x

x

x
x

x

x

x

CORE
Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner
Gary M.Anderson
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr.
Robert Higgins
Dwight R. Lee
Michael Davis

ECONOMISTS
Burton Abrams
Richard Ault
Lee Alston
Ryan Amacher
William Anderson
Lee G. Anderson
Terry L. Anderson
Dominick Armentano
Roger Arnold
Scott E. Atkinson
Michael Babcock
Joe A. Bell
Bruce L. Benson
Peter J. Boettke
Cecil Bohanon
Thomas Borcherding
William J. Boyes
John H. Bowman
Charles Breeden
Lawrence Brunner
William Bryan
Henry Butler
Dennis Chin
Jeffrey Ray Clark
Roger Congleton
R. Morris Coats
Michael A. Crew
Allan Dalton
John David
Arthur Denzau
Clifford Dobitz
John Dobra
Randall Eberts
Roger L. Faith
David Fand
Lowell Gallaway

x
x

x
x

x

x

x
x
x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x
x

x

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x
P

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

1997

x
x

1996

x

x
x
x

1995

x

x
x
x

1994

x

x
x
x

1993

x

x
x
x
x
x
x

1992

x

1991

x

1990

1987

x

1989

1986

x

1988

1985

1984

ALL IDENTIFIED ECONOMISTS IN THE NETWORK

Gary M. Galles
Celeste Gaspari
David E. R. Gay
Kenneth V. Greene
Brian Goff
Kevin Grier
Sherman Hanna
Anne Harper-Fender
Kathy Hayes
Dennis Hein
James Heins
F Steb Hipple
Harold M. Hochman
Randall Holcombe
George Emil Hoffer
John S. Howe
William Hunter
John Jackson
Stephen L. Jackstadt
Joseph Jadlow
Cecil Johnson
Samson Kimenyi
David Klingaman
Roger Kormendi
Michael Kurth
David Laband
Sumner J. La Croix
Allan Leiken
Cotton Mather Lindsay
Dennis E. Logue
James E. Long
Mike Malnoney
Dolores Martin
Charles Mason
Craig MacPhee
Fred McChesney
Richard McKenzie
Robert C. McMahon
S. Charles Maurice
Arthur Mead
Paul Menchik
John F. Militello
William Mitchell
Greg Neihaus
James Papke
Allen Parkman
William Peterson
Thomas Pogue
Barry Poulson
Michael D. Pratt

x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x

x

x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

Ed Price
Robert Pulsinelli
Raymond Raab
Morgan Reynolds
Terry Ridgway
Roger Riefler
Mario Rizzo
Simon Rottenberg
Randall R. Rucker
Richard Saba
Todd Sandler
David Saurman
Mark Schmitz
Robert Sexton
William Shugart
Robert Staaf
Wendell E. Sweetser
Mark Thornton
Mark Toma
David G. Tuerck
Richard Vedder
Bruce Vermeulen
Keith Watson
Walter E. Williams
Daniel P. Williamson
Thomas I. Wyrick
Bruce Yandle
Boon Yoon
Richard D. Zerbe, Jr.
Benjamin Zycher

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x
x

x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

P

P
x

x
x

1998

LEGEND

?

?

?

?

X
P
?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

LEGEND
Any form of activity
Mentioned on "tax hearing readyness" lists compiled by J. Savarese
Philip Morris
Probable activity, but document not containing names (post 1995, see chpater"the end of the netw

kicked out in '96

ACTIVITIES OF THE CORE MEMBERS
Year

Economist

1984
June
25 Robert Tollison

1985
February
8 Robert Tollison
21-23

Dwight Lee
Robert Tollison

March
Robert Ekelund
20-23 Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner
21-23

Gary M. Anderson
Robert Tollison

May
22 Robert Tollison
July
? Robert Tollison
September
10 Robert Tollison
October
? Robert Tollison
7 Robert Tollison
November
24-26

