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TORONTO

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072C

UNIVERSITY

MUSIC

lIPlllll1761

MUSIC EXPLAINED

MUSIC
EXPLAINED TO THE WORLD;

HOW

TO

UNDERSTAND MUSIC AND ENJOY


ITS

PERFORMANCE.

FROM THE FRENCH OF

IS

JAMES FET1S,

OF THE MUSICAL

MVIEW

OF PARIS.

TRANSLATED FOR

THE BOSTON ACADEMY OF MUSIC

BOSTON:
OLIVER DITSON &

NEW YORK:

CO., 277
C. H.

WASHINGTON

DITSON U

CO.

ST.

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2011 with funding from


University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/musicexplainedtoOOft

ADVERTISEMENT.

The
duced

Boston

to offer

Academy

of Music have been

in-

a translation of the work of Mr.

Fetis to the musical public, in consequence of


perceiving, as they thought,

its

tation to the state of musical


us,

and the probability that

remarkable adap-

knowledge among

its

perspicuous and

and

lively style, its scientific accuracy,


criticisms,

its

just

founded on the surest principles of

the art, would attract numerous readers, both in


and out of the profession. The qualifications
of

the author will not be doubted

who

possesses a

principles of

thorough

by any one
knowledge of the

music and of musical

taste

and

he has been singularly happy in explaining the


difficulties

of the

art,

in pointing out its true

and the best means of attaining them.


conveys all this with a freedom and force,

objects,

He

which, while they show his

own

intimate ac-

quaintance with the whole subject, are at tho

ADVERTISEMENT.

ri

same time agreeable to the student, satisfactory


to the professor, and useful to all who give any
attention to music.
The amateur will find in
it all that is necessary, and the student and professor will derive great advantage from the clear,

comprehensive views
of chart

it

it

contains, and the sort

presents of the whole field of their

labors.

The work was


from the

translated, several years ago,

Paris edition;

first

and has recently

been carefully revised, and made to correspond


with the second edition,

in

which many im-

provements were introduced by the author, several

paragraphs having been omitted, and others

inserted,

and two

written for

entire chapters having been

and the opinions having

it,

been

here and there corrected throughout the book.

These

have

alterations

ed in this translation

all

been carefully adopt-

and no voluntary changes

have been made, except the following:

In the

vocal scale, the syllable do has been used instead

retained by the

of ut.

which

and

speaking of keys, the

in

still

is

substituted, in the
lables of the scale.

by the key of

mode

of

sj

eaking

letters

have been

English fashion,

for the syl-

Thus what we understand


the Key of so/,

is

French:

the key of

>

in
is

the French
their

key of

ADVERTISEMENT

&c. Three paragraphs have been omitted,


which had reference merely to the use of certain
musical terms in the French language, where
re,

the English

is

better provided with proper ex-

These paragraphs occur on the 20th,

pressions.

2Sth, and 30th pages of the second Paris edition,

and

relate to the use of the

crochcs, triples crochcs,

The

words

&c, and

ton, doubles

mesure.

dictionary of terms, and the catalogue

of works on music, added by the author to the

The

second edition, have also been omitted.


first is

not

now needed

in this country,

and the

second would not be interesting to the general


reader.

The

author says, in his Introduction, that an

English translation of his work, under the


of

"Music made Easy," was published

don, in 1S36.

The Academy have

able to procure a
if

copy of

title

Lon-

in

not been

this translation

and

such a one was ever printed, the present vi-

and

was?, in

to the date of the

London

entirely independent of

sion

is

fact,

made previous

publication.

it,

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART

I.

DF THE MUSICAL BTOTBM, CONSIDERED IN THE TH2I B


QUALITIES OF SOUNDS, NAMELY, TONE, LENGTH, AND

STRENGTH.
r&<

Chap.

I.

II.

Object of Music.

Of the

Its Origin.

Its

Moans.

Difference of Sounds, and of the

of expressing them by Names


Method of representing Sounds by Signs,

IV.

Of

Difference of Scales

-b

Manner

III.

the

...
Names

of the

which they bear; and of the Operation Called

Transposition

V.

The same Scale


The European

not in Use

among

all

Nations.

Scale the beat, though not per-

2o

fect

VI.

VII.

Length of Sounds and of Rests, in Music, and of the Manner (^ representing and
measuring them by Signs

Of

the

Of what

is

of Music

called Expression in the


,

the

the Signs by which

it

is

ng

indicated

Execution
it

and

of

39

CONTENTS.

PART

II.

OF SOUNDS, CONSIDERED IN THEIR RELATIONS 01' SUCAND OF THE


CESSION AND OF SIMULTANEOUSNESS
CONSEQUENCES OF THESE RELATIONS.
;

PAGE

Of the Relations of Sounds


IX Of Melody
X. Of Harmony
XL Of Acoustics
XII. Of the Art of Writing Music.

Chap. VIII.

point.

Canons.

47
49
63
84

Counter-

Fugue

89

Of the Use of the Voice


XIV. Of Instruments
XV. Of Instrumentation
&YI. Of the Form of Pieces in Vocal and

106

XIII.

115
160
in In-

Btrumental Music

PART

168

III.

OF EXECUTION
CwiF. XVII.
TVIII.

Of Singing and of Singers


Of Instrumental Performance
1. Of the Art of Playing
2.

<n

Instru-

.
ments
215
Of Execution ui eer***-^, una of
Collective Execul;on
252
,

197

215

CONTENTS.

PART
HOW TO ANALYZE THE

I\.

SENSATIONS PRODUCED BY

MUSIC, IN ORDER TO JUDGE OF

IT.

PAGE

Chap. IX

Of

XX.

Of
Of

the Prejudices of the Ignorant, and of

those of the Learned, in Music

XXI.

the Poetic in

Music

the Analysis of the Sensations produced

hy Music.

XXII.

279

279

Whether

it is

205
useful to analyze the Sensa-

tions produced

by Music

316

INTRODUCTION

Science

bo simple that

we

true in every thing,

The

qualities or

is

indisputable in

all

painting or music

vague

Undoubtedly, the

but this

is

is sufficient,

in

the beauties of

in itself

an education.

however, a great difference between this

feeling,

sensations, and

which has no other origin than mere

judgment which

that certainty of

the result of positive knowledge.


principles,

that relates

defects of a painting, nor the untutored

cases, to enable us to perceive

is,

either

unpractised eye cannot distinguish the

habitual use of the eye and the ear

There

it,

is

This proposition, so

ear the combinations of harmony.

many

knowledge

are not forced to acquire

by experience or by education.

to art.

No

not born with us.

is

which we must study,

our enjoyment, while

we

Every

art

has

is

its

in order to increase

are forming our taste.

Those

of music are more complex than those of punting;


and, besidos, music

is at

once a science and an

an

INTRODUCTION.

JU1

This complexii y renders the study of


those

ficult for

of

who wish

Unfortunately,

skill.

long and dif

it

to accmire a certain degree


it

scarcely

is

possible

shorten the time which must be devoted to

whatever readiness we may be


process

we

whatever method we adopt,

resort,

ease the great


writing

still it

number of characters of which musical

composed, to produce the prescribed tones

is

with precision, to

feel

the divisions of the measure,

and, finally, to combine

Time

all

these elements of the art

alone can enable us to accomplish

But time

is

command,

precisely that

multitude of things,

we

tion to each, and

which
arts,

will

we can

this.

which we have the

course of

in the

life,

least

especially in the

Obliged

present high state of civilization.

are

With

whatever

be necessary to accustom our organs to read with

will

at

it.

to

gifted,

tc

to learn a

but very slight atten-

(jive

are compelled to select those

be most useful

in the

business of

life.

The

considered as recreations, or sources of pleasure,

among

those objects, with which,

become acquainted only

as ire piss

in

general,

along through

we
life,

and of which every one thinks himself a competent

judge by nature, and without study;

would no!
provided

it

like to

not

thai

one

have correct ideas concerning them,

cost us

no more labor

to obtain

them, than

INTRODUCTION.
it

does to keep up with the politics of the day by read-

But where

ing the newspapers.

meets

this

The

want?

effect

all

undertaken; and

Perhaps

it

is

this task

may be

a task
I

now propose

To

it.

my object.

seems to

my

is

my

apology with

in itself.

my

Be

I shall

it

so.

not think

for the art I cultivate

Every thing which conduces

Whoever expects

my

character of professor to have

extend the taste

me good

to myself.

nothing in

superficial.

most people, and

for

derogatory to

taught
is

enough

is

use of techni-

little

which no writer has

said that there

book but the knowledge of the


This

book which

that contributes to the

of the art of music, with as

language as possible,

cal

the

is

attempt to give general and

on

sufficient information,

it

X1H

to this

end

I trust that this will

be

learned colleagues.

to find in this

book a new method,

a system, or any thing of that sort, will be mistaken.


Its title

in view.

sufficiently explains the object

To

which

have

give sufficiently clear ideas of what

is

necessary to increase the pleasure which music affords,

and to speak of the


foundly,

is

my

art

design.

without having studied


But, to those

to acquire the principles of

be useful, as

it

will

music,

who wish

my work

it

pro-

really

will

still

prepare the mind for studies which

are usually very disagreeable, because the connection

INTRODUCTION.

XIV

between

their first

rudiments

is

not perceived

thougn,

besides this, particular methods, masters, and, especial


ly,

In

devoted attention and patience, will be necessary.


this case,

to reason

it

will

no longer be enough

about sensations

produce these sensations ourselves.


and requires more time.

difficult,

This

Let no one

the promise of certain charlatans.

Knowledge

is

not gained in a

well only that

learn.

It is

more

is

trust in

In vain do they

make musicians impromptu.

declare that they will

know

and

to feel

but the object will be to

which

it

moment;

or, rather,

we

has cost us trouble to

easy to understand the mechanical struc-

ture of the science and of the language of music, as

any one may be convinced by reading the

which

skilful

is

here present to the public

treatise

but to become

another thing, which can only be the result

of long labor.

Some

critics, in

speaking of the

book, have said that


that
it

er

it

did not

it

edition of this

did not deserve

make music simple;

did not render the study


I

first

<A'

it

that

to say, that

either shorter or easi-

suspect these critics have not read the Intro-

duction; for they would then have seen that

answered their objections


object

and

its title,

is

in anticipation,

was not what they have BUpposed.

have

and that

my

INTRODUCTION.

This work belongs

to that

X?

department of the

No

ire of art called aesthetics.

book of

litera*

kind

this

many

Kas been published in France, though there are

such

Germany.

in

seded

and

always belong to them.

will

my own work

usefulness will be

its

The

my

one

in

18mo.

of

it

at

it

has met with from the

ed some notes.

Easy;" and,

than

lastly,

not blind

improve
i

could

me
it,

lduced

were two

make

it

of Italy have

an-

into Italian.

my book

a better

is

in a preface

its

my

usefulness.

to alter several passages,

a seoond volume, though I

am

defence

though

to its defects, nor diminish

and increase

me

a translation

" Music made

title

the journals

translation of

than

In 1836 an English translation was

This general success of


it

less

Berlin, 12mo., 1830, and has add-

published in London, with the

has

In

expectation.

Mr. Charles Blanc has made

nounced a

will

Liege, in 12mo., the other at Brussels,

German,

into

it

and acknowledged.

years, besides the Paris edition, there

others

of

I trust

ones may be made,

better

felt

favorable reception

public has surpassed

two

trea-

they have the merit of having opened the road,

this

be so with
but

But they are only imperfect

which, without doubt, will ere long be super-

tises,

it

does

desire to

This wish
and to add

perfectly aware that

INTRODUCTION.

XVI

the merit of a

have thought

work

this

is

not measured by

its

the general reader, and even to those artists


not time to study every branch of their
tains,

use;

1st,

size,

new volume would be convenient

a dictionary

art.

of terms in most

to

who have
It

con-

common

and, 2d, a systematic catalogue of the principal

French works on the

different

departments of music.

MUSIC EXPLAINED.
PART

I.

OF THE MUSICAL SYSTEM, CONSIDERED IN THli


THREE QUALITIES OF SOUNDS, NAMELY, TONE,

LENGTH, AND STRENGTH.

CHAPTER
OBJECT OF MUSIC.

I.

ITS ORIGIN.

Music may be defined the

art

ITS

MEANS.

of producing emo-

tions by the combinations of sound.

It is

not on the

human species alone, that the power of this art is felt.


The greater part of organized beings are more or less
under its influence. The sense of hearing, on which
it

acts immediately,

power

is

seems to be only

its

agent

most developed on the nervous system

hence the variety of

The

its effects.

its

and

dog, the horse,

the stag, the elephant, reptiles, and even insects, are


sensible of the effects of music, but in different ways.

In some, the sensation resembles a nervous agitation,


so violent as to

become

painful

in others,

pleasure

is

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

The

exhibited under different forms.


is

fixed, as

attention of

all

soon as the sounds are heard.

The phenomena, produced


frame,

TART

are

by music

in the

human

worthy of observation.

especially

In

number of persons equally sensible to its


some remain unmoved by combinations of sounds,
given

which excite pleasure

Sometimes

system

is

becomes

violent,

The

agitated.

and the whole

delicate constitution

of females adapts thein to experience more vivid m


sations than
in

them

men from

if

men

it

its

it

i-

is

is,

much

to

it,

is

given to as by nature,

and may even create

without doubt, that we see

it

the world

in

otherwise distinguished by the qualities of their

minds,

and

by

talents

Some

philosophers have

even aversion, to this


thought thai

were imperfectly or badly organized


that their insensibility

inertness of nerves

The

is

who show

kind,

of another

not only indifference, but

merely

unaccustomed

but

result
to

art.

such persons

(^\

it

maybe
the long

musical sounds.

action of music upon the physical organs, and

upon the moral


of

and

greatest height

the taste for music

education adds

Hence

the hearing of music

that the action of this art carries the delirium

of the senses to
But,

to

under other circumstances,

yield ourselves passively;

the action of the art

this pleas-

we seem

only a delicious sensation, to which

is

vital

combination

one moment, transports

at

us with pleasure at another.


ure

others.

in

which does not move us

employing

it

faculties, has

as a

mem-

given rise to the ides

of core, not only in men-

CHAP.

ITS ORIGIN.

I.

even in certain diseases

affections, but

tal

tf

in

which

the physical organization alone seems to be attacked.

Many

physicians have

this subject;

sophical

made

on

interesting researches

which, however, are defective in philo-

The number

spirit.

they have recorded them

of the works in which


quite considerable, and

is

the facts stated have something in

them so improbable

names

that they have need of the authority of the

of

their authors in order to be believed.

Notwithstanding

its

capacity, the

human mind

i>

so limited, that the idea of infinity cannot be attained

without

We

effort.

and, to

thing;

wish to find the origin of every

common

minds, music seems to re-

quire a beginning, like other branches of knowledge.

Neither the book of Genesis nor the poets of antiquity mention the inventors of this art, but only the

names of those who made the

first

Mercury, Apollo, and others.


posed that

now

It

it

As

the question.

every one has his


traces

book of Genesis on

I believe the

Tubal,

readily be supthis point,

on others of more importance; but

as well as

not

instruments

It will

own

ideas

is

but the opinion which

to the singing of birds

must be confessed that

this

to the origin of music,

this is

is

the most

common.

an odd idea, and

it

implies a strange opinion of man, to suppose that he


finds

one of

his

most delightful pleasures

imitation of the language of animals.

not so.
in

Man

sings, as

consequence of

tion of his

mind

No,

in

no,

the
it

is

he speaks, moves, and sleeps;

his organization,

This

is

and the constitu-

so true, that nations :ha

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

&

PaRT

most savage, and most completely insulated

in ineir

have bem found to possess some kind of

situation,

music, even where the severity of the climate would


scarcely permit birds to live or to sing.
origin,

its

composed only of

is

pressions of pain:

singing improves;

as

men become

and that which

becomes at
There is a wide

Music,

civilizea,

at

the accent of passion

last the

interval,

their

was only

first

study and of

art.

in

of joy or ex-

cries

result

of

no doubt,

between the indistinct sounds which come from the

woman

throat of a

of

Nova Zembla, and

of a Malibran or Sontag; but

is

it

the warblings

not the less true

that the delightful singing of the latter

ifl

it-

foun-

dation in something as rude as the croaking of the

former.

Still

it

is

of

consequence

little

what was the origin of music:

know what it
name of an art;

to

its

effect

as

much

to

can make:

receive

ami

to

This

possible.

as

know
1-

deserved the

it

to prepare oursel?es
it

to

that interestfl US

has become, since

the agreeable impressions

crease

all

it

all

inis

which we should examine and study.

By what means does music


This

is a

forms, and the solution

mechanism

the

o\'

into details, every


his
:>r

own

art.

t^\'

upon organized

perhaps, without
is.

entering

one gives an answer according


it

is

melody, or

the union of the two, but without

harmonv

be-

which includes the whole

In general, without

and siys that

taste,

act

question often repeated under different

knowing

exactly,

shall attempt to

to

harmony,

explaining, mil,

whit

remove

all

melod}

or

doubti

on

CHAI.

DIFFERENCE OF SOUNDS.

II.

be observed, that music


which has
possesses a third means of producing effect,
of
presence
not been regarded that is, accent, the
melody
absence of which is the reason that the same
does or does not produce an effect. This,
this subject

but,

first, it is

to

or

harmony

also, will

be explained.

CHAPTER

II.

OF THE DIFFERENCE OF SOUNDS, AND OF THE

MANNER

OF EXPRESSING THEM BY NAMES.

Every one

has remarked, that the voices of

women

of
and children differ entirely in character from those
the
and
elevated,
less
or
more
being
one
the
men;
other

more

or less depressed.

The number

of possible

lowest
sounds between the highest of the one and the
and each of them, to a pracof the other is infinite
;

tised ear, is readily distinguishable.

that if a different

name had been

It is

easy to see

given to each, the

from
multitude would have been so great, that, far
being any aid,
the

memory

undertook

it

would have been a useless burden to

but those learned philosophers, who first


to arrange sounds in a regular manner,
;

hav ng remarked that, beyond a certain

number of

ascendsou ids, arranged in a particular order, either


reprosuccessively
ing or descending, the rest are
the
from
differ
not
duced in the same order, and do

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

TART

former, except as a high and low voice in accordance


differ

from each other,

that the last

certain distance,
instance,
letter

they came

to the conclusion,

were only a repetition of the

which they called an

having designated the

first

c,

&c,

A, B, they commenced

order, C, D, E, F, G,

in this

a second

b; the third by ce% dd,

d, e,f, g, a,

For

sound by the

C, the second by D, the third by E,

series by

first, at

octave.

ee,

The invention of the syllables ut, re, mi, fa,


sol, la, now commonly used, is attributed to an Italian
monk, whose name was Guido d'Arezzo, who look
them from a hymn to Saint John
&lc.

Ut queant

Min

laxis,

rvsonare

fibris,

gestorum. /amuli tuoruni.

Solve polluti,

Zabii

reatum

Sancte Joannes.

But, in a letter to another monk,

him

to recollect the air of this

note on each syllable,


find the tone

Guido merely

hymn, which

at, re, mi,

&x.,

of each degree of the scale.

advices

rises

in

one

order to

Five hun-

dred years afterwards, a Fleming added the syllable


to the

and completed the series;

first six,

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, St,

were repeated

ft

after

which,

tor the

second

octave, and so on for the third, fourth, and BUCCeeding


octaves.

About

substituted

solmization.

do

for

The

(i

10,

///,

Doni,
as

learned

being more

Italians, the

musician,

agreeable

and the Portuguese, have adopted these syllables


designate sounds; the

in

French, the Spanish,

Germans and

to

the English have

CHAP.

GAMUT OR SCALE.

II

preserved the

letters

of names, or

series

same puqiose.

the

for

letters,

This

the gamut.

called

is

Sounds having been thus distinguished,

it

was per-

ceived that there were also intermediate tones, which

For example, we

the car perfectly appreciated.

rec-

ognize that between the sounds designated by do


a third, equally distant from both.

and

re,

To

avoid multiplying names,

sound

there

is

we suppose

that this

sometimes do raised, and sometimes re low-

We

ered.

is

call

the raised do, do sharp, and the re

same thing with regard

lowered, re fiat, and

we do

to the intermediate

sounds between re and mi, and

fa and

the

This makes the word sharp synonymous

sol.

with raised, and the word flat synonymous with lowIt is plain that this is only a fiction, introduced
ered.
for the

sake of greater simplicity;

be modified in

its

Do

without ceasing to exist.

But those

for a

sound cannot

tone, or be changed into another,

musicians who

sharp

are

is

no longer

do.

merely practical,

and these are the most numerous,

having

attached

an idea of reality to the signs which represent sounds,

and seeing that the signs of do and re are not changed,


but that the signs of raising and lowering are simply

added to them,
flat

(\)) y

that do

these

that

is

to say, the sharp (#), or the

musicians, I

say,

have imagined

always do, whether there be a sharp added

The word gamut (gamme)

is

derived from the

name of

the

lowest note in the scale of sounds, represented by the third letter


of the Greek alphabet, called gamma, whicl letter corresponds tc
the svllab e

sol.

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

3
to

it

Similar errors are frequent in music

or not.

and have thrown

Do

much

sharp and re

obscurity over

theory.

its

being between do and

flat

re,

would seem that these two notes should be exactly


unison

but, according to the theory,

it

in

founded on the

calculation of the length of strings, and the phenome-

na of their vibration,
exactly

the

difference

128

to

is

it

appears that do sharp

same sound
as

80

to

81

as

re

But the

these differences.

keyed instruments, such

and

in certain cases,

The name

in others.

of

is

not

and that their

flat,

comma

is

as

125

given to

difficulty of constructing

as the piano or the organ, to

these proportions, and the


which such instruments would cause

express

embarrassment
the perform-

in

ance, have given rise to the plan of tuning them bj


distributing these differences over the whole extent of

the key-board, so that the differences

The name

sible to the ear.

to this operation.

without

All tuners practise

understanding the theory.

ceived that, by the temperament,

proximate accuracy.
in

may be

But

less sen-

of temperament

this is

It

we

is

given

from habit,

it

will

be per-

obtain only

enough

for the

ear,

ordinary cases.
If every one were

he happened to

hit

at

liberty to

upon

do, the

name the
mxt one

on, ascending, there would be produced

confusion

To

in

as to

re,

sound
and so

an extreme

music, and harmotiv would be destroyed.

prevent tins inconvenience,

steel, in

first

little

instrument- of

the form of forks, hare been constructed, so

produce a standard tone, called

di<tp<i<on,

which

CHAP.

DIAPASON.

III.

name has also been given to the instrument itself.


By the sound thus established, all instruments are
tuned, and
is

all

come

the

it

called do.

is

the expressions used in orchestras,

suonar

same

in

The

do.

il

all

diapason

countries;

it

different modifications in the

the

Hence have
when tuning

In France, they say, donntr

instruments.
Italy,

In France, this sound

voices guided.

called la; in Italy,

theatres

at

had

Paris

is

la;

le

in

not identically

has even undergone

same

place.

formerly

its

Each of
own that
;

of the Opera was the lowest, and that of the Italian

There

theatre the highest.

ence between them.

is

now

very

differ-

little

diapason which

too low

is

injures the brilliancy of the effect, because the strings

of the instruments are not sufficiently strained

apason which

The

in the

Singers

a di-

too high fatigues the voice.

use of the diapason

Most pianos,
low.

is

is

not sufficiently

common

provinces of France, are tuned toe

who accompany themselves on

these

pianos acquire a sort of lazy habit of voice, which


they cannot overcome,

when

obliged to sing

at

concert

pitch.

CHAPTER

III.

METHOD OF REPRESENTING SOUNDS BY

The

operation of mind, by which

man

SIGNS.

first

thought

of representing the sounds of speech by signs, wilj

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

10

forever be a mystery

once attained

but, having

discovery, he could not meet with

conceive, in finding the

produced

singing.

in

made

that purpose,

PAST

much

to

tl is

we

dilliculty,

means of expressing the sounds


The Greeks and Romans, for

use of the letters, and parts of the

of their alphabet, variously combined.

letters,

Mahometans have no
Chinese have signs

signs for musical sounds.

for

The
The

music, which are as compli-

cated and as odd as their language.


Alter several ages of unceasing struggle with the

barbarians of the north, the western empire was sub-

dued, and

fell

the arts perished with

scarcely remained any thing

it

and there

more than an

indistinct

which was gradually weakened,


the eighth century, when even that was en-

recollection of them,

down

to

tirely

lost.

Music, especially,

that

Italy,

was

mained of

absolutely forgotten;

was what those

it

and

say,

the

Rome

and

to

is

music of the Greeks, which had delighted

that

re-

two fathers of

the

all

church, saint Ambrose and saint Gregory, had preserved

for

divine service.

The

ple, or ratlu-r so limited, that

to write

them; and these signs were formed of Certain

letters of the

the Latin nations made D86 o( these


Lombards and Goths, whose powei was

the

established

plan;

alphabet

while

lint,

.-i:u-,

melodies were BO sim-

few signs were nec<

for

m
the

Italy,

latter

introduced others, on a different


represented not only individual

sound-, but combinations of sound-, ami even whole


phrases.

The

large libraries contain manuscripts,

u<

ZHAP.

NOTATION

III.

which we

11

music

find these signs applied to the vocal

of the church

and thus we are enabled to decipher

them, by comparing them with the same music written in the Latin signs.
It

is

remarkable, moreover, that those nations of

the east,
signs,

who have thought of

representing sounds by

have understood the use of these only as means

of expressing collections of sounds by a single sign,

them into their most simple eleThis peculiarity must be ascribed to their

instead of separating

ments.

ornament in their melodies, which


would have rendered the reading of music extremely
difficult, if they had not found means to represent
taste for excessive

The signs which are


Greek churches of the east are of
they were invented by a monk,
John of

several sounds by a single sign.


still

in use in the

this

kind

Damascus.
It

would be

difficult, at this

day, to

fix

the precise

epoch when the notes of the plain-chant, from which


the

modern notation

are examples of

it

is

derived, were devised

manuscripts of the

in the

of the eleventh century

but there

they were not invented at a


is

well, also, to

remark,

more

his

half

no proof

that

distant period.

own

for the writing

to

another, without being

new one.
However

it

may

be, the

It

was

of music.

he communicated

pupils; and one could scarce go from one


trict

there

that, at that time, there

no uniform system of signs

Every master had

is

first

it

to his

little

dis-

obliged to study a

system of notes of the

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

l3
pitain-chant, as

found

it is

finally prevailed, and

notation which

made of

much

with as

what

origi-

it

conciseness as possible.

signs of music, collectively, are called nota-

They

tion.

improvements have insensibly

attempt to give precise ideas of

shall

thfl

the European

all

a very different thing from

it

nally was.

The

the foundation of

now adopted by

Successive

nations.

it,

is

books of the church

in the

became

PART

are divided into two kinds; the

first

in-

cludes the signs of intonation, the second, the signs of

Both are indispensably necessary

duration.

not enough to know, by looking

is

which

it

represents; but

we must

and be able to measure

tion,

at a sign,

also

know

ranged upon paper, specially prepared


pose,

which

is

called music-paper.

it

dura-

its

These signs

it.

for

the sound

for

are arthe pur-

This preparation

consists in ruling the paper horizontally, with group!

of

five parallel lines

each, which are called the

manner

>tajf.

They

are represented in this

Upon

these lines, or in the spaces between them, the

Blgni of notation are placed.

sums were divided


1

mi

high

have said that

two kinds

Sonic music paper contains ten

ome
lli

into

st

the signs

ives on a pice,

fourteen, sixteen, ami even twenty-fear.


t

is

wide

Italian

is

called Fraicli, and that

jm/nt

1
:

DD

oi'

some

into*

Thai hich is higbei


which is wider then it u

HAP.

13

CLEFS.

III.

The

nation, and those of duration.


tion are of

The

sorts,

namely,

voices and instruments

is

signs of intona

and

notes.

at the

made

thus,

/L.

a voice.
is

upon

upon that
is

Its

The

line.

called the

or treble clef,

commonly placed upon

line.

The

ments

is

which

stafT,

sound called

is

placed

sign of low voices or instruments

is

It

staff.

be-

or bass clef, and has this form

ordinary position

bottom of the

it

sign of high

the second line from the bottom of the

indicates that the sign of the

to

The

called the

It is

rise

commencement of

indicate that the music written

staff,

longs to such or such

and

clefs

between voices has given

difference

which, being placed

clefs,

the

two

upon the fourth

indicates that

is

\^.

from the

line

upon

this

sign of intermediate voices and instru-

called the

or tenor clef; but, as theie are

several degrees of high

and low

in these voices, these

degrees are expressed by placing the same sign upon


different lines.
111

ll

The C

clef

is

made

in this

manner,

and gives

its

name

to the note found

upon the

ll

line

upon which

The

it is

placed.

may be reduced to
women; 2, the low voice
of women; 3, the high voice of men; and, 4, the low
roice of men.
The high voice of wome l is called
different qualities of voices

four: 1, the high voice of

PART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

14
soprano,

the

voice of the

dcssus,

or

same

sex,

bariton

and

mezzo soprano, or second dessus,

women is
men is

called

or tenor; the low voice, basso, or bass.

The

the low voice of

(second treble;)

contralto, or counter
tinori',

intermediate

the

(treble;)

the high voice of

called

the intermediate voice between the tenoff

is

The

bass.

men being

high voices of

naturally,

and from the effect of their conformation, lower by


an octave than the high voices of women, the same
clef

that

is

to say, the

them both, leaving

it

clef

might

be used

In regard to the contralto, or low roice

of the octave.

women, which is an octave above the bass, its


might, for the same reason, be written in the F

part

of

We

for

to nature to effect the difference

cfe

might also reduce those instruments, which,

in

the orchestra, perform the functions of intermediate

same

marking the

differ-

ences of octaves by a simple sign, such as

voices, to the

drawn across the


But,

if it is

simplicity, by

or

clefs.

possible to suppress the

clefs

or-

in

dinary use, these same clefs are of great assistance


certain cases, of

which

shall

in

speak hereafter; and,

from the necessity of using them on these

we

are obliged

therefore

make

to

become

habitual

1186

and

familiar with them,

o r them.

Thence

it

is,

that the complexity resulting from a multitude of clefs


is

preserved to this day, though the advantages which

would result from


knowledged.

its

removal are perceived and

ac-

CHAP.

The

which

clefs are only general signs,

for all, the

perform

The

music

the

however, that

form

it is

for

notes
It

ow, once

are the particular

must not be supposed,

necessary to have a sign of a par-

Such a mul-

each of these sounds.

produce confusion

of signs would

tiplicity

si

kind of voice or instrument which should

signs of the several sounds.

ticular

15

NOTES.

III.

the

in

mind, and fatigue the memory without advantage.


is

not the form of the note which determines

but the place which

it

occupies upon the

effect this object, a point, placed

It

its

tone,

staff.

To

upon the

line or

in

the space, would be sufficient.

The

note placed upon the lower line of the staff

represents a sound comparatively lower than those

which occupy other positions upon the same staff,


thus the note which is in the space between the first
and the second line expresses a higher sound than
that

which

second
with

first

first

one

If,

staff.

we

line do,

line,

higher

we call
name of re

therefore,

give the

cupies the space between the


that of

upon the

the note placed

still

it is

mi

to the note

which

first

is

do

mi

fa

sol

which oc
line,

placed upon the second

re

the note on the


to that

and the second

and so on, as may be seen

example

same
we rise

the

the other positions, in proportion as

all

on the

upon the

is

line represents

la

si

in

the following

do

re

PART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

16

voice or an instrument, which should be limited

to so small a

number of sounds,

it

will readily

be con-

ceived, would offer but feeble resources to the sinjer


or player; and, in fact, there are

such narrow

in

liinits.

none confined with-

Instruments, especially, go

much beyond the extent of the staff of five lines.


if we were obliged to compose the staff of as
many permanent lines as would be necessary to em-

very

But,

brace the extent of certain instruments, a sort of


labyrinth would

inextricable

number of
able
effjrt.

to

distinguish

single

The method made

'

venience,

ingenious.

is

lines to the

ensue from

staff,

It

note without a painful

use of to avoid this inconconsists in adding short

with the
eye.

staff,

The

may

either above or below, as thej

be needed, and in leaving them off


longer of use.

great

this

and the quickest eve would not be

lines,

These

when

they are no

short lines are not confounded

but are sensibly detached from

following

is

it

an example of their use

to the
:

,-'^

This inconvenience formerly existed in instrumental


in toe Organ music of ilie M\teentli IB

especially

itB

cen

CHAP

NOTES.

IIJ.

17

Every note placed upon the same


at

commencement of

the

that clef,

and serves

which

to

name

is

found

clef

all

the others are

that the

of the

named

staff

same with the

name of the

notes

difference between voices,


multiplicity of clefs,

is

upon the
G,

called

If the staff

F is on that line.
From this, we see

derived from the position

The

fixed.

which has given

the

is

of

line,

others.

and cannot be unchangeably

clef,

is

accordingly.

upon the fourth

clef

name

Thus, when the

beginning of the

note placed upon that line

and

has the

line with the clef

takes the

the other notes.

line, the

It is the

staff,

a point of comparison, from

as

at the

second
all

the

rise to the

cause of these varia-

first

tions.

But,

if

the position of the notes

not so with their tone, which

is

is

variable,

it

is

governed by the model

sound, called the diapason in French, and corista in

Thus

Italian.

a given note,

which we

its

position

upon the

staff.

The

C,

will call

example, can have only one sound, whatever

for

may be

only difference which

there will be in the different positions of this C, and


in its

sound,

is,

that

it

may belong

to the high limits

of one voice, such, for instance, as the upper bass,


to the

and

middle or medium of another, as the tenor,

to the

low limits of a

third,

which

will

be the

soprano.

turies.

From

this cause, the

works of the great organists of

period are illegible by most musicians.

t .at

SYSTEM OF MUSIC

18

Example of

the

Tenor.

same Sound in
Alto, or High

L'.

different Parts.

Soprano, or

Counter.

PART

soprano, or

Coiitriilto.

Violin.

C.

C.

M m
a &

\\\\sh

Medium Sound.

Sound

Thus

far,

we have seen

Low

Sound.

manner of representing
we call do, re, mi, fa,

the

the succession of sounds, which


sol, la, si;

but

we have

not yet taken notice of the

signs of the intermediate sounds, to which

name

of sharp and of Jh.t.

#; the

flat

has this form,

All the lines and

all

The

sharp

is

we give the
made thus,

[>.

the spaces being occupied by

the notes which represent do, rr, mi, &,c, there

place

left

on the

we suppose,

but as

words do sharp, or

for

Staff

in

re

the intermediate

has been agreed, that the

or the

|)

placed before

to express the

between do and

re,

re, is sufficient to

represent this

Examphs.

]J

BO

put before the note do,

intermediate Bound to the \e.

Tip

no

ordinary language, that the

fat, are sufficient

idea of the intermediate sound


it

is

sounds;

Jj:

CHAP.

TONE AND SEMITONE.

III.

When

it is

or

another sign

it,

fl

which

and

flat,

is

made use

The

t|.

of, called a

natural

natural,

put

is

at

the

of the note which was preceded by a sharp or

side

or,

desired to destroy the effect of a sharp

formed thus,

is

equivalent to saying, The sharp

is

Make

this

The

no lunger flat.

is

natural

taken

is

ojf;

a sort of

short-hand mark.

We

give the

name

of tone to the difference between

two sounds, as do and re; the difference between one


of these sounds and the intermediate sound, represented by a sharp or

semitone

called

flat, is

The

a semitone.

the smallest interval that a

is

European

ear

can appreciate with exactness.


It is

remarkable that the difference which

between the sounds do and


between

and

is

The

si

notes

only a semitone.

made upon
51,

do,

do.

matic.

is

do, re, mi, fa, sol, la,

it,

it

is

then called chro-

was formerly said of music, that

matic kind,

re,

succession of sounds,

when

it

it

was of

contained but few of the

intermediate sounds, and that

for the inter-

called diatonic; and, if the intermediate

iatonic kind,

do

difference between these

the model of this,

sounds arc introduced into


It

found

not found between mi and fa, nor

between
is

gamut

the sounds of the

all

mediate sound

is

re does not exist equally

when sounds of

it

belonged to the chro-

that description

were

do not speak here of the difference between the major tono


and the minor tone re mi, because that is only a difference of

interval of tone,
o. the ear.

which can be estimated better by

calr.ulatioD than

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

JiO

most frequent

been enriched by

of combinations

may

simple melodies

Some

mul

a great

from

resulting

mixture of the two kinds.

continual

ancient airs and

give an idea of the diatonic kind

The chromatic

of music.

I.

but these expressions have been laid

3side, since the art has

titude

PART

kind

is

frequently employed

modern music, and constitutes, indeed, its distincIn modern music, we sometimes find,
tive character.
in

also,

another kind, which

the use of this

is

explain in what

The words

more
it

we

call the

enharmonic; but

I shall, in

rare.

another place,

consists.

and chromatic, which have

diatonic

passed from the Greek into the modern

have only an improper signification


diatonic
is

comes from

diet,

by, and

in

;ii_r

the latter; for

tono>, tone;

and

not true that the music proceeds only by tones


since there are two semittM:

the

modern music

all

the gamuts, as from

This

The

will

be clearly seen

expression

chromatic; but

is

more

it is

to F,

and from

to C.

the following chapter.

in

correct, perhaps, in the

wanting in clearness.

comes from the Greek word chroma, which


co or; and,

it

in

in fact, this

ors the music, but only

signifies

succession of setniton
in

figurative

word

omatie

sense.

CHAP.

CHAPTER
OF THE

WHICH

21

DIFFERENCE OF SCALES.

IV.

IV.

DI1FERENCE OF SCALES
THEY BEAR; AND OF

NAMES

OF THE

THE

OPERATION

CALLED TRANSPOSITION'.

The

such a manner, that there

in
r<

scale do, re, mi, fa, sol, la,


is

si,

a tone

do,

arranged

is

between do and

another between re and mi, a semitone from mi to

fa, a tone between fa and sol, a tone between sol and


la, a tone between la and si, a semitone from si to do
or,

If
re,

words,

in other

tones,

presents a succession of two

it

a semitone, three tones, and a semitone.

we should arrange

the

sol, la, si, do, re,

mi, fa,

scale in

this

manner,

the order of tones and

semitones would be changed;

for there

would be a

tone between re and mi, a semitone from re to fa, a

tone between fa and

sol,

tone between la and

si,

a tone from do to re

atone between

sol

and

la, a

a semitone from si to do, and

or

we should have

a succession

of a tone, a semitone, three tones, a semitone, and a


tone.

This

irregularity

is

removed by substituting fa

Thus we

sharp for fa, and do sharp for do.

tone from re to mt, a tone from mi to

tone from

fa #

from la to
from do

si,

# to

from sol to

a tone from si to do #,

re,

lowing manner

Re

to sol, a tone

and the scale

fa

is

mi, fa #, sol, la,

la,

a tone

and a semitone

composed

si,

get a

#, a semi-

in the fol-

do #, re;

22

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

which presents a

series of

PART

two tones, a semitone, three

which begins

tones, and a semitone, as in the scale

with

do.

In this manner, and preserving the order of the

we may commence

tones and semitones,

the scale by

the notes, and even by the intermediate sounds,

all

and have

as

many

regular scales as there are sounds

within the compass of the octave.

name of the note

scale the

each

"SVe give to

with which

begins; but,

it

instead of saying the scale of re, of mi fiat, or of fa,

we

say the scale of the key of re, (D,) of the lay of mi

flat,

name

(E

flat,)

of the key offa, (F

;)

and we

by the

call

of a symphony in re, a sonata in mi flat, or an

overture in fa, those pieces which are written with


the sounds

which belong

mi flat,

to the scale of re, of

or of fa.

All voices not having the


ly

same compass,

happens that a piece of music, which

certain persons, contains sounds


too low for others
to sing it;

setting

it

low; that

but

is

it

which arc too high

the piece pleases

is

if it is

to Bay,

the scale of do (C)

for

the

in

mi fiat, (E

the other, by doing the contrary, that


a

which the piece


transposition.

higher
is

scale

written.

Persons

it

first

is

too

the Bcale o\ re, (D,) or the

Bcale of re (I)) for that of

substituting

but by

so,

too high, or higher, if

by substituting,

or

people wish

and there are no means of doing

lower,

frequent-

suitable for

who

lor

that

flat:)
is

are

by

key

in

of the

This operation

and, in

to Bay,

is

unacquainted

called

with

music transpose naturally, and without observing

it

CHAP.

by placing the

which

much more complicated;

is

the position

in

but the pro-

who accompanies

performer,

the

t raits post (J,

in

which they sing

air

most favorable to their voice

is

of

cess

23

TRANSPOSITION.

IV.

for

piece

it

consists

playing notes different from those which are writ-

which requires a sustained attention, and much

ten,

presence of mind, especially

the instrument

if

is

piano, in which case he must perform a double operation, for the

If

it

and

note,

music of the right and that of the

were necessary

make

to

each sharp,

for

flat,

left

hand.

a calculation for each

or natural, in order to

discover what should be substituted in their place, in


the transposition,

we can

readily conceive that the

quickest mind would meet with great embarrassment,

But there

on account of the rapidity of execution.

mode of simplifying

which consists

this operation,

is

in

supposing another clef than that which

commencement of

the

which corresponds
former
piece

is

the

staff,

and

in the

key of

si flat,

clef
flats

(B

For example,

at the side

re

line of the

of the

may be
Pa

it

if

the

clef,

into the

key

he substitutes, in his mind, the

flat,)

upon the lower

effected, as

placed at

(D,) written with the

re,

and the performer wishes to transpose


of

is

choosing one

the key into which the per-

to

desirous to transpose.

is

in

clef,

clef,

and the transposition

seen by the following example

mi

re

do

si

la

supposes two

sol

is

fa

^=B

SYSTEM OF M\

24

PART

SIC.

I.

Transposition.

si

The

re

do

"

^^-mj

la

si

multiplicity of clefs

so

fa

mi

re

=ff

particulady useful for

is

tins

purpose.

Transposition
culties

one of the greatest practical

is

music, and requires a peculiar

in

which even the


tempted

to

not always possessed.

skilful are

order to remove these

difficulties,

make pianos

diffi-

facility,

it

of
In

has heen

at-

of such a construction as to

They

mechanically.

are

called

transposing piano*, (pianos-trcompositeurs.) 1

This

effect transposition

invention, though convenient, has

met with hut

little

success.

The

editors of music, with a view to facilitate the

practice of this art to amateurs, frequently transpose


the most popular pieces, so as to bring them within
the

compass of different

voices, and to relieve the per-

former from the operation of transposition


all

music cannot he transposed

Useful to

'

Several

position

know how
pi

to

ms have heen

hut the

first

do

it

in

this

it

as
is

for one's self.

adopted, to rtFect a mechanic:.' trans-

transposing pianos introduced into

those of Messieurs Roller and

boulevard Poiasonaiere.

hut,

manner,

Bluichet, manufacturers

vise
:t

Mr. Pfeifferhaa improved the invr

bv leducing the operation to the pleasure of

pedal

were
Tins,
ition,

CHAP.

