKea pomt' to prove that the systemis unjust. Rather,-the rprotestor ' --- -v ! @justiceitsetr roucault comescroseto saylng what chaloupka argueshere when he states, a ue is not a are. what kinds of amiliar, are not right as they , unconsidered modes of

oo ^^;/






"'r,e*ini TTI::'1.1'-1,I.uT#r'e'f j;;:d;;;;",,il'1il:; norinnc w. a,- _:_rmqliwa ^rii:;--\ L--^


tlo-tonger need the introduction of n6Hative






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course, the ability to aliSn and arrange argumentsthat support a posF * utilizing puns works at the marginsof discourser mogksif. The ' t and jokes and caricatureto ive resistance,ilhen consideredas critique, does not of subiection the exi

that we where hadnot plevlglsly-$eqit. I amnot suggesting wecangeta I To notionof performativity. theaontrary, ffithe no perforn-rative makes suchnolmalivgdisJinc'. resistanqe amsuggpsting '/ !!S, or t"neriif,it p.trot."tititi it not "bout= that as to our performances ethicalprinciples are Webring normativitt
of By subject to resistance. unearthing the oonti themselves the performative resistance enablespolid "self+vident, " ways, already present), mce is also important for undastanding the i of per This possibilitiesor innovation in Habermasiandelibcrative participation' f
a like i of the Just as a on. the exposes limits frncy of_4qigna! language Jnce we are be confined to then we can seethat discourse, the rational statementof v3ligi'llglaiml that which cannot it-is iqFperformance of aeu*riiidil for finds e)Q-f1:siurr.-tfildl rt

hat carrythe
the poigrrant remi at the margins that

ration Chaloupkarecognizc that it is

* /|



t:::J;**:lffi; toldtt'rno= of thedemolqtr3ti"n
ilti-t "t the microphgle'
to-re than the



Lab with the big lebowski

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performanceallows a reconceptualizationof the norm when action has become impossible;our solvencyis eternallyrecurring. KulynYch 1997 of (J"st.r3ssistant Professor Political Science@ Winthrop University in Rockhill' 30, No. 2, winter,Pg.-) Polity, Volume

ft& .((,*,

PutidFdon rs Pcrlormrlivc Rcdrtrnc F!f. { The notion of performativity as both idcntity- or world*rcating and as demonstration, is crucial for understanding @ntqnporary politicd

h tlc"nu.t

doesnot eliminatepqygf-e4qj!1g action. Performative resistance
,^[, .

c.€ f t,

t: K ,\ ("" ,^f4,,
a ,^r (g

and re-creation.It reconstitution nonns-a

an reoccurringdisruption that e4sures the Disci that of the


r'e dMf^ takenasa p-rotest irt. .t.ligq"tiog-of againqi IA
rather resistance,as the actioq reveals

those norms back into an arena of contestation' izedl is the very resistance is words,resistance nc undert" *ppt.t-lnither nonns are

a r'ifi€'fftiAl



"can be seenas a out, resistance t political action: wherethe space sil;$sofu-nceet to Arendt's notion of is sense no for action is usurped, and vehicleof spon ble, resistance_begomes

recognizes resistance innovation o{ that in the 9ce l@aningful, ; ;6;,t..

power, enablesaction t

" ;#;;#;ilffi

contemporary parto conceptualize action' The p.rto.n,",ive iather than a repres€ntative :-':\


h'.'F r1'1

globdstrategiesof qg-pryr opPgrtutritlgs--ig hut4pl.e much more |:111:ti"::
riffig the real, although
the idea of talthat the parameters for

of democratic

politicd acti from the

a host of new actors' performative conc€Pt


our andtherefore ffientffiy, it politicalactions.Second, ffifrf





A D I2 K 6
Lab with the big lebowski

Produced by: insomnia

t3.!9399::::^s:?^:t_t*|f3l ^' -"";'i, ',, 'rL^ll'y particieaqon efsistanpe Tgeef \rs fii'rticioationdelimitooli

dominationon the macro-levelvia every day actions challenges Micropolitical resistance and iterations. Kulynvch 1997 in profcssor political Scicncc6,: WinthropUnivcrsit.v Rockhill' of (Jcssica. Assistant pg'_-) Polity.Volume30,No. 2- rvinter" " s o c i a "::,f,?m . p q f S 4 i g P e ! 9 u _ - _ s l"qtti"iti.t lBonnie Honig