1986
June
12 or 27

Robert Tollison

1987
May
18 Robert Tollison
November
1 Robert Tollison

1988
April
21 Michael Davis
July
Dwight R. Lee
3 Robert Tollison

3
Richard Wagner
August

02+08 Robert Tollison

8 Robert Tollison
September
22 Robert Tollison
26 Richard Wagner
October
6 Dwight Lee
7

Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner

25 Richard Wagner
Gary Anderson
Mike Davis
25-27 Dwight Lee
Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner
November
3 Robert Tollison
15-16 Robert Tollison
17-18 Richard Wagner
20-22

Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner

December
9 Richard Tollison
10 Dwight Lee
13 Richard Wagner

1989
January
19 Dwight Lee
25 Robert Tollison
30-31 Richard Wagner
27 Dwight Lee
February
14 Dwight Lee
21 Dwight Lee
23-24 Richard Wagner
March
2 Robert Tollison
8 Robert Tollison
Gary M. Anderson
17-19

Dwight R. Lee
Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner

28-29 Richard Wagner
30

Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner

31 Robert Tollison
April
3-Apr Dwight Lee
25-26 Robert Tollison
26 Michael Davis
26-27 Richard Wagner
May
1-Apr Dwight Lee
16-17 Richard Wagner
19-20 Robert Tollison
22-23 Robert Tollison

June
Gary M. Anderson
18-22 Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner
July
6-Jul Richard Wagner
25-26 Robert Tollison
27-28 Richard Wagner
August
23-24 Robert Tollison
September
20 Richard Wagner
25 Robert Tollison
October

1-Feb Dwight Lee

11 Robert Tollison
19 Dwight Lee
25 Richard Wagner
November
15-16 Richard Wagner
16 Robert Tollison
29-30 Robert Tollison
December
6-Jul Richard Wagner
19-20 Robert Tollison

1990
February

4 Robert Tollison
5 Michael Davis
26 Richard Wagner
? Richard Wagner
March
16 Dwight Lee
21 Robert Tollison
Robert Ekelund
28-31

Dwight Lee
Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner

30 Dwight Lee
March to April Michael Davies
April
12 Richard Wagner
30 Dwight Lee
May
24 Robert Tollison
24 Dwight Lee
July
Gary Anderson
3 Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner
October
Dwight Lee
Nov-14 Robert Tollison
Richard Wagner
25-27 Robert Tollison
November
18-20 Robert Ekelund

1991
March
Dec-13 Richard Wagner
?

Dwight Lee
Robert Ekelund

April
2-Mar Richard Wagner
9-Oct Robert Tollison
June
8-Sep Robert Tollison
29

Dwight Lee
Richard Wagner

September
11 Dwight Lee

1992
March
22 Dwight Lee

1993
September
21-22 Dwight Lee
November
19 Dwight Lee

1994
February
11 Dwight Le e

17 Dwight Lee[11]
March
1 Dwight Lee
April
? Dwight Lee
28 Robert Tollison
May
11 Robert Tollison
25 Dwight Lee
November
18 Dwight Lee
22 Robert Tollison

1995
October
10 Robert Tollison

1997
March
19 Dwight R. Lee

1998
December
Dwight R. Lee

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/puq91f00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/joj93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pgt98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nyn04d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mbe63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hdx19e00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ewt38b00/pdf

[9] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/igy28b00/pdf
[10] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/scs57b00/pdf
[11] Orzechowski , W. (1985) April 15, 1985 telefax http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dcw03b00/pdf
[12] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vcw03b00/pdf
[13] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/scs57b00/pdf
[14] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ybx45d00/pdf
[15] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cro77d00/pdf
[16] Lee, D. R. (1997) : http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/awk06b00/pdf
[17] http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/awk06b00/pdf

Activity

Hearing : U.S. Treasury Department Hearing on Tax Reform

Wyche Fowler tax forum
Meeting: Public Choice Society

Meeting: Southwestern Social Science Association

Meeting: Eastern Economic Association

Hearing : New York State Senate Committee on Consumer Protection Regarding a
Proposed Bill Requiring Warnings on Labels and Advertising of Smokeless Tobacco
Products
Hearing: Workplace smoking bill proposed by the DC city council