EUROPEAN SCALE.

V.

CHAPTER

25

V.

THE SAME SCALE NOT IN USE AMONG ALL NATIONS


THE EUROPEAN SCALE THE BEST, THOUGH NOT
PERFECT.

The

gamut, or scale of sounds, which has just been

explained,

is

that

which

made use of by

is

the nations

of Europe, and in the colonies established by them.

The

result

of a series of modifications,

partly by accident

produced

and partly by design, from ancient

times to the seventeenth century,

it

has become to us,

both by education and by habit, the only rule of the

metaphysical relations of sounds which the ear will


admit, and

which renders

us, to

a certain extent,

unable to conceive of any other.

But

it

is

have had, or

not so with
still

all

These

general scale of sounds.

kinds

some of them

nations;

have, very different divisions of the

one founded upon

divisions are of

intervals of

same nature with those of European


differently

arranged

two

sounds of the
music,

but

the others upon smaller intervals,

We

not appreciable by our ears.

will first

examine

the former.

There

is

in

China

and

arranged in this manner

India

^FS==

major

scale,

PART

SYSTEM or MUSIC.

26
It

manifest that this scale differs from ours

is

this particular,

that the

first

in

semitone, instead of

being placed between the third and fourth degree, as


it is

ours, occurs between the fourth and

in

creating

which

is

difference

total

in

The Scotch and


that

order

of the

because there

is

thus

of tones,

is

to the Chinese.

the Irish have a scale

Chinese, but

more

still

somewhat
singular,

whole tone, instead of a semitone,

The

between the seventh and eighth sounds.


ing

fifth,

shocking to our ears, while the scale of

Europeans seems intolerable


like

the

an example of this scale

:g2

follow-

fS 1=1111

The Abbe Roussier has tried to demonstrate, in his Memoir on


Music of the Ancients, and in his Litters to the Author of the
Journal of Fine Arts and Sciences, &C, that this scale is a natural
1

the

one, because

it is

the result of a regular succession of ascending

fourths and descending

'!

ort

fifths,

such

as,

of regular movement has something

in

it

pleasing to tie

imagination, but prores nothing as to the metaphysical ooancetki

of rounds.

Toil scale

will

always shock the par of

musician, because the fourth, first, and eighth, are

Europe*

in a false
;

el,i!ivcl>

t>

each other

CHAP.

The

SCOTCH AND IRISH SCALES.

V.

defects of this scale are

still

27

more shocking

the ear of a musician than those of the Chinese,

account of the double

false

which

relation

to

on

exists

between the major and minor fourth of the key and

Hence

the seventh.

and

it

happens that

airs in this scale

Irish

the Scotch

all

must be rearranged

for

publication.

The

Irish have also a

singular

of

it is

minor

scale,

which

is

very

there are only six notes, and the arrangement

thus

-s^z^z^z-

Z2-G>-

The

logical defect of this scale

of the preceding;

for

it

is

the

consists in a

same

as that

relation

false

between the third and the sixth sound, which has no


place in the scale of other European nations.

The

scales

of which

we have

just

spoken

divided, like that of the French, Italian, or

music, by tones and semitones; they


only in

latter

semitones
as

the

the

differ

are

German
from the

arrangement of these tones and

but there are some Oriental nations, such

Arabs, the Turks, and the Persians, whose

instruments are constructed on a scale of intervals of


thirds.

scale,

Such

intervals,

and such a division of the

can be appreciated only by organs accusto med

by education to their

effect

the sensation which

hey

PART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

28

produce on a European ear

and

is

that of

1.

sounds

falsi,

disagreeable successions, while the Aiabe

find

pleasure in them, and are painfully affected by hearing

our scale.

Upon considering
this question

exactly
If not,

arises

the effects of such differen scales,

to principles

any scale conforming

Is there

which are founded

in nature

which of them combines the greatest number

of desirable conditions
questions,

we must

we must
first

To

consider

inquire

if

the

bodies, and the proportions

answer the

it

in

of these

first

two ways

that

is,

phenomena of sonorous
deduced from them, be-

tween the different sounds of the

scale,

result

in

precise, invariable tones, and if the physical laws ot


their order are equally certain.
It

must be confessed, the science

fect in

acoustics.

The phenomena

the experiments negligently

always happens,

there

has

is

show

this respect, as I shall

yet very imperin

have been

made;

speaking of
observed,

ill

and,

been haste

almost

as
in

forming

conclusions on uncertain data.

The second consideration is


The point is, to ascertain if the

entirely metaphysical.

relations of the sounds

of our scale have a sufficient foundation

ment with our

sensations, and

in their

harmony and melody of which our music


Now, whatever may be the new we take ^C
it

cannot be denied

ment of the sounds,

that
is

its

agree-

with the laws of the

propriety, in the

consists.

the Bcale,

an

perfect, and that another orde

CHAP.
could

be nibstituted for

not.

melody

29

LENGTH OF SOUNDS.

VI.

as w<

11

as

it,

without greatly affecting

harmony, nor, consequently, without

changing the nature of our sensations.

CHAPTER

VI.

OF THE LENGTH OF SOUNDS AND OF RESTS IN MU-

AND OF THE MANNER OF REPRESENTING


MEASURING THEM BY SIGNS.

ANI>

SIC,

The
object

alphabets

alphabet
its

of

all

languages have only one

The

that of representing sounds.


is

more complicated,

for

it

musical

necessary that

is

combined with those

signs of intonation should be

of duration, and even that the notes should indicate

both these things

at

once.

This complexity

is

the

principal cause of the difficulty experienced in learn-

ing to read music.


It

which enter

that the sounds

clear

is

composition of music have not


but that

they differ greatly

all

in

the

this

into the

same

length,

The

respect.

notes being intended to represent the sounds,

necessary to modify their form,

may
Jf

also

it

in

it

express the differences of their length.

was my purpose

should proceed

in a differ-

must not forget that the object of

this

not to poii.t out the defects of the technical part of the

ait.

to explain, philosophically, the principles

of the mersurement of time in music,


ent manne'j but

is

order that they

be more useful to show what

it

actually

is.

book

it

It will

30

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

With

this view, a unit

which

called

is

received the

name of

has

the half of this

minim

the fourth, that of a

has been called a quaver;

crotchet; the eighth

I.

of duration has been supposed,

scmibrcvc

PART

the

sixteenth, semiquaver; the thirty-second, dewtisemiqua*

vcr; and the sixty-fourth, double demisemiquaver.

Forms of
Semi -

Minim.

breve.

Signs of Length.

these

Crotchet. Quaver.

ewwI

Srmi -

Quavers,

Fevcral

a
Semiquavers-

quaver.

r
Demisemi-

Double
Demisemiquaver.

Severn!
Demisemiqiinvcrs.

quaver.

nl Pontile

Demsemi

Whatever may be the form of the


duration which

represents, the

it

note,

and the

intonation

is

not

changed, and the Dame of the note remains the same.


as

may be seen
sol

la

la

si

mmmm

do

re

mi

fa

sd

do

mi

l"i

lol to]

o]

by the following examples:


sol

la

la

si

*i

do

ilo

re

mi

fa

re

mi

fa

f p
-H-j-* r f f r f-H
*
m *\
*
*

tt$t*

'

*ol

sol

* _:

.1

-HAP.

LENQTB OF SOUNDS.

VI.

31

All the forms of the notes in these examples are


d ssigned to represent durations of sounds,
111

the proportion of

t<>

to

1,
I

1,

to 2,

to I, &,c.

to 4,

that

is

which are

to 8,

&,c, or ^

to say,

which are

twice, four times, eight times, longer than others, or

wliich

them.

are only

the half, fourth, or

eighth part of

But there are certain durations of sounds,

which are three times, six times, or twelve times,


longer than others, or which are only the third, the

The

sixth, the twelfth, &,c.

first

are represented by

the figure of any note whatever, followed by a point


so that a point increases the duration of such notes

by one

Thus

half.

quavers, &,c.

crotchets,

minim pointed

same

a semibreve pointed has the

duration as three minims, six

is

in the

twelve

or

same pro-

portion with respect to crotchets, quavers, or semi-

quavers; and so of others.


a

minim has only one

It follows

from

this,

that

third the value of the pointed

semibreve, that a crotchet represents only the sixth


part of

it,

and a quaver the twelfth, &,c.

Lastly,

there are sounds, which, in regard to others, are in


the

of 2 to

proportion

triplets to those

2,

We

3.

which are

give the

name

in the proportion

of

of 3 to

and we denote their value by placing a figure 3

above or below the notes which represent them.

Sounds and
of music.

their length are not the only elements

The

cessation of sound, for a greater or

less period, is also

important.

The

necessity of sub-

jecting this cessation to rules of proportion, has caused


it

to be divided, like the forms of notes,

and

tc

be

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

3<2

PART L

The

represented by analogous signs.

semibreve

cessation of sound of a corresponding length

resented by a scmibrcvc
called

?'cst ;

is

rep-

the half of this time

minim rest; the fourth,

a.

is

The

taken as the unit of the duration of sound.

is

a crotchet r<<t; the

eighth, a quaver rest; the sixteenth, a sendquctver rest.

All these signs of silence have a value equal to tint

The

of the different forms of the notes.

them

a table of

Bemibrere.

'

&

Minim.

Crotchet.

KJ

Qnaver.

*
Corro 'porulinj: K

is

h*

**1

CL

minim

These

rest, a
a

v+9

~ZL

'

'

Its.

M
M
^

-*

**
*i

>*

be readily perceived, that

represented by

lowed by

9
^
+

It will

point

iver.

~9
T
*

is

Demisemi- HouMc Demiquaver.


emiqaavw.

Fcmi qu

following

Bemibrere with

Bemibreve

pointed minim by

rest
a

followed by

minim

rest fol-

crotchet rest, and so on.

different proportions of the relative durations

of sounds and of cessations of Bound, are Busceptible

of

The most

prodigious Dumber of combinations.

practised

eye

would

distinguishing them,

experience
if

it

were not

some
for

difficulty

the plan

his been devised of separating them, Iron

in

which

:iJA;\

MARKS OF

VI.

31

TIMF..

The

space, by bars crossing the staff perpend icilarly.

the space thus comprised

name of mcaiurc denotes

By means of

between two bars of separation.

bars,

the eye easily separates each measure of this mul-

of signs,

titude

The sum

order

in

of what

total

is

consider

to

its

contents.

contained in each measure

must be of a uniform duration

in

all

but this duration may, at pleasure, be

the measures;

made

equal in

value to a semibreve, a minim, or a pointed minim, &lc.

The
is

reading of what

which we

parts,

contained in each measure

is

by dividing the measures into equal

also facilitated

call

beats,

and which we mark by

This division may be made

movements of the hand.

into two, three, or four parts

composer denotes

the

he places
division
(,
if

is

to

be made

into

the sign
to

is

is

two

If the

parts, the sign

3 or f &c.
,

is

and, lastly,

be divided into four parts, the

Upon an

a r-

is

it

by a sign which

the beginning of each piece.

the measure

sign of

respect to which,

in

at

if into three,

his intention,

inspection of the sign,

musicians say that the measure

common,

in

is

triple,

or quadruple time.
I

have said that the semibreve

unit of duration
ly

in

found

certain

the

at

we

is

considered as the

see the proof of this particular-

marks of time, which are sometimes

commencement of

a piece of music,

2
M>ch as f f f
-,
f , f f /- for these marks
Bhow that the space between two bars includes two
,

fourths,
rin Ire

thru

fourths,

fourths,

six

of

semibreve,

the

fourths,

or

nine

fourths,

two eighths,

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

:>

TART

three eighths, six eighths, twelve eighths, of the

Amongst

unit.

these

same

which are

those

quantities,

susceptible of being divided by 2, as f, , and f


belong to the measures in common time, which is
,

marked by

downward and upward motion of

hand, alternately

the

those which can be divided only

by three, as f |, }, and f are of the kind of measures in triple time, in which the hand makes three
,

motions

downward,

and upward; and,

to the right,

the quantities Jf2- and Jg2-, which may be divided by 4, belong to the measures in quadruple time,
lastly,

and are marked by four motions of the hand


ward, to the
All that

left,

to the right,

we have seen

down-

and upward.

thus far of the measure of

sounds and of silence presents none but quantities


of relative duration; and there
the absolute time which
signs.

Jndeed,

it

nothing to denote

is

belongs to each

would have been very

these

difficult, o/

rather impossible, to express by any si^ns that mathe-

matical duration, which can only be represented

by

the vibrations of the astronomical

clock, or by di-

visions of those vibrations.

if

exist

any means of indicating

the intention of the

compter would

frustrated in the execution;

performer would be
considered

as

at

unit,

Still,

there did

this duration in

he

inasmuch

for,

not

music,

frequent y
as

every

liberty to gire to the semibrere,

such duration as be pleased,

une piece would run the risk

sometimes with the slowness ^(

o\"

being executed,

lament, and some-

times with the liveliness of a contn-f/antc.

In order

CHAP.
to

MARKS OF TIME.

VI.

obviate

thought

this

of,

than to write

more

or

at

the begii ning

French words, v hich

of pieces certain Italian or


indicated, with

was

nothing better

inconvenience,

at first,

35

exactness,

less

the degree

of slowness or of quickness to be given to the n ensure, that

or

its

is

to the length of

to say,

Thus

parts.

the semibreve

the words largo, maestoso, lar-

ghctto, adagio, grave, lento, indicate different gradations of slowness

piacere,

andantino, andante, moderato, a

allegretto,

conwdo,

the

are

moderate motion

varieties of a

signs

of the

and, lastly, allegro,

con moto, presto, vivace, prestissimo, are signs of a


constantly-increasing quickness.
that, in these varieties

the semibreve and

its rest,

also in duration, to

more

relation

than there

is

It is

easy to see

of slowness and of quickness,

and their subdivisions, vary

such a degree, that there

is

no

between one semibreve and another,

between the

relative duration of a semi-

breve and that of a semiquaver.

movements so slow,

that five

In

fact, there

are

semibreves occupy a

minute; and others so quick, that forty semibreves

occupy the same space of time.

This variety of

absolute length does not affect the relative value of


the signs.

Formerly,

all

the pieces of instrumental

music,

composed by the most celebrated musicians, bore


the names of certain dances, such as those of allcmandes, sarabandes, courantes, gigttes, &c.

not that

they had the character, but merely the movement,

of those sorts of dances; and, these movements

be-

FART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

36
ing known,

was useless

it

of,

and the Italian words already

and many others

have been adopted

also,

How many

But how vague are these expressions!


gradations

there

are

between one alltgro, or

not

movement, and another

lively

and another

in

has become necessary to recur tc

it

other characteristics

spoken

ther

distinguish

Since these pieces have gone

any other manner.


out of fashion,

to

between

one adagio

Indications of this kind can never be

any thing more than approximations, subject to be


modified by the understanding or the particular or-

The consequen

ganization of every performer.


this is, that

music

rarely performed according to

is

the idea of the author, and that the same piece receives different characters in the hands of different

words

addition

In

musicians.

to

anger or

express

grief,

marked by the word


real
for
a

evil,

fell

to

movement

is

There

allrgro.

which has been

which stems
the

yet

for

these

i^(

there an

for

pieces, the passionate character of

and

use

the

this,

sometimes contradictory

is

is

in

tins

long time, and

which no remedy has been discovered until within


From the end i^f the Seventeenth cen-

few years.

tury,

chine

it

had been acknowledged,

would be

the

slowness or the rapidity

Manv

that

regular ma-

means o( regulating the


o( the movements o( music

best

persons, of musical and mechanical talent, have

been engaged
BtTUCtion

of music,

in

of such

named

studying the principles of


a

machine.
Loulie,

th<

In 1696, a pro!

proposed

^mc

wind

he

CHAP.

37

MEASURERS OF TIME.

VI.

About

called a chronometer, (measurer of time.)

same time,

Lafillard,

a musician

the

belonging to the

chapel of the king, invented another.

At

a later

period, Harrison, a famous English mechanician,

and

celebrated for his marine time-pieces, invented a machine, which appeared to be perfect, but which was

prevented, by

common
Paris,

use.

its

costliness,

from being brought into

In 1782, Duclos, a watchmaker

made another machine, which he

at

called

rln/thmomitcr, (measurer of rhythm,) and which


the time

received the

approbation of some distin-

To

guished musicians.

this

machine succeeded the

chronometer of a mechanician named Pelletier


form and mechanism of whose

now known.

The

invention

the

are

not

In 1784, Reneaudin, a watchmaker

Paris, constructed a

a
at

at

pendulum with the same design.

celebrated watchmaker Breguet also busied him-

same problem, without,


making known the result of his labors.

self with the solution of the

however,

Finally, Despreaux, a professor in the Conservatory

of Music, proposed, in 1812, the adoption of a chro-

nometer, having a face to indicate

its

movements,

and a pendulum, or balance, suspended by a silken


thread, the different lengths of

which would produce,

according to well-known physical laws, the different


degrees of quickness.

had

already

produced

Several

German musicians

chronometers of

this

kind,

\vhich have the double advantage of being simple in


their construction,

and of

trifling

expense, but which

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

88

PART

I.

have the inconvenience of not making sensible to the


ear the tick or stroke of the time.

An

which

invention,

has

Maelzel,

the metronome,
Institute,

length satisfied

at

skilful

Winkel of Amsterdam and


all

wants;

mean

which received the approbation of the

1816, and

in

claimed by two

is

Messrs.

mechanicians,

the

use

of which

is

now

generally known.

In this machine, each vibration of

the balance gives

an

The

audible click.

inventor

has taken for his unit a minute, to the divisions of

which correspond the measures of the music.

Every

gradation of movement, from the slowest to the most


rapid,

is

there expressed and represented by vibrations

of the balance, which are divisible,

measures of two, three, or four

at pleasure, into

which

and

parts,

represent, according to the fancy of the composer,

The

semibreves, minims, crotchets, or quavers.


plicity of the principle

merit.

of this machine

This principle consists

in

we

short rod for a very long

its

are able to

one,

and

produce great varieties of movement, by rery


changea

in

the

nie:ms of the

in

of the central

point

to

Blight

By

metronome, the whole system of the

division of time

whole and

position

simgreat

displacing the centre

of gravity, in such a manner, that


substitute

is

its

in

music

detail:.

is

represented,

both as a

CHAP

CHAPTER
of

what

39

EXPRESSION.

VII.

VII.

called expression in the execution

is

of music; the means of effecting it; and of

the signs by which

indicated.

it is

Hitherto we have considered


attributes of sounds,

namely,

remains to consider them


intensity, that

and length

it

of their

relation

to say, in their different degrees of

is

softness or of strength,

which

scription of the qualities by

The

tone
the

in

only two of the

will

complete the de-

which they

act

upon

us.

softness of sounds generally produces impres-

sions of calmness, repose, tranquil pleasure, and of

every gradation of these different states of the mind.

Loud, boisterous, and piercing sounds, on the contrary, excite strong emotions,

expression

of courage,

and are proper

anger,

jealousy,

for the

and other

but if sounds were constantly soft,


become wearisome by their uniformity, and if they were always loud, they would fatigue
both the mind and the ear.
Besides, music is not
violent passions

they would soon

designed merely to describe the states of the soul


object

is

its

frequently vague and indeterminate, and

its

result rather to please the senses,

mind.

This

is

particularly to be

than to address the

remarked

in instru-

mental music.
But, whether

we consider

the excitability of the

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

to

and the numerous changes of

faculties of the soul,

which they are susceptible, or


upon the senses only,

sions

it

that the intermixtures of soft

lrive
will

regard to imprest

he readily admitted

and loud sounds, and their

means of

various successive degrees, are powerful

pressing the one, and of giving birth to the other.


generally give the

name of

ex-

We

expression to this mixture

of softness and strength, to this increase or diminution

of force, and, indeed, to


istics

all

the accidental character-

of sounds; not because their object

always

is

they
of mere
nothing more than
cannot
vague, undelinable impression, but

to express

either ideas or sentiments,

frequently

the result

or of a

are

for

fancy,

it

be denied that their well-ordered intermixture has the

much

elFect to excite

us so

object

definite.

less

is

singers,

<

If

more vividly,
we should ask

the

instrumental

great

the

as

skilful

performers, what

in-

duces them to give strength to particular sounds,


to

make

others scarcely audible, and gradually to in-

crease or diminish their force,

sounds
to

in

connect them together with

and Boftness,
or,

rather,

know, but

we

they

souls

to

produce certain

tint

is

of their

graceful negligence

should wait long

would

they will be right,


the

an animated and very distinct manner, or

the
if

simply

way we

feel

answer;

for the

reply,

"We

"

do

noi

and certainly

they transfer their sensations to


auditors.

Further,

capable of observing themselves, they

if

will

they

are

acknowl

edge that the same passages line not always

a;'

SIGNS OF EXPRESSION.

CHAP.

VII.

them

in the

Jiem

same manner, but

that

it

41

has happened tc

express them with very different

to

though the result might be equally

feelings,

satisfactory.

This faculty of expressing the same musical thoughts

ways might be very inconvenient,

in several

if

each

one of several performers should follow the impression


of the

moment

for

it

might happen that one would

be executing his part with force, whilst another would


be performing his with softness, and a third would

sounds of a passage, which

distinctly articulate the

his neighbor

Hence

would think proper

to connect together.

composer should

arises the necessity that the

point out his

own

ideas, in regard to expression, as he

does in regard to the time, by unequivocal signs;

which, in

always done.

fact, is

The signs of expression


Some relate to the strength
sounds

are intended

others

or
to

are to be separated or connected


slight variations of the

of several kinds.

are

the softness of

to

show whether they


and others to show

movement, which contribute

to increase the effect of the music.

Some

Italian

words are used to show

to the per-

formers the different degrees of the force or softness

of sounds

piano,

or

simply p,

signifies

piece must be sung or played soft


pp, indicates an extreme
or f, loud
sition

from

cresc, or cr.

degree of softness

fortissimo, or ff, very loud.


soft
;

to

loud

that

is

the

pianissimo, or
;

The

forte,

tran

expressed by crescendo

that from loud to soft, by dccrcscnulo

diminuendo, smorzando, or by the

abbreviations of

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

42
these

words.

followed

soft

PART
sound

by a loud

I.

is

indicated by pf, and the contrary by fp.


A small
number of sounds, louder than others, is expressed

by rinforzanc/u,

or

forzandoy or fz.
inution

of

simply

Lastly, a

strength

sforzando,

rf;

by

indicated

is

or

sf;

sudden increase or dimthese

signs,

Fancy may multiply these marks, and

-==n :r=~.

imagine new ones; but these which we have mentioned are enough for singers and players in general.

As

to the expression

playing or singing,
is

which a great

it is

same

scarcely ever heard in the

similar circumstances, and

volumes of

artist

gives to his

the voice of the soul, which


tone, even under

which cannot be

Such

expi

multitude of

delicate shades of expression, prepared

beforehand,

to the eye by

signs.

would be both ambitious and cold, and would

injure,

instead of increasing, the effect of the music.

The signs of detached sounds are of two sorts.


The first consists of lengthened points placed over
the notes,

which indicate the greatest possible degree

of lightness, as well as distinctness, in the sounds.

When
degree

the

sounds are

to

be

of emphasis, the DOtefl

'
<

giren with
are

certain

surmounted

by

CHAP.

43

SIGNS OF EXPRESSION.

VII.]

round points, which are sometimes placed under


curved

as in this

line,

T"

A
is

example

F =F

curve, without the points placed over the notes,


the siffn of connected sounds

Eh^S^
r

The

alterations of the

of expression

movement, which are

means

sometimes abused, are indicated by

the words calando, con fuoco, cun moto,


sire to increase,

when we

de-

and by the word ritardando, when

we desire to diminish, the rapidity of


The composer most frequently leaves

the movement.
slight

changes

of this description to the understanding of the performers.

There
is

are

in

felt

some accessory

signs, the utility of

which

execution, but which have no reference to

the three principal qualities of sounds, and which, for


that reason,

The
what
is

is

do not think

it

worth while to explain.

preceding observations contain a sketch of


called notation; and, if the

mechanism of

it

understood by the reader, he will be able to follow,

PART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC

44

with ease, the rest of this work

mistake to suppose
with

The

requisite

efforts

be made

to

of that sort would be an absolute

book.

peop e

It

of very

is

in general,

when

study

reference

importance, whether

little

upon

called

form and ex-

to

press an opinion of a musical composition,

from a

to distinguish a do

quaver; but

the

all

in

in

loss,

memory

both of the author and the readers of

to the object
this

would be

it

the terms of art, and with the form of

all

signs.

for

necessary to burden the

it

is

it

stand the use of

sol,

know how

or a crotchet from a

necessary that they should under-

all

these things, were

only to save

it

themselves from the consequential pedantry o( those

who have made them


useful

as

it

is

music, cannot be doubted;

but,

advantage are almost always


others

vented, by
difficult art

that

who

make

as

that this

obstacle's,

book

fail

is

in

himself understood,

possess tins

number.

a small

to say, lor those

is

thousand

would consequently
to

is

it

compared with the

entire population of a country, those

for the

That

profound study.

agreeable to possess a knowledj

who

It

from Btudying

written

is

are prethis

and the author

his object,

be should

if,

in

order

require

his

readers to obtain a knowledge, the want oC which he

means to supply.
It would he an

error to suppose that the system o(

notation, above described, bus been

amongst the people of Europe.


wards
and

tlu

staff

It

at all

in

use

until

to-

times

wis not

close of the tenth century that the notes

began

to he

employed; and the number

of

CHAP.

MODERN

VII.]

on the

lines

system

underwent many changes.

latter

of notation,

known, was

45

NOTATION'.

not, at

first,

This

of which

is

not

generally adopted;

it

suf-

inventor

the

many signs, which


now abandoned, were introduced into it, in the
fered divers transformations;

are
fif-

teenth and sixteenth centuries, and their complication

was such, that

it

was then very

There

read and to write music.


sicians in existence
signs.

who

difficult to learn to

are not

now

ten

mu-

possess a knowledge of these

Notation did not begin to be simplified, and

to take its present form, until the reign of

Louis the

Thirteenth.

Discouraged by the multitude of the signs of musical notation,

more than

men

of talent, but

who were

scarcely

indifferent musicians, have attempted

to

introduce other systems, seemingly more simple, and

composed of ciphers
would be

or arbitrary signs

but, besides

changes are no more admissible than

that such

it

change the alphabet of a language,


since
they would produce the great inconvenience of throwing bark all those who understand music to a state of

entire

to

ignorance,

monument
will

of the

and of destroying every existing


art,

there

is

another reason, which

always cause the rejection of plans for the refor-

mation of the notation, however simple they may be;


that

is,

that the signs of these systems will not be so

sensible to the eye as those

plained, and,

which have

consequently, that

facility for the rapid

just

been ex-

they will offer no

reading of music, equal to that

of the system of notation

now

in use.

reproach

ij

PART

SYSTEM OF MUSIC.

46

often brought against this system, that there

of analogy in

parts.

its

This

is

is

I.

a want

All the

a mistake.

that

me connected in such a manner


no one of them can be removed without destroy-

ing

the

elements seem to

The multiplicity of clefs, even,


who are little skilled in the art,

system.

against which some,

have declaimed,

far

from being an embarrassment,

has indisputable advantages in certain cases.


In the origin of modern music, that

is

to say, about

the tenth and eleventh centuries, different systems of

notation might be tried, and the advantages and dis-

advantages of each might be examined;


period,

(the seventeenth

century,)

at

a later

we were

able to

give up the ridiculous scaffolding of certain relations

which

bristled over the reading of

insurmountable
in the art;

tion

is

difficulties,

but, in

its

music with almost

without the least real

on

actual condition, musical nota-

complete and logical system, which can no

longer be changed in the least without injury.

47

PART

II.

OF SOUNDS, CONSIDERED IN THEIR RELATIONS OH


SUCCESSION AND OF SIMULTANEOUSNESS; AND
OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF THESE RELATIONS.

CHAPTER

VIII.

OF THE RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

There

is

much

analogy between the impressions

made by music on
details,

gush of

who

those

In

his inspiration.

of

ignorant

are

and the sensations of a composer

the

at

general, the

public

struck only by a combined whole, of which

not perceive the parts, and the musician


excited to analyze his thoughts; but

is

when

too

is

does

it

much

the latter

wishes to write what he has invented, a great

ence arises between them

its

first

differ-

as soon as he takes his

pen, his mind becomes gradually calm, and his ideas


clear

phrases

his

musical

more or

periods

less

voices, the instruments

divide

regular

themselves into

under his eye; the

which accompany them, and

the dramatic expression of the words, cease to

make

one homogeneous whole.

Then

is

developed a musical thought which we

call

4-

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

melody

then

PART

II

shown the difference between sounds

is

which succeed one another, and those which are heard

Dumber

together; and then errors of

become

quantity to the poet

pi

as faults of

the arrangement of the voices

combinations of

the

the

in

as perceptible to the musician

sounds,

the

of the

selection

instruments, rhythm, every thing, indeed, becomes the

of a particular examination;

object

every thing

is

susceptible of improvements, the necessity of which

was not

at first

perceived, and art lends

aid to

its

genius.

Of

operations of mind, that by which a

the

all

composer of music conceives the


without hearing

sition,

difficult

it,

Beems

what

experience, observation, even


tion]

for

it is

which he

tion

to

that these melodies should

moved by

it

is

also

neo

be combined and divided

which

and,

lastly,

is

indispensable to anticipate the effect

it

is

necessary that
iter

or

less

all

this

number

should be accompanied by
or* instruments, differing in

character, powei, and quality of tone, and

such

the most

these

the situa-

sentiment

several voices of different characters, of

it

in

perspicacity,

melodies analogous to these divers objects;

find

among

talent,

Irishes to delineate, or the


to express

mAt

complication

an interior composi-

in

not enough to be

which he undertakes

compo-

be both the

What

and the most wonderful.

what variety of relations!

effect of his

to

manne

as will be the

conducive

things

to

emp

most satisfactory and

the general effect

Each of

implies a multitude of details,

l>_\

the

JHAP.

49

MELODY.

IX.

combination of which the elements of


art

The

become complicated.

throw

upon the paper which records

eye

his

this singular

musician has only

ta

his

inspirations, to have as just an idea of his composition


as if he heard

we

If

some

actually performed

it

our

carry

cipal things,

investigations

we remark

attention,

which concur

that

is

called melody

which

is

selection

ments
rest,

we have

namely, the
already seen,

from which

their simultaneousness,

harmony

music with

into

contains four prin-

in its effect,

succession of sounds, which, as

results

it

more or

sonorousness, (or quality of tone,)


less satisfactory,

according to the

and arrangement of the voices and instru-

and, lastly, accent, which gives

hut which itself escapes analysis.

relations

of

under three

taneous.nf.ss

sounds

I.

to

The

themselves,

present

aspects:

life

Succession;

all

the

sensible

therefore,
II.

Simul-

and, III. Sonorousness, (Quality.)

Each of these divisions

is

subdivided, as

we

shall see

hereafter.

CHAPTER

IX.

OF MELODY.
Tin: human voice

This

first

is

the basis and model of music.

of instruments,

at

once the most touching

ind the most fruitful in the variety of


itself

its

effects,

by

gives only the idea of successive sounds, with

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

50

PART

IL

Dut even suggesting the possibility of their simulta-

Hence

neous utterance.
the

melody

has

not

only so,

of those

without doubt, that

is,

it

when

observed,

first

is

modified the natural

early education

and not

tendencies;

melody alone which draws the attention

it is

who

are entire strangers to musical studies,

and the harmony of the accompaniments strikes


ear

vain

in

ago,

it

their

About twenty years

not heard.

is

it

was ascertained, by various experiments,

that a

part of the audience at our theatres believed that the

orchestra played in unison with

people are

now

provement

in

It is

it

when

who have made

harmony and melody

antiquity

knowledge of

the

im-

remarkable that the people

of Europe are the only ones

ages:

The

singers.

the methods of teaching, and to the in-

fluence of the press.

the union of

the

better informed, thinks to

it,

since the middle

seems not to have possessed acand the Orientals do not understand

they hear

It

it.

would be easy

the arrangements of the musical scale of

to show tliat
some nations

do not admit of harmony, and. on the other hind, tint


it

i<

dy

is

almost the necessary result of out


of

all

countries and of

all

are variable, like the elements

gamut

times; but

Melo-

it>

which enter

form.;

into

its

composition.
T

\Yr must not imagine that melody, such is


in

popular BOIlgS, and

than those of fancy.


nal genius,

when

certain laws

o['

it

at

i<

heard

the theatre, has no other rules

The

freest

and the most

origi*

invents airs, obeys, unconsciously,

proportion, the effect

o\

which

is

ne

CHAP.

RHYTHM.

X.

more

51

;onven1.ionnl than that of the

masses of soldiers

who move

at its

drum upon
beat.

Let

the

not

it

be supposed that this regularity of form affects those


only

who have

studied the principles of music: who-

ever has an ear not absolutely insensible or rebellious

perceives

The

effect,

its

without analyzing his sensations.

difference of quickness and of slowness, ranged

any regular order whatever, constitutes what

in

called rhythm, in music.


art

It

excites the most lively

is

by rhythm that

emotion?, and the effect

of rhythm increases by repetition.

continually met with

served

but

become

For instance,

followed by two quavers,

crotchet,

let it

in'

is

this

music,

is

succession

without being ob-

be prolonged a certain time,

it

will

rhythm capable of producing the greatest

effects.

Rhythm

is

susceptible of

much

variety.

In slow movements, such as the adagio and the


largo,

it

is

almost imperceptible

rapid movements,
it is

is

in

it is

but in moderate or

very remarkable.

perceptible only in the leading air

Sometimes
sometimes

it

found in the accompaniment; and there are cases

which two

the

air,

different

rhythms

the one placed in

the other in the accompaniment

produce a mixed

combine

to

effect.

Music deprived of rhythm is vague, and cannot be


ong continued without becoming wearisome. Still,
melodies of this kind are sometimes employed with
success, to express a certain melancholy reverie,

repose of the passions, a state of uncertainty, and

52

PART

RELATIf'NS OF SOUNDS.

oth

things

\r

of a

however, are

melody

has been said,

it

will

be perceived that

one of the laws of proportion, to which

is

subject.

is

perative;

cases,

rare.

From what
rhythm

Such

character.

similar

II

it

It

the

is

first

and the most im-

admits the fewest exceptions, and offers

the strongest inducements to obedience.

The

perception of rhythm in music

compound.

ple or

of combination

when

It

is

simple

of time

when

heard

is

is

it

either sim-

only one kind


is

compound

combinations are heard

different kinds of

to-

gether.

The
the

fewer the elements of the symmetrical order,

more simple

The

the sensation.

is

elements of

rhythm are the parts of the measure, and


visions,

whether double or

their di-

triple.

Examples of seme Elements of simple Rhylf m.


Doable.

&

&

&

<3

r r r r

&

v\ C

II

-I

ll

r r r

&

fee

r r f

<S?

KC
&
I

rrr r r
^^

*^i

r r
i

r^^i

^^

i-

^^

^^i

&

CHAP

RHYTHM.

IX.

5:J

Triple.

&
ill

&
*

c r

ccr

The

&

ill
r

r.

u
1

&c.

c r
u

c c r

simplicity of the sensation of

ishes as the

&c.
&,c.

rhythm dimin-

number of elements entering

into

its

composition increases.

Examples of Rhythm composed of

several Elements.

Double Rhythm.
<>

&

uu

& &

Triple Rhythm.

* ^
The
the

effect of a

very simple rhythm being to affect

organ of hearing

ception of

rhythm

it

is

uu'ff li

easy;

in a
it

uniform manner, the peris

not the same

when

the

produced by numerous elements, various


y
combined. In the two last examples, each measuie
is

contains different elements, and each of them, conse-

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

54

luentlv, produces a distinct sensation


follows that the

But

new

from which

symmetry of arrangement

therefore, that the rhythmical relation


relation of

such combinations.

In

II.

is lost,

and,

weakened.

is

numbers may

result

from

without count-

fact, the ear,

number of measures, is sensibly affected by


number; hence arises the necessity of repetition;
and, if the ear is satisfied in this respect, a new kind

ing the
that

of rhythm
this

is

created by the symmetry of the phrases

rhythm constitutes the phraseology, which

called, in music, carrurc dcs phrases, that

balancing of the phrases.

the quadrature or

is

to say,

is

The

number of correspondtherefore, a new kind


of

necessity of symmetry, in the

measures,

ing

rhythm, when

creates,
this

symmetry no longer

exists in the

elements of the rhythm of the time; and

rhythm

is

more

the

this

new

satisfactory to the ear, according

to the exactness of the

resemblance

in the arrange-

ment of the rhythmical elements of each

measure.

Thus

given as

the

rhythms which

have been

last

become regular and perceptible,


phrases similar in the number of measures, and

examples

will

if

the

arrangement of the parts of the measure, should be

made

to

correspond

composed of

with

each of those

examples

four measures.

Urn m pics.
Double Hlivtlim.

nr

First

IMirase.

rrlr ::rrl r

ni

hiai\

55

RHYTHM.

ix.

Second Phrase.

&

Z>

6
tZ>

r
Triple

Rhythm.

-11

First Phrase.

I*

'II

* ^

Second Phrase.

r^>
I

r~

^ ^ ^

In these examples there

only in respect to the

is

I!

a correspondence, not

number of measures

in

each

phrase, but also in respect to the arrangement of the

elements of the rhythm in the measures;


agreeing exactly with the
second, the seventh
with the fourth.
ble

the

instead

there

The

is

is

first

the

fifth

with the

with the third, and the eighth


is

first

observa-

example;

of two minims in the fourth measure,

only one in the eighth, followed by a

reason of this difference

sense

sixth

difference, however,

between the two phrases of the

for,

the

first,

is,

rest.

that the rhythmical

closed at the end of the two phrases, and that


half of the last measure

is

just the point of

the termination.

The arrangement

of the phraseological rhythm

not always so regular as in these examples; but

may be

asserted that the less regularity th< re

is

is
it

in

56

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
arrangement, the more feeble

the

is

TART

II,

the perception

of this kind of rhythm.

The

expression quadrature of phrases, which

is

made use of to designate the phraseological


rhythm, might make one think it absolutely nect

ordinarily

compose all phrases in four measures but there


no such necessity for, as there is a triple rhythm
to

the divisions of a measure, there


in

phrases.

is

rhythm

also a triple

phrase of three measures,

is

in

if

has

it

another phrase of three measures to correspond with


it,

will

be in perfect rhythm
agreeable,

especially

if

and the rhythm

will

be

the arrangement of the ele-

ments of the rhythm of each measure correspond


perfectly in the

There

two phrases.

are also corresponding phrases of five incis-

ures each; but, in respect to them, the same obe


lion

may be made,

as of the

of the measure, which


to introduce

into music;

absolutely unable to

rhythm of

and that

is,

that the car

apprehend the relation

quintuple combination, and that,

if

triple

them

it

is

because

into alternate double and

produced relations of order, which

timately satisfy the ear.


part-

series

is

this

rhythms, and the symmetry which result- from

repetition has

live

iA'

such combinations

have been attempted with some success,


the ear has separated

five divisions

some authors have attempted

presents

of measures

A sequence

itself to
<^'

ul-

^( measui

the ear B9 an

alternate

two and three part<:

quence of phrases of five measures is an alternate


combination of phrases of two and three measures;

whence

57

QUADRATURE OF PHRASES.

JHAl'. IX.

it

follows that the phraseological

phrases of five measures


therefore, the weakest in

Sometimes the

is
its

rhythm of

effect

on the

ear.

phrase of four measures

first

divided by a rest occurring in the middle of


is

to say, at the

end of two measures; and,

case, the ear requires that the

should be
phrase.

felt in

I shall

and,

the least simple,

it,

is

that

in this

same musical pause

the supplementary or corresponding


cite, as

an example of

this,

from the

romance of The Prisoner.

mM
In this example,

of which

sition,

is
is

the

commencement of

the completion.

propo-

1,2, 3, 4, are

Corresponding and symmetrical members of phrases.

Sometimes the musical sense remains suspended

58

RKLATIONS OF

the second phrase of four

after

measures

case, a third phrase of four

this

We

satisfy the ear.

PART

SO( \|)<.

and, in

must be added,

an example of

find

II.

this

to

the

in

The Marriage of Figaro,

celebrated canzonet from

which begins with these words

Mon

coetir soupirt6,

&c.

F
"

f-r

It

F
*-

would be

V
^E
-

b^ n ^

a piece of

said, that

draw the inference, from

a mistake, to

what has been

musio must

ways contain an equal number of measures;


frequently happens, in the

any other piece written


final

finaU o{ an opera,
several

for

measure of one phrase serves

voices,
also

as

al-

for

or

it

in

thai

the

the

first

another phrase, which makes the number ofmeas-

for

ires
his

at

the end

unequal, without offending the

kind of overlapping

is

even an ornament, when

judiciously done.
It

sometimes happens

or of three

thai

measures occurs

in

single phrase of five

the

middle of other

CHAP

QUADRATURE OF PHRASES.

IX.

59

phrases which are regular and balanced

but such

a defect always offends a delicate ear, and one


affirm
that,

beforehand, that the phrase

by considering

have balanced
for

this

may

made, and

ill

the author might

carefully,

it

Cases of

it.

is

kind are very rare

the musician conforms himself to the carrure ot

phrases, as a poet does to the measure of his verses


naturally, and without thinking of

it.

However, certain popular melodies of mountainous


countries, as Switzerland, Auvergne, Scotland, are
kind, and are
is

numerous

by

characterized

still

of this

irregularities

The

not disagreeable.

irregularity

even that which pleases the most in these sorts of

melodies, because
liar,

strange,

contributes to give

it

and,

if

you

them

a pecu-

physiognomy,

wild

will,

which excites our curiosity by drawing us out of our


accustomed
that
dies,

which

But we must not be deceived

habits.

soon becomes fatiguing,

if

we

are not relieved

by other music; and the irregularity, which


serve in them, and which pleased us at

becoming

attracts us, for an instant, in these melo-

monotonous and

first,

affected.

we

ob-

ends by

musician

may make an advantageous use of such melodies


but he must know how to employ them judiciously,
;

and must not be too prodigal of them.


Melody, the

of imagination and of fancy, and

fruit

apparently free from

all

trammels,

is,

let to three conditions, upon which


depends; namely,
ber.

We

shall

fitness of tone,

therefore, subits

existence

rhythm, and nu n-

see presently that there

is

another,

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

30
not Jess

important, not

burdensome:

mean

refer

and more

imperative,

less

modulation,

to

which we

by

the change from one key to another,

to say,

IL

that

is

from the scale of one note into the scale of

another.

It

is

necessary to explain the mechanism

and the object of these changes of key.

same key,

If a piece of music were wholly in the

consequence would be a fatiguing uniformity,

the

which

is

word

exactly expressed by the

single tone.)