/ 4L: | o

,f,.-x^fP^ ,.
,,,eI ., . ,1."

that performative action is suggests an event, an agonistic disruption of .thingq, a sitffisistible, a ch


tr r,., n'Y


rn"titiog rulesthq! Jeelqconllilgle, govern,@gggl


,l, "t,

arrayof consqations, broader -.-qnq
ru \dPrld

to n a Position


to those of identity, of gander,race and ethnicity. We might then be in a position to act-in the private realm'" the disas the UEuEenpublii and private, be.tween poli-qcallnd th€.ap_oli'ttintoi d-aPolitical, or of technologies llat rarher than nolitical.ffiation rather t of .state-control.Contestsover identity and e-veryday lgcial lile re noJ of the Dolitical. but actuallv createthe very merelyadditioil tofiErealm

n pg1$lq4tle conceptof




character of those t

itselfis '

in relation to a whole seriesof

invest the

techIne tamitv, kinship,knowledge, pro"ide the rqy-lgelgg,l !9r g!g$l -.
t, or the dctions and global strategiesof dj*ina$o=n''

, and the key to 4isr ormal aoparatus of ryorkplace,to the

rgr^ ocenas part pation ici FXot^t* l.Ut formal organization of the

,..ognition of a broader array of actors and actionsas well. Perfoqna: tive oarlicipation is manilest in anyactivitylhat:gEists the technological the -citizens,or ion construct of a]r?-bureaucrdiic contemporary doesnot have to be i this sense, , and spontaneousj t is ttrc disruptjy" Potential, of an action that detemrines the of participation must its status as participation. consequently, studies

we. actiltre1 inteTioll]lv.:1: con6n-themr.t"onoil*t with those alsowith those
but ,.*grrit. aspoliticalparticipation' O"Jin andeasily of instances politicalparunrecognized onptanneolni often accidental, c thqt
ticipation.@ back into view things that tf99?il,l11*' to rccogilze be ' tryrlwemust prepareo.lo norms and identities ir aq achieJecontingurcy ot Iffi-n--nand no4ngr to actlon'

bcomTffi nave



regtm€s' disciplinary of jectifyingconfines contemporary IN FEAR AND LOATHING ARIZONA



ion,6-ns.cio-u-s :i111::11':T,:jT[ and regularizing' zub thenormalizing'




Lab with the big lebowski

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Perfbrmativeparticipationresiststhe contextuainorm of the matterat hand by moving acts everl'cia-v- into the fleld oieveryday resistance.

1997 Kulvn-vch in (Jessica. Prof'essor Politicai SciencerZtWinthrop Unir,'crsity' Rockhill. oi Assistant r r i n t e rp g . _ l . 3 P o l i t vVo i u me 0 .N o . l . .
Consequenfly, a tive icipation --:--: debateswithin the ion literature over the inclusion of protest activities and community the definition o{ political participation. While thesedebateshave generally . beenconductedon familiar tenain, justifying the inclusion_of sughactivpower sBecause perfonnative par-

lusiQ- |r^Lr,,.)+{f ti.'t\

+ 4r*^"N
tf L^A


ion to a set of nor disc n"r\.9 il r ^, ticipation is defined by its L:"" I confrontation with thoserules. nothi be , excluded from t 0.c\s i\i" icipation. As Honig

+t' l'.-i[ A e.-''t

quently puts it, "not everythingis politicat on ttris 6rnended)account; it is simply the casethat nothing is ontologicaltyprotectedfrom politicizalooliticizil tion, that nort ing fff,"'" Thereforg the definition of political participation is alwayscontext dependent;it depandsupon the characterof the power network in which it is taken. Political participation is not categoricallydistinguished . from protestor resistance, rather,h. fo"@ but

DiI *fuo ,h"t ,h" ."fuol r,o.op,h. fl*r on tr*& *dT*EFi['" refusal serve extradinnEl coilEtutesan effectG adTfTesisto an
rather the

To sayttrat pa only thar any action is potentially participation, but also that no particular action is necessarily participatory sr;t. Housecleaning a gmd example. The a is characterof the power network in which one existsdefineshousecleaning as a potential act of political participation. In her description of the defensive strategies Black womenhouseholdworkers, BonnieThorton of

definesthe repertoire of political actions. similarly, Jonathan Kozol describes poor welfaremothersliving in the degrading conditionsof the South Bronx how are nonetheless essand even look cheerful. "t" women who are thoroughly dependenl, unfit, and unclean, the house on the characac1. Housecleaning itsdf is not

able for T.ruiT, c_nqlces. lt is the contextof the domestic I hus labor relationship that