Hearing: Sen. Stevens' "Nonsmokers Rights Act of 3985"

Federal workplace smoking bill (S.1440)
INFOTAB workshop Kopenhagen, Denmark

Southern Economic Association

Hearing: subcommittee on health and the environment of the committee on energy
and commerce house of representatives ninety-ninth congress second session on h.r.
4488 and h.r. 4546 bills to restrict smoking to designated areas in all buildings or
building sections occupied by the U.S. government

Testimonial

Tobacco Institute Relations Government Seminar[1]

Hearing: Austin

Meeting: Western Economic Association[2]

Meeting: Western Economic Association[2]

Social cost Video
Social Cost Meeting with Federal Lobbyists
Excise Taxes Trip to New Orleans
Republican Platform Committee in New Orleans[3]

Media tour: Richmond
Media tour: Tulsa

Testimonial: New Orleans, LA
Atlantic Economic Conference
Media tour: Philadelphia

Meeting: Social cost

Media tour: Detroit
Media tour: Columbus, Cleveland
Media tour: San Antonio, Austin
Southern Economic Association

Media tour: Denver
Peoria, IL -- tax hearing
Media tour: St. Louis

Cook County, IL -- local hearing
Media tour: Oklahoma City
Media tour: Baton Rouge and New Orleans
AMA's Tobacco Conference

Testimonial: Missouri State Senate
Testimonial: Ohio House Finance
Media tour: Albany and Rochester

Media tour: Boston
Media tour: Springfield

Public Choice Society

Media tour: Lexington and Cincinnati
Southwestern Social Science Association
Media tour: Phoenix

OH Senate Ways & Means Committee
Media tour: Hartford/New Haven
Preparation and presentation of testimony on excise taxes before Texas House Ways
and Means Committee
Media tour: Helena/Butte

Springfield, IL -- Senate hearings
Media tour: Tallahassee and Birmingham
Media tour: Springfield + Chicago
Media tour: Miami & Orlando

Western Economic Association

Media tour: Grand Rapids + Lansing
Media tour: Columbia + Charleston
Media tour: Dallas + Ft. Worth

Media tour: Sacramento + San Francisco

Media tour: San Diego
TV-Interview

Preparation and presentation of testimony on proposed cigarette tax increase in
Michigan
Media tour: Los Angeles
Testimonial: Proposed Cigarette tax increase before the Florida Commission for the
Funding of Indigent Health Care
Media tour: Memphis + Little Rock

Media tour: Knoxville + Nashville
Media tour: Atlanta
Socials Costs: Reno + Las Vegas

Media tour: Seattle + Tacoma
Burlington + Portland

Media tour: Springfield
Texas Tax Strategy Meeting
Media tour: Louisville
Testimony for Hawaii Department of Health excise tax and "social cost" bill hearing

Topeka, KS -- Legislative hearing
Media tour: New York City

Southwestern Social Science

Park Ridge, IL -- Local hearing
Texas Tax Tour : Stephenville, Dallas, Houston, Galveston, Beaumont, Orange, Port
Arthur, Brownsville, McAllen, Harlingen, Corpus Christi, El Paso, and Laredo

Honolulu, HI -- Legislative hearing
Hanover, NC - Local hearing

Senate Finance Committee. Hearing on the Effects of Smoking and Health
Testimonial: Dover, DE

Western Economic Association International Conference[6]

Atlantic Economic Society

Meeting:  Considerate Smokers Association, Helsinki, Finland[7]

Southern Economic Association

Media tour: Concord
Meeting: southwestern social science association

Media tour: Madison[8]
Media tour: Columbus

Media tour: Harrisburg + Philadelphia
Meeting: Western economic association

Presentation for the Public Relation Society of America[9]

Media: presenting report L.A. Smoking ban

Testimonial Lansing, Michigan

Testimony Before the U.S. House Ways & Means Committee[10]