Little

airs,

admit unity of tone, without giving


able

monotony.

But, in

demands of the

When

of phrases.

piece of some

composer desires

of modulation, or rather

extent.

subjected to

is

rhythm and the form

like

ear,

alone

style,

rise to a disagree-

modulation becomes necessary, and


the

inoiiotunij, (a

a simple

in

when he

is

make

to

led to

it

use

by

he

nature of the airs which he invents, a difficulty occurs in the selection of keys.

In fact,

is

it

succession of keys that will please the ear.

is

For

this

must be some analogy between the

purpose, there

key which

not every

dropped and that which

and yet there are

great

many

modulation must be unexpected

in

is

cases, in

taken up;

which

the

order to he agree

able.

In

reflecting

to arise
in

from

upon the contradiction which seemj

this

double uecessity, we perceive

every piece, there are

the
piece:

The

one, principal,
the

other.

a<

two

which
xeSSOry,

sorts

settles

and

that,

modulations

the ityle of the

only

principal modulation! having for

it>

episotical.

objec

not

.'HAP.

MODULATION

IX.

GJ

only to contribute to the variety of the piece, bul

o present with clearness the thought of the composer, admits only the analogous keys of

which we

have spoken; whilst incidental modulations, being designed to arouse the attention of the hearer by their
striking

not

are

effects,

The more

subject

satisfactory they are

the

more unexpected the

more they enhance the

the

But here a new

may be

"Whatever

any such law.

to

more

natural and simple the former, the

latter,

effect.

difficulty

which

arises,

this:

is

key chosen by the

the principal

author of a piece of music, several others are grouped

about
with

it,

it

in

such a manner as to have

for,

if it

minor key,

relative

that

which has a sharp or


which has a sharp or
it

key,

that

is

have a sharp or a

flat

then

that

lastly,

that

is

room

for

more

in

lost.

It

is

which

it

is

obvious that,

which we could leave

moment,

from the music would be


entirely

those

But which of

Here, fortunately,

for

way

then

or less.

the principal key, the modulation


foreseen, and, from that

on the contrary,

the relative major

and

choice

there were only one

if,

first

these keys must be adopted

there
if

flats,

the

which has

which has the same num-

to say, that

ber of sharps or of

all

find

analogy
first

flats,

less

flat

minor key, we

is

find

more, and,

or of

flat

much

to say, that

is

same number of sharps

the

we

a major key,

is

would be always

the pleasure derived

much

lessened, or even

enough, to make a modulation

agreeable and regular, that

it

should proceed from

62

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

II.

the principal key to one of the analogous keys,


that

is

to say, that

it

should add a sharp or

melody, or cut off one from

major key,

1
D, for example,
two sharps, namely, at F and C

may be

poser

which there

in

minor,

in

ari

com

the idea of the

w Vtber he

equally simple and natural,

conducts his modulation into

to tho

flat

Let us suppose a

it.

which

there

tion

same number of sharps, whether the nWula


passes into A, in which there is one sharp m re

into

the

is

sharp minor, in winch, also, there

more, or into G, in which there

is

a sharp less

is

s \rj.
far-

cy alone determines the choice.

Every principal modulation, therefore, may be mad*


into lour different keys.
that

And

let

it

not be thought,

the pedantry of the schools has reduced

number of means

this limited

those whose genius

is

the most independent

compelled

been reluctantly

Ufl

to

the boldest coin;'

to

confine

hate

themselves

within these limits, because they have ascerl lined that

every thing which goes beyond them offends, instead


of pleasing, the ear.

They do

not

allow thems

ramble, nor give themselves np to their im

to

tion, in

That

changes of key,
is,

key

in tlir

until they

major modr.

have

In the

tir>t

regularl)

music of the ancients

number of mules; in modern music, there


are hut two, anil the word has not the s ime meaning. Th<
model are the major and the minor. The mode is DULJOT when the
is
the distance of two tones,
liird note of the BCale, in any ke\
there was quite

ITgO

and the sixth

The mode

first.

tone

at

t(

:it

the distance of tour


is

minor when

'..-nes

tlie-e

two

and

half,

from the

intervals are

half a

CHAP.

63

MODULATION.

IX.

established the principal modulation


tlii

ing the ear, give

it

have said that

the most lively pleasure.


all

composers conform to the regu-

system of principal modulation

lar

among

that,

purpose,

it is

common

ought to add,

may be used

the four keys which

for this

to adopt one, in preference to

Thus,

the others, for the most frequent repetition.

all

though the most simple, natural,


adopted modulation

from

passes

which has

A,

done

but, having

other and unexpected changes, far from displeas-

is

the

melody

major key into another major key,

a flat less, or a sharp more, as from

or from a minor key to

as from

universally-

which

in

that

and

B minor

to

major,

its

yet

to

major key,

relative

some musicians

have preferred modulations less common, and have

made use of them

Rossini, for instance,

habitually.

has adopted the modulation which passes from a major


to a

minor key, with one sharp more, as from the key

of

major to the key of

employed
out,

Such

4,

sharp minor

but he has

form so frequently, that he has worn

and even rendered

of tone;
ber

this

it

it trite.

are the principal laws of

symmetry of rhythm

melody

\, fitness

symmetry of numregularity of modulation.


It would be an
2,

3,

error to suppose that these laws are so


cles to the

development of ideas

for

many

obsta-

rhythm, number,

and modulation, are so essential to a musician, that he


obeys their laws without observing
instinct;

his

it,

and almost by

mind being wholly occupied by

the

graceful, energetic, gay, or impassioned character of

Pt
1

How many

melody.

is

formidable,

other difficulties,

he obliged to overcome,

is

ment and arrangement of


posing

for

words,

ment of the

we

much more

in the develop-

his ideas!

dramatic

in the

It'

he

com

is

arrange-

style, the

verses, the prosody, the rapidity of action,

and many other circumstances,


as

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

shall see hereafter

triumphs over them

fetter

him much more,

and yet the

man

of genius

This faculty of inventing,

all.

of preserving the impetus, the excitement, and the


delirium of a piece of music, and of becoming impas-

many

sioned in the midst of so

maining independent
of managing
the way,

it

is

in the

with dexterity, as
a mystery

re-

ot

if

nothing stood

in

which none but composers

When we

themselves can comprehend.


these things,

difficulties,

choice of a subject, and

we cannot but admit

that

on

reflect

all

may be

there

some merit even in music which is barely tolerable.


There are some melodies which are attractive <'t
themselves, and without extraneous ornament,
that of accompaniment

the assistance of

produce

their

origin of which

them.

is

person

melodious! require

harmony of some
There

effect
in

There

but they are very few.

are others, which, though purely

are

order to

sort, in

again, the

others,

the harmony which accompanies

who

is

not insensible to the effect of

sounds, easily seize- the character of melodies o( the


iir-t

kind

hence thev quickly become popular.

odiea which do m>t


;iid

produce

of an accompaniment

great musical attainment-

their

ofsome
;:i

effect

sort,

!-

without the

do not require

ordei IO be

felt

but

-till

CHAP.

MELODY.

IX.

they can only please ears

65

which are accustomed

tc

music As to melodies of the third kind, whicr


we may call harmonious melodies, musicians alone are
competent to appreciate them
because, instead of
hear

being the result of a simple idea, they are complicated


of divers elements, and consequently require a sort of
analysis, in order to be

which

ning, but which people in

slowly and with difficulty.


it

is

wrong

done, that there

is

no

melodies, and

analysis

air

light-

make

general can only

They

are not the less real

to cry out, as

whatever

contains a melody of this kind


case, to say only that the air

To

an

comprehended,

musician makes with the rapidity of

is

in

is

frequently

we ought,

which

a piece
in

such

not readily perceived.

attempt to catch the spirit of

it

would add

to

our

enjoyment, and would not require a very long study


but our natural indolence exercises

its

influence even

over our pleasures.

Though melody seems

to be

body can appreciate with ease,

a thing
it

is

of the parts of music upon which

erroneous judgments.
the opera,

who do

There

which every

nevertheless one

we

pass the most

ar? f w frequenters of

not think themselves competent to

pronounce upon the originality of a melody


besides that their musical learning
that purpose,

how

is

and

yet,

insufficient for

often are they not deceived by the

ornaments of the singer, which give a seeming novelty


to airs that

have long gone by

there are dressed up

How many

old things

anew by means of accempani

66

PART

RELATIONS OF BOUNDS.

meats of

and of new instruments, ana

different sorts,

by changes of movement, of mode, and of key

And

whilst

which

we do not perceive

the real analogies

between one old melody, and another

exist

which we believe

we

II

to

be new, how often

it

happens

we
some similitude of rhythm between two
melodies whose character, forms, and inspiration,

that

discover imaginary resemblances, because

observe

have nothing

common

in

innumerable;

But,

it is

This

is

All

sensations.

right to say that such a

ems

decide

upon
it.

its

is
is

it?

capable of judging of

undeniable:

melody pleases him, or

merits,

if

he

are

properly

not

is

Thank Heaven, we
tliev

what

but

That every one ha-

analyze the measures of phrase^,

whether

agreeable

is

insignificant or disagreeable to him:

analyzing

examina-

this

a matter of feeling rather than

this

must we conclude from

all

melody

a particular

of analysis, and every body

tain

errors again, with

no need of

said, there is

know whether

or otherwise.

kind are

same assurance.

tion, to

his

same

into the

fall

this

make us doubt the


and we are always ready,

never

of our judgment

infallibility

nevertheless, to

the

Blunders of

but they

the

that

capable

are not obliged


in

it

but not to

^(
to

order to a>cer-

balanced:

Rich

who has the sentiment of


music, is never necessary, when the ear has been
properly cultivated, in respect t> rhythm and number

labor,

We

unworthy

must labor

oi"

any our

to give perfection to this

organ; and

CHAP.
to

do

MELODY.

IX.

alone

this, attention

67

required, without resorting

is

Let any one, instead of giving

to the aid of science.

himself up, without reserve, to

vague pleasure

the

jvhich he receives from an air or a duet, set himself

o examine its construction,


ment and the repetition of

to consider the arrangeits

be painful, and
but,

break

will

phrases, the principal

At

rhythms, the cadences, &,c.


in

his

by degrees, a habit of attention

which

will

which,

at

will

seemed

to

enjoyment;
be formed,

Then

become spontaneous.

soon

first,

the labor will

first,

upon

become the foundation of

calculation will

that

be merely a matter of dry

judgment, and the source of the most

readv

lively grat-

ification.

There

another objection, which

is

made, and which must not be


as

it is

specious, and

may

is

very freely

without an answer,

give rise to doubts even in

""Beware of

well-constituted minds.

who

left

all

this science,"

under the dominion of an unconquerable indolence " it only weakens your pleas-

say

those

are

ures.

The

arts

procure us enjoyment only so

Do

their effects are unforeseen.

knowledge, the result of which

to acquire a

you to judge rather thin to


is

feel."

far

as

not seek, therefore,


will

enable

All this reasoning

founded upon the following axiom of philosophy

"Feeling

is

comparison."

the result of perception;

But the improvement of the organ of

hearing, which results from


effect

of sounds,

perceiving

judgment, of

is

better,

an

observation

of the

nothing more than the means of

and

of

thereby

increasing

the

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

68

amount of
is

its

while

all,

passes judgment upon music;

ence of a blind

means of
will

come

shall explain

first is

the influ-

others by

Who

to treat of dramatic

or

When

expression, I

several

it is

that the

can instinctively appreciate.

CHAPTER

and, united

better than the last?

what portion of the melody

least practised ear

II

X.

IRMONY.
simullane

heard

sounds are

together, strike

the

ear

agreeably, they receive the collective

The

Every body

some under

a cultivated taste, and with reflection.

venture to say that the

When

this reason, attention

and very hastily

instinct,

II

none can derive much

imperfect knowledge.

from

advantage

For

enjoyments.

necessary for

PART

more

name

i<ly,

or

less

<^ chords.

general system of chord-, and the laws of their

succession, belong

to a

branch of the musical

art

name of harmony.
Harmoni) is a generic word, when it signifies the
sci. nee of chord.-; hut we Bay al>< the harmony of a
which

chord,

is

designated bj the

when Used

to

point

This

produces upon the ear.


poverty of musical lau_r,
In

out
is

the effect

which

an example

o\"

it

thf

consequence of the education o( modern civilized

nations,

it

might

l>e

supposed that the sentiment

et

CHAP.

HARMONY.

X.

harmony

is

existed in

him from

there

much

is

idea of

so

natural
all

to

The

that

This

must have

it

a mistake, for

is

probability that the ancients had no

and the Orientals, even

it;

our music

effect of

man,

time.

wholly unacquainted

are

u'9

with

chords

in

at the present day,

is

The

mysteries.

its

unpleasant to them.

Romans had

question whether the Greeks or the

any knowledge of harmony, has been warmly contro-

no purpose; since

verted, but to

any proofs on either

allege

of the word harmony

Greek

it

The

in the

the air of an ode of Pindar, and that of a

Nemesis, with some other fragments, are

to

in

equivalent

music which have reached

that has been preserved of the ancient

and

impossible to

is

nowhere found used

or Latin treatises of

our times

hymn

is

side.

them we

find

all

Grecian music;

no traces of chords;

in fact, the

form of the lyre and of the harp, the small number


of their strings,

which

could not be modified like

those of our guitars, those instruments being destitute

of necks,

bility to the
til.-

opinion of those

existence of

harmony

who do

in the

tliink,

however,

it

music of the ancients.


exists in na-

might be shown, from the very nature of the

musical scale of the Greeks, that they could not'

harmony,

in

the

delicate question,
2

These

sense

we

attach

of

the

word

make use of

but this

is

were written between the time of Alexande


The most important are those
Quintili'in, Alypius, Ptolemy,
ap^
Aristidcs,

treatises

Aristoxenus,

to

which need not be discussed here.

and the end of the Greek empire.

Boece.

proba-

not believe in

Their adversaries object that harmony


1

much

these reasons, I say, give

all

70

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
True, but how many things

ture.

which are not observed


in nature,

first

traces of

until

but

nature,

in

Harmony

is

become accustomed to it.


harmony make their appearance

of the middle ages, towards the ninth

in the writers

century

exist

long time!

for a

I*

and yet the ear of the Turk, the Arab, and

the Chinese, has not

The

PART

remained

it

in

state

of barbarism

towards the middle of the fourteenth,

it. which

time some of the Italian musicians began to give

Among

more agreeable forms.

it

these musicians, the

most distinguished were Francis Landino, surnamed


Francesco Cie<o, because he was blind, or Francisco

on account of

(Tegli organi,

and James of Bologna.

improved

upon the

afterwards

hands of two French musicians,

the

in

his skill

Harmony was

William Dufay and Giles Binchois, and an English-

man, John Dunstable,

all

of

whom

the

lived in

first

Their scholars added

half of the fifteenth century.

to their discoveries; and, since thai time,

harmony his

been continually enriched by the production o( new


effects.

The
makes

habit of hearing

us

the

(eel

harmony from our infancy

need of

besides, that nothing

more

is

it

of musical civilization to which


rare that

music.

It

seems,

we have

arrived,

it

is

two voice- >im together, without endeavoring


r

to

harmonize,

ea

-h

title,

in

natural, and. in the Mate

voice

i-

that

i-

to say, to

make concord-.

able to produce only a single sound at

A<
a

two voices, when united, can only make chords

of two sounds;

ami these are the simplest possible

HARMONY.

CHAP. X

They

chords.

is

to another;

and the

which

Thus

sounds.

sounds

between the two

exist

between two adjoining

the interval

two sounds

a second; that between

called

is

of inter-

some distance from


names of these intervals

necessarily

express the distances

one sound

name

are designated by the

because there

vals,

71

separated by another, a third; that which includes


four sounds, a fourth

and so on, according as the

distance from one sound to the other


sixth, seventh, eighth,

fifth,

The

is

increased,

(or octave,)

and ninth

names

intervals greater than a ninth preserve the

of third, fourth, fifth, &,c, because they are nothing

more than double

or triple thirds, fourths, fifths, &,c,

and because their

analogous to that of the

effect is

simple intervals.

we have

If

not

forgotten* that

different

sounds,

common

such as D[}, D^, and D#, preserve the

denomination of D, by means of the idea of positive

names of

existence attached to the

have no

shall

terval
if

may

always the second of C, the

is

second

mode,

is

or

natural, or sharp,

reduced to

find

C may

infor,

be

in

and then the

called

its

smallest extent,

The same

a minor.

example, the interval from


that

and

in

only the signs of a single key and


interval, in its

greatest extension, relative to the key,

second;

we

notes,

that each

be more or less extended or contracted.

will

interval

which we

the

be presented under different aspects

the state of flat,

An

conceiving

difficulty in

from Cl^

to

C^

D^

to
is

is

D[)
a

major.
is

For

a vrinor

major second.

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

72

But

than minors or greater than majors,

name of

by the

to

sidered only
is

no key

as

momentary

which

in

likewise; and, for the


Cl^ to G^r

is

the

diminished, and the others by

a diminished fourth,

is

intervals smaller

we designate

For example, the

that of augmented.

C#

II

by a momentary alteration, which does not

if,

conform to any key, we construct

first

PART

alteration

same reason, the

The

an augmentedfifth.

there

for

sharp, whilst

is

from

interval

which can be con-

is

not so

interval

from

different degrees

of extension of the intervals are, therefore, of four

kinds

diminished, minor, major, augmented.

Formerly, the terms true and false were used

for

the varieties of extension of the fourth and fifth; but,


as there

is

no place

in

music

for

what

false, these

is

improper expressions have been abandoned.

The same

effect is not

produced by

or chords of two sounds:


their

harmony, whilst others

ably,

and can

others.

We

satisfy

intervals,

the intervals

affect the car

only

Dame

give the

to the agreeable

it

all

some of them please by

o\'

when united with

the

consonance (or accord)

and that o( dissonana (or

discord) to the others.

The
sixth,

consonant intervals are the third fourth, Ji tf/i,


',

and the octave.

The

dissonant are the second,

seventh, and ninth.

The
the

intervals, both

property

notes whatever

an

inferior

consonant and dissonant, have

of inversion; thai

or

may

be,

superior

in

is

to

say,

any two

regard to each oth

position.

-,

For example,

in

HARMONY.

CHAP. X

oeing the inferior note, and

between tliom

val

note, and

The
nances

is

a third;

73

the superior, the inter-

but

if

is

the inferior

the superior, they form a sixth.

inversion

consonances produces

of

conso-

that of dissonances begets dissonances

thus

the third inverted produces the sixth, and the fourth


the

fifth

the latter produces the fourth, the sixth pro-

duces the

third, the

second the seventh, and the sev-

enth the second.


It

was

a long time in dispute

a consonance or a dissonance

whether the fourth

have been written on the question

might have been spared

much bad

the disputants

reasoning,

The

had thought of the law of inversion.


a

consonance

a consonance

the

of which

fifth,

Inversion
for

it

is

is

it is

for

it is

they

if

fourth

inferior in quality to the others

still it is

is

and two large books

is

but

derived from another,

the inversion.

a source of variety to the

harmony

merely necessary to change the position of

the notes, in order to obtain different effects.


I

have said that the consonant intervals are agreeable

of themselves, and that the others


their

combination with the

difference
free,
to

is,

first.

become

The

that the succession of

so only by

result of this

consonances

succeed each other as we please.

Two dissonances,

on the contrary, cannot succeed each other; and


resolution of a dissonance

sonant note must be

This

is

and that we may make as great a number of them

rule,

in the

upon a consonance, the

made

to descend

dis-

one degree

which cannot be violated without offenc*

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

74

I'AIIT

however, always respected by

to a delicate ear, is not,

Rossini and the composers of his school

master of Pesaro

II.

may be pardoned

but,

for his

the

if

negligence

on account of

his genius,

that the rule

founded upon undeniable relations

is

is

it

not the less cettair


o.

sounds, which cannot be violated with impunity.


If
fifth,

we

unite two or three intervals, as the third,

and eighth,
but

sonance;

one chord,

in

if to

be a run-

this will

consonances we

several

add a

dissonance, the chord will become dissonant.

number of dissonant chords,

greater

In the

there

only

is

one dissonant; there are some, however, which contain two.

If

we were obliged

enumerate

to

the

all

intervals

which enter into the composition of a chord of four


or

sounds,

five

nomenclature of these chords

the

would be embarrassing
and fatiguing to the
chord which

and octave,

is
is

the

language of the science,


but

called,

par
it

the

of their composition.

between

eXlStfl

we

name of

lor

the

tin-

the

and

the cithers are

All
is

Thus
is

(or

most satisfactory to

the most
a

charac-

chord formed

called the chord of

because thai interval establishes the

ence which

The

so.

third, fifth,

kind of harmonic period,

of the third, sixth, and octave,

gi?

not

excellence, the perfect


is

which gives the idea Of repose.


designated 1>\ the interval, which

the .</V//,

is

only one which can be used

conclusion of e\erv

teristic

it

formed by a union of the

common) chord, because


the ear,

jo the

memory

differ-

and the perfect chord;

the chord of the

s<

cond

to

thai

CHAP.

X.

which

is

HARMONY.
composed of the second,

because the second


to be resolved

It

fourth, and

sixth,

the dissonance, which require*

is

by descending; and we

of the seventh that which


fifth,

75

the chord

call

composed of the

is

third,

and seventh, &lc.


is

particularly in chords

composed of three or

of four notes, that the variety resulting from inversion


is

under as many different relations as

For example,

there are notes in their composition.


the perfect chord

the

in the

and

fifth

this

notes, either

composed of the

is

the perfect chord.

is

In the

second, the chord includes the third and sixth


the chord of the sixth.

intervals

are

may be performed,

in

this

Lastly, in the third, the

the fourth and

chord of the fourth and

Tn

inferior position.

arrangement, the chord

first

third

composed of three

is

may be placed

of which

is

may

manifested; for the harmony of these chords

strike the ear

sixth

sixth.

and

this

The same

regard to

all

the

is

operation

the chords, and

gives rise to groups of different forms and denomina-

which

it

is

not necessary to enumerate here,

since this book

is

not a treatise on harmony.

tions,

enough

There

are

some dissonant chords which do not

fend the ear, even

any preparation
nant chords.

when heard

directly,

is

first

of-

and without

and these are called natural disso-

There

are

some

others,

which would

ha* e a disagreeable effect, if the dissonant note

not at

It

to get a clear idea of the operation.

heard in a state of consonance.

cessity for this gives rise to the

were

The

ne-

term preparation of

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

7(j

kind of chords

is

designated

by the name of chords by prolongation.

In othe"

the dissonance

and

chords, one note

more

ters

is

this

substituted for another, which en-

In this

naturally into their composition.

condition, these chords are called chords by substitu-

Chords by alteration are those

tion.
is

momentary

alteration of

the introduction of an accidental sharp,


ral.

Lastly, there are

which there

in

one or several notes, by

some harmonies

or natu-

flat,

which pro*

in

ongation, substitution, and alteration, are combined,

(wo by two, or

together.

all

If

it

also, that all these modifications are

we may have some

the inversions,

be considered,

reproduced

gious variety of forms of which harmony


ble.

This variety

is

still

in all

idea of the prodi-

further

is

suscepti-

by the

increased

caprice of certain composers, who, in their chords,

sometimes anticipate the harmony of the following


chords:
in

many
In

all

in

more

which

is

not without etlect.

which we hive spoken, the

the chords of

sounds have
rect,

kind of modification, though incorrect

this

oases,

relation to each other,

or less logical;

this relation

hut there

more
are

or less di-

some
In

almost entirely disappears.

these BOrtS of harmonic anomalies, a low. middle, or

high voire or instrument

sound during

prolonged sound
origin of

its

certain
is

is made to Bustain a
number y^ measures.

called

invention,

it

made

This

the p.dal, because, in the

was employed only

music of the church by the organist, who,


purpose,

simile

in

for

the
thai

u>e o( the [ndals of Ins instrument

CHAP.

HARMONY.

X.

Upon

77

the pedal or sustained note a varied

harmony

is

executed, and frequently produces a very good effect,

though

which

is

a singular thing

the pedal sound

and the harmony bear only a remote relation


other
in a

it

sufficient if the relation

is

proper manner

When

at

in

had not

yet

as

acquired

the music of the church, the organ

wis almost the only instrument made use of


kind of music.

Its

for that

use was even limited, for a long

time, to supporting the voices, in the order in


their part

When

bass of the organ

hand of the

artist

the vocal bass was silent,

was

also silent,

was then occupied

We

part of the tenor or contralto.


to

which

was written, without mingling any thing

foreign with them.

the

each

the conclusion.

instrumentation

importance

to

reestablished

is

in

and the

left

executing the

commonly

ascribe

Louis Viadana, chapel-master of the cathedral of

Mantua, the invention of a bass independent of the


voice, to be executed

upon the organ, or any other

keyed instrument, and which, from

its

not being in-

terrupted, like the ancient bass, received the

continued bass.

the idea of this bass at the


first

gave the precise rules

lished in 1606, at the end


positions.

name of

Several musicians seem to have had

By means

same time; but Viadana


for

it

in a treatise

pub-

of a collection of his com-

of figures placed above the notes

of this bass, he expressed the chords of the different


voices,

and thus dispensed with writing, upon the part

designed
roices.

for

that

belonged to the

surmounted by

figures, received

the organist,

This

part,

all

PA RT

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

78
in Italy the

name

II

of partiHun to, and in Fr .nee tha

of figured bass.

were written

If a figure

each inten

for

which

al

enters into the composition of a chord, the eve of the

organist would

be

frequently

than by the reading of

more confused by

the parts written

all

in

ordinary notation, and the end proposed would


Instead of

is

the characteristic interval only

For the common chord,

dicated.

only

this,

written,

which indicates the

third accidentally

introduction of a

third.

If this

|)

becomes minor

if it

same means

or r, the

two intervals are characteristic

chord, they are joined

together

for

figure,

manner, J

in this

are

<>f

example, the

chord qf the fifth and >i.iti> is expressed by \.


minished intervals are marked by a diagonal

drawn across the

in-

example, a 3

or a 2, these si^ns are placed at

by the introduction of a

When

fail.

is

becomes major or minor, by the

the side and before the figure;

used.

for

it

the

Dilino

and aug-

mented intervals are expressed by placing the #, |),


or b, which modifies them, at the side of the figures.

When

the written

val,

is

it

note

expressed

is

characteristic of an inter-

by the sign

-)-.

Every epoch and every school have had different


svstenis for the figuring of basses,

are of

importance.

little

It

is

These

enough

differences

that

we know

of their existence, and that an organist, or Otto

sompanier,

holds the

instructed

is

In the e\i^t

first

iiLr

in

the different n ethods,

state of DlUsio, the

rank among the mass

or*:: n
i^'

no longer

instruments

HARMONY.

CHAP. X.
with which

surrounded, so that the figured or

is

it

79

continued bass has

some of

lost

harmony

velop the sentiment of


to preserve a

m cessary

is

young

fine

it is

older to de-

in

and

artists,

compositions of

Formerly, we did not say,

the ancient school.

France, It

it,

in

knowledge of the

but

interest;

its

not the less necessary to study

necessary to study harmony

The Germans

to Irani continued bass.

in

but, It

is

have

preserved the equivalent of this expression in their

general bass, and the English in their thorough bass.

The

harmony

history of

is

one of the most

is it

interest-

Not only

ing parts of the general history of music.

composed of an uninterrupted succession of

coveries in the

discoveries which
novelty,

to the

owe

boldness of some musicians, to the

doubt, also, to chance,

which

is

music,

but there

in

scattered

is

and,

made

to

it

that of the practice

And
;

is

it

is

to be

remarked

necessarily dependent

for,

combine them

and to discover their origin.


cations which the chords

to-

the

that

upon

genius of

as fast as the

composers hazarded new combinations,


difficult to

all

that

by practice to the greedy

facts presented

the history of the theory

is

combine

complete and rational system,

curiosity of theorists.

more

without

a portion of this

not unworthy of interest

of the efforts which have been


gether,

their origin to the desire of

improvement of instrumental
history

dis-

of sounds,

properties

collective

it

became

in a general system,

The numerous

modifi-

underwent so much changed

the character of their primitive forms, that

we ough.

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

'J

many

PAST

II.

errors have been

com-

Until about the end of the sixteenth century,

none

not to be astonished

if

mitted in their classification.

but consonant chords and some prolongations, which

produced prepared dissonances, were

in use

with such

elements, the harmonic forms were so limited that no

one thought of uniting them

into an organized sci-

ence, or even imagined that there could be an

tematic connection between the chords then

The
art

intervals

in

rogue.

were considered two by two, and the

of employing them according to

certain

rules,

constituted the whole learning of the schools.

wards the

year 159!),

Monteverde,

made

for the first time,

dissonant chords and of substitutions

harmony was

the dominion of

in

the

use of natural

from that time,

great]? extended, and

the science which resulted from

of attention to masters

To-

named Claude

Venetian,

it

art.

became an object
It was about fif-

teen years after the happy attempts of Monteverde,


that

Viadana and souk Germans, who contest the


1

vention with him, thought

by figures, and,
sider

for that

o\"

purpose, were obliged to con-

each of the chords by

chord was then


and

became

For nearly

introduced

o(

vocabulary o(

the
I

was

branch of the science of music.

century, things remained

though numerous

in

this

elementary works were published

during that interval, with


difficulties

The name

itself.

into

harmony, or amtuwtd

music,
called,

in-

representing harmony

of this new

view to clear away the

science.

CHAP.

HARMONY.

\.

An

experiment

in physics,

named Father Mersenne,


with

filled

pointed out b) a monk,


1696, in a large book,

more curious than

trifles

useful,

under the

an experiment

Harmony,

of Universal

title

in

&J

repeat-

ed by the celebrated mathematician Wallis, and an

Academy of Sciences,
Rameau, a skilful French

alyzed by Sauveur, of the

suggested to

afterwards

origin

of

system of harmony, in

musician,

the

which

the chords were reduced to a single prin-

all

In

ciple.
that,

experiment,

this

when

it

was made

a string

had been remarked

to vibrate, there

were

heard, beside the principal sound, produced by the

two other feebler sounds,

entire length of the string,

one of which was the twelfth, and the other the


seventeenth, of the

of the

fifth,

first,

that

is

to say, the octave

and the double octave of the

which produced the sensation of the

Rameau,

chord.

made
he

it

third,

"perfect

major

availing himself of this experiment,

the basis of a system, the structure of

which

Harmony, which he
This system, known under the

splained in a Treatise on

published in 172*2.

name of system of fundamental

bass,

had a pro-

among musiFrom the moidea of making

digious currency in France, not only


cians, but

among people

ment

Rameau had

that

certain physical
ny, he

ferences

phenomena

was obliged
;

for

all

to

general.

the source of

The

is

not included

harmo-

in

in-

the

perfect minor chord was

and he imagined some

all

have recourse to forced

harmony

perfect mnjor chord.

indispensable

in

adopted the

sort of trem-

82

RELATIONS OF BOUNDS.

ulous motion of the sonorous body, which, accora


ing

to

his

produced

idea,

tentive ear, but in

he had only to add

less

By means

perfect major chord.

to, or

chord

this

manner

an

to

distinct,

than

at
t

lie

of this arrangement,

take away from, the sounds

of the superior or inferior third of these two perfect


chords, in order to find a great part of the chords then

use

in

a complete

and, in this way, he obtained

system, in which

the chords were connected to-

all

gether.

Though

basis,

had the advantage of being the

it

this

system rested on a very

Rameau

to perceive the

il

phenomena of

har-

had, too, the merit of being the

first

something like order

hibit

mony.

ft

to ex-

first

in the

mechanism of

the inversion of chords,

and therefore deserves a place among the founders


of the science of harmony.

By

this

factitious

production

of chords,

li

stroyed the relations of succession, which are derived

from their tones, and was obliged


the laws of those relations,

the

to substitute,

rules

of

for

funda-

mental bass, which he formed of the low sounds ^(


the

primitive

chords

fanciful

rules,

which could

only have a forced application in practk

At the time
in

when Rameau produced

Prance, Tartini, a celebrated Italian

his

system

violinist, pro-

posed another, which was also founded upon an ex-

By

periment of vibration.
Bounds,

vibrating

sound,

which was

in

this

thirds,

also

the

experiment, two high

produced

another

third of the

Km

lower owe

of the two, which again produced the perfect ch

*rd

CHAP.

Upon

83

HARMONY.

X.

this,

Tartini had established an obscure theory,

which Rousseau, though he did not understand it,


preferred to that of Rameau, but which never had
Systems of harmony had become a

any success.
sort of fashion.

Every body had one of his own, and

found somebody to puff

it.

In France, there ap-

peared, almost at the same time, those of Balliere

of Jamard, of the

Abbe

Roussier, and

many

others.

which are now deservedly forgotten.


of

Marpurg had attempted to introduce the system


Rameau into Germany, but without success.

Kirnberger, a celebrated composer and a profound


theorist,

had

just discovered the theory of prolonga-

tions which explains, in a satisfactory and natural

manner, some harmonies, of which no other theory

At a later period, Catel reprosame theory, in a simpler and


clearer manner, in the Treatise on Harmony, which
and,
he composed for the Conservatory of Music
if I may be permitted to speak of my own labors,
I
will say, that I have completed this same theory,
by an explanation of the mechanism of substitution,
and of the combination of this same substitution with
can give the law.
duced,

France,

in

this

prolongations and alterations.

From
class,
is

this theory

have sprung harmonies of a new

with which the art has been enriched; but this

not the place to enter upon explanations on thi

subject.

64

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

II.

CHAPTER XL
OF ACOUSTICS.

Acoustics

is

respect, that

it

the object of which

science,

the theory of sound.

It differs

from music

in

is

this

has no relation to the laws of the

succession of sounds, of which melody

the result,

is

nor to those of their simultaneousness, which regu-

The examination

harmony.

late

manifested

the

in

and of different dimensions, and the

different kinds
results of these

constitute the

phenomena

of the

of sonorous bodi

vibration

phenomena on

the Bense of bearing,

domain of acoustics

from a Greek verb signifying

word derived

to hear.

Percussion, friction, and other modes of producing

sound, when applied to sonorous bodies, produ<


the

around

air

which

is

them

certain

exceedingly slow, the s.mnd


ear

it

is

if

it

becomes rapid

very low tone.

The

to a certain degree,

to

certain limit

o\'

in

[z'wvw

rapidity, the

sound

number

time; but,

sound

be audible.
It

we hear

lone rises as the

of vibrations becomes greater

beyond

is

not appreciable by the

say sixty-four vibration-- in a second.


a

vibration

this

only produces upon this organ the efled of

noise; but,

of

notion,

oscillating

When

called vihration.

was

tor

long time believed that the

sed the degree of elasticity

which

is

air

oeot

alone

CHAP. XI

convey sound to the ear;

to

85

ACOUSTICS.
but

it

now known

is

some solid bodies, have the same

that liquids, and

more

property, and even propagate sound with

than the

ity

In

on physics,

treatises

all

down,

rapid-

air.

principle

this

that the air in vibration

is'tlie real

laid

is

sonorous

body, and the result of the following experiment

given as a demonstration of this


bell,

principle.

with a mechanical apparatus for

If

striking,

is

be

placed under the receiver of an air-pump, the ear


hears the sound as long as the receiver
air

but, as the

air

is filled

with

withdrawn by the pump, the

is

sound grows weaker, and ceases altogether as soon


withdrawn, though the

as the air is entirely


still

than

This experiment

be struck.
it

may be

appears to be

at first

for,

is

less

bell

besides that sound

transmitted to the ear by other elastic bodies

as well as the air,

difference of bells,
qualities of sound,

no account could be given of the

that
if

is

to say, of the different

the sonorous bodies did not

possess in themselves sonorous qualities,

which are

modified by their manner of producing sounds.


this respect, as in
tics is yet

may

conclusive

In

others, the science of acous-

very imperfect.

string,

firmly at

many

whether of metal,

silk,

one end, and stretched

weight or a peg:

or catgut, fixed

the other by a

thin blade of metal;

wood, metal, or

glass, of

which the

introduced

air is

at

a plate of

whatever form; a tube into


;

a bell, &,c.

are sono-

rous bodies, the vibration of which produces sounds

PAKT

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

80
of different

Within about

qualities.

II.

years,

thirty

acoustics have been enriched by a multitude of observations on the

phenomena produced by

the sono-

rousness of these bodies; these observations have not

been without their use

the improvement of certain

in

instruments, and have given rise to the invention of

There

others.

we

reason to believe that

is

hereafter obtain

more

still

shall

satisfactory results, from

the investigations pursued by several persons of great


scientific attainments.

The

imperfection

of

apparatus

experiments,

for

and the want of care and exactness

performing

in

them, have introduced a great many errors into the


science of acoustics,

which are the more serious,

because the mathematicians, taking assertions without sufficient proof, as the basis of calculation, and
considering them as demonstrated truths, have drawn

from them consequences which seem


opposition
practice

other

to

The

music.

of

Supposing

facts,

to be

it

time, and produces

sent

the

is

many

exactly

larger,

and

vibrations

BOUnd which

'2

is

to represent

Admitting,

the

sonorous

half that

o\"

given

in

the exact octave

they hive taken the number

two sonorous bodies.


tilth

as

in direct

example

an

is

absolutely true, that

another, makes twice

of the other,

following

of which

body, the length

he

to

which are proved

the

to repre-

o( the

less

also, that

the

of the sound of the larger sonorous body would

be produced

bv another

mensions, the

fourth

h\

bod]

one

o\'
iA'

two thirds

its

three quarters

di-

the

CHAP.

major third by one of four

size, the

by one of

third

of

five

the relations of

as

to

exact fourth

as

is

to

minor sixth
to

to

to

is

to

as

to

all

flat

as

this

it

trary

for

is

5; the

fifth

to

3 the
the major semitone C
to

as

to

to

C
C

81 to 80.

would

execution of

result, in the

make

musicians

that

feel

flat

the

flat

spoken as a

C
is

high-

sharp

fact resulting

is

an

a descending

here in opposition to theory.

is

theorists, considering the relation of


just

to

sharp, while they do exactly the con-

the

Practice

to

and the difference between

ascending relation, and that


one.

as

is

5
minor semitone
;

minor

to 8; the

the exact

music, that musicians ought to


er than the

to

4 to 3

as

major third

the major sixth

sharp as 25 to 24;
sharp and

as

is

as 10 to 9; the

as 1(3 to 15; the

flat

From

tone

is

fifths,

expressed

the intervals of the scale by the

all

the major third

to 4;

the minor

they have

intervals,

following proportions

The major

fifths,

the minor sixth hy one

sixths,

the major sixth by one of three

five eighths,

and so of the other

tone

87

ACOUSTICS.

XI.

Some

which we have

from the organization

of musicians, have said that this fact did not destroy


the theory, which could not be

erroneous

have declared that the musicians do really


flat,

thinking

were

true,

sounds.

it

others

make

sharp, and vice versa; which,

if

D
it

would destroy the whole system of musical


We ought to add that d'Alembert, and

Professor Charles, and Messrs. de Prony and Savart

88

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

TART

II

and some others, struck with the weight of the ob-

unknown

jection, have confessed that facts hitherto

may

possibly overthrow the calculations believed to

have been

exact, and that

theory of the

the

relations of musical intervals

is

true

perhaps yet to be

discovered.

The

tuners of keyed instruments, placed, without

knowing

under the influence of these

it,

experience some difficulty

make

checking

tendency which

relations,

their

inclina-

high the upper sounds of certain

tion to raise too


intervals

in

would lead them

to

other intervals false, in relation to which the

same laws are not so obvious. The result of the


pains which they take to correct this tendency o["
their ear, is generally expressed by the word tempered
mint.

Several different formulas have been devised

for

the adjustment of this temperament, and perhaps

we

shall

are

all

some day

arrive at the conviction, that they

the result of an imperfect theory of musical

sounds.

believe

it

possible to prove to a

is

the tuning

stration, that

o\'

instruments

to the direction

and progress of music,

harmonic

and that

the

same

Btates,

as

it

was

at

has

been

this

demon-

according

is

certain

in

tuning cannot now be

the beginning of the

seven-

teenth century.

Prom what

Bcience of acoustics is no(

said,
yet

it

appears

established,

on the most important subjects, Wt Kit


eon'ecture.

the

that

and

Still

that,

left

to

CHAP. XII

COMPOSITION.

CHAPTER

89

XII.

HE ART OF WRITING MUSIC.

OF

CANONS.
In poetry, as

of the

or

poet,

in

presents

position

some of the

as

is

it

the

arts

conceived,

without complication of elements.


music.
to

In this

compose

is

art,

of design, com-

imagination

of the

under the form of a simple

artist,

idea, expressed

to

itself

COUNTERPOINT

FUGUE.

every thing

is

that

It

is

to say,

is

not so in

complicated

for

not merely to imagine agreeable melothe true expression of the different

dies, or to find

sentiments which affect us, or to

make

beautiful

com-

binations of harmony, or to dispose of the voices in

an advantageous manner, or to invent


instrumentation

many
rus,

but

it

is

to

other things besides.

an

in

overture, in a

do

all

fine effects

this at once,

In a quartette, in a cho-

symphony,

each
own

and each instrument, advances

in

its

manner

all

these

and the combination of

of

and

voice,

peculiar

movements

constitutes the music.

From

all

this,

we may form some opinion of

the

complicated character of that operation of the mind

which we

call composition,

and of the studies neces-

sary to be pursued, in order to overcome the obstacles of so -difficult an art.

There was

when

a time

musicians composed

it

could not be said that

they merely arranged sounds

TART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

01

that

This period includes nearly three centuries,


i

Bay,

from the end of the thirteenth to about the

1590.

few miserable popular

of the church,

the

same

ij

jreai

and the chants

airs,

were the only melodies with which

they were acquainted; and


see

II.

theme of twenty

it

was not uncommon

different compositions,

and applied

No

indifferently to every kind of words.

to

common

of this kind used as the

air

traces of

expression, of enthusiasm, of passion, or of elevatit u,


are to be
glees,

remarked

in the

crowd of masses, motettes,

and madrigals of that day

more remarkable,

as

it

was precisely

a peculiarity the

time that

at that

the excitement of the imagination was the most ve-

hement
in

in religious ideas, in philosophy, in poetry,

genius

painting, that the

of

man was

and

raised

to

the greatest heights, and that his passions were de-

veloped

with

greatest

the

But,

force.

stant, create

being

from

free

every shackle, the thought of the poet could,

an

in-

sublime beauties, as did Dante, without


by

arrested

the

difficulties

of material

art

taught by that winch was before his eyes, the painter

could not

should
ills

fail

to perceive thai the imitation

be the object

of his

labor-;

nature
the

which overwhelm humanity, the philosopher, the

jurist,

and the theologian, had only

their indignation, in order

of liberty,

^['

law, and

bave rem irked,

llie

<A'

to

reverse.

It

to give

]<

speak with eloquence

religion.