BliEFdomestic laborers, wtroin@ work, andalways immediately @f avail-



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welfarestategivespotiticatim-ffi to

necessarily political, rather, the disci

context of a gendered social nary can take on a radicalof women's participation in

lffiotiticd fr-aracfiT
mrrrrv military r t r a r * ^ r c h - rp as

urug^uay: srylbe'

theresistance *omenau.ingt*eiuJyeis or or

-{ -...BrAvs vr 4' aurs'r.E or suence, women

r$istance, madeof patience,words, gestures and
talked, women criti-

ctzeo, women protested,as they had alwap done, as they still do. children, better school bii harshand ou to recall s. They were



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Politicaipaflicipation must breakthe nonn or elseit wiil run the risk of beins co-ooted. Kulvnvch i 997 iJessica. Assistaut Prof'bssor iJoliticaiSciencc Winthropt-;niversitv Rockhill. of iZJr in Poiitr.'. Volume-3t). J. $inter^ns. No. l a yor{ili..{ (o | *,. p' r..rll-L uf lQ',*
f c{x:

Similarly,a itical ipation that recofnizesaction in strateci defense" agors. b*o*g r*"!t"4 oUjects domination; of @g4ta's miners uecohe performative political actori. tn-a JifriliFGiil'
ale client ies for resisting and capacities for by humoJ, ve al health constructionsof rey "resisted insocial They effecthe @n-

f*-;tui r'n \k I il,"t
l -'h)



struction of their identities in t bureaucrC$ an expansive and performativeundentanding of thesewomen would appearonly as unsuspocting clients.

;olifrarparticipation, tlese activities would remainunrecognized and
Rrconsidering Tradit ionot Participation for reth ormatrve conventional also provides a


of the distinci@resis-

tance meansthat conventionalpolitical activities may also take on the For example, a performative concept of par@e. ticlpatiol may strednew ljg! iqlhenomena suchas the ,?erot vglgr" wherecitizensadmittedly influpurpose depends upon th-e surrouffing envir@ choicesand substantivediscussionof long-term goals, voting or noninc itself lecome a fgrm of protest. Perfi rve the sense of s electorate.Li such , unconventionalacti js. protestmarchesmay-n tuin to @mmunicate citizen oreferencesa narches,for example,may .learly W actually t imate outlet for protest; at the same-timet oc the structuresof government. participation must rmative potential of tradii6id-ac-G-of[ar-m yof as statusquo.-

g.ncing gutcoqre. otJro the In r the expression particularcitizenintere{s_orpreferences; of ratf,erJts

;"<- ./







Lab with the big lebowski

Produced by: insomnia

iliiirniai illiilicinaiiiin icdeilncs ihe nciiticzii ;nherc ir'., iieLrirnkiiiE i;iiiii-:r'iiiiri icieoiti;,riiic 5'rlicilt i:tis iri iisicii iir iririsc ici'iiiiiiacv.

i+:.7 Kt'"fu+-:i-E
i-ielisi.:a..'iissisiatii i-t;iii'''- ftiiiinic
rA l6-f-r.44 I |

;i;- irii-

iii'LiiL':bl)i iri iiiiiiticui -'\\ltLir- t-ri,,

licicncc i

'r'i r!iiiiiiii;n

i-;tiii'ct.sii.r.iii R*eirliiii.


tr ttrisasc"tsi"e ae of democracy, politicalparticipation takes on c-i'pJon;it is 7or'1,'.rn1rn communicationgern:gpvration-al,.comm-unicaEvffi?fitvifr arglof discursivd ll r'l{t,,s paruclpatronproblem-solving decision-oriented iberation, : or del which f,ty tpvl in formd democratic institutions suchas plifiF 'AcL^nl,,v, €keselpri'oogv f

f ,{,L7, ;.sl
| , t i ^ , l stA /' L.'. s{

decisions. bcul


in an

ofinio form"tid- qsfi ffi,o n-

democratic piocedures; inforand
and inctusivgn"t*i][6f o""ilap_ temporal,socialand suust-ii'iii-



participation, @jiiffiffii!
decisionmaking about generating

subsequeni inaiviauat@


mal deliberation tfiii --;--


that, thoughunrp""iair.fiffi
systemcommunicates two main functions.