Maryland Lee, 25-cent tax hearing
not attended (snowed out)
Kansas 10-cent cigarette tax hearing

Maryland House 25-cent cigarette tax

Speech national association of Fire Marshalls

Senate Finance Committee health care

Capitol Hill Hearing Testimony
Ohio Tax Structure study commission hearing

Testimony Before the U.S. House Ways & Means Committee [13]
Congressional Hearing[14]

TV: The Sleaze Factor:UN Blues [15]

House Select Committee on Revenue and Public Education Funding[16] (Lee
acknowledged he appeared by request of the tobacco industry)

Wyoming Interim Joint Revenue Committee[17]

5 telefax http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dcw03b00/pdf

y.ucsf.edu/tid/awk06b00/pdf

Fee

5000

3,450

7,200

3,000
4,600

3,500

10.800 (to be split)

4,000
4,800
4,500
18.500 (all economists combined)

4,000
3,000

3.500[4]

3,000
4,000

2,500
4,000
4,500

4,000

4,000

4,000
2,100

4,800

4,800

4,000
1,000

3,000

4,800
3,000
4,500

5,000

4,800

Estimated budget TI: 12.000 to 15.000

18.500 (all economists combined)

18.500 (all economists combined)

18.500 (all economists combined)

1,800

2,500

4,000

4.390 (includes expenses)[12]

3000

7000

4.484 (includes expenses)

6.5

ECONOMISTS WHO TESTIFIED AT HEARINGS
Economist
Lee G. Anderson
Gary M. Anderson
Terry L. Anderson
Thomas Borcherding
Dennis Chinn
R. Morris Coats
Sherman Hanna
Harold Hochman
Dwight R. Lee
Fred S. McChesney
Greg Neihaus
James A. Papke
Raymond Raab
Randall Rucker
James Savarese
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner

Document proving testimonial
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jlx64b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lhy30c00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jlx64b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wij34b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rhu98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bnz13b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tec69b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dts98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hea71d00/pdf

INVOICES
Economist
Robert E. McCormick
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Fred S. McChesney
Gary M. Anderson
Harold Hochman
Thomas Borcherding
William F. Shugart II
Richard L. Stroup
Sherman Hanna
Terry L. Anderson
Ann Harper-Fender
Arthur Denzau
Burton A. Abrams
Cecil Bohanon
Dominick Armentano
Joseph Jadlow
Lee J. Alston
Paul L. Menchik
Richard E. Wagner
Terry L. Anderson
George E. Hoffer
Gary M. Anderson
Robert D. Tollison
William Shughart, II
Michael D. Pratt
John H. Bowman
Keith Watson
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr.
Joseph M. Jadlow
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Henry N. Butler
Barry Poulson
Randall Rucker
Raymond Raab (JP)
William L. Anderson
James A. Papke
Gregory Niehaus
Robert D. Tollison
K. Celeste Gaspari
Allen Parkman

Fee
$1,125

Fee/inf
$3,621

$14,000

$39,707

$8,548
$8,452
$2,000
$1,000
$2,000
$2,000
$1,000
$1,000
$2,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000
$1,000

$24,227
$23,971
$4,498
$2,249
$4,498
$4,498
$2,249
$2,172
$4,344
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172
$2,172

$15,074

$32,740

$15,394

$33,435

$1,500
$1,300
$1,000
$1,000
$8,850
$3,500
$900
$1,000
$2,000

$3,258
$2,823
$2,172
$2,172
$18,871
$7,463
$1,440
$2,057
$4,114

Ann Harper-Fender
Barry Poulson
Cecil Bohanon
Charles Mason
Cliff Dobitz
Dominick Armentano
Dwight R. Lee
Jeffrey R. Clark
John S. Howe
Joseph Jadlow
Michael Kurth
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert McMahon
S. Charles Maurice
Thomas Pogue
William Hunter
William Mitchell
Robert D. Tollison
Charles Mason
Robert D. Tollison