In

all

these, as

ideas are simple: gcniu> marks

out the road, and science follows.


the

roused by

was

necessary,

In
first,

music,
that

it

the

was

mo*

CHAT

employ themselves

should

sicians

91

COUNTEltPOINT.

XII.

creating

in

the

materia! resources of their art; but, in seeking these

means, they deceived themselves, and imagined that


they were,

making progress towards

they were only

which was

to

preparing to

conduct them

was an

Their error

nothing less than

all

their object, while

enter

upon the road

thither.

advantage;

for

required

it

the perseverance of their efforts

arrange in order the chaos of varied

to

which the connection of sounds

is

combinations of harmony are to be found


>f these old

ment of

masters

difficulties!

and what

skill in

Accustomed

forms of

susceptible.

as

in the

the

manage-

we now

nake use of processes which they have taught


see

in

their

compositions

mbtilties; but those

science were

An

men

who

nothing

but

What
works
are to
us,

we

scholastic

laid the foundations of this

of genius.

almost barbarous word, which, for a long time,

has had only a traditional signification, serves to express

the

operation of writing music

certain laws; this

derive

its

word

is

according to

counterpoint.

It

seems

to

origin from the circumstance, that, in

particular notations of the

middle ages,

some
music was

written with points, the respective distances of

which
between several voices were called point contrc point,
(punctual contra punctum, point against point,) or,
by contraction,
sion call one

counterpoint.

who

Musicians by profes-

teaches the art of writing in music

a professor of counterpoint; others give him the

of a teacher of composition

this last

name

form of speech

92
is

RELATIONS OF

PART

SOI'Nj>S

incorrect, as one does not learn to compose.

II

If

counterpoint was formerly the art of arranging point!


it is now that of combining notes with
This operation would certainly be lon_

against points,
notes.

tiguing, and destructive of


poser, by

means of

inspiration, if the

all

had not become familiar with

these combinations,
to

him than

grammar, of which no one thinks

That which we

or speaking.
is

all

more

so that they should be nothing


rules of

call

which does not

are the

in writing

music

science, in

not a true science, except so far as

a habit,

com-

studies well directed in his youth,

has become

it

distract the imagination.

In whatever manner the idea of the composer

be directed

ments, he cannot perform any more than

which

operations,

may

arrangement of voices, or ofinstru-

in the

are,

notes of equal duration;

to

'2,

give

to

1,

make

five different

each

to

part

the duration of

the notes of one of the parts shorter by half than those

of another;

them

reduce

to

:5,

fourth of the length of those

nect the notes by syncope

proceeds
5,

according to

binations,

including

The

ornaments.
tions

has

studies,
first %

are

which
are

one

to

part

to con-

4.

part, whilst another

tune

art

accidental

analysis

furnished

secondt

lessons

one

in

another;

of

the

measure;

together these different kinds of com-

mingle

to

in

the

i^{

live

^\^

kinds

called shiiplt

third, fourth,

founded on

commenced,

points

and

these different combina-

and

of counterpoint, or
roi/nti

rpoint

fifth

kind.

given or selected

ordinarily, by writing for

T
air.

two

*
ar.l

CHAP.

t-

3ii

COUNTERPOINT.

XII.

for three, four,

cated are the

more compli-

the voices, the

If we are writing for


we can put a single note

combinations.

three voices, for example,


for

The

seven, and eight.

five, six,

number of

greater the

J3

one of them, two notes of equivalent length

for

we

are

the second, and four

the third

for

and,

we can add

if

composing

for four voices,

&,c.

easy to conceive that studies of this de-

It

is

the syncope,

scription, frequently repeated, will teach us to foresee


all

overcome

cases, to

effort,

and

all difficulties,

and almost without

without

this

common

It is a

reflection.

opinion that an educated musician writes with more


calculation than one

ence

but this

contrary

is

and

true,

ered, he

who

if truly

worthy of the

is

who has never

an error.

is

that,

studied the sci-

even, that the

I think,

circumstances consid-

all

called, in derision, a learned musician,


title,

writes less painfully than

one who, having never studied, may, every moment,


be arrested

in his

progress by unforeseen difficulties.

Simple counterpoint, of which we have spoken


above,
plied

is

the basis of every composition

every instant, and under

at

we cannot
without

it;

write

even

what

is

without

it

knowing

as

write a great

without having occasion to

ap-

it is

correctly

Mons. Jourdain did

it.

It

make

is

not

which

upon certain circumstances of limited

may

for

with the greatest

it

called double counterpoint,

matic composer

circumstances:

measures

and he who speaks of

contempt, makes use of


of prose

few

all

is

extent.

so

with

founded

dra-

number of operas
use

of

it;

but

io

"ART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

94

II

instrumental music, and in the music of the chuich,


this

kind of counterpoint
simple

writing

frequently employed.

is

composer

the

counterpoint,

only to the immediate effect of the

harmony

but, in

he must know, also, what

double counterpoint t

harmony would become

if it

were reversed,

In

attends

th.it

that

is

become the bass, and


operation of his mind i>, in

to say, if the upper parts should


vice versa

so that the

reality, double.

When

the counterpoint

in three different parts,

counterpoint;
parts,

it

if it is

susceptible of inversion

is

we

give

name

the

it

of triple

susceptible of inversion in four

called quadruple counterpoint.

is

may be produced

Invention

a simple

consists in

several ways.

in

If

it

change of octave between the

parts,

p;irts

passes to the higher, and reciprocally, without

that

to say, if that

is

which was

changing the name of the notes,


of inversion

is

whether

this susceptibility

called doublt counterpoint in tin octane.

If the inversion
fifth,

may be produced on
above or below,

the octave of the

composition

the

if

the arrangement

above

The

or

^A'

harmony

the

i^

is

and, lastly,

called double countt rpoint in the twelfth;

inversion

lower

in the

such that the

inav take place to the octave d( the third

below,

it

is

double counterpoint
Ctorj t" the ear

counterpoint
in

the octave

in
is

tin

tenth.

much more

than the two others, and

more general use.


When a composer undertakes

it

is

also in

ject,

to

develop

phrase, a theme, ami to present

it

sub-

under

all

CHAP

XII.

forms,

COUNTERPOINT.

as

95

Haydn and Mozart have done

quartettes and symphonies,

Handel

Cherubini

masses,

in his beautiful

can be substituted

for

and

whicn nothing

but, in dramatic music, in

their

the double coun-

immense resources,

terpoint offers

in his oratorios,

which

such a development of the same musical idea would


injure the expression, and substitute a pedantic affectation in the place of truth, this counterpoint

many

only be useless, on

would not

occasions, but frequently

Taste and experience must guide

even injurious.

the composer in this respect.

Thus

far,

we have

seen that the science was com-

We

posed of only useful or necessary objects.

now to
we say

are

What, indeed, shall


of those queer arrangements of sounds which
consider

it

in its abuses.

are called retrograde counterpoints, that

is

to say, ad-

vancing backwards; counterpoints by contrary movehunt, in which the voices

retrograde

contrary

book upside down;


which are
is

still

move

in opposite directions;

counterpoints,

more complicated?

The

an abuse of the science.

turning

or

contrary

inverse

the

counterpoints

All this,

repeat,

ear surfers from the

trammels fastened by the musician upon himself, and


from which he can derive no

real

advantage.

idle subtilties exist only for the eye.

supposed, however, that

which have given

These

must not be

these musical logugryphfl

to people in general their prejudices

against the science

have ceased to

it is

It

make

for

it

is

a long time since they

a part of the

customary music,

and have been consigned to the dust of the school

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

<6

rhcy never had much

credit

Ii

some pedantic masters

of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries being the


only ones

whom we

substitute

them

musicians

who

can accuse of having attempted to

for the

true science.

was these

It

invented such absurdities as \hcjun>]>-

ing counterpoint,

which the voices were prohibited

in

from the use of the adjoining notes of the scale

bound counterpoint,

which every kind of

in

of the third, fourth, &,c, was prohibited


nate counterpoint, which

admitted

the

interval

the obsti-

only of a single

passage constantly repeated by one voice, whilst the


others proceeded
follies,

which

The

ate.

it

usual

as

and

thousand

would take too much time

to

public and the musicians have dene justice

to this degradation of an art, the true design of


to excite the feelings,

is

ether

enumerwhich

and not to produce enigmas.

Certain conventional forms, which are called imitations, canon*, and fugues, ate, however, very useful,

and do not partake of the discredit which attaches


'.hose

of which

we have

just

spoken

and

would

to
al-

most venture to say that we obtain from them grander,

more
tin*

majestic, and

more varied

effects,

other combinations of music.

than from

all

Those who have

heard, in the Royal Institution of Religious Mu8ic,


directed by Mr. Choron, the compositions of Palestrina, of Clari,

and of Handel: those who have assisted,

King's Chapel,

in the

of Cherubini

in

;
'

the execution of the beautiful

those, lastly,

who

recollect the

These two musical establishments have unfortunate!)

oppressed,

mii<-<<

the

tir>t

edition of this book appeared

<

of the symphonies of Haydn, Mozart, and Beet-

effects

hoven, and

not forgotten the magic power


The Enchanted Flute, and of Don

who have

of the overtures of

Juan

07

IMITATION.

*HAI\ XIL

all

such persons,

will

I say,

understand me,

when

they are informed that these beautiful creations

have

for

their foundations those

forms to

which genius has given

must now

same conventional

These forms

life.

be explained.

In analyzing music,

we sometimes meet

tain phrases the character of

which

is

with cer-

more

distinct

than that of others, and which possess the advantage


of being capable of frequent repetition, whilst they
contribute to augment the general effect of the piece.

But

if

the

same

voice, or the

same instrument, were

always employed in thus repeating the phrases, they

would become monotonous and tiresome


fore desirable to

make

the phrase which

it is

there-

we wish

to

repeat pass from one part into another, and even, for
the sake of greater variety, to transpose
a fourth,

fifth,

when

cipal phrase,

tually imitate

imitation
is

The

prin-

its

position, takes the

name

because the voices or instruments mu-

each other

and

in the fourth, fifth, or octave,

of elevation in

sometimes

thus conducted from one part into

another, and varied in

of imitation

it

or octave, higher or lower.

which

which

is

it

is

known

it

is

called imitation

according to the degree

made.

As an example

of

to every body, the reader

referred to the scene of the shades, in Rossini's

ipera of Moses, in which the phrase of the accompa-

TAUT

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

t>0

passes

ninient

alternately

from one

II

instrument

to

another.

The

imitation

is

free in this,

that

not always

it is

riade with exactness from the beginning to the end

But there are some kinds of imitations

of a phrase.

which are more rigorous, and extend not only through


the whole phrase, but even through the whole of a

name

piece; these take the

canons were sung

at table, the

always burlesque.

almost

which begins with

these

This kind of

of canons.

music was formerly very much

vogue

in

society

in

words of which were

Every body knows


words

Frlre

lint

Jacgi/is,

They were all made upon this model.


first who introduced canons upon the
stage, in his opera of La Buona FigHola,
They
have since become of frequent use; Etoesini and his

dorm z-vous

Piccini was the

imitators have put

but their canons


respect,

making

them
differ

into almost

the principal phrase an agreeable

canon of Martini,

those

like

^\'

srrve mutually

for

tised in Italv.
.vine

have

as

into the other.

thing which

is

are voices,

write canons of this kind, our musical

been thorough

air,

ia

neg-

whereas the

of music,

accompaniment,

ternately from one part

the masters

all

known how to write this kind


posed of as manv phrases as there
hive

a\ e

this

in

that they limit themselves, almost always, to

lecting altogether the subordinate parts

works:

their

all

from that of Martini

who
com-

which

they pass
In

al-

order to

studies

bum

no longer prac-

Cherubim has Composed manv canons,

a line ellect.

and are ofgreal purity of Stj

le.

The

VM

CANON.

CIIAI*. XII.

may be made

imitation of canons

nitation, beginning with the fourth,

with any of the intervals

."veil

we

by the words which

music

the

infiricurc,

canon

Canon

takes the

name

octave, and

what

canon a

is

in

that

la quinte

the

which imitates

it

same time, two

double

that

to say,

is

some canons

different airs,

and are followed

which the imitation

in

which

a contrary movement,

we

which two parts commence,

There are
made by

by two other parts, which imitate them.

signifies that

ascending, by one of the voices,

in

meant

of consequent.

Sometimes the canon

also

is

commences

voice which

meet with those canons,


at the

is

frequently see written upon

called the antecedent

is

this

la quarte,

The

&c.

like the free

fifth,

is

is

what

done

is

scending, by that which imitates, and vice v(rsa.


the ancient schools of music, they

made

done

in

de-

In

multitude

of canons, in which they imposed strange rules upon


themselves, like those of which I have spoken on the
subject of counterpoint, and even
still

for

example,

it

more singular ones

was necessary that

all

the semi-

breves, or white notes, qf the antecedent should be-

come

crotchets, or black notes, in the consequent, or

that the black notes should


H,hite

The

ones only

left,

be suppressed, and the

&c.

masters of these

schools had a practice of

challenging each other by sending canons composed


in

these

kept.
iler

queer

forms,

the

secret

They wrote them upon

of

which they

a single line, in or

that their adversaries should be obliged to seek

00
/he
in

TART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

II

solution of them, and purposely enveloped thereas

many

difficulties

his skill

they could.

as

They were

which each one Btfove

a kind of riddles, in

The

and ingenuity.

fuse such a challenge, or

to

re-

solution

to discover the

fail

sbon

who should

master

of the canon, would lose his reputation.

But

every kind of combat, there are rules

as, in

which cannot be broken, there was one

the chal-

in

lenges of canons, which obliged the author of an enigmatical canon to


aid in

its

solution.

accompany

with some device, to

it

The books

of the old masters of

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have trans-

mitted to us a collection of these devices, of which


the following are specimens

Clama

lit

cesses, or

Otia

(hint vitia, indicated that

the consequent ought to imitate

antecedent, by suppressing the


N.escit vox missa reverti, or
or, finally, In

all

Semper contrarius

girum imus noetu tea

igni, indicated that the

this

last

device,

all

esto,

conswmmur
to imitate

movement.

Observe

the letters, taken back-

wards, form the same words a^


to

ut

consequent ought

the antecedent by a retrograde


that, in

the notes of the

rests.

when read from

left

right

Sol post vesperas declined, signified


peat, the

that, at

canon should be lowered one

each

re-

tone.

Coscus nonjudicat de colore, indicated thai the black


notes of the

white notes

antecedent were to be converted into


in

the consequent

an

so

iA"

others.

All these subtilties scarcely tended to the object of

OHAP.
the

FUGUE.

Xll.

ar!

101

but they were according to the taste of those

days of pedantry.

may take

Imitation

the form in which the phrase

recurs at intervals, being sometimes interrupted, in


in this case, we
name of fugue, which comes from fuga,

order to be afterwards taken up


give

the

it

(flight,)

seem

to

subject.

aged by

because, in an imitation of this kind, the parts


fly

from each other,

at the

returns of the

The fugue, when it is well made, and mana man of genius, like John Sebastian Bach,

Handel, or Cherubini,

is

the most majestic, the most

energetic, and the most harmonious, of


forms.

It

all

musical

cannot be successfully employed in dra-

matic music, because

ment which would

its

progress requires a develop-

injure the interest of the scene

but in instrumental music, and especially in the music

of the

church,

it

produces admirable

character entirely peculiar.

The

effects,

of a

magnificent Hallelu-

jah of Handel's Messiah, and the fugues of Cherubini's

masses, which every one

may have heard

Paris, are models of this kind of beauty.

It

at

must

be acknowledged, however, that these beauties are of


a sort which we cannot relish until after having become accustomed to them, because the complication
of their elements demands an attentive and a practised ear.
We may apply to them the line of Boileau,
C'est avoir profite que de savoir s'y plaire

Fugue has
at

not always had the form which

the present day; but, like

all

it

bear?

other branches of the

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

102

mus

has been slowly brought to

art, it

c;il

The

degree of perfection.
is

PAST

now composed,

its

II

present

which

different parts of

it

are the subjcd, the counter-subjects,

the response, the exposition, the episodes or diversions,


the modulated returns, the strettes, and the pedal.

The

phrase to be imitated

This phrase

ordinarily

is

which form with


say,

ly

a double counterpoint,

it

which are susceptible of inversion

ner, as to

change

the

called

is

subject.

accompanied by others,

their position,

in

that

such

is

to

man-

by passing alternate-

from the lower voices to the higher, and from the

latter to the

former

these phrases of

When

are called counter-subjects.

accompaniment

the fugue

writ-

is

ten for four voices, or for four instrumental parts, there


is

ordinarily a counter-subject, in which case

be both

ricli

in

harmony and

which case

Such

subjects.
it

is

less

may

it

movement*.

its

composer employs two counter-sub-

Sometimes the
jects, in

free in

it

said that

is

fugue

ia

more

more

interesting,

\\\c

fu^nu has three

difficult to

scholastic,

make

but

and has lea

variety.

The

imitation o[ the subject

This response cannot be exactly


cause,

if

the latter modulates

called the response.

like

the subject, be-

from any key to an


the

response

bring back the car from this new

key into

analogous one,
should

is

it

the original key;

for

is

it

necessary

is

that

precisely ibis shifting from

one key

to another, that constitutes the interest of the

fugue.

The

he response,

inverted progress which one


in

mai

regard to the subject, renders

i aligl

CHAP.

change of
tion.

103

FUGUE.

XII.

interval necessary

It is

and

remarkable that we

which he seizes the

one

who would

Of

is

mutation

this

not a single
at

rected are never sure of succeeding in doing

This

should be.

when we

is

a test of their

knowledge

same

the

whose studies have been

whilst those

place;

hundred mu-

good school, there

make

not

make

necessary to

it is

the mutation, in a given subject.


sicians educated in a

muta-

judge of the skill of

a musician by the address with

point of the response, where

this is called

di-

ill

it

as

it

so that,

say of the author of a fugue, that he hat

failed in the response,

we can add nothing more con

temptuous.

The

exposition

is

composed of a certain number

of the subject, and

returns

which come the

episodes,

of the

oi

response, after

which are commonly com-

posed of imitations formed of fragments of the subject

and of the counter-subject.

variety

and modulation

These episodes give


When the com-

to the fugue.

poser thinks that he has sufficiently extended the de\vl

pments of

his subject, he goes

back

to the origi-

makes what is called the strctta, or


a word which comes from the Italian stretto,
strettes,
(close,) because these strettes are imitations, in a more
This
lively style, of the subject and of the response.
nal

part,

key, and

of the fugue

is

the most brilliant, and that to

which the composer can give the greatest

When

the subject

Strettes,

is

favorable, there

may be

which become more and more

are terminated ordinarily by a prdal, in

riches of

harmony

are united.

lively.

which

effect.

several

They
all

the

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

Iwt

Rousseau has

said that a fine

masterpiece of a good harmonist.

advanced

ciently

PART

fugue

We

is

IL

(he barren

were not

suffi-

music, in the time of Rousseau,

in

to appreciate a fine fugue,

and that writer never had

an opportunity to hear one.

was not

It

about the

until

commencement of the
made on the plan
Up to that period, there

eighteenth century that fugues were

which

have just explained.

was nothing but the fitgued counterpoint,

that

is

to say, counterpoint in four, five, six, or seven parts,

the

subject of which was taken from the psalms

and hymns chanted

in

the church, with

imitations

This kind of fugued compositions

and canons.

is

name of counterpoint alia Pa/<<celebrated composer, named Pales-

designated by the
tri/ia,

because a

trina,

who

style of

it

lived in the sixteenth century, carried the


to the highest point of perfection.

kind of music, seemingly so dry, and so

In this

little

favor-

able to inspiration, Palestrina succeeded in producing


so

much

majesty, a sentiment of religion so calm and

pure, that he seems to have met


difficulties

all

these

scientific

with ease, ami to have been entire!?

pied in giving an appropriate expression of the sacred

text

When

fect

traditional

his

subjects are performed with the per-

execution i^ the Sistine chapel, the

impression which

any other,

in

they leave cannot he equalled by

reference

to

grandeur of proportion.

At the time when this master wr<>te, music had not

been

thought

days,

this

o['

demand

as

tor

dramatic

In

our

carried

into

resource.

the dramatic

is

105

FUGUE.

_ll.\l\ XII

every thing, and evca into the music of the church

Great beauties of a particular kind result from this;


but

it

seems

to

me

that,

the elevation of the

point of propriety and

in

religious sentiment, the fugued

counterpoint of Palestrina has greatly the advantage.

From what

ha6 been said,

we may form an

idea

of the mechanism of scientific compositions, and of


the advantage which
I

may be

derived from them.

If

have succeeded in making myself understood, many

amateurs

renounce

will

science, and will

their

prejudices against the

acknowledge that

ridiculous

is

it

to require musicians to be ignorant in order to write


well.

If the art of writing

music

fected with an air of pedantry,

which ought
minds

that

be

to

make

it

is

is

sometimes

blamed, but the ill-constructed

use of

it.

And

observe that the

science never appears so, except in the hands of


sicians

who

be true, must become a habit, so that

nced make no

effort

it

to recall it;

mu-

This science,

are not really learned.

place, unless

in-

not the science

to

po-

its

which cannot take

has been studied in youth

for

it

is

too late to think of reforming, by science, bad habits,

which have once been contracted.


studies of

more natural

composer have been


talent

correct his faults,


rf

When
ill

he has, the less he

when he

is

the early

directed,
is

the

able to

no longer young; and

he obstinately persists in the attempt, he loses the

qualities

and, at

which he derives from nature, become^

last,

pedantic.

dull

RELATIONS OF BOUNDS.

06

CHAPTER

XIII.

OF THE USE OF THE VOICE.

To
may

whatever degree of perfection an instrumentist

arrive,

will

it

always be

masses

cise over popular

him

for

difficult

power equal

to

which

to that

from the human voice, when directed by

results

proper sentiment, and perfected by proper studies.

There
in the

is

no need of giving proof of a great

mechanical

powerful emotions, by means of the voice


even,

is

on

refer,
effects

not necessary; unison

the year, in

in

sufficient

is

which can be witnessed:

Paul's

St.

with simplicity and purity.


and,
finest

among

to
a

music which they

The

effect

ever

heard

which

arises

in

Obeerre thai

are ^o

tins

many voices;

unison

for.

jound, so thai individual


retinal

is

among

There
in

this

the

did

not

from the

is

some-

effect

perfect, precisely because

tliem

all.

there

is

imperfections of tone

that

the most perfect

unison which can be imagined. 1

and sympathetic

unison,

in

greatest musicians,

blending of these infantine voices

attractive

particular day

church, Bing

had

approach the prodigious

thing

charitable

the

Haydn, have declared

others,

shall

that of four or

is

it

London, who, on

establishments in

and

harmony,

one of the most astonishing

this point, to

thousand children, belonging

five

skill

part, in order to excite lively

mmwL

for

Ibere

an attraction of

lost

in

tin

USE OF THE fOICE.

IP. xill.

ll

persona whose sensibility

been able

107

the least expansive have not

is

To

to restrain their tears.

example of

this

power of voices in unison, we may add others


drawn from dramatic works. It is proper to remark,
the

however, that these effects succeed only with great

and

s,

harmony

generally,

that,

greater

offers

resources

Choruses

number of

a great

in

period, they thought of dividing

later

in use

the large churches

choirs;
unity of

but,

well-written

separate parts

therefore

which
soprano,

or

the t.niorr,

The
Italy

was perceived

it

or

more

strength,

exactness,

The

use

generally

really

and

of choruses in four parts

prevailed.

into

four

their

The

kinds

composition

of

are the

upper; the contralto, or high counter;

which

in

France was formerly called the

bcrsso, or bass.

part of the contralto

was

formerly in

sun<r

by eunuchs, whose quality of voice has some-

thing penetrating in
ftish.

length,

of three

(Miter

and the

faille;

At

choruses

have

even harmony.
has

of giving

rarely corresponded with that

it

which was anticipated.


that

the difficulty

execution to such complicated music, the

obtained from

effect

accompany

several organs to

besides

at

these voices

and of placing

into several choirs of four parts each,


in

to

were

parts

the sixteenth century, particularly in Italy;

in

it

which nothing

But. as the custom of mutilating

make

singers of

else

can

men

in

fur-

order

them was never established

France, the p acp of the

contralto has

there

in

been

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

10S

FAIU

II

supplied b) the high counter, a kind of voice which

met with, except

s scarcely

ticularly

in

Languedoc, and par-

in

same cause has almost

entirely banished from

both the eunuchs and the high counters

music

that

French revolution, which, having put

the

is

The

neighborhood of Toulouse.

the

us in

possession of Italy, has abolished the barbarous practice of mutilation,

and, having overthrown the gov-

ernments of the cathedrals, has deprived the inhabitants of

Languedoc of

the musical instruction

which

they had been in the habit of receiving.

From
ful

the almost total disappearance of thest

kinds of voices, considerable embarrassment has

arisen in the arrangement

The experiment

and execution of choruses.

of supplying the place of eunuchs

by the voices of

women

fail

in the

low

and the employment of tenors to take the


the high

counters has not been more

music written
for

the

for

the latter

mined several composers


four parts, for two female
soprano,
iiioiiv

is

it

nor,

made

and bass.

full,

is

pi

because the

bo,

has

difficulty

deter-

write their chorus*

to

roices,

By

<oj)i-(iiio

this

and Mezzo

means, the har-

without going beyond the

the voire-: the tenor

found to be too high

is

This double

former.

been

contralto, has not

in

successful, because these voices

only

liu

elevated two or three

ooie- above the Btricf limits to which

it

iraa

formerly

confined.

To

avoid impoverishing the upper part by dividing

n into two, Cherubini thought

kA'

writing

in

some

of

:HAP. Mil.

masses choruses

his

the

soprano,

and

from

109

VOICE.

composed only of
lias drawn the

three parts,

ill

tenor,

effects

THE

BE OP

bass,

and

arrangement,

this

apparent poverty; but

it

requires

of

spite

in

its

the skill of a

all

master like him to surmount the difficulties of this

kind of composition, and to produce such effects with

me

ins so limited.

Rossini and his imitators,


filling their harmonies,

regard to choruses:

always

for

it

moved by the

two

however,

nothing more than real

trebles.

intermediate voices double every


notes and the same movements.
applicable only to choruses,

without movement,
moiiii

two basses, twc

This apparent abundance

tenors, and
is

is

the

sterility;

moment

is

multitude by

the

name of

designated by the

It

har-

fact the

in

is

use in this school.

in

its

for the.

same
Such a method is
harmony of which,

plaquee, (plated harmony,) and

same which

in

them almost

consists in writing

or six parts, namely,

five

desire of

have taken another course

attracts the

seeming fulness; but cultivated and

delicate ears are continually disturbed by

its

imper-

fections.

The employment
the parts

at

of voices, in the distribution of

the theatres,

is

always made,

manner

the most proper to obtain the

effect in

concerted pieces.

all

Italian works,

prima donna

Thus we

in Italy, in a

best possible

find, in

almost

two basses, one or two tenors, one

contralto, or mezzo

soprano, and a so-

prano, which, by the union of their voices, present


the most effective combination of

harmony.

It is

no*

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

110

so in France, where

almost always the poet

is

it

TART

selects the actors, in reference to physical

which have no relation

or others,
practice,

who

qualities,

The

music

to

II

which we have of distinguishing the

also,

names of the

lines of characters by the

have severally distinguished themselves

actors

whc

them, en-

in

cumbers our theatres with voices of the same kind,


because these characters
in slight particulars,

Thus we have our

from one another only

differ

of no importance to the music.

Ellevious,

Phillippes,

Gavaudms,

Laruettes, and Trials,

who were

lovers or buffoons,

and whose voices were

all

tenors.

All these charac-

have their duplicate performers, so that tenors

ters

abound

in

our great theatres, whilst there are only

one or two basses.


appropriated
it

follows that,

if

tenors

and

this last

kind of voices being


or

tutors,

there are no personages of this kind

work, the compos

in a
for

Now,

the characters of fathers

to

obliged to write the music

is

With

trebles.

means,

limited

these

one may make pretty couplets, romances, or agreeable


and

airs,

There
cause

duets,

<>f

but

never

no harmony

is

the Bmall effect

i^\"

comic operas, and of the

good

the

in

concerted

most of thejinales

inferiority, in

is

source of charming

In Italy, as

known by

effects, bat

means of voices of
the

in

France, we

name of

the

the

our

respect,

it

cannot be ob-

same kind.

find a sort iA

Ixiritnn

this

i-

in

Vocal harmony

of the French to the Italian music.

tained by

Such

voices.

it

bass voice

holds the middle

ground between the lower bass ami the tenor, and

CHAP.

produces

rery Lr <">d uffect,

character; hut,

making

in

who had
a

in

when employed

respect; and

this

much

to effect

we seem now

returning to more sound ideas, and to


sity

true

Martin, Solie, and Lays,

it.

kind of voice, have done

in

in its

our theatres, they obstinately persist

tenor of

this

change

HI

USE OF THE VOICE.

XIII.

to

be

the neces-

feel

of confining the voices within their natural limits.

The

art

of writing properly for voices, and so as to

than the French or

known among the Italian


German composers. The cause

of this difference

to

favor the singers,

uij
iu

better

is

is

l>c

which enters into the

It ilv,

whilst

it

is

first

education of composers

absolutely neglected by the

of the Italian

find in Italian vocal

music something easy and natural

arrangement of the phrases,

of passages,

in

of the poetical
favorable

at

French

Without speaking of the advantages


language, which are indisputable, we

and Germans.

iu the

found in the study of sing-

their

in

the character

connection, and in the analogy

with the musical rhythm, which

once to the emission of the voice, and

the articulation of the throat and the tongue.

is

to

These

advantages are but rarely met with in the French


music, and more rarely

still

in the

German;

the latter

being frequently loaded with modulations which, render the intonations very difficult
Italian singing

circle of

shown,

its

The

was formerly attributed

ease of the

to the

in his

works, that this circle

may be

without depriving the vocal part of any of


tages.

It

is

narrow

modulations and forms; but Rossini has


enlarged

its

advan

probable that the popularity which h

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

IT2

music has acquired

France

in

PAST
contribute

will

improve our system of vocal music;

but,

II

to

render

to

complete, the concurrence of the poets

the reform

and the musicians

will

be necessary, as I shall show

hereafter.

There

is

direct their

one point to which the Italian comp

whole attention,

their singers;

it

is

in order to avoid fatiguing

the degree of elevation, in which

In their music, each kind

they maintain the voices.

of voice runs through an extent

which

is

given to

it

in the

at least

equal to that

French music: but

pac

requiring a great extent of voice, either high or low.


very rare, and the voice ordinarily remains

um

whilst in the scores of

;ire

medi-

in its

French music, we meet with

pieces, which, without running through a great extent,

cause the singer

much

fatigue, by

remaining

long

time upon notes which are unfavorable to the

The works of Gretry furnish many examples of this


detect.
A treble singer will rise without fatigue to
the

most elevated sounds

whilst

it

will

time upon E,

o["

be very painful
P, or

It

(i.

her voice, as
for
is

the

which are divided into two

voices,

her to sing

or D,
I

long

same with tenor


sort- of sounds,

very distinct from each other, namelv, the sounds of


the breast, and the sounds of the head, the latter of

which are sometimes designated by the mine


mixed
'

voice.

It

requires

Bennati baa demonstrated,

of tin Human Voi


Bounds should be the taryn^ian

manner

in

which thev

irt>

much

in lus

art

formed.

o\'

the

the sin

Ruearcke* into 6

the tru<> name of these


name which would indicate the
I

in

ill\l\

USE OF THE VOICE.

XIII.

smooth

much

as

possible

as

BOUndfl of the breast to the


latter to the

113

the passage

from the

mixed voice, and from the

former, so as to

make

the difference of

This change takes

the quality of tone imperceptible.

place in the majority of tenor voices, between


plain that,

It is

(i.

the composer

if

and

makes the part

dwell on these notes, he will cause the singer a


tigue injurious to the development of his powers,

which

is

much more

difficult

sounds of

to the highest

his

than

it

would be

head voice.

frequently happen to singers, for

fa-

and

to rise

Accidents

which they are much

lamable than the composer.

There

are

some

much

take without

intervals

which the voice cannot

difficulty,

and which the singer

approaches with timidity, because


to hit

them with precision.

minor and augmented


the

diminished

fifth,

it

These

is

very difficult

intervals are the

the major fourth or friton,

and the augmented second.


The passing from the one to the other of the notes
which form these intervals, is not natural to the movefourth,

ments of the throat, and the singer


obliged to

no time
s

make

to

do,

render

it

is

consequently

preparations for them, which there


in

rapid

passages.

necessary for the composer to

use of these intervals,

it

i?

If any circum-

make

ought to be done by means

of notes of some length.


It

is

not

the

articulation

of sounds alone which

may
It

present obstacles to the accuracy of the singer.


an impression has been made upon his ear by a

harmony foreign

to

the note which he

is

about to

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

114
attempt,

it

PART

II.

cause him to give it with a degree of


For example, if he is about to sound

will

uncertainty.

which precedes that note con-

C^f, and if the chord

tains Cfcj in the other vocal parts, or in the

accompani-

ment, the recollection of this

occupv the

will

Cfcj

ear of the singer, so that he will take the Off with


timidity,

These successions

and rarely with precision.

of sounds, which have no connection with each other,

The

are called false relations.

ancient composers ot

Thev

the Italian school carefully avoided them.

sometimes met with

The

selection

in

are

modern music.

of words, also, has

much

influence

upon the emission of the sounds of the voice: and


the art of the composer consists

in

placing certain

passages or notes only upon syllables which facilitate


their execution.

would give

particular passage or note, which

great deal of trouble U) the sinner

becomes easy upon another.


write music for French words, it is the moi
one

-y

syllable,

to be

upon our guard,

anguage abounds

in

as to this point,

uncertain

which turn the sound from

them
fore,

when

poetry,

mi,

///,

in

with the throat.

easily

natural course.

its

because our

and nasal syllables,

example, we can never gire sounds


to the syllables on

upon

When we

rit\
It

">d

\c.
is

1'

nor articulate

ncces-ary. there-

syllables of this description occur in

that

the musician should place

middle of the voice, and

ihem upon pes

Of

quality

that he Bhould

them

in

hric
the

aroid placing

notes winch ire sustained.

INSTKI M exts.

CHAP. XIV

CHAPTER

115

XIV.

OF INSTRUMENTS

Nature

has established

and qualities of voice; and


in

many diversified gradations


art has gone much farther

the fabrication of instruments,


illjf

constructed

which were

imitation of the voice.

in

origi-

Sound,

U we know, is only the vibration of a sonorous body,


communicated and modified by the air. But what a
variety in these modifications

What
of a
is

a difference

bell,

between the nature of the sound

and that of instruments

in

which the sound

produced by the breath, by keys, by a bow, by snap-

ping

a string,

And,

or by friction!

in

each of these

grand divisions, how numerous are the shades ot


difference in the quality of the sounds!

not done, and

every day

new

Still

discoveries and

all

is

new

improvements open new paths, where further discoveries

remain

to be

made, and new improvements

to

be introduced.

The most

ancient instruments mentioned in histoi)

arc stringed instruments played


tlte lyre,

of antiquity afford us
heir

forms

different

by snapping, such as

the cytharn, and the harp.

are different

nations.

The monuments

numerous models of them; but

Thus

and characteristic among


the

lyre

and

the

cythara

belong particularly to the Greeks, the inhabitants o f

Asia Minor, and the

Romans:

the harp seems to

HO
->e

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

PART

II

the allotment of the inhabitants of Upper Asia, of

Egypt, and of the north of Europe.


Fable, which

mingled with the whole history of

is

the Greeks, ascribes to

which

lyre,

Mercury the invention of


had only three string.

originally

the

The

number of these

strings was afterwards increased, but


was ne>er carried beyond seven, which made the lyre
p

very limited instrument, since

like

it

had no finger-board

our guitars, by means of which the sounds of

these seven strings might be modified, and they cod

sequently could only produce seven different sounds

Hence

the musician could not change his key withou

changing

The

his lyre.

were

varieties of the lyre

dis-

tinguished by the names ofcythara, chelys, Bndphor-

These instrument-

minx.

\\<

re

played sometimes by

snapping the string with the fingers, but more

fre-

quently with a kind of hook, called & plectrum, which


proves that only one of the strings could be

sound

The

We

at

the

same

made

tC

time.

origin of the harp

is

enveloped

in

obscurity.

upon the most ancient


monuments, among the Hebrew-, in Italy, among an
lind

it

in

India, in Egypt,

ancient people

and

in

named Arpe, among

the Scandinavians,

ancient England, without being able to discover

whether

all

these nation- had received

cation, or invented

it

it

by communi-

The

simultaneously.

use of the

harp, in the ancient nations of India and Egypt, raises


a

presumption that the (Ireeks and the

acquainted with and made use of

which we give

to

it

1-

it

Romans were
the name

but

not to be met with in any of tin

in

\\

\i\

instri mi

writers of antiquity.
tn'u tine or sambitque

It is

generally believed that the

was nothing more than

learned commentator upon the


baa proved that

such

as the

all

117

\ rs.

the instruments with oblique strings,

nabktm, the barbitos, the magade, the psal*

and the sambuqtte, of which mention

t<rit//ii,

a harp.

poems of Callimachua

made

is

in

the holy Scriptures, and in the writings of antiquity,

were varieties of the harp, and of Phoenician, Chaldaie,


01

Sj

nan

As to

origin.

the

Romans,

it is

believed that

which they called cinnara, was nothing more than a harp, and its name only a translation

the instrument

of kynnor or Liniiar, which, in the


the Bible,

is

the

name

Hebrew

of David's harp.

text of

The number

of strings to the ancient harp was originally thirteen;

number was afterwards increased to twenty,


to forty.
These strings were made of cat*

but this

and even

gut, like those of our harps, as appears

epigram

in

the Anthology,

The

from a Greek

people of antiquity

do not appear to have had any knowledge of


Aires: but several

made

use, in the beginning, of flaxen strings

which

it

is

difficult to believe,

tint description could

any

The

a tact

as strings of

produce only a dull sound,

if

at first, had no means of modulation,


was impossible to put a sufficient number

harp,
it

of Btrings upon

correspond
flats.

inasmuch

at all.

because

was

steel or

authors assure us that they

It
first

it

to the

was not
thought

to represent

all

the sounds which

notes expressed by the sharps and


until

of, in

about the year 1660 that

it

the Tyrol, to add hooks to tie

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

118

PART

II

instrument, in order to raise the tone of the strings,

when

it

was necessary; but the necessity of employ-

move

ing the hands to

hooks was very trouble-

the

some, and an instrument maker of Donawerth, named


llochbrucher, in the year
for

moving them by the

Though

a pedal.
useful.

But the

same time with

7
1

-J

invented a contrivance

which was thence called

feet,

very imperfect,

the

pedals were

moving the

difficulty of

feet

were not accustomed, threw many obstacles


of the inventor.

at

the

the hands, to which the performers


in the w;.v

In 1740, the pedal harp was not ye*

known in France,
German musician

but was introduced

of the

name of

brucher, a nephew of the

by

there

lloch-

Stecht.

instrument maker above

mentioned, and a good harpist

for

his time, broujl.

the use of the pedal to perfection about the year 177L.

But

was Naderman, an instrument maker o(

it

who give

to the

mechanism of

perfection of which

the

entire

The

principle of this

detective,

mechanism

it

was Busceptible.

being, however,

still

and subject to many accidents, Seh

Hrard determined

to supply

place by a

its

contrived, in which a fork was

better

1'aris,

the harp with hooks

mechanism

made

pinch

to

the strings, without drawing them out o\ the perpendicular hue. as was the ca>e in the harp with hooks.

The

BUCCesa

^\

his

invention led bun afterwards to

complete the improvements


still

in

of producing three
i\u\

oi

want, by giving to each

>harp, which

lie

tone-,

which the harp wai

iA' it-

Strings the

n miely, the

effected

ll

by means of

it.

natural,

median-

119

INSTRUMENTS.

CHAP. XIV.

movement

ism having a double

It

does not seem

possible to add anv thing to these harps,

which possess

every desirable perfection.


1

have remarked that,

among

the Greeks, stringed

instruments played by snapping, and having a finger-

which the strings may be pressed

upon

board

in

various places, in order to modify their tones, were


not

known; but

the Egyptian

monuments

this

duce us

believe that this people were

to

advanced

The

music.

in

offer

some

kind of instrument, which might

examples of

in-

somewhat

origin of stringed instru-

ments played by snapping, and having hnger-boards,

The wina

appears to be found in the East.

of India,

which consists of a bamboo body, attached


and which

gourds,
strings,

is

mounted with

which are pressed on bridges with the

appears to be the type of these instruments


especially the

two

to

several
fingers,

but

it is

condor luth of the Arabs, imported into

Europe by the Moors of Spain, which has served


model

for all

as a

the instruments of this kind; for these

instruments are only varieties of

it,

more

or less

com-

plicated in their structure.

The body

of the luth, convex on the back, and

on the other side, has


with ten
sounds.

is

mounted with eleven

which are double, three tuned

The

octaves.

Tin- instrument
Btudv

It

first
is

flat

broad finger-board, furnished

the fingers, in order to vary the

for

fretIt

in

strings, nine of

unison, and six in

two, or chanterelles, are single.

difficult to play,

and requires much

was formerly cultivated with success.

Be

120

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

rard, in

PART

II

Germany, and two musicians named GuaJtier,

France, made themselves celebrated by their per-

in

formances OD
the

name

which,
has

in

it

From

the seventeenth century.

of luth has been formed the word luth'nr,

maker of

at first, signified

-nice been applied to

stringed instruments,

all

the

which

lutes, but

manufacture]

and even to those who make

wind instruments.

An

imitation of the lute, of

ble proportions,

much more

considera-

and mounted with a greater number

Of

of strings, was formerly called an arckilute.

all

the instruments of this description, the latter has the

volume of tone; but the great size of


which rendered it very inconvenient

-t

finger-board,

the player, has caused

The

its

its

for

use to be abandoned.

tkeorbe was also a kind of lute, which had

two finger-boards, parallel to each other. The smallest was similar to that of the lute, and bore the same

number of Strings
larger, sustained

but the second, which was

the last eight

stnii^s,

much

which sened

for the bass.

Two

other kinds

about the

>f

lute

commencement

o\'

were rery much

in

use

the eighteenth century.

The

It had the
first <>i them was called the pandore.
same number of BtringS, which were tuned in the

same manner;

but, instead of being

they were of metal.

be remarked

in its

made

iA'

Another difference was

form.

back of the pandore was

catgut,
also

to

Instead of being convex, the


flat

The

of the lute kind was the mandore.

other instrumen
It

had onlv four

INSTRUMENTS.

3HAP. XIV.

strings,

which were tuned from

121

The

fifths to fourths.

highest Btring was sometimes lowered a note in

This was called playing witu

to obtain other chords.

These two instruments have long

string lowered.

tin

hem

out of use.