of relevance

ong.,,', InformJp"r-u'Ji"tion
it actsasa systemwith sensors

sYsr€m""'tlabermas labelsthis the "signffi mal participarion must not only indicaie*il;r;;;,ffi issues. Habermas As arguf


io *


tize them in such a

*:::.::j*:lif furnishthemwith p.rriUi, thematize them,

L1*,::l^T,Lll'_ ;i;;;'d,"d ffiJ'.H; ll: e.T'";: nrg.ure.msbutarso;;".t;;il;ilo"e'ti"a,,;
*l-.,il; ffiil;;:
Uttr by

democratic theory, public the sphere must,

tq or Tggg-E--open theinfluence inrormaoiinfrffiffiffi

Informal participation is crucial because it is the sourceof both legitimacy and innovation in formal decisionmaking. e, fon*-o-J."irion_


state policies are legitimate hcalgeAE are grounded in free and equal nt oi equal Par' AmdUircan-;-tf in the public sphereis also ticipation. Informal participation originating the resource for innovative descriptions and presentations of interests' If preferences, and issues. they ignore informal.qgticioatiop, state{scjsionmakershave no connectionl6-iEGnter of dernocracy: the political I



Lab with the big lebowski

Produced insomnia by:

f]iireauciacrizi-riirx ha,{ leari to the coionizaiir'in iil ;rgencl' aiit}rvins iirr incliviiiuais u'i'tt-i 'i'ie':i,irne tire rgcnts tl1 oDnrcssitiil' siilniv iive',ireir iives t*

iqeT I{-uhrysb
i-iiiii'' - Vi,iiiii:c

in :\ssisiiiiil l)ii,riissor oI Poiiiicai Scicnce ,ti' Wintirroil i-inlYsr3i1v Rilckhiiir.icssiclili; i'.';l I, riiriici'- n!

While s€paratelyboth Habermas and Foucault challengethe tradiI l), ".,.n')44^ ' tional understandingof participation, their combined insights further Cslon' jal,) and irrevocably extend that challenge.Theoreticalfocus on the distinctions betweenHabermas and Foucault has all too often obscuredimporo€ {},jr^^/ tant parallels betweenthesetwo theorists. Specifically,the Hab€rmas/ bon.ql( Foucault debatehas underemphasized extent to which Habermasalso the a.4a describes disciplinarysociety.In his descriptionsof bureaucracy,tech-(t* nocracy, and systemcolonization, Habermasis dso describinga world \;( where power is productive and dispened and where politicd action is Q ic\r"t^ I a constrainodand normalized. Habermas,like Foucault, describes type power that cannot be adequatelycharacterized terms of the intenin of it. tions of thosewho possess Colofgizatlonj!.ggt the result of conscior{s but f inter_rJiol. it ."$"r th".*intfdt'=. The genderand racial subtextsinfusingtFe system are small adjustmentsnot the results ;;; t*. "f racial norm.s and expectationsinfecting [h-e economy and the state. Bureauclaticpowgr iq not a power that is possessed any individugl or by agency,but existsin the exercise decisionmaking. of Aslis young points out, we must "analyze the enercise poggr [in contemporarysocietiesl of gll of education,bureau"ctices cratic adminirt."tion, p1gggglion ana aistriSirt-ionof consumerld&L, racticesthat Habermaschroniclesare oremplaryof a power that hasno definitive subject. As Young explains, adions of many individualsdaily contribute to maintain"the conscious but those or and do not themselves as oppression."t -(Ioffia'tion and bureaucratization also fit the pattern of a power that is not primarily represive but productive. @are, as Sawicki describes,