$1,700
$2,000
$1,025
$1,025
$2,000
$2,000
$2,000
$1,800
$1,825
$2,000
$1,525
$2,000
$2,000
$2,000
$2,000
$2,000
$2,000
$5,000
$2,000
$27,388

$3,497
$4,114
$2,108
$2,108
$4,114
$4,114
$4,114
$3,703
$3,745
$4,114
$3,137
$4,114
$4,114
$4,114
$4,114
$4,114
$4,114
$10,286
$4,114
$56,344

Robert D. Tollison
William Shugart II
Gary M. Anderson
Carol Robert

$32,500

$66,861

$5,800

$11,932

$2,000
$11,200
$2,100
$7,650
$20,000
$7,500
$2,500
$4,500
$3,450
$1,800
$1,200
$7,200
$4,600
$3,000
$3,500
$4,000

$4,114
$23,041
$4,320
$15,738
$39,510
$14,816
$4,711
$8,481
$6,815
$3,555
$2,370
$14,223
$9,087
$5,926
$6,914
$7,902

Robert D. Tollison
William Shugart II
Gary M. Anderson
Carol Robert
William Hunter
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Walter E. Williams
Dwight R. Lee
Richard E. Wagner
Michael L. Davis
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison

Gary M. Anderson
Michael L. Davis
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Dwight R. Lee
Richard S. Higgins
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Randall G. Holcombe
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
Richard S. Higgins
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Gary M. Anderson
Bruce Yandle
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Henri Lepage
Mwangi S. Kimenyi
Fred S.M.
McChesney
James
Buchanan
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
James E. Long
Michael L. Davis
Dwight R. Lee
Richard S. Higgins
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison

$10,800

$21,335

$4,800
$4,500
$9,500
$9,500
$14,000

$9,482
$8,889
$18,767
$18,767
$27,657

$18,500

$36,547

$10,000

$19,755

$3,500
$4,000
$3,000
$3,000
$4,000
$4,000
$4,000
$4,000
$9,500
$9,500
$14,000

$6,914
$7,902
$5,654
$5,654
$7,538
$7,538
$7,538
$7,538
$17,904
$17,904
$26,387

$10,000

$18,847

$75,000

$141,355

$20,000
$25,000
$25,000
$3,000
$2,700
$9,500
$9,500
$14,000

$37,694
$47,118
$47,118
$5,654
$5,088
$17,904
$17,904
$26,387

$9,000

$16,962

$4,800

$9,046

Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Robert B. Ekelund
Richard E. Wagner
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Keith Watson
Mark Thornton
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
Robert D. Tollison
R. Morris Coats
Daniel P. Williamson
Dwight R. Lee
Richard E. Wagner
Richard E. Wagner
Fred S. McChesney
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Kevin Grier
Bruce Yandle
Robert D. Tollison
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Richard Saba
John D. Jackson
Richard Ault
Keith Watson
Mark Thornton
Richard Ault
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Dwight R. Lee
James Miller
Robert D. Tollison
Richard E. Wagner
Robert D. Tollison

$3,000
$1,000

$5,654
$1,884

$2,000

$3,769

$4,800
$3,000

$9,046
$5,654

$18,500

$34,867

$4,000
$740

$7,152
$1,323

$4,800

$8,582

$1,110
$4,800
$5,500
$2,200
$3,000
$1,500

$1,984
$8,582
$9,834
$3,933
$5,364
$2,682

$18,500

$33,080

$18,500

$33,080

$87,500

$156,460

$18,500

$33,080

$26,500

$45,471

$1,800
$15,600
$10,800
$3,000
$3,000

$3,088
$26,768
$18,531
$5,147
$5,147

Dwight R. Lee
Henry N. Butler
Richard E. Wagner
James Miller
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
James E. Long
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Allen Parkman
Barry Poulson
Cecil Bohanon
David E. R. Gay
David Klingaman
David Tuerck
Dominick Armentano
Dwight R. Lee
Jeffrey R. Clark
John David
Joseph Jadlow
Michael L. Davis
Richard D. Zerbe Jr.
Robert B. Ekelund Jr.
Robert D. Tollison
Thomas L. Wyrick
Todd Sandler
William Hunter
William J. Boyes
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Robert D. Tollison
Dwight R. Lee
Dwight R. Lee
SUM