Lastly, there

is

a small

instrument, which belongs

to the tribe of lutes, called the


is

hrder

The body

mandolin.

round, like the lute, but the finger-board bears more


iblance to that of the guitar ^ of

The mandolin

presently.

which

shall

held in the

is

left

hand, and the sounds are produced by means of a


quill,

held between the

thumb and

forefinger; but

it is

necessary that the forefinger should be always below


the

thumb, without pressing the

those of the violin.

tuned,

player.

The

ment, with
is

five,

calascione, or colascione, a

It is

little

The whole

which

is

the

instru-

also played

commonly mounted with

sometimes with only two,

three, but

strings.

family of lutes has disappeared from the

music of Europe, and


;i

of

caprice

very long neck, used by the Neapolitans,

witli a quill.

make

which are

strings,

according to the

a peculiar kind of mandolin,

they

four

unison with

in

In Italy, there are mandolins

with three, and others with


variously

The

quill.

strings of this instrument are tuned

is

found only

in the East,

great figure in concerts.

where

In the sixteenth

and seventeenth centuries, they held the

first

place in

what were called chamber concerts, {musica da camera y }


and were also used to accompany the madrigals, ballads, table

songs, and others, which were always sung

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

122

I'ART

II.

All the concerts, represented in the

in several parts.

paintings of Titian, Valentin, and other ancient mas


ters of the Italian school, exhibit these

instruments, played

stringed

Though

with singers.

instruments had very

by

collections of

snapping, together

the quality of tone of these

little

made

brilliancy, they also

a part of the orchestras, in the beginning of the opera.

We

have

example of

an

this

musical drama entitled //

Sa?i-

Stephen Landi,

The

in

1634.

the

instrumentation of this

of

vio-

of harps, of lutes, of thcorbcs, of bass

viols,

and

Such an

of harpsichords, for the continued bass.

would be very

chestra, at the present day,

the effect of

The
though

it

would be

which time

Spain,

in

found in some parts of Africa.

is

it

in
it

or-

dull, but

original.

guitar appears to have originated

been known

It

has

France since the eleventh century,

had the name of guitirnc.

only one of

tin*

in

distinct parts

work was composed of three


lins,

use of them

Alessiot composed by

It is

at

almost

the stringed instruments played bv

all

Bnapping, and with finger-boards, which remains in


use.
is

The body

iA'

the guitar

is

flat

furnished with six BtringS, and

divided by

frets, for

on both sides:

it

finger-board

is

its

the placing of the fingers.

France, Germany, and England, the

upon the guitar

is

him

and Carcassi, have made


have succeeded
IDU81C

in

several

of

In

pi

carried to a very high point of per-

In these biter

fection.

art

it

executing upon
parts;

ruado, Huerta,

coneerio instrument, and

but,

in

it

wry complicated

Spain, the

native

II

country of this instrument,

it

the boleros, tirannas,

[)inv

123

INSTRUMENTS.

XIV.

kP.

is

used only to accom-

and other national airs

and the performers play upon


tstr

ik incr

the strings, or rattling

instinctively,

it

bv

them with the back

of the hand.
All the researches

which have been made

in order

whether the people of antiquity had any

to disc-over

knowledge of instruments played with the bow, have


been

fruitless, or rather

they have almost demonstra-

were wholly

ted that instruments of that description

unknown

to them.

Orpheus holding
the other;
violin

but

bow

and

red

the

It is true that

a violin

the

are

it is

a statue of
in

shows that the

work of the sculptor who

Passages

statue.

is

one hand and a bow

a close examination

Aristophanes, Plutarch,

which

in

there

also

are

cited

from

Atheneus, and Lucian,

pretended that there

is

in

proof of the exist-

ence of the bow among the Greeks; but the slightest


examination

is

enough

to

put

all

these

pretended

proofs to flight.

There

is

no doubt that instruments having a sound-

board, and neck, (or finger-board,) and strings elevated

upon

bridge,

their origin

and put

in the

in

vibration by a bow, had

West; but

at

what time, and

what part of Europe, they were invented,


tion not easy to divide.

ment nearly square

in

In
its

Wales we

is

in

a ques-

find an instru-

form, having a finger-board

nnd strings elevated upon abridge.

This instrument,

which seems

country from the

to

have existed

most remote antiquity,

is

in that

called crwtk, (crooth

and

PARI

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

124

In England,

ilayed with a bow.

regarded as tne

is

it

\l.

parent of the different kinds of viols and of the violin.

The

Gothic monuments of the middle ages, and

particularly the entrances of the churches of the tenth

century, are the most ancient, in which

we hnd reprewe call

sentations of instruments of the kind which


viol;

but

we should

still

be in a state of uncertainty

concerning the divisions of

this

kind of instruments,

composed by

the manuscript of a treatise on music,

if

Jerome of Moravia,
removed

we

all

had not

in the thirteenth century,

From this treatise

doubts in this respect.

learn that viols were divided into two sort<

instruments

the rubrbbe, and the violt

The rubebbe had


in fifths;

only two strings, which were tuned

the viol had

live,

tuned

.md the back of

The

violas.
it,

ways.

different

in

These instruments had not precisely


our violins and

<>f

or v'ulh}

form

tlte

<4'

sound-hoard, or front,

were not separated,

by the intermediate part, which we

as in the latter,

The

call ecUsscs.

back was round, like that of the mandolin, and the


sound-board was glued upon
period, these

ruhehhes

and

its

edge.

At

later

underwent

viols

divers

modifications, and gave birth to the different kind- of


viols,

namely, the

properly so called, which was

viol,

placed on the knees, mounted with


treble

viol, (pctrdessus

strings t'ined

The

to the

five

strings; the

de viole,) which also


fifth

o\'

the viol; the

had

bau

nolle bore referred to had do resemblance to

nenl winch now


nngnage,

i_

"<'s

by thai name, which,

w.is called the role.

in

tlie

the ancient

five
viol,

instm

From

CUM'. XIV.

mounted sometimes with

[bassi de vide,) which was

n>e and sometimes with


Italians the

from

dagamba,

viola

in

by the

called

strings,

six

order to distinguish

it

other kinds, which they frequently designated

tlit-

name of

by the
viol,

12j

NSTRI Ml'.NTS.

viola

da braccic

the violent, or large

which was placed upon a pedestal, and which

WIS mounted with seven


twelve

strings,
I

and the accordo,

strings;

mounted with

kind of via/one, which was

another

and

sometimes

of which were sounded

harmony

at

even
at

every stroke of the bow.

with

fifteen,

once, and

The

made

via/one

and

the accordo had finger-boards divided by frets, like the

and the guitar

lute
size,

standing.

There was

the viol of lore, (mole

the

and, on account of their great

upon by the performer

could only be played

same with

still

another kind of

viol, called

size

was nearly

d' a/iwi/r.)

Its

that of the treble viol.

It

was mounted

with four strings of catgut, attached as in the other


instruments, and four others of brass, which passed

under the finger-board, and which, being tuned in


onison with the

.strings of catgut, gave out sweet and


harmonious sounds, when the instrument was played

in a certain manner.
This is a more modern instrument than the others.
Towards the fifteenth century, it seems that, in

France, the
in order to
it

viol

day, and

What
ment was made
<trm_:<.

had been reduced to a smaller size,

form from
to

it

the violin, as

limit

this

it

exists at the

instrument

to

four

induces the belief that this improvein

France,

is

the fact, that the violin

PAST

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

126

II.

indicated in the Italian scenes of the end of the

is

names of piccoli violinx


French fashion.)

sixteenth century, under the


alia franctse,

The

(little

violins of the

violin has four strings,

used

It is

for the

upper

tuned by

E, A, D, G.

fifths,

The

part.

superiority of the

sounds of the violin over those of the


obtained

it

the preference, and

it

came

viols,

into general

makers sprung up

use.

Skilful instrument

Italy,

and Germany, and from their workshops there

came

excellent violins,

Bought after by the

strument

are

still

very

Amount

may remark

we

makers,

which

virtuosi.

France,

in

much

these

Nicholas

in-

and

Andrew Amati, of Cremona,

ai the end of the sixAntony and Jerome Amati, sons of


Andrew; Antony Stradivari, a pupil of the Amatis

teenth century

neri

Andrew Guarneri and Joseph Guar-

as Peter

as well

James

Steiner, a Tyrolese, also a pupil

Amatis; and
skilful artists

others.

several

The

have been sold, since,

from a hundred

/<mi.<

(about

four

o\'

the

of these

violins

varying

for prices

hundred dollars)

SIX

thousand francs, (about eleven hundred

At

this day, very

to

dollars.)

good imitations of them Bie made,

and some that, b\ their exact resemblance to the older

These immore than three hundred francs,

instruments^ deceive skilful connoisseurs.


itations

(about

Of

do not

cost

fifty-five dollars.)
all

the ancient

been preserved
It*

ire

is

viols,

that

the only one

called

mole,

alto,

number of 8tring8 has been reduced


tured

a tilth

which has
or quinte.

to four,

tower than those of the riolin.

which
Tail

XIV.

rilAP.

INSTRI mi

instrument takes thai part

127

!.

orchestra wrhich cor-

in the

responds to the contralto voice in a chorus.

The

bass viol, a difficult instrument to play, and

somewhat

niids of which were

peared,

dull, has disap-

order to give place to the violoncello, less

in

attractive, perhaps, lor solos,

hut more energetic and

suitable for the purposes of the orchestra.

troduced into France,


Florentine

named John

It

was

in-

reign of Louis XIV., by a

in the

Balistini

but

it

was not

finally

substituted for the bass viol until about the year 1720.

The

which were used

vio/one and the accordo,

in

orchestras, to play the bass of the harmony, had the

defect of

all

viols,

namely, that of producing only

sounds which were dull

music acquired more


to think of

For

this

Italy,

This

in

means

it

became necessary

more strength

to give

to the bass.

purpose, the contrebasso was constructed in


the

beginning of the

instrument, which

orchestras,

into the

The

Opera

in

eighteenth century.

now

is

was not adopted

siderable difficulty.

duced

As

and void of energy.

brilliancy,

in

first

the

foundation

of

France without concontrebasso was intro-

1700, and was played by a

musician of the name of Monteclair. In 17.">7, there


was hut one of these instruments in the orchestra of
this theatre,

and that was used only on Friday, which

was the principal


idded a second.

duced a

third

day of this exhibition.

Philid

>r,

Gossec
French composer, intro-

into the orchestra, for the

sentation of his opera of

EmeHnda;

first

repre-

and the number

of these instruments has been gradually increased to

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

128

PAST

II.

eight.

The

strings,

which sound an octave below those of the

contrebasso

These

violoncello.

strung with three

is

man and
strings,
ble, as

The

This

is

in the

tl;

last

plan

four

pi

is

renders the instrument more easy to play.

third kind of stringed instruments

which the strings are put


key.

tilths

mounted with

Italian instruments are

tuned by fourths.
it

number

strings are three in

French instruments, and are tuned by

These instruments

in vibration

is

that in

mean

by

The

are of two kinds.

first

derived from the imitation of lutes and other instru-

ments, the strings of which were snapped with a

The

or with a piece of tortoise shell.

quill,

imitation

was

made by mechanical contrivance, and had the advantage of offering means of combining a greater
i

of sounds than could be done on any of the varieties

of the

lute.

The

was made was the

first

instrument of

cluvicitht

catgut, put in vibration by

r/'i/ni,

means of pieces

The

operated upon by the keys.

an instrument with strings and

been said that the name of

compliment
played OB
error.

1530,

it,

The

to

Elizabeth,

queen

virginal

was

in

it.

Hut tinis

at

as

early

The ilnruin

harpsichord) was also already invented

the form of our long pianos.

has often

England, who

existence

and had the same name.

Tlii- instrument, the largest

It

instrument
oi'

iA"

oi leather,

virginal was also

keys.

this

and was \<t\ fond

kind that

this

which had stn

(or

that period.

of the kind, had almost


It

often had

two

which might be played together, and which >tm<

(HAT.

\l\

two ootea

MEN

IN81 Kl

tuned

time,

at

1'2\)

B.

The

in octaves.

strings

of the harpsichord were put in vibration by strips

wood terminated with

The end

which were raised by touching a key.


the quill, or leather, gave
as

way and

fell

down

The

of

soon

as

which was only a harpsichord

spinet,

of a square form, was constructed on the

There were some of

ciple.

was very

of which

.sound

prin-

particular kind, the

soft,

and, for that reason,

harpsichord, the spinet,

and the clavichord, continued

The

same

The

called sourdins.

use

in

till

about \~>~>.

other kinds of keyed instruments were mcdelled

upon the

instruments

Oriental

psalttrium, or psaltery.

of which
*'f

use

great
a

was glued.

brass

wire

tuned so

were

called

known

is

canon,

and

that the latter,

was formerly made, was com-

On

in

all

tablet strings of iron or

by means of pegs, and

the sounds of the scale.

each hand a

the strings.

inconvenient

this

extended

as to give

performer held

uck

It

square box, on which a thin pine board cr

tablet

little

rod, with

The
which

Such an instrument was

and limited

attempt was made to improve


the clavichord,
lar

had touched the string, leaving the latter free to

it

vibrate.

(lice

of quill or leather, and

a piece

in
it,

its

powers.

at

An

and thence sprung

which consisted of a box of

a triangu-

form, with a sound-board, and pegs, to which wires

of brass were

upon

little

struck.

attached, and

a key,

plates of copper, by
It

was

this

instrument

<sted the idea of the piano.


1)

which operated

which the strings were

which afterwards

Lw

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

The

sometimes disagreeable sound of

thin and

tht

harpsichord, the spinet, and even the clavichord, had,


a long time, induced

for

makers

to

seek

the

for

and

agreeable sounds;

Academy

the

Two

strings.

wood used

upon

the

appears that the

it

Zumpe,

until the year 17(30 that

and Silbermann,
Erard

to

multiply

made

the

imported

extent

an

of

struck

upon two

note.

The

for

it

England,

five

strings

177(1,

the

instruments of this

in Paris

for until that

The

first

period

had

from London.

which were constructed

pianos

In

pianos.

first

kind which were constructed


time they were

in

Germany, had regular manufacto-

in

and began

brothers

only

but

attempts of this kind were coldly received

was not
ries,

made

invention, and

this

piano, which has served as a model for those

which have since been made


first

little

strike the

to

years afterwards, Christoforo, a Flor

entine, improved
first

which he had substituted

in

the strips of

for

manufac-

of Marius, had pn

of Sciences for their examination

two harpsichords,

hammers

as 171(1, a

as early

name

turer at Paris, by the


to

some of the harpsichord


means of producing more

at

octaves,

tuned

this

and
in

the

unison

hammers
for

each

extent of the key-hoard was

afterward.'

carried to six octaves and a half, and the

number of

stiings to each note

give the sound

was raised

more body and

to

strength.

changes, or improvements, hive

manufacture
d

of pianos.

their

three, in order tc

Their

been
size

Numerous
mule in the

has

structure has undergone a

been

in*

thousand

variations

and

their quality of

instrument

form of the
are

now

mon form
like

soft

and

Even

full.

the

been greatly changed.

lias

cither oblong,

in use,

which

com-

the most

is

or larger at one end than the other,

the harpsichord, or upright, with perpendicular

and of many other forms, which

or oblique strings;
it

sound has ceased to be thin

and has become

Bhrill,

They

131

INSTRUMENTS.

XIV.

.HAL'.

would take

long

too

The

mention.

to

English

pianos, principally the grand pianos, (a queue,) have,

long time, been

for a

others

may

vie with

them

in

and their structure.


those of Vienna, are

tone

and

is

unquestionably superior to

now made

but instruments are

powerful.

less

all

Paris which

respect to their quality of tone

The German
also very

pianos, especially

agreeable, but their

Their structure

execution of

facilitates the

at

is

very light,

difficult passages.

From what has now been

said,

it

follows

that

instruments, the principle of which consists of sonorous

and

variety,

kind,

flexible

susceptible

are

strin-js,

of

much

and have undergone modifications of every

like

all

things

connected

else

The same may be remarked


ss

isrj

is

with

of instruments

derived from the

air

blown

music
whose

into them.

These instruments are divided into three principal


1, flutes, which are made to sound

kinds, namely,

by means of
orifice
in

at

air

introduced into a tube through an

the side or end

2, instruments with rceds

which the vibrations of a

the sound

flexible

tongue produce

and, 3, instruments with a mouth-piece, in

which the sounds are formed by modifications of


motion and position of the

lips

'.he

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

132

some form

Flutes, in

among

or other, have been

which

nations

all

have

Egypt, and China, afford

India,

TART

und

fc

music.

cultivated

varieties of this in-

may be traced back to the


The Greeks and Romans had

strument, which

remote times.

II

mofll
flutes

of different forms for most of their religious ceremotor

marriages,

festivals,

cians, appears

to be

an

invention to Marsyas.
llute,

After this

which was played by putting one of

ends of the instrument

double
holes,

They attributed
came the Phrygi-

which had only a single pipe, pierced with

three holes, and


the

and united toother near

was held

in

pipes, pierced

edge of harmony;

for

it

is

the two pipes were intended

cipal

not to be

made

u>e of
All this

kind- of

divided

hundred.

in
is

flutes,

into an

pretend that

in

he

that

of which

infinity

mode

to

three prin-

we have spoken, were

of others.

number of

The

this

they W( re

order to pass from one


very obscure.

that

unison.

have thought that the two pipes of

critics

the

is

presumed

to be played

were not played together, and

another.

This

induce the

Greeks and Romans bad any knowl-

belief that the

only

with

a single orifice, called

both hands.

only instrument of antiquity which can

flute

The

mouth.

into the

composed of two

flute,

the embouchure,

Some

is

the most ancient form of the

instrument employed by the Greeks.


its

The

ecc.

hands of some itinerant musi-

to be seen in the

still

funerals,

with several pipes of different lengths, which

flute

The

varieties

antiquariei
I

twn

The

133

INSTRUMENTS.

\iv

THAI'.

question has been frequently agitated, whethei

ancients were acquainted with the flute, traoer

the

[cross flute,)

si Ire,

of

u-.'

which

is

ancient monuments,

discovered, have solved the difficulty, by show-

upon a

ing, in bas-relief, a figure playing

description.

The

of that

in the wri-

many

places, the

difference between the straight


(lute.

flute

This explains those passages

of antiquity, which recognize, in

ters

now made

the only one

Some

regular music.

in

and the

flute

ublifjuc

was nothing more than the flute

latter

trttversiere.

Formerly, the only kind of

used

flute

in

France

was the flute a bee, that is, the embouchure of which


was placed at one end. All the parts for the flute,

which were written


called

also

When

the flute

the flute

received the
is

first

of this kind.

flutes

douce,

traversiere

name of

the

renewed

in

the end of the

operas of the age of Louis

for the

XIV., were played with

or

was

first

German

was

It

English

the

flute.

introduced,

flute,

that country.

because
Until

it

its

about

eighteenth century, this flute had

no

more than six holes, stopped by the fingers, and a


seventh, which was opened by means of a key.
Like
the greater part of wind instruments, the German
flute

was imperfect

precision.

These

in

several notes,

addition of keys, which are


1

Tn Germany, Rates, with as

made, which have


ttiis

mnibplicitj

is

of the instiument.

which

failed

in

detects have been corrected by the

a greater

now

many

as

eight in number.

seventeen keys, have been

range of Bound than the others

embarrassing, anQ changes the

q:

ility of

but

tone

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

134

PART

II

These keys also enable performers to execute


many passages which could not be done on the ancient flute.

The

llute

from being played

it

wind instruments, called band music,

somewhat smaller dimensions, and


called the octave, ox piccolo,

when

the composer

is

whistling of the

the

jjiuo/i),

which

ordinary

flute,

is

effects, or
in

of less than

imitations, Mich

tone

its

material of flutes

maple, &>c.
to

but

all

half the

of the present
ol

made
their

To

to vary.

of idass.

day have

this

in>tru-

ordinarily box, ebony, or

is

oi"

of becoming

wood are subject


warmed bv the

breath, and thereby causing the sound

ment

size of the

and frequent]]

shrill

these kinds

inconvenience

the

The

tempest

extended the use even to the abuse

ment
The

flute,

also used in orchc>tras,

wind

The composers

greeable.

is

of

flutes

keys of E\),

sounds an octave higher, which makes

of

quality

in the

desirous of brilliancy, or of

producing certain peculiar

the

other

Another kind of small

F, &,c, are employed.

as

but this

in all the

In military music, and in that kind of music,

keys.
for

D;

naturally in the key of

is

does not prevent

o( the instru-

haw

been

invariable;

but

avoid this detect, flutes

which were

weight, which rendered

nearly

them

inconvenient

in

execution, and their brittleness, have caused them to

be given up.

li

has been found to be

and useful remedy, to adapt


metallic

tube,

winch

to the

more simple

common

flute

may be extended when

the

ill

INSTRUMENTS.

XIV.

I'.

135

instrument becomes warm, and which

reestablishes

the jn>t tone by lengthening the tube.

Of
in

ancient (lutes a bee, one alone remains

the

all

This

use.

which produces an

the flageolet,

is

agreeable effect

This

orchestras for the dance.

in

instrument was formerly very defective in point of


justness, and very limited
tion

but

as to its

means of execu-

much improved,

has been

it

within a few

years, by the addition of keys.

Of

all

the varieties of instruments with reeds,

have been
horn,

lish

use

in

at

clarinet,

different periods, the oboe,

and

bassoon,

are

which

Engones

the only

which have been preserved.

The most
which was

ancient of these instruments

the end of the sixteenth century.

having only eight


length was two

holes,

feet.

state of imperfection,

rural

in

their skill

ment
of

De

It

that period,

without keys.

remained

for a

which prevented

Keys were

The

1690.

At

the orchestra, except for

festivals.

year

the oboe;

on

this

Besozzi,

first

added

who were

Its

whole

long time in a
it

from being

the music of
to

it

about the

celebrated for

instrument, attempted

its

improve-

and an instrument maker of Paris, of the name


Lusse, about the year 1780, added a key to

Several other improvements, which have been


in

later times,

is

it.

made

have carried the instrument to a point

of perfection which leaves nothing to be desired.


extent

it

instrument, of a hard and harsh tone,

coarse

employed

is

the hands of the minstrels as early as

in

now two octaves and

a half.

Its

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

130

The

quality of the tone of the

played, gives
IS

when

oboe,

well

wonderful power of expression.

it

the tone of the flute.

small instrument,
rises

Though it is produced by a
much power, and frequently

The oboe was more employed

high tone.

by composers

than any other wind instrument of a

forty years ago,

and

has

it

above the mass of sound of the most effective or-

chestras.

equally well adapted for the orchestra

It is

for solos.

The

instrument which has been improperly called

the English horn,

may be considered

of the oboe, of which

is a

it

as the contralto

variety.

much

greater, so that, in order to facilitate the playing

make

The

crooked.

it

is

necessary to

horn

is

a fifth lower than the oboe, in

it,

of the length of
only

suitable
It

It

capable of more force, and of more variety, than

is

its

tube.

tone

Its

is

upon

English

eonseq
plaintiv<

movements, romances, & c

slow

for

it

modern instrument, and was unknown

sixty

years ago.

The

which belongs

btMSSoon,

the oboe, and

was invented
Afranio.

'flu

1599, by

in

Italians

formed of several

The

a bundle.

octaves and

also to the

family of

the bass of that kind o( instruments,

is

canon of Pavia. named

call

piece's of

it

fagotto, becausfl

wood united together

extent of the bassoon

half:

pelow the

staff, in

strument

has

and

the

undergone

its

lowest

The

clef.

many

notwithstanding the labors of

is

DOte

is

like

about three
ifl

form n(

the
this

modifications;

many

it

!>[)

in-

but,

artwt< and skilful

IHAF

137

INSTRUMENT*

XIV.

instriment makers,

from having arrived

far

is

it

Several of

perfection

notes are false, and

its

at

are

only susceptible of correction, to a certain degree, by

the skill of the artist

who

plays upon

lower notes are too low,

its

The number

higher.

and

fifteen,

to

its

defects

Several of the notes

been corrected.

all

with the

been increased

of keys has

means of execution

its

accordingly; but

enriched

Almost

it.

when compared

have been

have not

still

all

have a sort

of muffled tone; whilst others of them, principally in


the

remain

baas,

It

false.

probable

is

that

these

delects will not be overcome, until the instrument

pierced anew upon better principles and upon a


system.

It

may, perhaps, be necessary to chancre

its

form, and to bend the lower extremity, in order that

may become warm more

The

which

defects

are the

on,

have

instrument

on

performs the

It

pointed

out

to be lamented,

indispensable
hestra,

it

readily.
I

more

is

new

in

as

in
it

the composition
office,

is

the

an

of an

both of the tenor

and bass, of the reed instruments, and binds together


the different parts of the

with

harmony.

It

is

employed

better effect in the orchestra, than as a solo

instrument.

tones

Its

are melancholy and monoto-

nous when played alone.


In Germany, a contrebasso of the bassoon, called
contrcbasson,
is

than

larger

below.

It

is

is

sometimes used.

the

bassoon,

This instrument

and sounds

difficult to play,

an octave

and requires that the

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

138

PART

performer should he of a rohust constitution.

Its Je

slow articulation.

feet is a

The

II

clarinet

is

much more modern

an instrument

than the oboe and bassoon

for

was not invented

it

by John Christopher Denner, an

until the year 1G90,

instrument maker of Nuremberg.

At

first

had but

it

one key, and was very rarely used, on account of

its

numerous imperfections; but the beauty of its tones


induced artists to attempt improvements in its construction.
The number of keys was gradually increased to five; but, when arrived
offered but few resources.

from 17T0 to 1787, when

in this state

The number

added.

amounted

until they

at this point,

of its keys was

still

to fourteen

but

of execution, which

still

key was

a sixth

finally incr<

the defects ^i

all

the instrument have not yet disappeared.


difficulties

it

nevertheless remained

It

Besides the

o(

exist, several

the notes are deficient in precision and in quality of


tone.

It

bassoon;

the

is

its

same with the

clarinet

as

with the

tube requires to be pierced anew upon

a better Bystem of acoustics.

Multiplying the

k<

wind instruments corrects the want of precision, but


injures the quality of the tone.

The

difficulties

^i^

execution on the clarinet

such that the same instrument cannot be used


in

all

Those

the keys.

sharps require

also, in relation to

In order to

in

which there

peculiar clarinet

keys

comprehend

in

and

it

which there are

this,

it

are

is

are

to play

many

the

mam

should he understood,

that, in proportion as the tube of a

wind instrument

is

INSTRUMENTS.

SHAP. XIV
ihortened,

tones are raised

its

unison with

ment of
lie

It

follows that, if the

lengthened, so that

li[;, it will

be sufficient to

its

make

in

is

the instru-

that size, in order to enable the performer to

produce the
and

is

and that they are low-

ered by lengthening the tube.

tube of a clarinet

t3 J

effect of the

key of B\), by playing

in

C;

thereby be relieved from the necessity of

will

executing those notes which present difficulties to be

overcome in the execution.

If

we continue

to lengthen

sounds the

the tube of the instrument, bo that

same

as

A, the

effect

which the

if

he should play

key of A, with three sharps in the

in the

produce

artist will

by playing in C, will be the same as

is

its

This

clef.

the explanation of the terms used by musicians:

clarinet in C, clarinet in B\), clarinet in A.

The

clarinet

was not introduced

orchestras until the year 1757


it

has

come

into the

into general use, not only in

chestras, but in military bands, in

The sound

principal part.

great volume,

full

and

soft,

which

the chahimeau.

los, clarinets in

slurp

There

is

is

it

or-

plays the
is

of

and possesses a quality


its

lower notes,

In military music, for the so-

E[j, or in F, are used,

and piercing sound, proper

music which

common

of this instrument

unlike that of any other, particularly in


called

French

since which period,

which have

for that

intended to be heard

in the

kind of

open

air.

also a kind of large clarinet, a fifth lower

than the clarinet in C, which possesses a concentrated


quality of tone.
net horn.

It

is

It

is

called the cor de basset or bas*

the contralto of the clarinet.

bass

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

140

clarinet has lately

PART

II

been constructed, which presents

no more

difficulties in the

clarinet,

and which completes

common

execution than the


this

family of instru-

ments.

The

third

kind of wind instruments, which are

played with an open embouchure, or mouth-pitat,

hum,

cludes the

trombone, the serpent, and the ophic/a'dt

Hunting

airs

were played

cornet, an instrument
;.nd

made

in

shape of a horn,

in tiie

These clumsy instruments

pierced with holes.

1680, and was

at first

Germany,

to be used

in

used only

in

in

France,

hunting.

Being

was there

it

music.

The

(old buck's horn.)

(hunting horn) was invented

carried into

began

s.

operas by the

in the first

were called cornets a bouquin,


-or de chasse

in-

the different sorts of trumpets, the

improved, and

In \Z'M),

it

was used

in

France, but was not introduced into the orchestra of


the

Opera

until

17">T.

then be drawn from

The sounds which

were few

number

could
but,

in

1760, a German, named rlampl, discovered that

it

it

in

could be made to produce an additional number, by


closing in part, with the hand, the open portion of the

instrument, which was called

tlu*

covery opened the way to those

This

pavilion.
skilful

artists

Another

devoted themselves to the study of the horn.

German, named Haltenhotf, completed

ment of

this

instrument, by adding to

dis-

who

the imp:
it

grooved

means of which the precision o( thfl


tout's may be preserved, when they become too -harp
in consequence o( the warmth of the instrument

sliding tube, by

CHAP. XIV.

141

the nature of the horn to gixe only certain

It is in

sounds

INSTRUMENTS.

a pure,

in

free,

and open tone;

the others,

which arc obtained by the aid of the hand, are much


more dull, and are termed stopped sounds. But as

some keys

there are

in

which the stopped sounds are

precisely those which ought to


frequently,

without

in

effect,

lengthening

been invented, to be added to


is

to

be

the most

heard

which case the instrument would be


tubes, or crooks, have

the purpose of which

it,

change the tones of the instrument,

as those of

the clarinet are changed, by lengthening

For example,
it

will

to

it,

if

we suppose

be readily conceived

which lowers

open sounds

loager

it

a tone, the

in the

will

still,

it

key of

horn

will

be

in

the

B\),

then be

If the added tube

B\).

and so on.

from this that the performer always plays


that

be

will

place the key of the horn in


will

C,

in

is

by adding a tube

open sounds of the key of

Tin! all the

jonger,

that

tube.

its

horn

that the

is

if

It

follows

in

C, and

added tube produces the necessary trans-

position.

This plan
want,
tions

But

is

ingenious, and would suffice for every

music was not modulated, or if in modulathere were time to change the transposing tube.
if

this

is

not always the case.

The composer

is,

therefore, obliged either to suppress the parts of the

horns

in certain

very good
notes,

places, in

effects,

or

to

which they would produce

write

them

which do not correspond to

Struck with this inconvenience of the

in

his

the stopped
intentions

common

horn

142
a

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

German musician named Stadzel conceived

of adding pistons to
a

PART

communication,
the

in

it,

by

at will,

II.

the idea

means of which he
between the column of
<

horn and that of the additional

thereby obtained open sounds in

air

tubes, and

This

the notes.

all

improvement, which has been perfected by several


manufacturers of brass instruments,

will, at

ture period, be of great advantage;

but

adopted.

generally
that the

The
for

horn

solos,

for

may

be modified

well

understood,

The

acter.

entirely

art

in
in

Both energetic and

powers.
well

express the

to

and

for

as

to

the

more

Equally

orchestra,

full

it

thousand ways, but must be


order to exhibit its whole chara

of writing

art

such a manner

its

and the softer sentiments.

violent passions
well adapted

they injure the

that

is,

sound of the horn.

equally

serves

it

fu-

yet

an exceedingly valuable instrument,

is

tl^ variety of

tender;

not

must be admitted, however,

It

fault of the pistons

beautiful quality of

some
is

it

parts

develop

all

it-

the

for

horn,

resources,

is

new, and which Etossini has carried

in

an
to

perfection.

The

trumpet

is

Boprano

the

^\"

the

bom,

limited than the horn, since

stopped with the hand,

circumstances.
clear,

It>

it

is

quality

it

a<

it

More

sounds an octave higher than that instrument

has none of the sounds

nol

less

^( tone

useful
is

and penetrating, and the effects

more
o\"

maiij

Bilrery,

neither of

these instruments can be supplied by the other.

Theii

union sometimes produces the happiest combinations

CHAP. XIV.

INSTRUMENTS.

Formerly, the only

known instrument (f t lis kind


and, for many years, none
At length, improved
the Opera.

\v;is

14tt

the cavalry trumpet;

other was used at

trumpets were brought from Germany, by the two


brothers Braun, about the year 1770; and since that

from the

period, the cavalry trumpet has disappeared

At

orchestra

commencement

the

present

of the

century, trumpets were manufactured of a semicircular form, which, properly speaking, were nothing

more than small

horns.

ments

the

had

within

not

The sound

brilliancy

few years,

the

of

ancient

of these instru-

model

has

restored.

changes of key,
that

is,

been

The sounds

and,

others,

the

of the trumpet are modified


in the

same way

for

the

as those of the horn,

by means of additional tubes.

Divers attempts had been made, within the


twenty-five years,

to

last

increase the resources of the

trumpet, but without any corresponding success.

At

length an Englishman conceived the idea of adding

keys to

it,

like those of the

experiments
cess;

but

it

for that

oboe or

clarinet,

and

his

purpose were crowned with suc-

was found that he hid created a new


its tone, had little

instrument, which, in the quality of

resemblance to the

common

trumpet.

This was an

The inventor
the name of the

acquisition, but not an improvement.

designated his trumpet with keys by


bugle horn.

This instrument, upon which melodies

may be executed, as upon the


now employed with success in

clarinet

or obo>,

is

military music, and

even
of

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

144

it

Rossini has made a happy use

in the opera.

in the first act of his

The

II.

Semiramide.

principle of the construction of keyed trumpets

being once discovered,

might be applied

it

was soon perceived that

to other instruments

it

of the same

kind, but of greater dimensions, which should be the

ily

of brass instruments has received the

The

ophicleidt.
is

This new fam-

and bass, of the trumpet.

alto, tenor,

name of

extent of these different instruments

nearly that of the voices to which they correspond.

Their union produces

fine effects,

which cannot be

supplied by the other brass instruments which have


not the same means of modulation.

There

is

another kind of instruments, which are

called trombones, and which are also capable of giving


all

the notes

which

is

open sounds, by means of

in

moved

or shorten the sonorous tube.

ment

is

more

This kind of

The sound

of the

dry, hard, and energetic, than

but

cleides;

instru-

divided into three voices, namely, the

and bass.

tenor,

slide,

by the performer, in order to lengthen

produce peculiar

they

alto,

trombones

is

that o( the ophieffects,

unlike

those of any other instruments.

This whole

irreat

division of brass instruments

i-

means of a conical and concave


to
which
the performer applies his lips
mouth-piece,
the same lime blowing, and
more or le<s closely,
marking the note by a movement of the tongue This

put in vibration by

:it

is

very

difficult,

as labor.

and requires natural aptitude

There

are

as

well

some persons, the conformation

CHAP. XIV.
of whoso

14>

INSTHUMENTB.

lips

is

;m insurmountable obstacle V) their

playing well upon the horn or trumpet.

To

embouchure,

the instruments with the


.

ear in our churches, but which

as the

is

not equally disagree-

when united with

able in military music,

other basses,

This

trombone and the ophicleide.

ment was invented

in 1590,

named Edme Guillaume.

Many

respects.

all

month"

barbarous instrument, which wearies the

serpetU t a

such

or.

which have been mentioned, must be added the

side of notes

of

its

Its

construction

sounds are

is

The

feeble.

faulty in

and by the

false,

which are very powerful, we

which are extremely

instru-

by a canon of Auxerre,

find others

expulsion of the

serpent from the churches will be one step towards

good

taste in music.

The organ

is

the largest, the most majestic, the

richest in the variety of

wind instruments.

its effects,

and the

chine rather than an instrument;


true; but however
certain that

human mind.
Some passages

it

it

is

finest of

has been said that

It

may be

and

described,

it is

this
it

aL

ma-

may be

is

not the

one of the noblest inventions of

the

tiquity,

to

be found

and particularly

in the writers

in Vitruvius,

of an-

have put the com-

mentators to the torture, to discover what these writers

understood by the hydraulic organ, the invention

of which they attribute to Ctcsibius, a mathematician


of Alexandria, who lived in the time of Ptolemy EverAll

that

the commentators

have said

only

serves to prove that they were completely ignoi ant of

10

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

l-v,

the subject in question.

In

PART

probability,

all

we

I]

shrill

never know what was the mechanism of this hydraulic

As

organ.

which
which

is

the pneumatic

to

organ,

namely,

that

by the action of the

put in vibration

is

air,

have been known to the ancients,

also said to

without any better evidence than some obscure pasin their poets,

more than the

it

Auvergnese, which we

The most
history,

in

call the

France.

sent, in the year

was nothing

comemuse, or bagpipe.

It

7.">7,

This was the

was placed

is

made

to Pepin, the father

first

which app

church of

in the

Si

This organ was very small,

Compiegne.

at

it

Scotch and the

which the emperor Constantine

that

is

Copronymus

neille,

probable that

ancient organ of which mention

of Charlemagne.
in

is

rustic instrument of the

and portable, like that which was constructed by an

Arab named

magne by

Giafar, and which was Bent to Charle-

the caliph of Bagdad.

A Venetian
been the
i:i

first

Europe.

named Gregory, appears to have


who attempted the building of organs

priest,

In 826, he was employed by Louis the

Pious to

make one

The

of organ-building

and
until

art
it

for

seems not even

the

the church of Ai\-la-C napelle.

to

made

very slow progress

Francis Landino, but-

fourteenth century.

named Francesco oVegU Organi on account of


skill upon the organ, made man\ improvements in
t

construction about the year

1350.

man Damed Bernard, who was


invented the pedals.

have begun to be developed

In 1470, a

an organist

at

hi*

<;

its
-

Venice,

CHA1

XIV.

IN81

The organ
ead, called
at

147

several ranges of pipes,

arc of wood, or of a mixture of tin and

with open

stuff,

mouths, like the

which have

the end; and the rest of

nth-piece tongues of brass or reeds.

nit

placed

are

ut

of

upon the end

upright,

mouth-piece
j)

MB NTS.

composed of

is

some of which
played

1:1

which are made

in holes,

is,

wooden boxes,

certain

These
which

pipes

in the

upper

called

their

wind-chests.

bellows distribute the wind into tabes which

communicate with the

To

each range of pipes

wood, which

is

of the wind-chests.

interior
is

attached a plate or rod of

also pierced with holes, at distances

This plate or rod

equal to those of the wind-chests.


is

in

flute

in their

called the register.

ner as to

move

easily,

by the organist.

in

arranged in such a man-

It is

when

it

is

drawn out

If the register

is

pushed

or

pushed

in, its

do not correspond to those of the wind-chest,

in

which the pipes are placed, and consequently the wind


cannot enter into the pipes; but

if it

the holes will perfectly correspond,

and the

is

drawn
air

Then, when the organist

admitted into the pipes.

places his finger upon a key, the latter, as

down, draws

a little rod,

sponding to the hole

out,

may be

which opens

it

sinks

a valve corre-

in the register, the

wind enters,

and the pipe of the note gives the sound which belongs
to that note.
tli

pipes

in

If several registers are

them, which

touched, will sound

at

the

a flute, the

sound

is

column of

air

the pipe

in

drawn

out,

correspond to the

same

time.

all

note

If the pipe

ia

produced by the vibration of the


;

if it

is

a reed stop, the

48

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

sound

II

from the beating of the tongue, which

results

breaks the

TART

air

mouth of

against the walls of the

the

pipe.

Besides the variety of sounds which arise from this


difference of principle in their production, the

has others, which are the result of the different forms

ami sizes of the pipes.

For example,

the
it

staff, is

This

open futc.

entire extent of the key-board,

included

voices,

different

give

unison with the

in

is

we

throughout the

stop,

within

below

clef,

a flute pipe of eight feet in height,

name of

the

the pipe of

if

the note which corresponds to C, in the

the

same

extent,

namely, the bass, the tenor, the contralto, and the

The

highest soprano.
as the notes rise.
in height,

and

is

of prestant, that

height of the pipes diminishes

If the largest pipe

of the
is

flute

It

in height,

the stop

eight feet in

him

make

this

is

range of pipes

flute stop, the

thirtv-two
at

only one foot

low

oi"

is

flute

called the

which has

pipe

height, sounds an octave lower than the

There

of four feet

to

this stop

the least liable

is

name

the

it

an octave higher than the open

composed of

builder has

only two feet

sounds two octaves above the open

it

flageolet.

flute

is

is

give

because

If the pipe of the lowest note

flute.

even

we

to say, excellent,

has the clearest sound, and


out of tune.

kind,

his

are stops of sixteen

When

feet.

command,

the space, which

is

and
the

not sufficient to allow

use of pipes of so great dimensions, ar

ingenious expedient

is

resorted

to,

which consists

closing the extremity of the pipe, opposite the

ir

mouth

CHAP. XIV.

INSTRUMENTS.

piece; in which case, the column of sonorous


finding any vent,

an octave lower, than

same

-top of this description,

called a bourdon di

In/if,

eight feet in height,

Among

teen feet.)

of

stuff,

it

is

This kind of

pipe.

When

bourdon.

flute stop is called

1-

sounds

it

issued immediately from

if it

the upper extremity of the

ma

in this

running twice the length of the pipe,

ncr,

not

air,

forced to descend and issue frcm

is

opening called the lumtere, and,

a small

4'J

the largest pipe,

four feet in height,

it is

(bourdon of eight feet;) when


is

a bourdon

seize, (of six-

dr.

the flute stops, there

is

one made

the pipes of which are terminated by smaller

called chimneys; others have the

cones, placed

inverted

these stops has

its

form of two
upon one another; each of

peculiar quality of sound.

The

pipes of the reed stops, called the trumpet, clarion,

bombarde, vox humctna, have the form of an open


verted cone.
stop, are

The
in

pipes of the

The

the shape of long cylinders.

pipes of these stops

may be

in-

chromornc^ another

varied at pleasure, accord-

the fancy of the organ builder.

We

find in the

which

is

mystery.
the

organ a kind of stop, the idea of

very singular, and the effect of which

This

name of

stop,

which

is

the mutation

stop,

is

divided

furniture, or mixture, and the rymbale.


Stops

is

composed of four,
These

pipes for each note.


si^e and high

fire,

or sir,

pipes,

third,

&c.

into the

Each of these
and even

which are of

sound, are tuned to the third,

fourth, octave, double

is

generally designated by

ten,

a smr.ll

fifth,

so that each no e

150

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

gives the perfect chord

l'AP.T

times repeated.

several

II

It

follows, therefore, that the organist cannot give several

notes in succession, without giving rise to succt -

of major thirds,

which compose
must be a

gives

it

doubled or tripled

when

and octaves.

fifths,

But

this

the organist plays a chord, each of the notes

all: if

rise

so that,

to

these stops are united with

all

the flute stops of

two, four, eight, sixteen, and thirty-two

from

results

and

majestic

the

feet,

open or

mixture, which

this

combined

called the full organ, a

result

noise; but, by a sort of

frightful

stopped, there

chord,

perfect

would seem, the

it

is

most

effect of the

No

most surprising character.

other combination of sounds, or of instruments, can


give an idea of

it.