Lab with the big lebowski

Produced by: insomnia

violencq . . or seizure. . LutratF . . qE obj.ects subjects and ofGo-ilF-g

through operate

establiqhing b-9itt gorrng and techniques observinglmoiji6Tfor tnSrynrolmS bodily .'
The very practicesof administration, distribution, and decisiqrmaking on which Habermasfocuseshis attention can and must be analyzedas productivedisciplinary practicc. Although thesepractices can dcarly be repressive,their most insidious effects are productive. Rather than sim-nlvholding people back, bureaucratizationbreaks uprGEG-, ald systemizes pro@s new ca and coloni create new subjects,as objectsof burearcradc expertise. the Ihe socialwelfareclieni and $re.consumercitizen are the creation or uffi merely its target. TIffiision the @to system createsthe posibility for semal harassment,job segregation, par€ntal leave, and consensual corporate decisionmaking.creatid as a part of these subjectivitics are new gesturesand norms of bodily behavior, such as the embarrassedshuffling of food stamps at the grocerycheckoutand the daneaningsexualreference the office copier. at Bodily movements are monitored and regularizedby meansof politicd protocols, flex-time work opinion polls, welfare lists, sexualharassment as describedby schodules,and so forth. @, Foucault and implied by Habermas, does not merely prevent us from but cr€atesus differently as the onlyTdnut5l-_us,but also enable us to , Thesedisciplinary@not be more efficient and more productive, and often more powerful. J

group ana rutgis,m9


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ciisciolinarv because the societychanges defrnition of ooiiticai oarticioationPostnrodern Dowerhas becomeso ubiouitousso to must be our resistance. Kulvnt:ch i997 in (Jcssica. Liniversitv Rockhilliai of Prof'cssor PoliticalScicnce W'inthrop ;\ssistant -'. r . t i t t t c r -u . I n N P o i i t r .V o i u n r c . i ( 1 . o .

J- f,

notitics-todav it is riffiask



ve )


" in changes both the conditionof the contemnigniigtrtfundamental towardthisw.orld' @lquglolftiol pJrari *orn, andin our attitude and econ c conficuration of advance{'wg!!ar: tt"t"- "tpit"fi ttn,-ih t' omi ca poG;lhilImultaneou s

acept the emergence ..postmodern" is to world is now portroaern world. to saythat the


tion and fracture personal collective of and technoloryand bureaucgg cogqli4swil!
skeDticFm toward truth and subiectivity to tible with our traditional

and the advance hical a world that is often . These of basic democratic

and understand this change,few havebeenmore influential than Jiirgen Habermas and Michel Foucault. Each provides valuable conceptual resourcesfor understandingcontemporary societiesand the kinds of dominations, repressions, constructions,subjectifications, oppressions, identities,and possibilitiesthat exist thaein. They also provide promising, dbeit incomplete suggestions for reconeptualizing political participation in ways appropriate for postmodern societies. Habermas rcommends a discursivecbn""pt of partigg1$r basedon coffiffi-cda tive action in a deliberativepublic sphere,and Foucault recommends Unfortunately, their insights have not yet micro-politics of resistance. beeninrcE led into a postmodernundcrstandingof political participation. This failure of integration is a direct result of an encessively polarized debatethat has elided their similarities and enaggerated their disdifferences.'Rather than focus primarily on the differencesbetween cursive participation and resistance,t maintain that it is possibleand In fruitful to combine thesetwo strategies.'z the following discussionI both conternporary concept of@ utilize the of political parinto a new understanding deliberation and resistance ticipation as performatiue r t


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T'rariiti<lnai nttldes ttl'noliticainarticinatifrn havebecomelirtile because thev lack anr a'biiitv nrovideiniluence to overthe hishi\,'ernansive nature o1'decision makingthzrt is inrncrriour.tLi()Lrr intcresrs. Kujvnvch i997 {icssica. Assistant oi Prci'cssor Poiiticallicrcncciri WintirronLjnivcrsitvin Rockiriii.
i)oiitr," \it-ri iii h,ri. l. rvinter- ri,J,

.>r | "'/ far'l^;tY

I)lsdp[ning Hebermrs

Politigpl.scie$tists tradilig+ally.unjlerstood have politicalparticipation as aa-activitythat assurqs individualinfluence_over1lre ffiffistem, protec6i-of pri
develop-ment. Habermasand Foucault describethe impact of the conditions of



9 1aa ti:1 ^ <\^yi^

in remarkably similarways.Habermas describeswoiid a
bilities for efficacious rn of state and

technicalnature of political decision-

political participation unable to provide influencg, privacy, legitimacy, and self-development.3 the stateis fored to take an everlargerrole in As irecting a complex of administrat . In order to fulfill its function as the

ization of iTormertv sacred-ffrvaid a ublguitorf administratiu.@ o

_ 9$eo ln potltlcs at preqsdy ttrc samemoment@_ ing increasinslv"politicized" and a@4i!!9{g!L.This siegeof privatetife and the gdigjJ1gf this ism" in the functioning of the modern administEffist^rate maEs a of nbe from stateintervention.l Correlatively, the technical and instnrnental ra

manag€r the e@nomy, administratiue mustalsomanage of the state the details o.rliv.esformerlyconsidered o.f @ our "private" livescontinues grow, the publichasbecome and to less lessinterestedin insteadoJgl!.g!4 andiocial fo"rllg mores, l9sure,and mniumttion. -