$18,500

$31,744

$12,000
$8,200
$1,000
$1,000
$2,500
$3,000
$3,000
$4,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$3,000
$4,000
$9,000
$5,000
$17,788
$19,125
$2,750
$6,500
$1,088,044

$20,590
$14,070
$1,665
$1,665
$4,164
$4,852
$4,852
$6,469
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$4,852
$6,469
$14,192
$7,884
$28,051
$30,159
$4,217
$9,118
$2,063,193

Activity
Services

Date invoice
1979-03-07

Report

1980-05-15

not specified
not specified
Public Choice Society
Public Choice Society
Public Choice Society
Public Choice Society
Public Choice Society
Testimonial: Montana
Testimonial: Kansas
Testimonial: Montana
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed

1980-06-30
1980-06-30
1984-11-20
1984-11-20
1984-11-20
1984-11-20
1984-11-20
1985-04-02
1985-04-02
1985-04-02
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21
1985-06-21

Eastern economic association

1985-06-25

Southwestern social science

1985-06-25

op-eds
testimonial
op-ed
op-ed
Substitute House Bill 583 Ohio Legislatu
miscellaneous
Comments Utah Smoking Coalition
Paper
op-ed

1985-10-01
1985-10-01
1985-10-01
1985-10-01
1986-02-07
1986-03-25
1987-03-05
1987-03-19
1987-05-07

op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
op-ed
Testimonial
Op-ed
Excise Tax Op-ed Project

1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-07
1987-05-21
1987-06-22
1987-06-22

Controlling op-eds

1987-06-22

Replacement 5 economists

1987-06-22

Op-ed
miscellaneous
testimonial
Testimonial
Book: clearing the air
Book: clearing the air
Testimonial: Missouri
Media tour: Albany, Rochester
Testimonial Austin
Interview
not specified
miscellaneous
Media tour: Tulsa
Media tour: Richmond
Media tour: Philadelphia
Media tour: Detroit

1987-06-22
1987-06-23
1987-07-01
1987-08-06
1988-01-07
1988-01-07
1988-02-28
1988-02-28
1988-05-03
1988-05-03
1988-05-03
1988-08-12
1988-09-28
1988-09-28
1988-11-08
1988-11-08

Economic witness team orientation and
media training program

1988-11-17

Media tour: Columbus, Cleveland
Media tour: San Antonio + Austin
Papers: Phase II (1st billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (1st billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (1st billing of 3)

1988-11-17
1988-11-29
1988-12-08
1988-12-08
1988-12-08

Southern Economic conference

1988-12-08

Papers: Phase II (1st billing of 3)

1988-12-08

Media tour: St Louis
Media tour: Denver
Testimonial: Peoria
Testimonial Cook county
Media tour: Oklahoma city
Testimony: Ohio House Finance
Media tour: Boston
Testimonial: Springfield
Papers: Phase II (2d billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (2d billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (2d billing of 3)

1988-12-14
1988-12-14
1989-01-03
1989-01-31
1989-01-31
1989-03-03
1989-03-03
1989-05-18
1989-05-25
1989-05-25
1989-05-25

Papers: Phase II (2d billing of 3)

1989-05-25

Book: earmarking

1989-05-31

Book: earmarking
Book: earmarking
Book: earmarking
Press conference
Testimonial: Texas Ways & Mean
Papers: Phase II (3rd billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (3rd billing of 3)
Papers: Phase II (3rd billing of 3)

1989-05-31
1989-05-31
1989-05-31
1989-06-01
1989-06-01
1989-07-18
1989-07-18
1989-07-18

Papers: Phase II (3rd billing of 3)