Besides the solos of

flute,

oboe, clarinet, base

and trumpet, which may be executed on the organ,

may be

the play of this instrument

great
flute

effects,

stops,

union of
Stop, or

are,

is

I,

choir

which

and,

:>,

union of

the

is

to a

the

first

grand

.-top.

five

key-boards,

which

key-board

is

called

belongs

name of which i< the


The Becond i- commonly

small, separate organ, the

positif,
that

The

the

called

the full

organ has ordinarily four or

pedal keyboard.

all

fonds (Porgue; 2, the

called

the reed Btcps,

all

divided into three

the

the hands, and one for the feet,

for

(<>r

choir organ.)

of the greal organ, and

to play the
is

which

grand

Lr rand

which

may be

two organs together.

united to the

Sometimes

fir-t

a third

added, called the key-board o( the bombardt, Upon

(NSTRUMCNTS.

XIV.

.'MAI'.

wliich the most powerful reed steps arc played.

key-hoard

fourth

key-hoard

solos;

for

n citation.

of

produce the

used

is

The

pedal key-hoard

when he wishes

enables the organist to play the bass


to

make

use of his

hand

left

in

The

cal ed the

designed to

is

fifth

The

effect of an echo.

is

it

executing the interme-

diate parts.
It

had been

matter of regret, for a long time, that

the organ, with


effect,

all

its

means of

variety,

was destitute of expression,

and power of

that

is

to say, of

means of gradually increasing and diminishing the


Some of the German and Engforce of its sounds.

the

first

thought of the expedient of trap-

doors, which, being

opened or closed by means of a

lish

builders at

pedal, permitted the sound to be produced with force,


or concentrated

But

this

it

in

the interior of the instrument.

kind of expression had the inconvenience of

resembling

long yawn.

Before the revolution, Se

bastian Erard undertook to construct an organ piano, in

made

wliich the sounds were

expressive, by the pres-

of the finger upon the keys

he had completely

succeeded, when the troubles of the revolution broke


out,

and put

that time, an

Grenie,

stop to

conceived

expressive

which, more or

and value of

and

further

progress.

[ess

his

of rendering

plan

means of

by

force to the sounds,

organs,

his

Since

accomplished amateur, by the name of

pedal,

the

strong, should give

the

organ

pressure of

more

or less

lie demonstrated the success

invention,

afterwards

in

at

first

in

some sm

ill

instruments of a larger

RELATIONS OF BOUNDS.

\.>Z

size,

Royal Academy of Music, and

the

in

Church of

St.

most beautiful

II

in

th

This organ has the

Coeur, at Paris.
effect.

i'ART

Erard has carried the organ

to

the height of perfection, in

an instrument built by

him

which he has united the

King's Chapel,

for the

in

expression of the pedal upon the two key -boards of


the great organ, to thnt produced by the pi

the finger upon a third key-board.

organ

truly the

is

most

erful instrument in existence,

masterpiece of the

The most

In this state, the

and pow-

beautiful, majestic,

and may be called

celebrated organ builders are

in

France,

the Dallerys, Clicquot, Messrs. Erard and Grenie


Italy,

Azzolino ddla Ciaja of Sienna, the Troocia

Eugene

Pistoia,

human mind.

Biroldi,

Jean-Baptiste

Ramal,

in

^
the

named Nanchini, and bis pupil, Callido


in Germany, John
Scheibe, Godfrey Silbermann, John James and Michael Wagner, Schrcetker, Ernest Marx, Gaoler, J.G.
Tanscher, and the Abbe Vogler. The last i< distin-

Serassis of Bergamo, a Dalmatian priest


;

guished by his system of simplification, the object of

which

The

is

to free the

cylinder or

organ from the mutation


barrel

organs, used

stops.

by the

itin-

erant musicians, and the serinette, (or bird organ,) are

constructed upon the same principles as the


organ.

cylinder, pricked with brass points or pins,

stands

in

keys.

The

is

the
art

place of mi

organist, and

mores

the

of pricking or noting these cylinder!

called tonotecjiny.

In these later times, the action of compressed

air

II

\i>.

153

INSTRUMENTS.

\iv.

new

baa beei employed to establish a

class of instru

which consists in causing the


air to act by a very small orifice, opening gradually
upon very thin metallic plates, which vibrate as the
incuts

the plan of

them,

strikes

air

and

louder, as the action of the air

were invented

instruments

Their

since.

Germany

in

vt

tv agreeable

but

few

the phys-

called

are

varieties

These

increased.

is

not power

They have

karmonica, eoHne, tolodion, &c.

enough to produce any

sounds that grow

produce

effect in large halls, but are

Mr. Dietz, a piano ma-

in the parlor.

ker of Paris, has improved this method of producing

instrument which he has called the

an

sounds, in
aerophone*

The

effect

of these instruments

is

analogous to that

of the harmonica, the principle of which

An

Irishman,

been the

first

ber of drinking glasses, of tuning


their

friction.

is

named Puckeridge, appears to have


who thought of uniting a certain num-

sounds by

filling

them with

them by varying

different quantities

of water, and of drawing sounds from them by rub-

bing their edges with the fingers slightly moistened.

The

celebrated

ments upon

Dr. Franklin

suggesting a

making of proper

for

process for the

ducing pure tones.

was brought
sisters, the

talent

in

made some improve-

this discovery, principally in

The

to the continent,

it.

pro-

instrument, thus improved,

Misses Davis, gave

playing upon

glasses

and two English


it

a reputation

The harmonica

ladies,

by their

has since

been improved by being constructed of glass

bells.

154

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.
an iron axis, and

crossed by

wheel.

put

PART

ill

motion

If,

by

key-board of a peculiar kind causes a

little

leather ball, which supplies the place of a finger, to rub

manner the performer

the edge of the bells, and in this

able to execute regular pieces of music,

is

make chords upon

the harmonica.

of this instrument

is

The

to

aiitl

glassy tone

injurious to the health, as

it

excites the nervous system too strongly.

made

Several instruments of friction have been


imitation of the harmonica

which

is

the davicy Under, which the natural philoso-

about the year 1-

6.

the inventor of this instrument has kept

its

pher Chladni exhibited

Though

construction a secret,

at Paris,

is

it

believed that

consisted

it

upon by

of a series of metallic cylinders, operated

bows, which were

brought

in

the most celebrated of

in

motion by

set in

crank, and were

contact witli the cylinders, by mean- of

the keys of a key-board.


It

remains

for

me

to

speak of the

last

and the least

important kind of instruments, namely, those of percussion.

These

use of which are

are the

known

instruments the forma and

with most certainty, from the

representations of them on
quity.

the

They

smiorOUS and the

instruments

Egypt,

the

are divided into

and

Among

noisi/.

which

of percussion,

Greece,

Rome,

sittrum, which consisted

oi'

monuments o(

being struck

with

he

sonorous

the

were

must

use

in

placed

in

the

an elliptical rim of bra-<,

crossed by sonorous rods, winch were


bj

anti-

two principal classes

little

stick

made
;

the

to

Bound

cymbah\

INSTRUMENTS.

CHAP. XIV.

15.7

formed of two sonorous plates, which were struck

and the

against each other;

crotalrs, or little

Only one instrument of the noisy kind

marked

in

This

the tambour with

is

tambour

rf<

upon, as

at the

we observe

a great

Among

the

with

it

number of

instru-

those which are sono-

the triangle, which takes

its

name

shape, and consists of a steel rod, which

This

struck with a piece of iron.

which originated

when

little

is

instrument,

produces a pretty good

in the East,

cllcft in certain pieces,


It

call

was played

it.

Modern music admits of

its

It

present day, either by striking

ments of percussion.
rous,

bas-reliefs.

which we

bells,

tambourine.

basque, or

the hand, or by shaking

from

and

paintings

ancient

the

bells.

to be re-

is

is

it

not too freely used.

unites well, in military music, with the other sono-

The

rous instruments of percussion.


bells,

the best

used

crotalrs, or little

and the cymbal, came also from the East, where

These instruments were formerly

made.

ire

only in

military

music;

but

Rossini and his

imitators have transferred the use, or rather the abuse,

of them to the theatre, together with the most noisy

of the instruments of percussion, the stunning great

drum, the only proper place


of a

trooj)

Among

Hmbals,

or

of soldiers, to
the

noisy

kettle

for

mark

which

is

at

the head

the step.

instruments of percussion, the

drums, are distinguished from the

others by the power of varying their sounds, and of

being tuned.

The

kettle

drums

consist of two bowla

of copper, the tops of which are covered with

skm

156

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

which

stretched upon

is

Each drum

screws.

an

PART

II.

iron rim, tightened by

gives

sound, and

different

these sounds are modified by ti^htenincr or loosening

the iron ring.

The two drums

some

are

Though

cases

in

which

is

yet an attentive ear will discern

ment

other instruments of the

military music;

which

called,

not easily perceived,


it,

when

the one

is

same kind are used

the drum, properlv

the

common

foregoing

in

had

for

the

lame

They

are

sometimes

orchestras.

description

existence,

and

can

ought

instruments.

over

mark
the

o( musical

instru-

have omitted some varieties, which had but

short

fancy

to
is

-(

longer body than the other, and

lower and softer sound.

introduced into the


In

the instru-

merely noisy, and serves

is

drum, which has

ment-,

inverted.

is

rhythm of the step of soldiers; the other

(jives a

but there

well tuned.

is

Two
in

order

this

drum

the tone of the

commonly

are tuned

fourth of one another

to the fifth or the

silence

only
not,

be

considered

however,

to solve

two

inil

their

shall

new

composers with the means

improvisations.

problems,

difficult

namely, to enrich music with effects on


to furnish

as

pan

those of this description, which hive

their object

and

to

speak

o\"

plan,

pr<

^['

instru-

ments which unite the key-board with the bow, and


of melographic pianos.
It

is

more than

were made

to

uf sustaining

<_r

ive

their

century since the


t<>

first

attempts

keyed instruments the power

sounds, like instruments played

("HAP.

with the bow.

About

of harpsichords

at

culty,

the year 1717, a manufacture!

Paris attempted to solve the

diffi-

he called the

viol*

an instrument which

in

hmrpsiekord, because

it

resembled a

was played with

a table,

157

INSTRUMENTS.

XIV.

and because

its

a wheel

sound was similar

placed upon

viol

instead of a bow,
to that of a viol.

This instrument was approved by the Academy of


Sciences

but

it

seems that a long time elapsed before

any one thought of perfecting the invention.


the end of the

Milan, by the

eighteenth century,

name

About

mechanic of

of Gerli, introduced into several

concerts and churches an instrument which had the

form of a harpsichord, and which was mounted with


strings

of

played

catgut,

upon

by

bows of hair,

according to the account given in the Italian journals


of the time.

At the exhibition of the products of industry, which


at the Invalids in 180G, Schmidt, a piano

took place

maker of

Paris, presented an

instrument, which had

the form of a long, square box, having at


ity

a key-board, with the

piano, and at the other


to give

motion to

little

one extrem-

mechanism of the ordinary


another key-board, designed

which pro-

cylindrical bows,

duced sounds from strings of catgut.

The sounds

obtained by this mechanism had the defect of resembling those of the viol.

Several other attempts have been


or

less

of success.

about the year 1810,

made with more

mechanic, named Pouleau,

made an

orclustrino,

which was

of the same kind as the instrument of Schmidt.

ItJ

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

15^

violin-harpsichord,)

The

II

The Abbe Gregor)

made were agreeable, but weak.

Trentin aflerwards constructed

PART

rinlin-ci

mbalo,

(<>r

was of the same kind.

which

sostenante-picm&forte, invented by .Mr. Mott, of

Brighton, and the plectro-eupkone, exhibited at Paris, in


1>J V by the Gamas, of Nantes, were also similar.
,

The

principles by which Dietz

has constructed

more conformed

his

what observa-

instrument,

are

tion teaches

concerning the sounding of instruments

to

played with the bow, than those which were adopted

by

his

predecessors.

Finally,

Dietz has come

near as possible to the solution of the problem,


polyplectron,

The

time.

great

known

which he made

polyplat ran

number of

is

capable

in

same

the

at

as
his

of producing

very pretty effects; but they are the

effects of a peculiar instrument, rather than imitations

of the violin and other instruments played with the

The

by means of which the improvisations of

might

be

name

a tract, in

name

An Englishman,

mechanics.
first

which he undertook
It

i-

composer

considerably occupied the

of Creed, was the

of this invention.
the

has

preserved,

attention of several

the

DOW

idea of constructing a harpsichord, or piano,

who

wrote,

in

by

17 17,

to bIiow the possibility

asserted, also, that a

monk, by
made

o( Engramelle, about the year 1770.

an instrument of this kind, the BUCCess

^\

which was

complete; but the explanations which are given of

it

are rery obscure, and of a kind to give rise to doubts

Concerning the

truth

of the

facts.

On

the

hand, John Frederick fjngher, counsellor ofjusti

other

INSTRUMENTS

ril\l\ XIV.

Brunswick,

in

German work,

159
printed :n 1774, hag

claimed the invention of the instrument attributed to

Creed, and proved that

had previously made

lie

similar one.

Jn the
trial,

month of August, 1827, Mr. Carreyre made

before

Institute,

of

the

Academy

which consisted

of a melographic piano,

which unrolled, from one

movement,

clock

cylinder to another,
prere

of the Fine Arts of the

of lead, on which

thin plate

impressed, by the

action

of the

keys of the

piano, certain peculiar signs, which might be translated

into

notation, by

ordinary

the

make

of lead was removed, to

the translation, and a

commission was appointed to report


fa

is

ever been made,

was not found

to

means of an

Alter the experiment, the plate

explanatory table.

it is

but, as

no report

probable that the translation

At the same

be exact.

Baudouin read before the Academy

a paper,

time, Mr.

accompa-

nied with drawings, concerning another melographic

piano; upon the merit of which the Institute has not


yet pronounced.

It

problem yet remains

follows from
to

all

this

the

that

be solved.

In the rapid sketch above given

of what relates to

instruments and their manufacture, the reader

may

have been struck with the prodigious fruitfulness of


imagination manifested

in

all

these inventions.

things remain stationary in this respect, or not?


is

doubtful.

active, but

it

Will

This

The imagination of man will always


may be doubted whether there will

produce 1 hereafter

effects

greatly

be
be

superior to those

TART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

1(50

II

which are now obtained. All the distinguished men,


who have employed themselves in the construction of
instruments, have sought to make improvements in
them, by a more severe application of theoretical
principles; but, in practice, the results have not been

such as they expected, either from unknown causes, or


from their not having taken the necessary precautions.

Theory

sometimes found

is

in opposition

to practice.

For example, the principles of the sounding of


ting surfaces,

demonstrate that

violins,

vibra-

violas,

and

basses, are constructed on arbitrary rather than scientific

rules

but

in the application

one has yet been able

is

unknown.

marked of

make

made by

those which were

which

to

pianos.

of these principles, no

instruments as good as

rules the foundation of

The same
Time alone

thing
will

may be

shed

light

re-

on

these mysterious circumstances.

CHAPTER
OF INSTR1 MEN

XV.

PION.

Instrumentation ia the art of employing instru


in the manner best adapted to derive from them
This art may
the greatest possible effect in music.
mrn!s

be learned with time and experience] but


like every other

and

branch of music,

a certain instinctive

it

requires,

a particular talent,

presentiment of the result of

CHAP. XV.

INSTRUMENTATION.

combinations.

making what

in

of

composer,

the parts which

all

effect,

would

arranging his music, or

that

;ire

to

concur

write only

at

random,

mind the

present to his

in

called the scon,

is

1G1

is,

a union

the general

in
if

he had not

sounds of each

qualities of the

instrument, their accent, and the effects which result

from their partial or entire combination.


it

true, the

is

not

foresee;

strives to
his

art,

composer obtains
and, in

other

effects

cases,

produce, do not succeed;

Sometimes,

which he did

those

which he

but, if skilled in

he generally attains the end which he prothe arrangement of the instrumentation.

111

This faculty of foreseeing, by means of the intellectual powers alone, the effect of an orchestra, of
which one

is

arranging the instrumentation, as

orchestra were actually playing,


the marvels of music;

takes place,

whatsoever

pany

it,

the

when

for the

those

is

nevertheless what always

melody, the voices which accom-

is

effect of the

conceived

at

the

if

As

to

these things only in succession,

we

assured that their musical conceptions will

always remain within narrow limits.


try,

instruments,

one gush,

born truly worthy of the name.

who imagine

may be

is

if that

not the least of

composer conceives any piece

harmony, the

every thing, in short,

musician

it

is

who had

Such was Gre-

a genius for dramatic expression

and

for

happy melodies, but who, being but a second-rate


musician, could never conceive,

at

once, the whole

dea of a piece; whereas Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,


Cherubini, and Rossini, never failed to conceive,
11

at a

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

)2

pingle attempt, the effects

which they wished

II

to pro-

duce.

There

is

kind of knowledge, which

composer;

useful to a

it

is

is

not

that of the peculiar

re-

sources of each instrument, of the passages which

may

be executed on them, and of those which would

present

insurmountable

knowledge may be

This

difficulties.

easily acquired, either

kind of

by an ex-

amination of scores, by the lessons of a master,


better

The

selves.

or,

by studying some of the instruments them-

still,

pains taken by the composer, to put

nothing into a part

which an

cannot execute

artist

with ease, will be advantageous in the performance

of his music.
It

is

rare

each kind

to

make

use of a single

The

in instrumentation.

instrument of

clarinets, oboes,

bassoons, horns, and trumpets, are generally employed


in

couples;

but

part

sometimes written

is

lor

when it should be united with the clarinet


oboe parts. Sometimes the horns are four in num-

single flute,

or

ber; but, in that case, the parts are written for two in

one key and two

in

to the horns.
\i

i-

common
in

two trumpet parts are added

The trombone
to unite

bass trombone.

ments,

Tn pieces which require

another.

brilliancy and strength,

The

is

never employed alone.

together

general

the

plan

alto,

tenor, and

of wind

instru-

an overture, or other great dramatic piece,

composed of two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets


two or four horns, two trumpets, three trombones,
i^

and two basstons.


added.

Two

drums

are

almost

always

INSTRUMENTATION.

CHAP. XV.

Two

one or two parts

parts for violins,

and

for

the

stringed

163
for violas,

the violoncello and contrebnsso, comprise

instruments

every other kind of music for a

number of performers
mined.
It may
be

The

twenty.

parts

to

symphony, and

for

full

eight,

undeter-

is

twelve,

ten,

The

orchestra.

each violin part

all

for

and even

the violas, violoncello, and

for

contrebasso, admit also of a

number of performers.

Mozart, Haydn, and some other distinguished com-

changed the plan of instrumentation

s,

pieces

horns
flutes

again,

for their

sometimes they employed only the oboes and

for

wind instruments

the

at other times, the

and clarinets took the place of the oboes


the richest

resources of the

Happy

combined.

and,

contrasts of effects resulted from

In the

this variety.

orchestra were

new

school, the whole powers of

the orchestra are always combined, in order to obtain


the

greatest

possible

effect,

whatever

may be

the

Each part in the composition, taken by itself, is more brilliant, thanks to this
profusion of resources; but a certain monotony is the
character of the piece.

inevitable

consequence of the uniformity of

Unhappily,

tem.

abuse of noise,

The

evil.

it

more

by
ofte

fatal

Btrong
\

to

is

though

finds every piece of

accustomed
frequently

to this luxury of

fatigued

music feeble without

enjoyment than

impressions

repeated

this sys-

with this defect, as with the

has ended by becoming a necessary

ear which

instrumentation,

is

is

it

too

long

to

it.

by

it,

Nothing

weary the senses,

continued, or

too

to the oalate of an epicure, exhausted

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

PART

II.

ana pepper, simple and natural food

is

Iti4

6y spices
tasteless.

The accompaniments
music are not confined

by a dependent harmony

them one or two


at

of a piece

to the
;

of well-written

support of the melody

we

frequently observe in

which seem,

at first sight, to

be

variance with the principal melody, but which,

in

reality,

which

plans,

concur with
is

more

in the

it,

formation of a whole,

These plan- of

or less satisfactory.

ornamented accompaniment may disturb an uncultivated ear, but they complete the pleasure of the educated musician and the enlightened amateur.

Some-

times they are the most important part of the piece,

and the voices become

to thorn, as

were, an accom-

it

This may be observed in those Italian


paniment
comic airs, which are designated by the words w&U
In these c ism s, it is
and wordy and in choruses.
necessary that the style of the accompaniment should
be graceful and pensive, or

lively

charming things of

this

kind.

The

and exciting.

works of Mozart, Cimarosa, and o(

Paisiello, contain

Amongst

works, the operas of Boicldieu are

the

tilled

French

with this

kind of animating accompaniments.

The

braes

instruments, such

as

horns, trumpets,

trombones, and ophicleides, have acquired an impor-

tance which they did not

formerly

wd

revolution.

Cherubini began

completed
ments, by

which

it,

were

this

and extended the

great

UM

bs.

lias

of these instru-

number of combinations and


unknown.
There

previously

Menu]

Rossini

effects,
effects,

XV

JHAI\

INSTRUMENTATION.

1(35

wl.cn employed with moderation, will add

much

to

power of music, under certain circumstances,


which the use of the ordinary means is insufficient

the

Having thus glanced

within a few years, the

rise, namely:

what

nius,

the rich combinations of

at

use of which has heen pushed even to an

elTects, the

abuse,

is

following questions

Independently of the creations of ge-

now

done

to be

those effects, for which there


a desire

in

to multiply

and improve

so general and strong

is

and can we expect to obtain new ones by

mere increase of noise ? No


for the sensations
produced by noise are sure to be followed quickly by
a

On

fatigue.

much

the other hand, there might perhaps be

difficulty

in

bringing back the public to the

simplicity of the orchestras of Cimarosa, and of Paisiello

for

much more

induce us to take

genius would

this retrograde

duct us to the point where


fore,

we now

remains to be done?

course

may be pointed

out.

It

be requisite to

march, than to con-

The

What,

are.

seems

to

me

following

there-

that the

are

my

on the subject.
Variety, as

we know,

is

the thing most desired, and

the most rarely attained, in the

arts.

The means

of

obtaining the best efFect from an orchestra would therefore he, to introduce this variety into the
tion, instead

instrumenta-

of adopting a uniform plan for each piece,

has always b'jen done.

All the operas of the seven-

teenth century have nothing but violins, violas, and bass

instruments of the same kind, for their accompaniment.


In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the accom-

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

IG()

paniments consisted of

The

II.

violins, basses, flutes, or oboes.

resources were successively increased, but the

forms of instrumentation remained the same, so long

system was

as the

an

find

air,

In our days,

in vigor.

a duet, or even

accompanied by parts

for

two

ballad,

it

is

which

rare to
not

is

violins, alto, violoncello,

contrebasso, flutes, oboes, clarinets, horns, trumpets,

bassoons, kettle drums,

What

a source of

verance

same

we

We

and

not,

each

to

means of

this obstinate perse-

is

production of the same sounds, the

the

accents,

should
give

in

&c.

monotony

same

the

piece

associations

much more

with means

particular

physiognomy,

airs, duets, ballads,

and even quar-

accompanied by stringed instruments o(

different

kinds, or by a Bingle one, such as the riolonceti


iltos

by

the difference in the quality of instruments

should have

tettes,

\Vhv

developed,

and violins; and the plan of using these instru-

mentS might be divided

into

two kinds: one of which

should consist of sustained sounds, and the other of


divided

sounds.

clarinets alone;

We

might

also

employ

tin:

oboes with English horns and bas-

combinations of the bra-s instruments, such

soon-^;

trumpets,

union
cleides,

keyed trumpets horns, ophi-

This

and trombones.

varietv,

which

pro-

pose, mighl be exhibited not only in different p


but even in the eourse of a single scene.
A union

of

all

the resources Bhould tike place in the importan

situations,

in

the jiiuih

greater effect, as

it

s,

&C,

and would

would be more rare

have the

INSTRUMENTATION.

3HAP. XV.
All this,

nd

it

processes

.n\

would be

art

may be

said,

fortunate that

is

it

it

IG?

not genius.

is

not;

there

for, if

worthy the attention of minds of

But why should we not

high order.

without which one can do nothing,

all

the resources

Reduce Mozart and Rossini

domain?

its

quartette of Pergolese, and they would

to genius,

offer

Why

which experience or reflection can suggest?


limit

it

were

good music, the

the manufacture of

for
little

know

is

still

to the

find beau-

melodies and elegant harmony, but they could

tiful

not produce those powerful effects which you admire

the existence of

Don

but violins, altos,


effect

How

compositions.

in their

possible to suppose

is it

Juan, and Moses, with nothing

No

and basses?

of those compositions

is

doubt the

and of the genius which has put

orchestra,

fine

the result of a strong


it

in

action.

The

great masters of the ancient schools have also

invented effects of another kind, by the use of means

much more

simple

and

for this reason, I think these

means should not be renounced.


should

be used

the

rest

Every body has observed


without
are well

wish every thing

may be

that,

accompaniment always
sung
and this effect
;

left

to

talent.

the theatre, pieces

at

please,

when

a natural

is

they
conse-

quence of a change of means, independent even of


the

more

poser

or

less

employs

happy manner

them.

Let

the

which the comsame process he

in

attempted in regard to instrumentation, and

we

shall

I6S

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

get rid of that weariness which never

be

fails to

II

fel

towards the end of the representation of a long opera

however beautiful

it

may

be.

CHAPTER

XVI.

OF THE FORM OF PIECES IN VOCAL AND IN INSTRU-

MENTAL MUSIC.
Music, whether vocal or instrumental, has various

which denote natural differences in the form


There are four great divisions of vocal

objects,

of the pieces.

music, namely
3,

1,

sacred music

domestic music;

mental music

namely

These

1,

is

and, 4,

0.

dramatic music;

popular

Instru-

airs.

divided into only two principal kind-,

orchestra music;

and, 2, domestic

music

characteristic kinds are subdivided into

particular classes.

In the music of the church,

we

vespers, inotettes. Magnificat, Te

find entire in

Deum, and

litanies.

Masses are of two kinds, namely, short and solemn.

short

ma<>

repeated

at all.

is

one

in

which words are scarcely

In this kind of nia>>, the Kiir'u, the

Gloria, the Credo, the Sane t us, and the

which are
duration.

its
It

mass, which

principal divisions, form

>ame with

Agmu D

piece ofshorl

the solemn or high

is

Dot the

i>

sometimes bo much extended,

as to

VOCAL PIECES.

?HAI\ XVI.

require two or three hours for

lull

its

performance.

In

masses of this description, the Kyrie, the Gloria, and


the Credo, are divided into several pieces,

introduction of the Credo, which

after the

grand

the

in

rily

style,

come

the

which are

For example,

suggested by the nature of the words.

ordina-

is

Incamatus

est,

which should be solemn, the Crucijixus, the character


of which

which

is

is

sad or melancholy, and the Resurrexit,

filled

with animation and joy.

The solemn

masses of Pergolese, of Leo, of Durante, and of Jomelli,

were not so extensively developed as those of

The

the present day.

reason of this difference

the conception of the music of the church.

lies in

The

old

masters thought that this kind of music ought to be

grand or solemn
dramatic.

it

Cherubini,

for

but they never thought of making

example, have conceived the music of

the church in a

quires

Our modern composers, Mozart and


manner

entirely dramatic,

much more development,

sary to describe a great

as

number of

it

which

re

becomes neces-

contrasts indicated

by the sacred words.

When

the churches were frequented by the higher

ranks, during almost the whole length of the services

on

festivals

and Sundays, as was the custom about

fifty

years ago, vespers were frequently written in music

but since the churches have been less attended, comoosers have ceased to employ themselves in this sort

-apolitan masters

teenth century.

who wrote about

the middle of the eigh

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

170
of music,

which required much

which made

tat,

labor.

The

Magnifi*

is

given up,

The Te Dunn, which

serves for

a part of these vespers,

as well as the litany.

II

occasions of public rejoicing, and the motettes, are the


only separate pieces of church music on which com-

posers

still

The

labor.

extent of these pieces depends

upon the fancy of the musician.


In the usages of the Catholic church, there

are

only two modes of singing the prayers, namely, the

plain-chant
music.

plain-chant,

French churches,
tion

is

and the solemn

chanting)

simple

(or

The

as

it

performed

is

and the use of the solemn music

becoming more

the

is

every day

rare, so that an car of any delicacy

constantly liable to be torn


the singers,

in

horribly disfigured by bad execu-

who

neither

in

is

pieces by the braying of

comprehend the words which

they pronounce, nor the music which they execute.


It

is

man

a pity that

we cannot,

in

imitation of

th<

Protestant churches, introduce into ours a kind of

simple and easy music, which

may be sung by

without any other accompaniment than the


of the organ.

common music

In a

the people
steps

soft

of this kind, there

would he more of religious devotion, and more


faction to the ear.

tage

It

banishing the

of those shocking cries, which

render the popular Binging odious to

The
makes
it

and o(

of improving the taste o( the people,


habit

oratorio,
a part

in

Italy,

<o

a delic ite

Germany, and

of the religious music

belongs onlj

satis-

would have the farther advan-

the concert-room,

but, in
for

England,

it

France,
is

ne?ei

171

VJCAL PIECES.
performed

in

produced them
celebrated
part

When

the churches.

works of

undertook

this

life

French
they

corn-

always

Handel, the

the sacred concert.

at

German musician, who

of his

the

kind,

passed the greater

England, has composed several

in

magnificent works of this kind, upon English words:


o( which the Messiah, Judas Maccabais, Athalia,

Samps**, and the cantata of Alexander's Feast, are


particularly mentioned as

models of the most elevated

Whatever may be the

tyle.

Handel

whom

geniuses by

The
known,

future progress of music,

always be regarded as one of the

will

kind of music which


is

finest

the art has been illustrated.

that of the

the most generally

is

Every body under-

theatre.

takes to judge of dramatic music; every body speaks


rf it;

and none, even of those who are the least versed

in the art, are

ignorant of

every body does not

know

its

technical terms.

But

the origin and the variations

of the different pieces which enter into the composition

of an opera.

some

details

It will

upon

be proper, therefore, to go into

this subject.

Music had been reduced

to the

symmetrical forms

of counterpoint, applicable only to the music of the

church and of the parlor, when


itcrati

and musicians, among

Vincent

Galileo,

Mei,

number of

whom we

Italian

distinguish

and Caccini, conceived the

idea of a union of poetry and music, in order to revive


the dramatic system of the Greeks, in

was Bung.
this

Galileo produced, as the

which poetry

first

attempt of

kind of pieces, the episode of the Count UgoRno%

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

172

which he had
this first

music.

set to

The

which

reception

essay met with determined the poet Rinuc-

compose the opera of Daphne, (about

cini to

II

th-

1590,) which was set to music by Peri and Caccini.

This work was followed by Euridice, and both had

Such was

great success.

The most

of the opera.

the origin

important part of these works consisted

of recitals, which were sometimes in

measure and

These recitals took the name


The movement of these ancient reci-

sometimes without.
of recitative.
tatives

operas

was
;

it

less lively

and

was a languid

less distinct

than that of our

style of singing, occasionally

without measure, rather than true recitative; but,


the times,

it

nothing which had preceded

tion, since

for

was, nevertheless, a remarkable innova-

could have given any idea of

its

invention

it.

In the opera of Euridice, the second one written,

oue of the personages sings Anacreontic stanzas, which

may be considered
air.

This piece

movements of

is

as the origin of

is

called

an

The

the bass follow those of the voire, note

which gives

for note,

what

preceded by a short prelude.

heavy character to the piece,

but which produces a remarkable difference between


this

and the

sustains
the

its

airs

recil atire, in

notes,

of the opera existed before

melodies which had been


Airs took

which the bass frequently

the model

In other respects,

in

known time

form somewhat more settled

the popular

o{ mind.

out
in

musical

drama of Stephen Landi's, entitled // Santo Alessio,


which was composed and represented at Rome in

VOCAL PIECES.

XVI.

:\\ IP.

The

1634.

air,

which

work, on the words


not only

for

is

found

in the first act

for

3f the seventeenth century,

somewhat extend-

but, like

\t

phrase of the

first

a passage of

ed vocalization upon the volu

of this

remarkable,

lliore volano, is

rhythm of the

the

melody, but also

L?3

all

the airs

has the fault of con-

taining changes of measure, and of passing alternately

from

triple to

characterizes

common

time.

cut into couplets

The same custom

like
is

found, also, in

who composed more than

larly in

his

the operas of

all

and particu-

forty,

a singular arrangement,

were placed

at the

and not towards the close, as


In the

all

Jason, which was represented at Venice

By

in 1649.

they are

our vaudevilles and ballads.

Cavalli,

this period

monotonous form

epoch

the airs of this

all

last

half of the

fashion of the airs

all

the airs of

beginning of the scenes,


in

modern

operas.

seventeenth century, the

was changed, and the most

skilful

composers adopted one which was the most opposed


and the most unfavorable to dramatic

to reason,

could be imagined.

that

These

airs

effect,

began with a

slow movement, which was terminated in the key ot


the piece
in

style

then

came

of scenic

a lively

movement, conceived

expression

after

which they

returned to the slow movement, which was repeated


entire.

The

that

by

it

least part of the fault

of this repetition

destroyed the musical effect just produced

the allegro'; for

it

often resulted in a musical ab-

surdity: as for example, in an air of the

which Megacles, being determined

Olympiad,

in

to separate him-

174
self

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

whom

from Aristea,

PAET

he loves, in order to

II.

her to Licidas, his friend, addresses the latter in the


following touching language

Se cerca, se dice
L'amico d'ov ?

L'amico

infeliee,

Rispondi, mori, &c.

That

" If she seek you, and say,

is,

'My unhappy
give her so much

answer,

frienel?'

Ah! no: do

not

swer only, with

'He

tears,

is

of misfortune! to leave her

whom

pain for

What

yoitr

is

is

eh ad.'

me:

an-

an abyss

I love, to leave her

and to leave her thus."

forever,

who have

All the composers

these

gone.

Where

'

fricnel

words, have not

failed,

written music upon


after

the

lively

dramatic movement on the words irhat an


misfortune,

to

return

coldly

again to take up the slow


she seek,

fee.,

as

if

it

to

the

beginning, and

movement of

were possible

and

aln,

the words if
that

Afegacles

should suddenly become calm after such an explosion


of passion.

.Tomelli

was the

necessity of ending by

The

tin'

first

four last

who perceived

use of tin- style ^( airs lasted

of Piccini

and Sacchini.

Many

the

tin

until

^( them

the time

were also

course of the eighteenth centnry, com-

written in

tin

posed of

movement only, very slow and very


Such pieces, with all their merit,
Biicceed qo'v, when wo have become habit
rhythms more or less rapid and distinct

single

much drawn oat


could not
uated

to

IH\I\ \\|.

VOCAL PIECES.

Simple camdinas

can alone be

of sliort duration,

7 ,*

written in this manner.

Among
success,
tit

i.

the forms of airs

ms of the

1m>I(1> tlu

lived

phrase, in the course of the piece,


Its invention

place.

the

at

At

commencement of

the eighteenth

renowned

a later period, Sarti, another

conceived the idea of the rondeau

master,

movements, of which
the

appears to belong

composer, of the name of Buononcini,

to ;m Italian

who

first

first

century.

which have had the most

rondeau, which consists of several repe

tlu;

air

Rome,

two

in

example,

in

un amantc sventurato, written by him

at

for

lie

gave the

first

the singer Millico, and which had a pro-

digious success.

composer of the

first

example of an

without

Ah!

words

in

the airs of the

in

own

his

fame, gave the

movement,

a single allegro

one which

non par/a.

more succe--

for

air, in

repetition,

by the name of

finest genfus,

Majo, who died too soon

This

Prance than

style

in

with

begins

Italy, for

the

has had

of air

almost

all

French operas of the old masters are

this form.

Cimarosa,

Paisiello,

Mozart,

Paer,

and

Mayer,

many airs of a mixed character, comslow movement followed by an allegro,

written

posed of a

some of which

are

comic expression.

masterpieces of impassioned or

The

style of these

be the most favorable to musical

effect.

airs

adoited another arrangement, which consists


ing the

first

movement an

seems

to

Rossini has
in

mak-

allegro modcrato, followed bt

176

TART

RELATIONS OP SOUNDS

II.

an andante or an adagio, and terminating the piece


by a movement which

if it

thus

lively

is

and strongly marked

This would be a good plan

by rhythm.

did not give too

much

weaken the dramatic

action.

growing gradually more and more rapid,

means of reviving the

infallible

for effect,

extent to the pieces, and

movement,
an almost

is

attention of an audi-

ence; and the imitators of Rossini, without his genius,

make use of

frequently

of their ideas.

It is

conceal the poverty

to

it

with these styles of airs as with

means of instrumentation; we may make use of


them to advantage, provided the theme be not stereothe

typed and presented always

in the

same manner

the arrangements of airs above spoken of are


sible, if

we know how

to

All

admis-

employ them properly: and

the result of their mixture ought to be a variety which

no longer

exists,

felt

more

called a couplet,

when

and the want of which

is

and more every day.

sort of little air,

character

which

is

when

gay, and a romance,

i<

mel-

ancholy, belongs originally to the French opera.

At

its

first,

the

is

comic opera,

as

appeared

it

it

the

at

fail

Saint Laurent and Sainl Germain, was nothing more

than what we
constituted

now

the

kind of music, springing


taste

for

songs,

i-

yet

from

rery

in

tous to please the popular ear.


<A

little

pieces,

in

however,

favor,

who

little

French

ancient

tin*

much,

couplets

This

materials.

its

frequently abused by those composers

profusion

The

call the vaudeville.

whole of

and

are

condemning
1

am

far

is

solici-

this

from

VOCAL PIECES.

XVI.

lIIAP.

them

rejecting the use of

17"?

Couplets and

altogether.

romances, which require talent and taste on the part


of the musician, have the advantage of not retarding
the scenic march, like a grand air, and are, at the

same

and

time, equally susceptible of agreeable

gant melodies.

ele-

them conCouplets and romances

All the difference between

sists in their relative extent.

hare the further advantage of varying the forms of


the

The

airs.

composers have

Italian

the possi-

felt

bility

of drawing a good effect from them, and, in

their

operas

within

few years, have

romances, which have

Next

head of these pieces.

at the

Its

in

which

which

forms

is

found

comic opera

The

ployed.

in the

that

is

the

have undergone nearly the same

The

we

first

drama of II Santo

have already spoken; but

most

is

the music of the theatre,

variations as those of the airs.

a duet,

received,

of Otello must

to the air, the kind of piece

commonly found
(hnt.

introduced

well

The romance

even by the Italians.


be placed

always been

find

it

it is

in

example of
Alessio, of

the Italian

the most frequently

em-

ancient Italian serious operas contained

only a single one, which was always placed in the

At

most interesting scene.

the present day, there

several duets, of a comic, serious, or

The
merit
flic

sa

ments

is

an opera written, which does not contain

scarcely

Italian
f

mixed character.

composers now seem to measure the

duct- by their display.

e pattern, that

is,

They

are always of

the three everlasting move-

and these composers would think themselves


12

PART "

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

178

disgraced by writing a short and graceful duet, like

Don Juan, on

those in the Marriage of Figaro, and

Pcrche

the airs Crudcl,


la

mono.

It will

sometimes of

may

La

and

Jin ora,

darem

ci

be necessary, however, to make use


of pieces,

this style

which, whatevei

be said, are more dramatic than the greater num-

ber of the long pieces which have succeeded them.

The
like

trios of the

all

It

in Italy,

comic opera

in the

is

made

composer,

a Venetian

that Logroscino,
first

opera have their origin

concerted pieces.

the

He

attempt of this sort, about the year 1750.

was surpassed in his effects by Galuppi, another


Venetian composer; but it was Piccini, especially,
who, in his Buona Figliola, carried what are generally

concerted pi<ri>, to

called

The

degree of perfection.

more than

termination of acts.

It

is

very

which

remarkable
is

modification

a highly-developed

kind of composition, also

finale,

became necessary
well known what

nothing

for

to this part

(A*

the music.

The

Rot Theodore was an immense


throwing interest into

number of
this

Lr rcat

characters.

has not
pieces;
tails

in Lr i\-

fam>u< septette of

stride

in

the art of

scenes composed of a

Mozart afterwards completed

musical revolution by his wonderful

quartettes,

]lnti\

lyrical

sextettes,

and

finales,

Don J nan, and Marriagt


added anv thing
but

he

has

the

in

PaisieHo, Cimarosa, and Guglielmi, succeeded


iiiLr

this

of

to

in

the

trios,

Enchanted

of Figaro.

the form o( Ciiw

made improvements

in

the

de-

of rhythm, of the vocal effects, and of instrument

tation.

VOCAL PI1XES.

AI\ XVI.

The
utility

17S

ancient French composers did not perceive the

of great combinations of voices, which, perhaps,

would not have been within the comprehension of


Besides, the subjects of the comic
their audiences.
operas were too slight, and the

number of

their char-

acters too small, to allow of this kind of composition.


Philidor, nevertheless, seized the opportunity afforded

him by the opera of Tom Jones,

tion,

and

troi/rr,

who possessed
much sensibility, in

but

limited,

made

to

make

a g.od quar-

knowledge of music was

lAonsigny, whose

tette.

very lively

imagina-

his Felix, or the

a trio, which, if not very good,

Enfant
was at

least very expressive.

As

to the serious

tled its form,

French opera, Gluck, who

but recitative, carried to

and

set-

introduced into his composition nothing

trios, quartettes,

its

highest perfection, chc-

but rarely duets, and scarcely ever

airs,

or concerted pieces.

The somewhat

complicated forms of this kind of music began to be


naturalized

Cherubim.

in

France by the labors of Mchul and

Conceit ing the developments of the lyric

scene upon a grander plan than their predecessors,

two great musicians applied the improvements


of the Italian opera, modified by the peculiar qualities
of their genius, to the French musical drama.