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j ^ f l o ,^ ,a
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@,tor t.l

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exaerbated the aaaea bv comprexity 'ri"ir", of a poriri"a system u"tui.a ui ,t FraserusesHabermas,s analysis the contempoffi6-n of to demonstrate theinfusion horl

:::::",_.:':1.: as ru.h*i*6 ie :llre €nnot.fu{rctiqn :1l!: ." Accordingly, th*rirtr ror optir,ilirti."boutthepossibilitieffi "*.*h .irfu.nrto attemptto"" communicate interest,io ffiry i.o"rvious to citizeninterests, " nd "r.h"*r debate. Simitariy, trE .exclusiffitec!,ri9al- and ins,rrumcntat Foucault's omprex geneatogical d"s"frffos or air"ipffiry po*., nru workschallenge traditionar the assumption poriticar that poweris rocated
predominantlvdi purposeof is typically and

urleouaiv struct


influence, privacy, to

legitimacy, and set fdeveliEiil
lve in the cont



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effects of @ntemporary societiesexplained b-reatively Haberry has been routinely criticized for igrroring the productive nature of contanporary power. His juxtaposition of system and lifeworld in The Tlwory of Conmunicative Action relies on a separation of good power from bad (communicativepower v. steeringmedia), and posits an ideal specchsituation freed from the distortions of power.rl is ingly abstractand doesnot adeouatelvattend to the wavsin which lnformqliscourse. A number of thorists have effectively arguod that and men do not standin . For , Linda community of 'and mt "whose one userto uqderstandwhat another is sayirg; just as it compcls + to constrain within the limits of an existingpoliticd ."2'In this case thecontentof spepc@ in diqgct violation of the required conditions for the ideal speechsitua.----:-..'_--tion. The foundationsof ommunication are not the ided equalrelationare insteada4 exclusive. learned,and gendered. svmbolic heritage. As Carole Pateman polnts out, women enter into public discussionon a very tenuous plane. flegnlotiC-Uqi communicative cpggpts !Ugb-a!. _t consentsystematically excludes women from the categoryof individuals capableof consenting.'sThe mere existence a debate over whether of "no meansno" with to rape $ a estat can hardly be seenas equal parVomen ,Ft*nO when they do not have the same opportunity to expresstheir / lntent.


A D I2 K 6
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Produced by: insomnia

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evcn such a sophisticatedand sensitiveapproach to ideal speechas communicativeaction of its exclusivity. tt is . Bcnhabib's cannot cleanse lsa that that is . The model of an i&al ls interaction that is a speech establishes norm of The norm tion it excludes. forms faygrycritical argument 29 laa+iar ( ut4l,wlrtentailsde frningideals rmas's fordefined as idea. Speech mulation r s a has no is ided soeech situation, and hcncepcrsons*ho1 speech richly colored or affectation could be defined as Therefore, a definition of citizenideal form of interaction can easily of deviant communicatorsf


with rhetoric, gesture,humor

bascd on a tool for gory of citizeqs.This sort of rational debate. Correlatively, as Fraser explains, becausethe coln-


approrch !s ploceduralit is particdiarly unsuitid to

that is at the core of feminist A

speakingsubjects. It _cannotrequire that we take seriouslyor be convirrcodbythestat@In@ ceduralapproachdoesnot address cultural context that makessome the