1989-07-18

Media tour: San Francisco

1989-09-12

Testimonial:Michigan
Interview

1989-10-03
1989-10-03

Preparation letter NYT

1989-10-03

Media tour: Los Angeles
Testimonial: Tallahassee

1989-10-12
1989-11-02

Southwestern Social Science
Association meeting

1989-11-30

Comments Michigan task force
Meeting at Tobacoco Institute

1990-01-09
1990-01-09

Comments on EPA report

1990-01-09

Southern strategy
Sullivan report
Luncheon meeting
Sullivan report
Article
Testimonial: Louisiana

1990-04-03
1990-04-24
1990-04-24
1990-04-24
1990-07-06
1990-07-06

Western Economic Association

1990-07-19

Atlantic Economic Conference

1990-10-30

Book: smoking & the state revision

1990-12-04

Southern Economic Association

1990-12-10

Paper
Presentation
EPA-project (1st half billing)
EPA-project (1st half billing)
Paper
Paper

1990-12-10
1991-03-05
1991-06-13
1991-06-13
1991-06-25
1991-06-25

Western Economic Association

1991-07-15

EPA-project (2d half billing)
EPA-project (2d half billing)
Report
Report
Presentation
Press conference
Op-ed
Op-ed: Wsj
Speech: fire marshalls
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Op-ed monster tax
Testimonial: Lansing
Testimonial
Testomonial
OSHA
OSHA
Paper for Philip Morris
Paper + testimonial

1991-09-03
1991-09-03
1992-02-25
1992-03-10
1992-05-21
1993-03-08
1993-03-24
1993-03-24
1993-05-06
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-08-03
1993-10-05
1994-04-20
1994-04-20
1994-11-28
1994-11-28
1995-11-15
1999-05-01

link
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rre99d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rxl18c00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/doe99d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/doe99d00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hbh38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hbh38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hbh38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hbh38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hbh38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xrc78b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tec69b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tec69b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tec69b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tec69b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ibg75b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rge75b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yes53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qen34b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/anf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pes53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fkf38b00/pdf?
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hes53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bpf42e00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bpf42e00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bgx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bgx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dts98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dts98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dts98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/uss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/uss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ess98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ess98b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yrs98b00/pdfhttp://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gya30g00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sss98b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ofx53b00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/szwn0042
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/szwn0042
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/egx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/egx53b00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/qgwc0002
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/aix53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/aix53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/aix53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/aix53b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug93b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qhx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qhx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ahx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ahx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ahx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ahx53b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sxh09a00/pdf

http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/fhjc0002
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/iyh09a00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/iyh09a00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lyh09a00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/yhjc0002

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/owq54b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/szd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/szd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/szd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/uyd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zxd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/czc30g00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zxd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mxd63b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wij34b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mbe63b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tae63b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ayj44b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cae63b00/pdf

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gpt83b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/orr38b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ltt83b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ltt83b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qkx83b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qkx83b00/pdf

http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nxvx0047
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/itt83b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/itt83b00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/zpjy0148
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/zpjy0148
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/zpjy0148
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/spx83b00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/lqvx0047
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/lqvx0047
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/qyvx0047
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xle93b00/pdf
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/kmvx0047
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wcw03b00
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wcw03b00
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/ntbf0026
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/ntbf0026
http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/hkyd0053
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dzw79b00/pdf

Dwight R. Lee

7

Richard Higgins

0

x

x

Core
x

x

x

x

x

Economists
Burton A. Abrams

1

Ryan C. Amacher

1

Terry L. Anderson

7

x

Dominick Armentano

5

x

Roger Arnold

1

Joe A. Bell

1

x

Bruce L. Benson

5

x

Peter J. Boettke 

8

Cecil Bohanon

2

Thomas Borcherding

5

Charles Breeden

3

Henry Butler

5

x

Jeffrey Ray Clark

3

x

Michael A. Crew

1

Allan Dalton

1

Roger L. Faith

1

David Fand

2

x

Lowell Gallaway

3

x

Gary M. Galles

1

Harold M. Hochman

1

Randall Holcombe

6

William Hunter

2

Stephen L. Jackstadt

1

Joseph Jadlow

1

Samson Kimenyi

1

Roger Kormendi

1

David Laband

1

x
x
x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x

Independence Institute

x

0

Hoover Institution

4

Michael Davis

Heritage Foundation

Robert B. Ekelund, Jr.