Their

productions had somewhat more energy than those of


Pni-iello

and Cimarosa

ness of the

given the model


tation,

by

they even amplified the rich-

harmony of which
;

they

made

the

German

school had

discoveries in instrumen-

which Rossini has since profited: and

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

ISO

thoy were

final y,

PART

more observant of dramatic

II

exact-

but their melodies are not so happv, and tnev

ness

sometimes make the merit of their music consist more


arrangement than

in its

in its inspiration.

may be our opinion of


have

adopted,

it

Wh

the kind of music which they

cannot

be denied

that

they have

rendered great services to the progress of their

They
into

it

was,

who introduced grander

art.

proportions

music than the French had been accustomed

and who wrote true concerted pieces, and true

to,

finales,

worthy the attention of the educated musician and the

man

Their example opened the way

of taste.

and

it

the glory of Boieldieu, Catel, Auber, Herold,

is

and others, that they have received

their

followed their example.

is

Boieldieu

he has had the

counseN and

particularly dis-

tinguished by the grace, elegance, and

One

tor

who have succeeded them;

other skilful composers,

spirit,

which

unite with the forms of music

skill to

of the qualities by which the French school

most distinguished,

that

is,

it

is

has produced excellent

Etameau was the first who gave brilliancy


French operas, by the beauty ol' this kind <^"

choruses.
to

the

composition.
in

If his merit

is

cannot

be denied,

dramatic

at

choruses

forma

and the fugues with


suitable

least, that

force to the

sides, the learned

for

<'f

in

for

modulation,

it

he Ins given
o['

his

operas.

the choruses of oral

which they are

the Btage;

Handel

inferior to that of

richness of learned forms, and

filled,

the attention

are

not

should not

be diverted from the principal object, which

is

the

OVERTURE.

CHAP. XVI.

181

dramatic interest.
Since Rameau's time, an immense
Dumber of French choruses have been written by
Gluck, Mehul, Cherubini, and others of the same
school.

This portion of the opera was formerly

weakest

its

part in Italy, because the Italian audiences attached

no importance

to

Paer and Mayer were the

it.

to the choruses that

to give

ought to have

brilliancy

Rossini succeeded

dramatic music.

in

them, and enriched

drama with forms

this part of the

unknown to
produce new effects,

first

which they

of melody before

it;

and the

been to

to

which the

result has

Italians

were not accustomed, but which had the greatest

The

success.

choruses of

Weber

are arranged in a

picturesque and dramatic manner.

The

overture of an opera, which the Italians call

the sinfonia,

is

considered by some persons as an im-

portant part of the music of a drama, and by others

The

as of tridincr consequence.

any reputation

in Italy,

first

which enjoyed

was the overture

of Frascatana, by Paisiello.

The

opera

to the

overture

the

to

Tphigenit en Aulide, by Gluck, had a prodigious effect,

when heard
continued

for the first time, in

to

excite

1773, and has since

admiration, by the mixture of

majesty, confusion, and pathos, with which

The

overture of Dinurphon, by

fine in its

is

it

is filled.

also very

also

had

much

reputati

those of the Caravan and of Panvrgi

first

Two

unworthy of the beginning.

overtures nave

France

is

opening, and through the whole of the

part; but the end

other

Vogel,

m
,

in

both

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

182

They

composed by Gretry.
melody, but are so
deserve

ill

II

contain phrases of happy

constructed that they do not

Without

reputation.

their

PARI'

plan,

distinct

character, or harmony, their success was onlv to be

ascribed to the unformed taste of the French public.

has composed

Cherubini

overtures

several

remarkable merit, which have become


almost

of very

classical,

in

the conceits of Europe, and are performed

all

with equal success in England, Germany, and France.

The most

HdteUeru Portu-

beautiful are those of the

of Anacreon; the plan, style, and instru-

gaise, and

mentation, of which are equally admirable.

Among
to be the

may

an

pieces of this kind, that which

most beautiful,

be examined,

is

in

is

considered

whatever point of view

the overture to the

it

Magic Flute

masterpiece, which will forever be

inimitable

the model of overtures, and the despair of com,'

Every thing

united in this fine work

is

magnificence

in the

variety in the

opening; novelty

conclusion

an
full

in

interest

of

models of dramatic
and of Promt tin

in

and

the lb

mode of reproducing them: profound

science in the plan and

mentation

breadth

K5,

tures of Tancrcdi,

the details; striking instru-

constantly increasing, and

We

fire.

may

also

mention,

interest, the overtures of

bv Beethoven.

Egmm

Rossini, in hi<

OteIh the Sarbier


}

dt

.\

er-

8tmUe and
t

of Sfamramide, has multiplied the happiest melodies,

and the most attractive effects of instrumentation


he has shown,
iraya able to

also, that

make

the finest

the best use

o\"

genius

is

not

but
al-

the happiest ideas

OVERTURE.

CHAP. XVI.

183

Every piece of instrumental music


monly divided into two parts. The

is,

in

fact,

com-

exhibits the

first

ideas of the author, and modulates into a key relative

key

to the principal

working out these

the second part

is

devoted

key, and to a repetition of certain passages of the

The development

p.irt.

is

management of an

requires preliminary studies in

it

first

of ideas in the second part

the most difficult thing in the

overture

to

ideas, to a return into the primitive

the sci-

ence of counterpoint, and care in the combinations.


Rossini cuts the Gordian knot.

He

does not

make

the second part, but confines himself to the introduction of a few chords, in order to return into the primitive key,

of the

and then repeats, almost exactly, the whole


part in another key.

first

William

Tell,

duced a work more worthy of

to

his brilliant reputation.

has been frequently said that an overture should

It

be

In the overture to

he has taken more pains, and has pro-

summing up of

the piece, and that

situations in
idea, and, in

ought

Several musicians have adopted this

it.

consequence, have made a kind of pot-

pourri of the overture of their opera.

seems

to

me

to be strange.

opera be necessary, so be
at

it

have reference to some passages of the principal

it

The

notion

If a recapitulation of the
;

but

it

ought certainly to be

the end of the piece,

merit of certain
situations

when the hearer can perceive the


phrases, which recall to mind certain

of the

work.

If,

on the contrary, these

phrases are heard by him before he has any knowledge


of the situations, they do not recall any thing to hii

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

184

II

mind, and do not attract more attention than any


other phrases might do.

no

lect that

The

this plan.

of

justly

Don Juan,

Besides,

well to recol-

is

it

esteemed overture

written upon

is

Demophon,
Egmont, of Pro-

overtures of Iphigenic, of

Magic

of the

Flute, of

metheus, of the Ilotellerie Portugaise, and of Anacriun,


are really dramatic symphonies, and not pot s-po arris.

Though
I

the overture belongs to instrumental music,

have thought proper to speak of

with the musical drama.

it

connection

in

now

return

what con-

to

cerns the form of vocal pieces.


In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, there

was a true music


parts,

which con-

for the private concert,

sisted of a sort of vocal pieces,

four, five, or six

in

The

which were called madrigals and songs.

use of this kind of music has diminished since the

opera has become sufficiently interesting

The

attention of amateurs.

insensibly taken

music

the

entirely disappeared.

served,

are

the

draw the

to

of the opera have

of what was called the

place

of the chamber,

airs

and

All of

canzonette t

the
it,

in

latter

almost

lias

which has been preItaly;

the

Ueder,

in

Germany; and the romances for one or two voices in


France.
These different pieces participate of the
national taste Btamped on the other parts

of each

of these

thus

nations;

the

iA'

the

taste

Italians for beautiful and embellished melodies

observed

in

the

camonetU

songs, are distinguished by


style united

the tiedert

or

music
of the

may be
German

remarkable frankni

with an instinctive feeling of profound

INSTRUMENTAL PIECES.

XVI.

;il.\l\

harmony

185

while the French romances shine particu-

by the dramatic or intellectual character of the

larly

The name

words.
to the

romances

These

little

vogue, when
for ten or

tation,
for the

of nocturnes

for

two

sometimes given

is

voices.

pieces occasionally have a prodigious

first

brought out, and their authors enjoy,

twelve years, a brilliant drawing-room repu-

which they
next

lose by the infatuation of the public

new comer.

musician,

now become

celebrated for a higher kind of composition, Boieldieu,

wrote charming romances, which were very fashionable

him came Gar at, then Blangini, then


Romagnesi succeeded
to whom

after

Madame

Gail,

Beauplan enjoyed a moment's fame


Labarre, Panseron, and Masini, are

Instrumental music

which
1,

are

all

and, at present,
all

the rage.

is

divided into several branches,

included

under two principal kinds:

concert music; and, 2. chamber music.

The symphony
It

derives

its

holds the

first

rank

in

concert music.

origin from a certain kind

of instru-

mental pieces, which were formerly called, in


ricereari

da suonare, and

in

Italy,

Germany, partien, and

which were composed of songs varied,

airs for the

dance, and of fugues or fugued pieces, designed to be

performed

When

by

viols,

bass viols, lutes, theorbes,

&c.

these pieces went out of fashion, their place

supplied by pieces divided into two parts, of

movement somewhat lively, followed by another piece


of a slower movement, and by a rondeau, which
derived its name from the repetition of its principal

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS

J8G

The

phrase.

two parts

bass.

first

symphonies were composed only


one

for violins,

German

II

and one

for the alto,

name

musician, by the

of

for the

of Vauhall,

began to improve the symphony, by adding two oboee

He was

and two horns.

imitated by Toelsky,

Gossec added parts

Malder, and Stamitz.

for clari-

nets and bassoons to the other instruments; and the

addition of the minuet and trio, increased the

which already existed

of pieces

The minuet

derives

bears the

name; but

a presto.

It

name of mimut, and

{badinage*}

meaning of

the

have

word

part of the minuet.

the

One can

in

has been graduat

that he

last

made

which

able to discover
is

may be

that

this

second

it

comes from

part.

hardly pronounce the

musician bo

detads of

this

the creator of

the

given to the second

name

o\"

symphony
This

without awakening the recollection oC Haydn.


great

it

has dropped

sometimes suppressing one of the

composer's

instruments

It

it

substituted that of sckerzot

not been
trio,

dance of which

has

reason

was formerly

It

as the

the time of

for this

is

the measure, in

written.

quickened, and Beethoven

ally

the

is

it

movement

almost of as slow a
it

name from

its

which

triple time, in

number

symphony.

the

in

much improved

the plan and the

kind of music, that he


it.

The

IS,

in

some

EOrt,

history of the progress of the

genius and talent of that astonishing man,

His

i>

in it-elf

works

the history of the progress of the

art.

proved his superiority over

contemporaries; hut

his

first

hey were innch inferior to those which subsequently

INSTRUMENTAL PIECES.

CHAP. XVI.

issued from his pen.

If

we keep

the performers, by

whom

we

shall

the fact

to the skill of

they were to he executed,

which Haydn himself excited and

skill

mind

in

works were always adapted

that these

187

in part created,

be able to conceive, without

difficulty,

what

profound talent was necessary to produce those maswith the limited means at his command.

terpieces,

If the

knowledge of the performers of Haydn's time

had been equal


nothing

for his

Haydn

of

idea,

to

what now

exists,

he would have

The

successors to do.

left

principal talent

making the most of the simplest


out in a manner the most learned,

consists in

working

it

the richest in harmony, and the most unexpected in

its

He

is

effects, without ever ceasing to be graceful.

distinguished also by the directness and clearness of


his plan,

which

is

such that the

teur can follow out


as the

most

skilful

its

least

educated ama-

details with as little difficulty

Mozart, who

musician.

always

is

impassioned, and always excited by deep feeling, shines


less

his

than

Haydn

symphonies

in the

development of the subject of

but in the exquisite sensibility with

which he was so abundantly endowed, there

is

power

of emotion which always carries away the audience,

and excites their sympathy.


Beethoven, whose talent was
understood in France,

symphony.

now

for

a long time mis-

reigns supreme

Bolder than the two great

artists

in

the

whom

have just mentioned, he never fears encountering the


greatest difficulties, and frequently achieves a happy

triumph.

His genius carries him to the nighesl

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

138
regions, and

discoveries; but he

is

which he has made many

frequently fantastic and peculiar,

sometimes incorrect, and seems rather


than to follow any settled plan.

men of

all

In

to

fine,

extemporize

he shares the

genius, by occupying the atten-

with the beauties of which he

tion, rather

no one has a better knowledge of the

effect of instrumentation, in

fortune of

PART

is

prodigal,

than with the faults which disfigure them.


Quartettes, quintettes, sextettes, &,c, are mere di-

minutives of the symphony, and designed to take

its

Haydn, Mozart, and Beet-

place in private concerts.

hoven, are also the masters of this kind of miniature

which they frequently display such

symphony,

in

talent, that

we

forget the limited extent of the

which they employ.

The same

means

which thev

qualities

have infused into their grand symphonies, are fuum'


in their quartettes.

Bocchcrini, a

unknown,
music,
felicity

in

man who

lived

poor, isolated, and

Spain, has also cultivated this ki^d of

and particularly the quintette, with


of inspiration.

Not having

nre

sufficient corarau-

nication with the world to he informed of the progrei

of music, and

during
his

the variations of taste, he

period of nearly

musical

sensations

fifty

by

years, without

hearing

or

composed
renewing

reading

the

works of Haydn or Mozart; he drew every thing from


his own mind, and henre the independence of in
the originality of

;iml

style,

ing

simplicity,

We

may,

ideas,

which characterize

perhaps, wish

tor

ni<>re

and the charm


his

production!

learning,

more

INSTRUMENTAL

CHAP. XVI.

richness of harmony, and something


in the

les.s

of antiquity,

forms of the music of Bocchcrini, but not

more true

The

189

PIECES.

for

inspiration.

sonata, for a single instrument, or for several

united,

also a sort of

is

symphony.

Its

name comes

from suonarc, which signifies to play upon

one or

more instruments. This word was formerly applied


to none but stringed or wind instruments.
In speaking of keyed instruments, they used the word toccare,

from whence has been formed the word toccata, which


signifies a

pine

For nearly

to be touched.

however, the term

sonata

has

a century,

been applied

to

pieces of this kind, for whatever instrument they

all

may

be composed.

Like the symphony or the quartette, the sonata


divided into several pieces, consisting of a

ment, an
rarely, a

adagio, and

minuet

is

added.

rondeau

is

move-

first

sometimes, but

Sonatas accompanied by

one or two instruments, ordinarily take the name


of duets or tries.

four

and

Sonatas are sometimes composed

hands embrace the whole extent of the key-board,


fill

up the harmony

in

a rich

and interesting

manner, when these pieces are written by


ful

The

piano, to be executed by two persons.

for the

skil-

composer.

The
Philip

best sonatas fcr the piano are those of Charles

Emanuel Bach, Haydn,

Clementi, Dusseck, and Cramer.


of John Sebastian Bach,
violin, are masterpieces.

for

Mozart, Beethoven,

The fugued
the

sonatas

harpsichord

Krumpholtz ha? been

and
for

PART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

190

he music of the harp what Clementi was


the piano, that

is

II

of

fix that

model of those who have

to say, the

since written for the instrument.

uncommonly

All

elevated style, and striking efFects of harmony, are the


for

qualities

which

this

composer
and

Corelli, Tartini, Locatelli,

distinguished.

is

are

Leclair,

at

the

head of the authors who have composed the best sonathe

for

tas

violin.

Francischello and

Duport are

distinguished for the composition of sonatas for the

In regard to sonatas

violoncello.

wind

for

instru-

ments, there are but few which deserve to be mentioned.


Generally, the music for these instruments remains

a state of manifest inferiority.

composer of

nii_r lit acquire reputation by placing this

upon
for

kind o( music

which have been written

a level with the piece-

the other instruments,

all

in

talent

There

are only one

two beautiful things, by Mozart and Beethoven,


Kronuner has also written music rbf
of this kind.
or

wind instruments, which produces some

effect

Reicher has since produced the best works of

known

that are

in

certain

music,
forms

trivolousness of
substituted,

h;i^

o\'

tin-

in

lias fallen
iste,

into discredit.

which has invaded

the place

kind of pieces,

called fantasies, airs with

The

a lighter

variations,

of the
sort of

serious

works,

(<j}>riti>,

fantasy was originally a piece in which the

poser abandoned himself to

imagination.
inspiiation

It

and
kind

Fram

For some years the sonata

this

all

the impuls

bad neither plan nor order.

of the moment,

art,

\c.
com-

and e\r

The

CHAP. XVI.

MENTAL

[NSTJU

191

PIECES.

though carefully concealed, constituted the fantasy,


But this is
as IJach, Handel, and Mozart made it.
not what

we now understand by

In no

that word.

composition can there be less of fantasy, than in those


pieces which

have that name

Every thing in them,

present day.

the

at

and science excepted,

art

is

invariably the same.

To

is

to hear the whole.

They

is

upon a plan which

regulated, measured, and arranged,

hear one modern fantasy,


are

all

made upon

the

same model, with the exception of the principal theme,


which, however,

is

not even original, since

it

almost

always consists of the melody of a romance, or of an

As

from some opera.

air

a fantasy always terminates

by variations upon the theme, the air with variations


does not

and

differ

from

satiety should

it.

It is

not possible that disgust

be slow to follow the abuse made

of these forms of composition


to

music more

enter

upon

its

we

real in its character,

shall

and

then return

art will

again

legitimate domain.

These melancholy

fantasies

and monotonous varia-

tions have also usurped the place of the concerto, a


sort of piece

which

has the advantage,

is

at

not without
least,

fault,

but which

of showing the talent of

the artist on an extensive scale.

Concerto, an Italian

word, which formerly signified a concert, or an assemblage of musicians,

who executed divers pieces of


now used,) was originally

music, [academia is the word


written

name
"or

concento.

In

the

seventeentii

century, the

of concerto began to be given to pieces composed

the purpose of exhibiting one principal u etrument,

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

192

which the others accompanied

but

was not

it

Roman

about the time of Corelli, a celebrated

is

became

that this kind of piece

i=t,

who preceded

Torelli,

The

the year 1760.

some

Corelli by

the concerto the fame which

when

panied by a double quartette of violin,

was

until

It

namec

years, gave to

retained until about

it

concerto,

II

vioJin-

fashionable.

another violinist,

believed that

generally

PART

it

was accom

viola,

and bass,

The

called a concerto grosso, or grand concert.

concerto grosso contained passages of tutti, in which


all

the instruments were employed

of concerto, called the concerto

but another kind

camera, contained

ela

only one principal part, with simple accompaniments.


Originally, concertos were written

but they have since been composed

only for violins


for all the

instru-

ments, and sometimes with accompaniment* of

full

orchestra.

The

concertos for the violin, composed by Corelli,


Tartini, were formerly celebrated

Vivaldi, and

are so

of

in

still

the school, an

Staniitz,

wanting

deserve

in

Lolli,

merit, had

and
not

their elforts w

and

positions,

frequently

Jarnowich,

reduced

it

must be

in

they

not

The

object o(

acknowledged

The

first

of these

that

comthey

ijblinists.

Bohemia, and enjoyed a great reputa-

the court n\

the

though

to satish the public by agreeable

;is

succeeded.

who was born


at

respect

the ability to sustain the

elevated character of the concerto.

tion

the

by their greatness of thought and dignity o(

artists,

style.

number

Manheim. about
^i'

the

pieces

the \ear 1750,

of which

the

INSTRUMENTAL PIECES.

CHAP. XVI.

l'.Kj

concerto was composed, to two, namely, a

and a rondeau, each of which he


three solos, intermingled with

Viotti,

into

passages.

The

tutti

much

rondeaus of Jarnowich had

came

piece,

first

also divided

At

success.

last

who, without producing any thing new

in regard to the

form of the concerto, showed such

powers of invention, in melody, in embellishment, in


the form of his accompaniments, in harmony, and in

modulation, that he soon threw his predecessors into


oblivion, and left his rivals without the
Viotti did not shine by

petition.

studies had been moderate

imagination

was such,

necessity of considering

tion

his

but the richness of his

that he

how

He composed much more

hope of com-

his learning

to

was not under the

economize

his ideas.

by instinct than by reflec-

but that instinct guided him, as by miracle, and

made him

hit right,

Concertos

even in harmony.

for the

until a long time

harpsichord were not attempted,

subsequent to the

first

compositions

of the same kind for the violin, and concertos for

wind instruments not

until

still

later period

but

they were both mere imitations of the settled forms

of the concerto established by Stamitz.


precisely the forms, nevertheless,

be wrong and wearisome to an audience.


that

we

still

remain attached

as that of those concertos,

These

which seem

to

How

to so defective

where the

first

are

me

to

is it

a style

tutti brings

same phrases as the first solo ? where


same modulation follows from the tonic to the

out exactly the


the

dominant,

in order to return
1:3

afterwa ds to the tonic.

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

It/4

and recommence the same strain

which are nothing more than

PART

where those

II.

solos,

development of

tht

same ideas, are constantly reproduced, with n< other


change than that of the key 3 where the intern friable
cadences, multiplied for the purpose of giving DOtice

audience when to applaud the performer, coo-

to the

tribute to render the piece

where the

finally,

same
is

plan,

and

all

more monotonous

and,

piece reproduces nearly the

last

the defects of the

first

allegro?

It

high time to seek for means of avoiding

these

and to give up these ready-made frames

for all

faults,

sorts of subjects.

The

fancy of a composer should be

His ideas ought not

free.

to

be

form, but

fitted to a

the form to the ideas.

There

is

another kind of instrumental music, which

may be considered
mean pieces Tor the

branch of sacred music

as a

organ.

The

immense resources

of this instrument invite the genius of the organist to


variety
ship,

and, besides, the diversity of forms of wor-

and of the ceremonies of each, occasioD the em-

ployment of many different

styles.

For example,

in

the Protestant churches, the organist ought to he able


to

accompany

harmony

the

hymns and

also to possess a fruitful


to the

and

choral

imagination

hymns, and be able

to vary

by

pieces

He ought

rich in effect and in modulation.

for the

preludes

them wuh elegance,

without neglecting science, or Binning against

the majestj

dation

<>t"

of the

familiar to the

the temple.
art

The

fugue, the true foun

of playing the organ,

arti.-t

should

and, finally, he shoul

>

be
|

INSTRUMENTAL PIECES.

CHAP. XVI.
a

knowledge of the ancient

make the
Germany

best use of

in

seventeenth century, and


first

and be able

styles,

1)5

to

favorable circumstances.

number of

great

Since the time of Samuel Scheldt, who

Hamburgh,

at

in

has produced a prodigious

organists.

lived

them

the

commencement of

who

possessed talents of the

the

order, there have appeared Buxtehude, Reinken,

John Sebastian Bach,


positions, in

all

and others, whose com-

Kittel,

the different kinds of organ pieces,

long time to come, be considered as models

will, for a

of perfection.

The

of the Catholic organist

art

The

tended.

is

still

more

ex-

understanding the

necessity of well

plain-chants, both Italian and French, as well as the

modes of accompanying them, whether by

different

placing them in the bass or in the upper part; the art

of treating the masses, vespers, Magnificat, hymns,


chants, and

Tc Drum, according

to the

importance

of the festivals, the offertories, and other great pieces,


the fugues, or the fugued style

longs to this branch of the


is

understood but by few.

prejudice, an organist

given

attention

is

possesses

all

upon

a level

DOthing

is

is

art,

all

this, I say,

be-

the difficulty of which

According

common
whom little

to the

a vulgar artist, to

but, in reality, an organist

the qualities of his

art,

who

ought to stand

with the most renowned composers, for

more

difficult, or

more

rare, than to

meet

with such a combination.


It

is

manifest that the inventory of the Catholic

organist should be

mucr

richer thaa that of the Prot-

196

TART

RELATIONS OF SOUNDS.

estant.

After Frescobaldi, and a small

Italian

and French

we

works,

organists,

find nothing

not a single situation


offers sufficient

more.

left

of
fine

Unhappily, there

of organist

means of living.

number

who have

is

France which

in

It is

II.

not astonishing,

therefore, that the emulation of artists should not be

excited,

and

that

the art of writing for the organ

should degenerate more

and more.

whether

this

hope

an honorable existence by

for

art

will

ever revive,

It
if

is

doubtful

talent

cannot

it.

In the sketch, which has been given, of the forms

of pieces of music, some secondary kinds have been


omitted,
slight

because they are only divisions, or

modifications, of

more important kinds

nothing essential has been forgotten.

latlier
;

bu

197

PART

III

OF EXECUTION.

CHAPTER

XVII.

OF SINGING AND OF SINGERS.

When

endowed with

a singer,

and

feeling,

years of his

life

to bringing out,

ties

nature has given him

comes

to try, for the

a fine voice, with

and who has devoted several

intelligence,

by study, the quali-

when,

first

say, this singer

time, in public, the effect

of those advantages which seem to assure him success,

and suddenly finds his hopes disappointed, he accuses


the public of injustice, and the public treats

ignorant and presumptuous.


ties are in the
is

wrong

not familiar with his

for,

as

on the one hand, he who

own powers,

which they have produced

him

In this case, both par-

but by the effect

in the school, is not in a

make a proper use of them in the presnumerous assembly, and in a large hall

condition to

ence of

and, on the other, the public

judge by

its

first

is

in too great haste to

impressions, having neither

cient experience or

knowledge

to discern the

suffi-

good

198

EXECUTION.

which

mingled

is

account

with

bad, nor to

the

exhibition of the

singer's

often does the public itself revise


for

may

circumstances which

the

favorable

PART

want of having passed them

knowledge of the case

its

take

into

prevent

How

talents.

own judgments,

at first

with a proper

So many things

111

to be

are

attended to in the art of singing, that, without having

made

it

a particular study, or having learned, by re-

and experience,

flection

difficult to

in

judge of a singer,

what

consists,

it

is

it

very

hearing, either

at the first

in regard to his merits or his defects.

In order to sing,

though

voice;

is

it

this

gift

powers,

its

art

invaluable

can possibly
of regulating

and understands the

his voice with firmness,

ment of

an

is

skill

But one who possesses the

supply.

in

sometimes produces

with an interior voice, than an ignorant

effect,

can do with a

The

belter
i

fine one.

(or

delivery

placing of

con-Ms

vnirr)

tkt

adapting as perfectly as possible the motions

respiration

out the
the

of nature

which no degree of

advantage,

in

not enough to possess a fine

power of the

organ

and

latter, as

When
vocal

makes
there

music

wist <h mir,) as

day, was a itudj

Italy,
it

it

sound

the

were such
in

much

conformation

the

admit, without carrying

which

i>(

emission of sound, so as to bring

to the

delivery

chest

degree of

degenerate

thin

the

that

to

as the quality of

o{ the

into

will
elTort

ood Bchoolfl
oi'

the

several years;

for

of

voice, (In

was called by the Bingers o(

<>t"

cry.

ih.it

people did not

SINGING AND SINGERS.

XVH.

r I.VP.

1 1*11

then tliink, as they do now, that accomplishment


instinctive.

The

form

idea

to

an

of

bestowed

pains

the

is

enable us

following anecdote will

both

by

masters and pupils on this study.

Porpora, one of the most

conceived a friendship

Italy,

asked him

if

masters of

illustrious

for

young

pupil,

and

he had courage to persevere with con-

stancy in the course which he should mark out for

him, however wearisome

answer

in

Upon

might seem.

it

his

the affirmative, the master noted, upon a

page of ruled paper, the diatonic and chro-

single

matic scales, ascending


vals

of third, fourth,

him

to take

sounds,

and

fifth,

descending, the

&c,

in

order

them with freedom, and

together

with

trills,

inter-

teach

to

to sustain the

groups, appogiaturas,

and passages of vocalization of different kinds.

This page occupied both the master and scholar


during an entire year, and the year
also devoted to

When

it.

nothing was said of changing

began

pupil

him of

murmur; but

to

his promise.

th r T.fth followed,

The

sixth

The

the

commenced,

lesson,

and the

the master reminded

fourth year slipped away,

and always the same eternal

year found

the master added to

pronunciation,

following was

the third year

and

it

them

at

some

lastly

in

the

same

pag-e.

task,

but

lessons in articulation,

declamation.

At the

who still supposed himself in the elements, was much surprised, when his
master said to him, " Go, my son you have nothing

end of

this year, the pupil,

more

to learn

you are the

first

singer of Italy and

200

EXECUTION.

He

of the world."

was

spoke the truth,

ART

singei

this

for

111

Caffarelli.

This mode of instruction

who

pupil

is

no longer pursued.

places himself under the care of a master

only goes to him to learn such an air or such a duet;

some

the pencil of the master traces

ornaments
can, and

not

unfledged

the

some

features,

what he

catches

singer

immediately ranks himself with the

we have no more

so that

artists;
is

now

Europe a

in

first

There
which six

CafFarellis.

single school

in

years are given to teaching the mechanical part of


singing.

It

true, in order to devote so

is

must be taken

to this branch, the pupils

much
in

time

extreme

youth, and the unfavorable chances of the chan_

may suddenly render useless the labor of


The voice of eunuchs did not present the

voice
years.

inconveniences, and

it

had, besides, the

MOM

advantage

of a natural position; so that these unfortunate beings

were the most perfect singers that the world has ever
If

seen.
that

it

mutilations,

of

triumph

is

humanity no longer
these

it

for

cause of morals

the

tolerates

these disgraceful

a calamity for the art to be deprived

is

admirable

idea, at the present

voices.

\\

the

tin

first

who

flourished

Crescen-

who terminated

bis

sourl of Napoleon, and


in :

it

the

an

half of the eighteenth century.

Ferri, Severino, Farinelli, and other-,


in

form

cannot

day, of such Bingers as Balthazar

K"\

al

career

who

is

now

lollege of Naples,

of this beautiful Italian school.

a><

singer

at

the

professor of
is

the

last

irtuos*

SINGING AND SINGERS.

CHAP. XVII.

Next

to

have the

to

from the change.

fear

womanhood

of the approach of

effect

women
The onl)

of eunuchs, those of

the voices

least

201

certain

is

attenuation of quality, which ordinarily lasts two or


three

years, after

liancy,

than

it

which the voice regains

its

bril-

and acquires more purity and smoothness


possessed before the change.

From

eighteen

to

women

thirty,

beauty of their voices, when the

enjoy

all

the

of nature have

gifts

not been injured by badly-directed studies.

remark has already been made concerning the

chest voice and the mixed or head voice of men.

The

latter not

being possessed by women, they are

enabled to rise with more


if

voice, they have at least that of

voices

of

women

are

them

more

naturally

We

(pos&es) than those of men.


in

But

than tenors.

facility

they are destitute of the advantage of the head

well

The
placed

generally observe

hissing,

a sort of little dull

equality.

less

which precedes

the sound, and which gives rise to the habit of taking


the note a
its

little flat, in

true sound.

order to carry

it

When

to the correction of this fault.

has been contracted a year or two, the

The

remedy.

rarity of very

adds to their value.


with one

afterwards to

Masters are not sufficiently attentive


the habit of
evil

pure voices

Madame

Barilli

Madame Damoreau

it

is

without

in

women

was endowed

possesses

the same

advantage.

The most

useful

training,

especially for the female sex,

is

in

the art

of singing

that of the respiration

202

PART

EXECUTION.

which

is

women

shorter in

than

so

change the

to

as

effect

This

men.

in

reason that they often take breath

in the

is

III

the

wrong place

of the musical

p.

or to injure their pronunciation.

have made use of the terms

groups,

trills,

proper that
[{

is

It

is

should explain their signification.

two sounds follow each other

there

carry on the sound,

to

appogiaturas, jioritures, &x.

in

such a wav that

a separate articulation of the throat

upon each

one of them, and each disconnected from the other,

The

the effect

is

lation of

two sounds, which are made by unitim: the

first

called detached or staccato.

articu-

to the second, by a connection of the throat,

is

To carry on the <<>ini<I is to


another by a movement of the throat

called port of the voice.

unite one sound to

The
a

which

trill,

cadence,

one note

frequently but improperly called

is

the alternate

is

most

difficult effects to

Some

singers have the

others acquire

The group

is

produce
trill

an

a S'trt

The group

is

The appogiaturn
its

length.

simple for the

useful

ornament:
and give

it

an ornamental note, which

is

^\'

it,

o^ vulgarity

sometimes jouied
of

v.

of embroidery to notes,

believes to be too

singer

air

one of the

naturally in their

but certain singers are too prodigal


last

1-

rapid succession of three or four

effect of the song.

at

It

in the art of Bulging.

only by a long ami painful labor.

it

sounds, which serves BS

which the

and rapid passing from

neighboring note.

to the

It

is

to a written note,

and takes the half

mav be taken above

or

below the

fl!

W.

SINGING AND SINGERS.

XVII.

'^OU

Tlie taste and discernment of the singer

real note.

must guide him

in

Fioriturts

is

the choice of this ornament.

word which means,

in general,

all

kinds of ornament, and, in particular, certain passages composed of diatonic or chromatic scales, of
ges

They

ascending or descending, &c.

thirds,

in

are indispensable in singing, but they

The

be abused.
singers
to the

of the

merit

of the

greater

existing

school

is

talent of executing

almost

fioriturcs

Formerly the composer wrote the

confined

with rapidity.

air plain,

the selection of these Jioriturcs to the singer

cumstance which added


for, all

must not

number of

and

to the variety of the

left

a cir-

music;

the performers not being guided in the

same

manner, they chose their embellishments according


to the

moment, so

inspiration of the

that the

same

piece was almost always presented under a different

When

aspect.

the schools of vocal music began to

decline, the singers

themselves

were

piece; and the tiling


sini

capable of choosing

less

the ornaments

came

to

such a point, that Ros-

found himself obliged, almost always, to write the

fioriturcs

melodies.
result,

with

which he desired to embellish

This method,

at

first,

it

his

had a pretty good

which was to disguise the weakness of the


making them repeat a lesson but, in the

singers, by

end,

foi

suitable to each kind of

had also the inconvenience of rendering the

music monotonous, by presenting

same aspect; and,


Qcrer

to

further,

it

it

always under the

accustomed the singers

take the trouble to seek for

new formi

204

PAMT

CUTION.

of ornaments, since they found them already

means of execution.

the extent of their

III

made

to

This finished

now no

the ruin of a school of which there are

traces

remaining.

The mechanical
singer

part of singing, even the most per-

an indispensable part of the merit of

fect, is
;

but

not

it is

The most

all.

successful delivery

of the voice, the best-regulated respiration, the pares!

execution of the ornaments, and, what

a great singer expresses the sentiment

him

who

which animates

but they are nothing more than means

should persuade himself that the whole

sinirer

his

verv rare,

is

means by which

the most perfect intonation, are the

is

comprised

audience

in

and he
of the

art

them, might sometimes give

degree of tranquil pleasure, but woidd

The

never cause them to experience vivid emotion.


great

singer

is

personage

whom

which he

is

one who

he represents, with the situation

placed, and the feelings which

him; who abandons himself

moment,

himself with the

identifies

as the

to the

in

inspiration of the

composer should

i\o

writing the

in

music which he perforins; and who neglects DOthing

which may contribute


piece,

but

The union

of a whole character.

these qualities constitutes what

is

however perfect the mechanical


merely
for

be: and expression,


labored

acting,

when

has

an incorrect performance,

par'
it

often

^(

all

called expression

Without expression, there never was

might

^['

to the effect, not

great singer,

o\'
IS

his

real,

obtained

singing

and not

pardon

SINGING AND SINGERS.

CHAP. XVII.

The

205

celebrated singers of the eighteenth century

not less

renowned

power of expression

for their

than for the beauty of their mechanical performance

Some

things arc related of

them which would appeal

almost

fabulous

knows

the story of Farinelli,

present

the

at

body

Every

day.

whose touching voice

and expression cured the king of Spain, Philip V., of


an attack of melancholy, which threatened his reason.

The

anecdote of Raff,

Belmont, put

in

who saved

the

life

jeopardy by a violent

causing her to shed

a j^orrent

of the Princess
fit

of grief, by

of tears, also attests

the vast

power of expression possessed by these great

singers.

Senesino, a singer of extraordinary merit,

embrace

order to

forgetting his part, in

Farinelli,

who happened to sing an air with a miraculous perfection


La Gabrielli, affected even to the exhibition of
;

the most lively emotion,


a

all

(intfibilr

upon hearing Marchesi sing

and Crescentini, causing Napoleon and

his court to shed tears in

also proofs of the


divinities

of song possessed.

Mad ame Malibran


true expression,
tion,

Romeo

and

At moments, when

avoids exaggeration, and exhibits

combined with irreproachable execu-

she gives us an idea of this sort of merit

may judge
!.

of the others by Crescentini,

these

are

Juliet,

power of expression which these

singers

but,

whom

if I

have

maintained, during the whole

of a part, that perfection which

Madame

Malibran

exhibits only at intervals.

The French

singers

have never possessed

that

onion of qualities which have been admired in the

206

PART

EXECUTION.

Italians.

One

ing, with

alone,

endowed with

warmth of

III

feel-

winning playfulness of imagination, and

with a delicate taste, approached them Dearly in cer-

and possessed peculiar

tain respects,

department of the

in another

DO
No

most astonishing singers

was Garat.
art

of singing.

more happily organ-

An

and reason.

The

thoughts of Garat were

knew how

always ardent, but he


art

of the
-

no one ever had more comprehensive ideas

ized, and

of the

This

that ever lived.

singer was ever

which,

qualities,

made him one

art,

to regulate

air or a duet,

them by

according to

this

great singer, did not consist in a succession of well-

performed or even well-expressed phrases


apian,

a gradual

he wanted

progress, which led to _r reat effects

proper moment, and when the excitement had

at the

reached

its crisis.

discussing his

art,

He was

rarely understood,

he spoke of the plan of

when,

piece; and musicians themselves were persuaded that


his ideas

were somewhat exaggerated on

this subject

but when he joined example to precept, and, to de-

monstrate his theory, sunn an

prehended how much of


necessary to arrive
the

first

ment

they then com-

reflection and study were

perfection in an

view, seems destined

art.

which,

at

only to procure enjoy-

of the m8st invaluable qualities ^( Garat was

beauty of his pronunciation;

a perfect

adiich

it,

for the ear.

One
the

at

with the different

air,

coloring which he could give to

clearness

^A"

indeed rare,

but

was

was not merely

it

articulation,

in

a sort

of merit

him a powerfu

BINGING and DINGERS.

CUM'. XVII.

me

of expression.

ids

but justice to acknowledge

It is

that this quality belongs

more

in

it

Gluck

laid

our

for

In the pronunciation of the French language,

ra.

there

and

which he adopted

the foundation of the style


)|>

French school of

to the

vocal music than to any other;

<

207

degree of energy, which

is

not favorable,

is

perhaps, to the soft and graceful emission of the voice,

makes

but which

it

very proper for dramatic expres-

Unhappily, some of the actors

sion.

at

such as Laine and Adrien, have abused

the Opera,

this peculiar

character of the French language, and have caused


this

dramatic expression

their

out only by

fits,

and w

degenerate into excess.

to

manner of scanning
ith

an

so that the sounds

effort,

produced were often very disagreeable

maimer

In

came

the words, the voice

established at the Opera, there

In the

cries.

was no appear-

ance of a regulated delivery of the voice, or of vocalization, nor

single trace of

the art of Bulging.

lamation

but

was,

It

those

who

declamation could not pass

if

what
you

limited

is

will,

called in Italy

musical dec-

their

for singers.

art

to ties

Garat alone

could pronounce in a dramatic manner, without departing from the beautiful traditions of the true school

of vocal music, and could give to his singing a great

dramatic

expression, without neglecting any of the

resources of vocalization.

The

state of the

French singing

spects from that of the Italian.


voice, a clear

differs in

some

and regular pronunciation, and

matic expression, were

all

that

re-

pure and sonorous


a

dra-

was required of the

EXECUTION.

'iOS

French singers

An

long period.

for a

KUT

Til

unreasonable

had made embellishments and onnuucnt

prejudice

The Comic

considered as intuited to our language.

Opera has been insensibly freed from the obstacles


which this prejudice had placed in its way; but the
Opera had always resisted. The latter has at last
yielded to the dominion of fashion, and

has

been rapid

in

new

the

style.

It

progress

its

matter of

is

when

congratulation, that the time has arrived

lyric

declamation no longer interests an audience, whose


taste has taken another direction, since

accustomed to the

must be taken not

care

Still,

it

has

extreme into another.

It

is

run from one

to

well

to

is

never a conquest

the

preserve

peculiar physiognomy of the music of any


Servile imitation

become

Italian music.

country.

reasonable

use of ornaments in the French style of singing

necessary;

its

habits,

theatrical

would be

excess
there

is

In

proper

desire

very

is

our

injurious.

to

exclude those pieces so out of place, which have no


object but to exhibit the flexibility of a voice.

Let us

admit

embellishments and every kind o( ornament,

but

US not

let

nothing

is

banish our dramatic

wanting

but

melodies.

Especially

knowledge

o\'

let

endeavor

There

and

graceful

not lose the traditionary

US

that beautiful recitative, in the

Gluck, the merit of which


the Italian

forms, to which

more elegant

is

composers of the present day,

to

approach

is

one point

it

to

style of

so well appreciated

as nearly

a^ they

thai

by

they

can.

which the authority which

209

SINGING AND SINGERS.

CHAT. XVII.

baa thus far directed the arts in France,


yet,

given sufficient attention:

mean

What

and preservation of singers.

lias not, as

the preparation

I call

the prepara-

tion of singers, consists in the selection of persons,

their education in respect to health.

and

If the persons se-

lected to be educated as singers presented themselves

with

voices

But

viduals

who have

ninety will lose

recover
lost

its

be easier than

not so

is

it

at

to

those

in their

make

this

out of one hundred indi-

a pretty

it

from

safe

which modify individuals

youth, nothing would


selection.

and

formed,

entirely

physical revolutions

voice in their

infancy,

the period of change, or will

when it has
who have been

only in a moderate degree,

it

quality

and among the ten

more favored by
of meeting

fortune,

with

we

single

are not always certain

one,

who

to the

unites

excellence of his organ a sufficient degree of deep

and

lively feeling to

in

become what may be

This sentiment manifests

a singer.

justly called

itself in

infancy

such a manner as to be readily perceived by

master

who

exercise of his
cate

it.

But

possesses the qualities necessary to the

Two

art.

sounds are enough to indi

will the pupil

be one of those

who

in

whom

it is

preserve their voice

discovered

This

question which cannot be settled by any external

is

sicrn.

This uncertainty was the cause of the mutilation of


individuals of the male sex.
Discouraged by

made

witli

a great

number of

fruitless

trials

children of the male sex, none are admit-

ted into the public schools of vocal

14

music but

adults,

210

EXECUTION.

whom

with

there are not the

TART

same

risks to be run.

But here a new

difficulty presents itself;

greater because

it is

arrive

is,

that the

the age of puberty

at

one which

is

without remedy, and almost with-

which

out exception;

III

who

individuals

without having laid a

foundation for their musical education by long studies,

become musicians,

scarcely ever

the reading of music at

flexibility, or quality,

its

in

and however

feeling both of intonation and expression,

who commenced

ny a singer

after the period

11

offer

will

artist,

no security, because he

formidable,

it

is

never be any

whose execution

will

be guided only

difficulties,

equally

sing*

o\

Bhould neglect no chance of Buccess, and run

many

risks

happy

results.

of pure

upon chance,

wo might be

Hut
in

loss,
it

is

in

to rely entirely

order to procure persons for

long time deceived

has

Experience
rineyards,

are,

by districts.
greater
the

in

demonstrated

trial

that

furnishes finer

voire-,
in

for

The

our hopes.

in

general, distributed,

Picardj

some

order to obtain

not a

following method should be adopted:

all

at fault.

necessary that the government, which

defrays the expense of the musical education


ers,

the

po-

by a sort of instinct, which may frequently be

Placed between two kinds of

the

just

musical education

his

of early youth, he

thing more than an incomplete

regard to

or to the feeling of

Whatever may be the beauty of

the rhythm.
voice,

either

first sight,

like

France,
nd

in

number than any other province; and almost


line basses which bare shone at the Opera,

BINGING AND B1NGERI

niAP. XVII.

and

'211

the other musical establishments, were frorr

in

Tenors, and particularly those which

that province.

are called high counters, or counter-tenors, are to be

met with
cially in

in

greater

number

Toulouse and

The

part of France.

in

Languedoc, and espe-

environs, than in any other

its

voices of this

kind

in

that

country are of singular beauty, and the chance of


preserving them, after the change, is much more
favorable there than elsewhere.