..qI". that ryommodate

all utterances




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We are the government Kulynych 1997 (Jessica, AssistantProfessor Political Science@ Winthrop University in Rockhill, of Polity, Volume 30, No. 2, winter, pg._)
f ' Overall, both Habermas and Foucault direct attention away from traditional participatory activities directed at the formal apparatusof government.Yet they also connecttheseparticipatory activitiesback to larger, more globalized,and more institutionalizedpower regimes.While Foucault @ncentrateson contestsat the micro-level, he contendsthat provide the raw material for global domination. Similarly thoseoontests Habermashas moved from a relativelypessimistic and defensiveview of the political process(wheredemocracywas limited to a communicative but protectedpublic spherewhoselegitimateopinions made few inroads into political administration), to a more promising theorization of a "democratized administration" in a constitutional state that ..translates" legitimate influence into political and administrative power. Although my theorization of a performative conceptof participation as rcistanoe is designedto reiterate the importane of focusing on more surprising instancesof participation, this expansionand redefinition of participation doesnot precludethe continuanceof representative institutions and formalized participation. Rather it rearrangc their purpose and priority. An expanded notion of political participation as performative resistance allows for a more effective thernatizationof social problems, and it demonstrates how performative resistanoe not above or is below traditional participation, but necessarily within it. Performative resistance evident in intimate and personalrelationships,in the delibis erations of civil society, and in the problem-solvinginstitutions of the the constitutional state.While Habermasinsistson a separationbetween problem-solvingthat takesplae in parliamentsand the world-disclosing that is the function of the public sphere,a performative oonceptionof participation effectively underminesany firm s@aration betweenprobin lem solving and world disclosure.Proposalsfor group representation legislative institutions by theoristssuchas Young and Guinier makemore they encouragethe persensefrom a performative perspectivebecause formative reconstitution of identity not only in private life, but also at the level of public

L_c dr

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N2: Topically
TOPICALITY (o f f e n s e ) arguments are based in a very Our opponents' topicality to the words in the resolution. narrow set of definitions debate to the core. This method of This is Eurocentric on language for the sake of debate sets limits and domination. categorization
in MarimbaAni, hoftsgor of Afrikrn Studicsin thc Dcprftmc{rtof Blrk andPucrtoRicanStudicsat Huntcr Collcgc NcwYork Cify,.Yuntgu:AnAfrlcan-CentetedCrttquaofEuropunAitumln\oughtadBehavior, l994,P-1142


t'lrto'a prolccf ol dircrpsls, ol dlvlslon rtrd clleSorl$tlon, (.rpllcttly.clTowlcdgrd, th. focua of d|lcounc slrlicd away dlsre8onlog through enalogy, lrom thc GrGcvbrrbdlrn Iton, tolntcrnd dleltloo.. toilrdr hlcnrcldratloo whlch rrtlc dltlcrcocr. ln.lde thc troublld clty. Plrto dcttlcd th. utlllty ot t he GrecftTbuberirn polrdty, tumed hl3 rttentlon to mrlcy'terule

:l:111,*":*:L*g*rt rlinrtlonanddmlnrrcc.a

lceso'rrn8 t''.,| nndtvon



It is 13 Haeelocl tuggeltr. . nd

modc lor th. dcvclopmcnt o{ a mlnd, for

'crltlcrl' end thc crcatlon ol the!rctodlrcourrcfrom thepoctrysnd morcpoeth prose
mrde ncces$ry by thc chbontcd, detrlltd tlre filth crnturyr|3 lr||],,s,lmguegc.pproprlete tor rrtlculrtlnS new r€lattomhlp3. She r;rys ol the Platmlc trlcvrt, t';\€ry loSG{hrt lr, cwry srSurEnt, ct trlt rrtlonallz.tlon. cvtry (lircouric-ahoub bc sublcct to thc rrmc typc ol tubordln.tlon and hlerarchy, u stll |. orgenlc conncctlon, rs lhc My dercrlbed rrt ltr monrcrrt of crGrtlon ln thc firDo6l1il ln othcr wordt. the Etructue ol Phtonlc dlscourtc ltrelf torced rlro3€ who uscd lt to acccpt a prrtlcubr conccpt of social ordcr. rlrilll|ntt In thc ncry cyntar ol oor as we lc|In thc Engllrh lanlr embcddcd, .nd, whrt lr luagc, thc furtlficetlon ol our'lnlcrlorlty' 'moA,&lr' rrorc, rae orfqt ttu,t fact 6 un the la4guqge. (And lt h not .rccldentel, glven the nrturt ot European culturd hbtory, thrt thc word rnq$rr, whlch dcllgnrtcr the male gpodcr, mcrnr "to Srln conrrol orrer.) lndccd thb m.lyrls of Phtonlc thought b not merlly an icrdcnlc crcr€ba lt hclp3 to cxpose rhc oppnrelnc ild rcpresslvc lorm6 wlthln European and Euro'Amatcln
rurr(an'r ;il".;,

b th.

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