Heartland Institute

x

Goldwater Institute

3

Fraser Institute

Gary M.Anderson

Foundation for Economic Education

x

Consumer alert

3

Citizens for a Sound Economy
Committee on Taxation and Economic
Growth

Richard Wagner

Cato Institute
Center for the Defense of Free
enterprise

x

Capitol Research Center

x

Brookings Institution

American Enterprise Institute
American Legaslitive Exchange
Counsil (ALEC)

6

Atlantatic Legal Foundation

Alexis de Tocqueville Institute

Robert Tollison 

American for Prosperity
Association of Private Enterprise
Education

NUMBER OF THINK TANKS INVOLVED

THINK TANK CONNECTIONS

William Mitchell
0

Barry Poulson
6

Terry Ridgway
1

Mario Rizzo
1

Simon Rottenberg
2

Randall R. Rucker
1

Richard Saba
1

William Shugart
2

Mark Thornton
3

14
x

2

Bruce Yandle
8

Boon Yoon
1

Richard D. Zerbe, Jr.
1

Benjamin Zycher
2

SUM
10
x

x

5
5
1
1

x

x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

1
1
1
9
1
4

x

x
x

6
x
x

3
4
1
1
19
4
4
1

Independence Institute

4

Hoover Institution

Richard McKenzie

Heritage Foundation

x

Heartland Institute

x

4

Goldwater Institute

1

Fred McChesney

Fraser Institute

Dolores Martin

Foundation for Economic Education

1

Consumer alert

Dennis E. Logue

x

Citizens for a Sound Economy
Committee on Taxation and Economic
Growth

Walter E. Williams 

Cato Institute
Center for the Defense of Free
enterprise

x

Capitol Research Center

12

Brookings Institution

5

Richard Vedder

Atlantatic Legal Foundation

1

x

American for Prosperity
Association of Private Enterprise
Education

David G. Tuerck

American Enterprise Institute
American Legaslitive Exchange
Counsil (ALEC)

Thomas I. Wyrick

Alexis de Tocqueville Institute

Cotton Mather Lindsay

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x
x
x

x
x

x

x
x
x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Washington Legal Foundation

Western economic association

Virginia Institute for Public Policy

Texas Public Policy Foundation

TASSC

Southern Economic Association

Reason Foundation

Public Interest Institute

Public Choice Society

North Dakota Policy Counsil
Property and Environment Research
Center

National Taxpayers' Union

National Tax Limitation Committee

National Center for Policy Analysis

Mont Pelerin Society

Ludwig von Mises Institute

Libertarian Alliance

John Templeton Foundation

John Locke Institute

James Madison Institute

Instituto De Libre Empresa

Indiana policy review foundation

Independent Institute

Progress and Freedom Foundation

x
x
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x
x

1
3
3
2
1

James Madison Institute
John Locke Institute
John Templeton Foundation
Libertarian Alliance
12 14
3
2
1
1
1
4
4
1
7
1
2
4
3
1

Texas Public Policy Foundation
Virginia Institute for Public Policy
Western economic association
Washington Legal Foundation

2

TASSC

x

Southern Economic Association

x

Reason Foundation

x
x

Public Interest Institute

x

Public Choice Society

x

Progress and Freedom Foundation

x

North Dakota Policy Counsil
Property and Environment Research
Center

x

National Taxpayers' Union

x

National Tax Limitation Committee

x

National Center for Policy Analysis

x

Mont Pelerin Society

x

Ludwig von Mises Institute

1

Instituto De Libre Empresa

20

Indiana policy review foundation

Independent Institute

x

x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x
x

x

x

x
x
x

x

x
x

x
x

x

x

x
x

x