Lastly, in

Burgun-

dy and Franche-Comte, the female voices have more


extent, and a purer quality, than in all the other

Without seeking

provinces.

circumstance,
to

it is

to explain

this singular

sufficient to establish

it,

in order

be convinced of the necessity of seeking, in the

different

of France

parts

mentioned, the

children

which have been above

who

are

intended for the

profession of singers, and to confide the selection of

them

of an enlightened man,

to the care

who should

have a due sense of the importance of his mission.

There

no doubt

that, by means of precautions of


we may obtain, at the end of seven or eight
rs, a certain number of good singers, the want of
which is felt more and more every day.
is

this kind,
\

In

order

whose

to

musical

supply this want of singers, pupils

education

has

menced, are brought upon the

method

is

scarcely
stage.

been com-

This ruinous

practised not only in France, but in Italy.

sinuer

in

mediocrity

brought forward
all

his

in

this

manner remains

days, for want of the employ-

ment of two or three years

in

perfecting his stu dies

EXECL riON.

212
and thus

talents

are

PART

durable

which

dissipated,

fruitlessly

might have furnished

III

Govern-

resources.

ments which constitute themselves the protectors of


the arts, ought to put an end to this deplorable evil.

In a word,

must

They

not enough to prepare singers.

it is

also be preserved

more than one

and

requires care of

this

The method

kind.

by Laine, Adrien, and


called professors

formerly pursued

who were

those masters

all

of lyric declamation, had

table effect to destroy the voices in the

for its inevi-

wry

beginning,

by their ignorance of what concerns the delivery of


the voice,

and vocalization, and

exaggerated

efforts

more by

still

the

which they required of pupils

whose physical constitution was scarcely formed.


emission of the sound never being

made

in

The

natural

manner, and the strength of the lungs being constantly

most robust roicea were unable

exerted, the

resist the fatigue

of a labor

for

Thus,

strength of Adrien had been insufficient.


voice-

which were

several

years,

quality,

and which had not

much

difficulty,

to leave the

to

which the Herculean


for

and of

free

been procured

without

were destroyed before they were ah e

Royal School of Music.

This

e\il

at

length disappeared, with the music which gave birth


|o it,

and with the professors who were charged with

the teaching of

The

care

requires, ought
its

tir-t

em

besides the

it.

Hut

all

is

d A yet done.

which the preservation


to

>sion.
art

^\"

the

voice

commence from the moment o(


Now.
is to be remarked that,
it

of singing,

there

is

preliminary

SINGING

CHAP. XYlI.

part of music, called solmization,

form

to

renders, by

skilful

progressive exercises upon

The

and intonation.

213

kND BINGER8.

which

designed

is

the execution of certain

the difficulties of time

all

study of these exercises

made

is

ordinarily in childhood, under the direction of masters

who,

for

singing.

the most part, are strangers to the

No

care

is

art of

taken, cither in the composition

or in the selection of these exercises, in reference to

the extent of voices; so that


that children are

nature

has

made

assigned

they are obliged to

it

almost always happens

which

to sing out of the limits

to

The

them.

make

which

efforts

sounds

to reach the high

which they are made to sing, very soon destroy the


foundation of the voice, and strain the fibres of the
throat.

When

this is

once done, there

is

no remedy.

All the art in the world cannot give such children

smoothness of voice,
to this, that the

for

they have lost

it

Add

forever.

precautions necessary to take in the

beginning, to deliver the sound with the respiration,


not to respire too frequently, and not to weary the
chest by retaining the breath too long,
Bay,

is

completely

unknown

masters of solfeggio.
tice,

the

this,

all

majority of the

After two or three years' prac-

they succeed in firming good readers of music;

but they have, in the


the

to

voices

deliver

whose

them
skill

mean

time, destroyed or injured

of their pupils;
to

and

in

the professors of the

this

they

art,

all

can never restore to these poor young

Deople that which they have irretrievably

The

state

vocal

bllowing suggestions

will

lost.

furnish a

mode

by

214

EXECUTION.

which
music

may be

this evil
is

1'YKT

The

corrected.

independent of the

reading of

of singing

art

III.

and

it

is

therefore useless to unite in study two things which

The

are naturally separated.

of solfeggio,

fessor

to read

instructions of the pro-

limited to teaching the pupil

if

music, by merely naming the notes, without

singing them, and to dividing with exactness

times of the measure and


notes,

posed

would surely be

sufficient to attain the

must be accustomed,

nation, to which the ear

who

to be the

this

business of the professof of singing,

should prepare his pupils

From

precautions.

end pro-

In regard to into-

in this preliminary study.

ought

the

all

the combinations of the

all

the

first

lor

with the propel

it

moment

that a child at-

tempts to emit sounds with the voice, he should be

forewarned against the errors of


every thing should concur to

bad method, and

make

the best possible

use of the original capacities of the organ.

Let

it

not be believed,

in

broaching a new theory


studies:

for

in Italy,

when

there with

it

was thus
the art

success.

conclusion, that

oi

the division of

that the study

am

here

musical

was conducted

vocal music was cultivated

o['

Experience,

Bq

as

well

reason,

proves the necessity of this division of musical studies.

The

interest

haps, sutler

enough
do

not

to be

that
in

years, have been

time

musical

making

it,

for

they

are

willing

as professors ^( singing.

considered

doubt

improvement

the masters ^( solfeggio would, per-

iA'

something by

will

effect

studies,

this

which, for

great progress

important
several

Prance.

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

Will.

:il

CHAPTER

21.

XVIII.

OF INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.
$

Of

the

l.

Art of playing on Instruments.

Instrumental performance
and

into the individual


tlu

art

naturally

is

collective.

divided

composed of

It is

of playing on individual instruments, and of

combining the performances of a certain number of


persons, so as to produce a united effect in time and

sentiment.

It

is

proper to treat separately of each

of these things.

Instruments, as

is

into five principal

commonly known,

kinds: the first

instruments played with the

bow

is

are

divided

composed of

the second, of in-

struments played by snapping the strings; the third,


of instruments with key-boards: the fourth, of wind
instruments

and the ffth, of instruments of percus-

Each of

sion.

these kinds of instruments requires

peculiar qualities, to be well played

played with the


to

bow demand

thus instruments

especially a delicate ear,

produce precision of tone, which

plenesa

Good
lie

of arm,

for

the

formed by

is

pressing the finders upon the strings, and

much

management of

the

sup-

bow.

execution, upon instruments played by snapping

>triu_r S)

cannot be attained without great strengtk

bf finger, to resist the impression of the strings,

and to

216

EXECUTION.

III.

Instruments with key-boards,

obtain a fine tone.

which the

PART

intonations

length, suppleness, activity, and

In order to acquire

in

require

strength of

th

upon wind instruments, the

skill

same accuracy of ear

made,

already

are

requisite, as for stringed

in-

struments; and, besides, the faculty of moving the

lips

with

facility,

is

of modifying their pressure, and of regu-

lating the force of the breath


tively constitute

what

to instruments of percussion,

man ought

that any robust

seems,

it

may have had

drum, the performer must possess

ine-

To

tl

play the

certain supple-

ness of wrist, and a certain power of touch, which

would be impossible

As

yet great differences

same education.

the

collec-

at first view,

between different drummers,

are perceptible

they

which

the embouchure.

to possess the

on them

qualities for playing

qualities

called

is

to analyze, but

it

which are not the

less real.

In the enumeration of qualities necessary to play

upon instruments,

well

have not mentioned sensi-

imagination, which are elements of all talent,

bility or

Decause we were considering none but physical qualIn vain would

ities.

pianist or oboeisl be

with the most exquisite sensibility,


the

one were

thin

and dry

stiff
;

itrumentists, than
I

Binger,

The

if

<>r

feeble,

they could no

if

and the

the

lips

o( the other

more become

could the best

endowed
fing<

great

in-

made man become

he had no voice,

playing of bowed

alto, violoncello,

instruments, as the violin,

and contrebasso,

is

composed of two

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

XVIII.

I'll.

The

how.

tin

fingering (or touch)

intonations

the

ing

management of

the fingering and the

distinct parts;

is

217

the art of form*

by the pressure of the

angers

upon the strings against the upper part of the neck


or

This pressure, which shortens the

finger-board.

vibrating length of the string,

more

produce pure sounds, unless

is

a string

is

it

attachment.

It

very firmly fixed at

is,

force

upon the
which

painful sensation

commencement

from

Anomer
that
in

is,

that

strings,

notwithstanding

this exercise

Sometimes
become armed with

No

the ends
a sort of

inconvenience, however, seems to

this, as to the

production of sound.

important point

in

fingering

the art of placing the fingers

is

precision,

upon the strings

such a manner as to render the intonations

certain

for these

the

produces, in the

All violins, or violoncellos, are not of the

sions

hardening of the skin, by the long use of his

instrument.
result

points of

should press the fingers with

of his studies.

artist's fingers

callus, or

its

consequently, necessary

violinist, or violoncellist,

of an

or less, cannot

very energetic, for

does not vibrate in a satisfactory manner,

except when

much

it

just.

same dimen-

makers having adopted larger forms

instruments than others.

Now,

of the fingers to form the intonations

the spreading
is

always

in

proportion to the length of the neck of the violin,


alto, or

violoncello;

of the string

is

instrument.

The

for

it

is

evident that the length

in proportion to the

dimensions of the

greater the length, the greater must

be the spreading of the fingers to pass from one sound

218

PART

EXECUTION.

more the

(o ar other; the less the distance, the

must be brought together.

III

fingers

delicate ear promptly

informs the performer of the faults which he commits


agai

but this

precision;

ist

just always,

not enough:

is

to play

he must be provided with a certain power

of a Idress, and must have had long practice on the

There

sounds.

are different degrees in the

An

of playing just or false.

ness

is

which

to

all

small

number of

acquire

to

in

ordinary

precision

absolute

attain

ever

instrumentists

the lot of but a very

is

This

artists.

manner

approximation to just-

especially difficult

is

what are called passages of double

In these passages, which produce the effect

string.

of a union of two voices, the

and produces

bow touches two

same time two

at the

Btl

intonations,

which

are the result of a combination of the finders of the


left

Besides the nece.-sary

hand.

finders

upon precision of tone,

it

influence

of the

appears that the

bow

has also an influence depending upon the manner in

which
the

hand

is

the intonation
the

mode

violinist

and

strikes the string,

it

left

may be higher

Paganini,

at least,

action of the

each sound,

or lower, according to

of pressure with the bow.

The

celebrated

ascribes the extraordinary

precision of his playing to this

The

that, as the jx>sitiou of

fixed in a precise way, for

lingers

power of the bow.


left hand upon

of (he

the strings affects only the justness of the intonations

and the purity of the vibrations.


sounds, as

more

hard or mellow,

or
is

less

soft

the result

The

or loud,

of the

quality o( the

more

or

management

less

of

m. win.

bow by

the

which,

and

the strings,

shown

the

is

nothing more than alternate-

pushing the

Grail

that a perfect

the

correspondence cannot be

manner

arm which

that the wrist

we examine

If

stiffness.

pendence of the wrist


necessary to acquire

it.

may

as possible,

bow,

This

a skilful

easy than this inde-

many

but

is

bow

years' study

not

all

are

the draw-

are susceptible of a

multitude of combinations, which also have

tlieir diffi-

Sometimes several sounds flow from the

culties.

same stroke of the bow, which requires much


arm; on other occasions,

the use of the

made

are

such

in

and without

act freely

movements of

the

ing and the pushing of the

much

directs the

nothing seems more

violinist,

effect-

movements of the bow and those

of the tinkers, without reducing, as


the action of the

implement upon
Experience has

excessively difficult

is

ed between

This management,

hand.

right

appearance,

in

drawing

ly

219

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

in

strokes of the

rapid

bow

movement by

all

skill in

the notes

number of

equal to that of the notes, which

requires an entire correspondence between the move-

ments of the fingers of the


tight

of

hand

sounds

hand and those of the

left

other combinations present successions

alternately

and detached

united

and,

finally,

there are successions of notes, which are de-

tached

in

rapid

movement by

bow, drawn or pushed.

which

The

is

This

single stroke of the


last

kind of pas

called staccato, requires a peculiar skill.

artist

must not confine himself

to the

master-

ing of these mechanical difficulties; the art of

modi

220

EXECUTION
must

fying the quality of the sounds

of his studies.

PART

also be an object

was formerly thought

It

that a

execution could only be obtained by means of


stiff

bow

II]

good
1 very

because, tbe effects being but slightly varied,

nothing more was required of the instrumentist, than


that his playing, in

which almost

all

the sounds were

To

detached, should have breadth and freedom.


tain this necessary stiffness, a

bow was

ob-

devised in the

shape of a convex curve, almost exactly like an arc


of a circle, of which the hair formed the chord.

was afterwards perceived

more proper than


pure sound

one

a stiff

It

bow was

a flexible

that

produce a rich and

to

and the rod was consequently made

straight again, and subsequently in the form of a con-

cave curve, which

it

now

ArtiMs now modify

bears.

the slight tension of their bow, by

means of

screw.

according to the quality of their playing, and the


passages with which they are familiar.

and

this flexible

light

produced upon the

many

Near

kinds.

bow, the

violin

the

which mav be

the rioloncello are of

bridge)

firmly supported, that the


state of

or

By means of

effects

the

bow cannot

strings

put

are

them

in

and the sounds which they produce, when touched

the

complete vibration, without great difficulty;

that spot, are


viol.

bo

bow

If the

Btrings

somewhat
i>

produce

removed
a

at

nasal, resembling those of the


a

little

from

this point

sound o( great volume, but

somewhat disagreeable, and even lnr-h. winch, however, has a

require

good

force.

effect

The

in

detached p
which
v approaches the

nearer the bo

221

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

3H. Will.

finger-board, the

more mellow, but the less powerful,


The bow is sometimes used over

become.

the Bounds

the anger-board, and in this position the sounds be-

come

are deadened.

very soft, but at the same time

how

In proportion aa the

removed from the bridge,

is

the performer diminishes the strength of his pressure

upon the

strings.

The

inclination,

more

or less con-

siderable, of the rod upon the strings, also modifies

the

sults

inexhaustible

the

yet remains to be discovered, to raise

bowed instruments

to

its

highest

Yet, in respect to the variety of effects,

and the overcoming of


have carried the

art

difficulties,

Paganini seems to

of playing on the violin to

its

limits.

violin

was

for a

long time only a vulgar instru-

ment, confined to the playing of popular


dances.

p aa

It

orchestra,

those

re-

which a

effects

enabled to draw from his instrument.

perfection.

The

of

variety

is

the art of playing on

utmost

these facts,

all

at successive periods,

much

great artist

Perhaps

From

sounds.

of the

quality

which have been observed

who

where
first

afterwards
it

now

introduced

holds

played upon

it

the

first

had so

airs

into

rank

little skill,

and
the

but
that

Lullv complained of not daring to risk the insertion

of the lenst difficult passages in his compositions, for


fear that the

them.
school

symphonists should be unable to execute

France,
for

Italy,

the violin.

and Germany, had not

The

what could be done upon

This

Italian

first

this

violinist lived

a single

who comprehended

instrument was Corelli

at the *>nd c f the seven-

222

IX

teenth, and the

l.<

TART

TION.

commencement of

the eighteenth cen-

His sonatas and concertos are

ury.

as classic models.

He

III.

still

considered

introduced into them

number of passages and combinations of

fingering

and bowing which had never before been thought o

His successors Vivaldi

and Tartini

extended

range of the instrument, which he had,

in

some

the
sort,

Nardini, Pugnani, and a great number of

created.

whom

other Italian violinists,

the

bow and

the

boundaries

it

would take too long

improved the

to mention, gradually

the lingering.

which

had

of managing

art

enlarged

Viotti finally

been

assigned

to

the

by his prodigious execution, as well aa bj the

violin,

beauty of his

compositions, in

which

novelty

and

grace of melody, expression, breadth of proportion,

and

brilliancy, are

combined.

are the finest that are

The German
since

the

concert*.- of Viotti

violinists

have

been

distinguished,

middle o( the eighteenth century, by the

of their

skill

The

known.

left

hand;

but they

draw

sound

little

from the instrument, and their management of the

bow

is,

in

-.<!

had any u
a

general,

little

developed.

Italy

and Trance

great violinists a long time before


liieh

were remarkable.

The

lir-t

Germany

w ho founded

m Germany was Benda. About the


Eck placed himself at the head of the German

school

1791),

violinist-.

Franz el, wh<

ble talent iraa

prised within the rery Etmallesl proportions,


in
is

rogue

at the

same period. At

considered the

first

violinist

was

the present day,

of Germany:

comalso

Spohr

and he

OJ-,

223

INSTRUMENTAL PERFOHMANCE.

XVIII.

possesses, in

f;ict,

great

skill

but his execution, which

somewhat cold, never obtained much success in


France, where violinists are criticised with the greatII

est severity.

The

French

whose

clerc,

was the

who entered

with the great Italian

composed

the

celebrated

was

a long

without

not

is

on equal terms

lists

time regarded

the violinists of our days, notwithstanding the

playing on that instrument.

siirnanied the

worthy of the name


playing.

The

,'ected

France

in

skill in

im-

the art of

had more grace

for

French Tartint, was

the greatness of his style of

of bowing, which had been ueg-

art

until

his time, in order to cultivate

hand, drew his attention, and

left

in

Guillemain, Pagin, and

lived after Leclerc,

who was

Gavinies,

the

playing, but less breadth of style and tone.

their

in

who

others,

he

.is

difficulties for

its

mense progress which has been made

some

Le-

a century.

The music which

artists.

for the violin

model, and

more than

for

belonged to the school of Corelli,

style

first

been

have

violinists

throughout Europe

lie

which Viotti himself admired.

it

which he published, under the


Mornings,

will

long

remain

title

as a

of

acquired a

The

studies

Twenty-four

monument of

his

talent.

After

modern

him commenced what may be called the


which are Kreutzer,

school, at the head of

Rode, and

Baillot.

sical studies

him the

The

first

ad not pursued clas-

but his happy organization revealed to

secret of a sort of chivalrous style,

which

is

TART

EXECUTION.

\2'24

The

brilliant, light, ana full of beauty.


Rode, purer and more correct, was

Admirable

fection.

and the

art of

remarkable

for

ta ent of

model of per-

the precision of his tones,

melodious instrumentation, he w

for

the

only fault was too

His

of his fingering.

rapidity
little

111.

of

variety

manage-

the

in

ment of his bow.


The two great artists whom 1
have mentioned no longer exist, but as recollections
which belong to the history of the art but Baillot,
;

contemporary, and the living depositary of

their

the classic traditions of France and Italy,

with

this

ail

survives,

the vigor and brilliancy of youth, growing

all

greater with time, and seeming to defy,

which

still

is

passed and that which

great

especially,

artist,

having established

in

is

the

once, the age

at

To

approaching.

belongs of

glory

France the most

brilliant violin

school of Europe, not only by the pupils

whom

he

has educated, but by the example which he has


j

of an admirable mechanical

His variety of bowing

vated style.
in

him

skill

spirations,
Baillot

skill,

is

only a

and the most

ele-

prodigious;

but

is

means of carrying

which are always profound

shows

all

the rigor

out

and elevation of his talent


r

i_

Nobody

in-

or impassioned.

when he performs the music of the reat


and when his audience sympathizes with
tions.

his

has analyzed

the

qualities

masters,
his

emo-

of style

suited to the performance o( the music of the

masters so well as he;

hehiVn

the

and

it

may be

asserted

that

greater variety than any other violinist ;

same evening he

will

perform the quartettes

fix

01

INSTRUMENTAL

C1I. XVIII.

quintettes of Boccherini,

ven

225

PliKl'ORMANX'K.

Haydn, Mozart, and Beetho-

and each of these composers will have, in his

Hands, his appropriate character ; and the hearer might

almost think himself listening to different performers


in succession.

To

the three great artists

whom

have mentioned

must be added Lafont, who, without belonging to


what

is

commonly

called a school,

that

without

is,

any particular theory of the bow and fingering,

made
style

which

is

has

by the most assiduous labor,

himself,

for

very agreeable in respect to precision

and sweetness of tone.

The

violinists

number of
artists,

the

above named have educated a great

who have become

pupils,

distinguished

and who insure an indisputable superiority to

French orchestras.

new

era has

commenced

for the violin

it is

that

Pagan ini, endowed with a


organization, possessing a hand
which gives him the means of

of difficulties overcome.

nervous and flexible


prodigiously supple,

executing passages which no other


him,

is

determined perseverance
liar

artist

can do like

indebted to these advantages, and to the most

circumstances,

marvellous.

lor

Having had

in

labor,

skill

and to some pecu-

which partakes of the

so

to

speak

no

other

master than himself, he seems to have been determined


to the career

certain

he afterwards pursued by the sight of

worka of Locatelli, an

the

Italian violinist

of the

who had turned his attention to


production of new effects, and whose capriccios

eighteenth century,

15

Z*
seem

have served as models

to

Paganini.

monics

made

Locatelli

the positions and

all

III.

for the first lessons

of

frequent use of the har-

Paganini devoted himself to the improve-

ment of these sounds, and


in

PART

EXECUTION.

to the

production of them

and even

the keys,

all

to

making them on two strings at once, and blending


them with the common sounds of the instrument.

The
is

lingering of the violin, in

sometimes insurmountably

eluded these

difficulties,

instrument,

so

advantageous

as

is

passages,

Paganini has

by varying the tuning of the

most

himself into the

bring

condition

which he

jes

to

certain

difficult.

execution

the

for

about undertaking.

of the

It

is

also

by means of these varieties of tuning that he has pro-

which could not otherwise

of sound

duced

effects

exist.

Thus he

plays a concerto in

which he has multiplied the


so that

seems almost supernatural

it

making

of this wonder consists in


play

in

flat

minor,

in

of execution,

difficulties

but the

the orchestra really

Hat minor, whilst the solo violin

tuned

is

half a tone higher, and the performer really plays in

minor.

The

but the effect

Paganini
in

is

difficulty, therefore,

o\'

the

found

bow

rf

the

instrument

It

who

has

in part,

executed

playing others, and

is

means of playing on

this virtuoso

disappears

not the less satisfactory.

hand snaps certain of

left

pieces which would seem

that

is

artist

tir>t

which the

whilst the

notes

the piece

to

the

fourth

who

pas-

the

has

string entire

require the four >trinns

cannot

be denied, then

has enlarged the resources o\

the

XVll

I'll.

violin

227

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

f.

hut unhappily his desire of creating applause

him

by the difficulties of his execution, leads

to

an

of the instrument, which frequently carries him

domain of the

out of the
is

The

art.

always admirable, but the taste

Be

istied.

Paganini

may,

it

of the

artist

not always sat'

must be confessed

it

that

the most extraordinary violinist that has

is

ever existed

as

it

skill

is

and he has also excited the most universal

enthusiasm, and met with the most brilliant success.


In the

new

school, there

another violinist, who,

is

though young, has acquired a great reputation by

This

genuine talent
a

artist is

De

superb tone, a flexible and varied bow, an

proachable intonation, and great


enlarge his style,

to

and

to

taste,

free

his

Possessing

Beriot.

irre-

he needs only

himself from the

somewhat narrow limits of the air with variations.


His last works have shown that he comprehends what
remains

for

him

sooner or

will,

and

to do,

later,

it

may be hoped

that he

place himself very high in the

of violinists.

As
ment

the violin

is

a brilliant

to be heard only

in

this instrument,
it

which

The

it

is

instru-

finality

of the tone of

plaintive and subdued, pre-

from being able to satisfy the ear

considerable time.

phony,

powerfid

pieces of harmony, and as a part

of the accompaniment.

vents

and

the solo, so the viola, or alto, seems destined*

in

In the quartette or

in

for

the

any

svm-

discourses well with the other instruments;

becomes monotonous when heard

hut

it

not

surprising, therefore,

that

few solos

alone.

It is

have been

228

TART

EXECUTION.

composed

the

for

and that few

alto,

111

have

violinists

thought of particularly cultivating this variety of the

Alexander Rolla, the leader of the orchestra

violin.

the Theatre dc la Scala, at Milan, and Mr. Urhan,

in

professor

almost the only

are

Paris,

at

have distinguished themselves on

modern
the

The

times.

bow being

the

for the alto as for the violin,

may

every master of the latter


It is

play on the former.

not so with the violoncello, which

tween the legs of the

spreading of the

form the sounds, being always


length of the strings,

much more
upon the
the

it is

in

violin.

easy to see that

it

upon

necessity of leaving

the

thumb upon

the

by sharps,

affected

made with

frequently practised

the

the

neck,

finger-board,

same

called shifting

on the

The

in their

violoncello

is

the

performer
anal.

These two

in-

regard to execution

i<

susceptible oC as

solos as in the orchestra.

bears

in

order to place the

when

violin.

stalments are also as different

tl

Besides, the

violin.
in

than

finders, as

wishes to reach the high sounds, bears no

as they art

must he
not

follows, therefore, that

It

same denomination,

is

fingn

proportion to the

considerable upon the violoncello

naturals, cannot be

what

held be-

is

and which requires a

artist,

The

peculiar fingering.

in

management of

fingering and the

same

who

artists

instrument

this

much analogy

to the

Its

tone

human

is

effect

voice.

The

^olos

would

ral

province of this instrument

lo

he to produce effects ^( melody.

in

much

in

penetrating, and

The

natu-

greater

rn.

win

however, make their

number of

violoncellists,

consist

playing difficult passages,

in

difficulties

The

229

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

these.

procure them the applause of the public.

who introduced

first

the violoncello into the

orchestra of the Opera, was a musician of the


Battistini, of

name

of

Florence, a short time before the death

Before his day, the bass

of Lulli.

skill

because

viol

(which had

seven strings) was alone used both for accompanying


voices and for instrumental music.

Franciscello, a

Roman

performer

made himself

He

lived

osos,

was

violoncellist,

the

first

celebrated by the execution

Two German

about the year 1725.

Quanz and Benda, who

and Vienna, agree,

heard him

who

of solos.

at

virtu-

Naples

the eulogiums which they be-

in

stowed upon him,

in

most

skilful artists

of their time.

born

at

placing him

Valenciennes,

at

the

at the

head of the

who was
commencement of the
Berthaud,

seventeenth century, must be considered as the head


of the French school of the violoncello.
pupils

we observe

elder, and, especially,


to this day, has

of style, and

skill

his

Louis Duport the younger, who,

never been surpassed

to beauty of tone

Among

the brothers Janson, Duport the

and dexterity of bow.


fingering,

in

have been the most

in

regard both
In elegance

Lamarre appears

distiiiLr ui>hed violoncellist

to

but,

unhappily, his playing was frequently deficient in vol-

ume and
third

distinctness of tone, particularly

upon the

The French school of tie


several artists of much talent.

and fourth strings.

present day contains

The German

school

is

distinguished by

some

vio

230

PART

EXECUTION.

The

loncellists of great merit.

time,

is

first,

IIL

ordv of

in the

Bernard Romberg, whose compositions have

served as a model for the concertos of the greater

number of

his successors.

style of great breadth

and vigor was the distinguishing characteristic of

who

Romberg appeared Maximilian

After

talent.

has acquired a great reputation by his

mastering the greatest

his

Bohrer,
skill

difficulties, the precision

in

of his

Without

intonation, and the elegance of his playing.

being so remarkable in point of execution, Dotzauer


deserves to be mentioned for his compositions, which
are in

The

very good style.

who have had no violinists worthy


among their musicians
upon the violoncello.
The one is

English,

of being mentioned, reckon

two virtuosos
Crossdill,

who

is

mi- execution.

of tone,

distinguished by a broad and


other

Tlii'

much

Linlev.

is

fine quality

dexterity of bow, and a greftl in

of execution, have procured him deserved reputation;


but unhappily, his playing
style,

and

The

his

manner

is

is

absolutely destitute of

vulgar.

contrebasso, which

supplied with four strums

is

in

gigantic

three in France, Italy, and England,

No

the orchestra.

other

its

to

another

strings

former, e?ery

hand;

i-

moment,

so that

iA'

witli

the b

only

can supply

tone.

The

its

length

BUCh, thit the distance from one note


considerable,

is

is

instrument

place for strength and fulness


of

instrument,

Germany, and

rapid

to

which obliges the per-

change the position o(

h a

\ery difficult

<f

re

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

CH. XVIII.

execution.

It

instrument

is

performance on

rare that the

is

among

satisfactory, for,

231
this

contrebassists,

some confine themselves to playing the principal


notes, neglecting those which seem to them to be less
necessary, and others, more exact, produce but

sound

difficult to acquire.
fill

orchestra

out,

by

The

the

its

it

has been played upon in a manner

Dragonetti, the

first

Endowed by nature

charm the

contrebasso of the Opera

Philharmonic Concerts,

attained a degree of skill


tion.

at

London,

with strong musical

delicacy of touch, which enable

who surround him

only a part of his merit.

in

him

to control

No

difficult passages,

he has done

Those who have attempted

all

the
is

one has carried to such

an extent the art of executing

What

feel-

and a

an orchestra; but this

of managing with dexterity the unwieldy


instrument.

has

which surpasses imagina-

ing, Dragonetti possesses a certainty in time,

artists

wry

low sounds, the plan of an

its

to create astonishment, at least, if not to

the

is

contrebasso seems intended

sounds, and the difhculties of a deli-

cate performance,

and

bow

yet, in spite of its colossal dimensions, the

roughness of

ear.

little

concurrent action of

management of

the fingering and the

only to

The

rapid passages.

in

is

bow of

and
his

truly wonderful.

to imitate

him have not

even approached his talent, and have only producea


feeble copi

The

stringed instruments, played with the bow, of

which we have spoken alxwe, compose the basis of


"fenestras,

and were the only ones employed

in then?

232

PART

EXECUTION'.

during the

first

III.

half of the eighteenth century, either

the performance of dramatic or religious music.

for

The

operas of Pergolese, of Leo, of Vinci, and of Por-

pora, have no other instrumentation than that of violins, violas,

The accompaniments

and basses.

of the

vocal parts, in those days, were an accessory of

The whole

comparative importance.

music consisted

and

in the grace of the melodies

The wind

the expression of the words.

little

merit of the
in

instruments,

which, by the different character of their sounds, con-

and color

trast happily with the stringed instruments,

the music with a great variety of tints, had not

taken their place in the orchestra, or were,

at least,

almost unperccived, because they were employed only

This

and without good judgment

at distant intervals,

kind of instruments has gradually acquired

importance
violins,
will

the

in

still

3s,

the same time,

but

remain, and always

remain, the foundation of orchestr


at

music

of

styles

different

and basses,

violas,

gi

the

gre

tiny

is

degi

itest

energy, of sweetness, and of variety of tone.


But, in order to derive from Btringed
all

orchestras,
in

which they

the effect of
it

is

in

great

unity

the moth' of execution,

the performers

and pushed
the

tied

at

instruments

capable,

essential that there should be a

the

thai

all

that the accents of loud

be

is,

thai

the

same

the

in

same time;

notes should

that

same manner by
the bows Bhould be drawn

passages should be executed


all

are

that the

made

and

soft

at

the

detached and

same

p]

Bhould be given upon

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

Will.

."II.

the Banoe notes


to be

but

one

eontrebasso.

23S

seem

and, in a word, that there should


violin,

There

one

is

one violoncello, one

viola,

no country

these conditions are so well

in the

as

fulfilled

world where

France;

in

and the orchestras of Paris, especially, arc very

markable

superiority

the

of the

re-

This must be attributed

in this respect.

which

school

exists

to

the

in

Conservatory, and to the certainty of the principles

which

are there taught.

made

has sometimes been

It

a reproach to this school, that

it

casts

all its artists

me

ime mould; but this reproach seems to

to

in

be

a eulogium rather than a criticism, in regard to the


violinists of the orchestra.

As

to those

who

are called

by nature to distinguish themselves in solo playing,

endowed with

they are

artist,

tint

is,

the qualities

an energetic feeling, and the germ of

a peculiar manner,

which they receive

in a school

to

the

their

how

the uniformity of the principles

development of

their

cannot be any obstacle


natural

talent.

proper time shall come, they will always


to

shake

if

which make a great

off the

When
know

trammels of the master, and

will

management of
composers who have visited

retain the advantage of a systematic

the bow.

All the foreign

France, and particularly Rossini, have admired the

French

violinists.

Though France

has produced several virtuosos on

wind instruments, she has not the same superiority,


this class, as in the stringed
in

instruments.

in

Germany,

general, has the advantage of her in this respect.

One

of the greatest

difficulties,

which there

is

to

234

PART

EXECUTION.

overcome, upon

of instruments,

this sort

is,

III.

to soften

and to play piano: the wind instruments

their tone

generally play

loud in

too

French orch

the

The necessity of playing piano is, nevertheless, become


so much the more imperious, since the music of the
new school admits of the almost continual use of all
the instruments in mass, in order to produce a va-

and that these masses drown the vocaj

riety of effect,

parts, unless they are extremely softened.

The wind
flutes,

instruments, employed

the orch

in

composers of the present school,

by the

two oboes, two

are,

two

two bassoons, two

clarinets,

<>r

four horns, and two trumpets, to which are sometimes

added three trombones, several ophicleides,


or

The most
Ante well

instrument

good embouchure,

^['

ion,

is

in

is

it

The
much improved

Df fingering.

some

o['

construction of the
within twenty-five

not yet perfect, and, in point of precis-

the requisite justness, by

his breathing,

certain

the playing

from being irreproachable: the

fir

can give

it

to play the

is,

hissing, previous to the

very disagreeable.

years: bin

that

which issues from the mouth,

sort

emission of the sound, which,

instrument has been

proper to convey into the

lips

the breath

all

without producing

flutists, is

one

essential quality to enable


a

is

conformation of the

alone

art i>t

modification o(

and Sometimes by certain combinations

Detached notes being made by

3f an articulation called
is

bugle,

keyed trumpet, &,c.

indi-peusab'e that the

the stroh
aiti-t

of

BDOtlld

thi

0088688

much

CH.

235

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

Will.

flexibility in the

organ of speech,

in

order to (execute

rapid passages with clearness, and especially that he

should accustom himself to establishing a perfect cor-

respondence between the movements of the tongue

and those of the

The

fingers.

first flutist

of any merit in France was Blavet,

flourished in the

half of the eighteenth century,

first

but was inferior to

He

Count de Clermont.

director of music to the

Quanz,

composer

at the

court

of Prussia, and teacher of the flute to Frederick

Quanz was
He

IF.

not merely a virtuoso, but a great pro-

wrote an excellent elementary book on

the art of playing the flute, and

commenced

the im-

provement of that instrument by the addition of a


Before his time

key.
able

Blavet, until Hugot, a


liant

it

had but one.

No

appeared, from the time of

flutist

French

artist,

remark-

Quanz and

acquired a

bril-

reputation, about the year 1790, by the beauty

of the tone which he drew from the

neatness of his execution.


ulgar, like tint of

instruments of tint age.

flute,

and by the

In regard to his style,


the performers

all

it

upon wind

Tins praiseworthy

artist, in

an attack of fever, escaped from his bed, and threw

himself out of the window,

month of Septem-

in the

ber, 1803.

No
ili

feet

flutist

had been able to remedy the principal

of the

flute,

Tulou, vet

a child,

manifested

reformation

which

is

its

peculiar genius, which


in

monotony, when

and a pupil of the Conservatory,

the instrument

was

itself, in

to

produce

the art of

230
playing upon

was the

lie

PART

EXECUTION.

of varying

and

it,

composed

the music

in

to discover that the flute

first

is

III

for

it.

capable

tones, and of furnishing different quali-

its

of sound, by means of modifications of the breath.

ties

This discovery was not the


flection,

great

but of that

The

artists.

result of research or re-

of instinct which makes

sort

the hands of Tulou, fre-

flute, in

quently produces inflections, worthy of rivalling the

human

which give

coice,

unequalled

expression

to his playing a quality of

any other

by

least

at

hold the

certain

in
first

first is

by a

flexibility

their

though
model,

Drouct and Nicholson

things.

rank among the

The

flutist,

manner for

other virtuosos have taken his

of his school.

flutists

distinguished by a brilliant execution, and

of tongue, more astonishing than any

which had been heard before him; but bis style is


cold, and bis playing is more like the surmounting
of

difficulties,

Nicholson

than
the

is

be a distinguished

some
larly

and

production

the

first

artist

his

in

compositions

bis skill

in

music.

There

any country.

in

traces of bad taste in Ins

brilliant, his

of true

of England, and would

flutist

but

his

execution

and

quality of tone, pure

passing from one

are

playing, and particu-

sound

to

full,

and

another by

Qsensible gradations, very remarkable.

The

art

and from

(A

playing the oboe took

its

rise in Italy:

coarse instrument, designed for the use ^C

the shepherd,

it

has

become

the mosl perfect of the

uhole family of wind instruments

The most

co

trahle difficulty to be overcome, in order to play well

III.

win.

INBTB1

MENTAL PERFORMANCE

upon the oboe, consists

237

the necessity of retaining

in

the breath, for the purpose of softening the sound, and

avoiding the accidents vulgarly called quaacks, which

take

place

causing
Jt

ail

when

reed

the

alone

necessary, however, to take

is

when one

vibrates,

without

emission of the sound from the instrument.

much

plays with

some precautions,

softness, because the in-

strument sometimes octaves, that

is, gives the octave


ahove the sound which the performer desires to produce.

Filidori, an oboist, who was horn at Sienna, and


was the contemporary of Louis XIII., who heard him

with admiration,

is

the

first

person mentioned

history of music, for his talent in

oboe.

family, originally from

sozzi, afterwards
<A'

this

kind,

Parma, named Be-

produced several celebrated

who

in the

playing upon the

flourished in Italy,

artists

Germany, and

France, during the whole of the eighteenth century.


rider

at the

Besozzi, the eldest of four brothers, lived

court of Sardinia, and devoted a long

improvement of
music
self at

life

to the

and the composition of good

his talent

his instrument.
Antony established himDresden, and formed a school of pupils, who

for

afterwards propagated his method.


tinguished

at

London,

as

late

as

Gaetan was
the

year

dis-

1793.

Charles Besozzi, son of Antony, was the pupil of his

on the oboe, and surpassed him in skill.


LastJerome, BOD of Gaetan, entered into the service of

'ather,
y,

the king of France, in


In- death.

A German

<

>

and remained there until

oboist, by the

name

of Fischer

238

PART

EXECUTION.

was the

III

of the Besozzis, and attained upon the

rival

oboe a lightness and sweetness of playing before un

The oboe

known.

school, founded in France

rome Besozzi, produced Gamier and


a pupil of the latter,

is

at this

moment

distinguished

by a very remarkable power of execution


only fault

Vogt,

Salentin.

and

his

that he does not sufficiently soften the

is,

tone of his instrument.

Brod,

a pupil of Vogt, has

avoided this defect of his master, and plays with per-

and

fect lightness

taste

opposite fault, and,

in

but he has fallen into the

playing with softness, some-

times runs into the octave.

The

clarinet, an instrument

sembles neither that of the


is

of great

utility

construction

the tone of which re-

flute

nor that

yet imperfect, in respect

is

i)\'

the oboe,

Unhappily,

the orchestra.

in

both to

its

just-

and equality of tone; but these defects may be


obviated,

at

The German

least

riority over the

French.

distinguished by

succeeded

in

part

way.

of their talent

strument

Some

few o( the latter are

style, but they

acquiring the

in their

artist.

have an incontestable >upe-

a brilliant

their rivals of Germany.

have been

by the talent o( the

part,

in

clarinetists

soft

have never

and velvet tone o(

Prejudices of di\ers kinds

For example, they make a

consist in

drawing from

their in-

powerful and voluminous sound, which

is

n compatible with sweetness; and, further, they persist

in

resting
softer.

pressing the reed by the upper


it

upon the lower, which

Joseph Beer,

virtuoso

is

in

lip,

both
ill

instead of
firmer

and

of the

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

XVIII.

Cll.

king of Prussia, founded,


teenth century,
I

remarkable

artists,

Baermann, who performed


in

1818.

soft

in the last half

clarinet school,

2'S9

of the eigh-

which baa sent out

among whom we distinguish


in Paris with much success

and velvet tone, a neat and free

ar-

more elegant

passages, and a

ticulation

in

Btyle than

any other performer on the instrument, have

placed

this

difficult

artist in

the

Willman, of London,

first

rank, even in Germany.

also an

is

of very rare

artist

merit; and, finally, Berr, of the orchestra of the Italian Theatre, is

remarkable

for the fine quality

of his

tone and the finish of his execution.

We

have already seen (chap,

what are the

xiv.)

defects of the bassoon; and whether from these defects,

or

some other cause, there

scarcely a bas-

is

soonist

who

talent.

Ozi and Delcambre possessed

deserves to be mentioned

wire deficient
tained the

in taste;

and, as to difficulties, they re-

instrument within narrow limits.

lander, by the

name of Mann, had

talent for a flowing

and easy

playing bul he did not


and remained

in obscurity.

have a tone which


of Strength.

is

style,

Hol-

and

for

neatness of

make himself known,


The reformer of the bas-

In France, the bassoonists

agreeable enough, but destitute

not so in Germany, where the


more of roundness.

It is

generally, has

more remarkable

try to

soon has not yet appeared.

The

for superior

a fine tone* but

tone,

instruments of brass are very

difficult to play,

particularly those the intonations of

which are modi-

fied

by the

movement of

the lips, as the horn and the

240

ART

EXECUTION.

This

trumpet.
that

it

difficulty is so great

has been found necessary,

III.

upon tie horn,

tor the

majority of

performers, to limit the extent of the scale of sounds,

which they

An

artist

who

medium sounds,

can-

are required to perform.

plays with facility the low and

The

not attain to the high sounds, and via versa.

considerable dilation of the


for the first, is

lips,

in

requisite,

should be

for

much

high sounds,

less

according

its orifice,

acuteness of the sounds of the

For low sounds,

and

Besides, the embou-

the opening at

to the gravity or the

instrument.

necessary

is

incompatible with the contraction by

which the others are executed.


chure varies,

which

opened.

wide embouchure
it

necessary that

is

have led to a division of the horn into \\w

servatory, has

more properly named

bass voices.

<

the alto and bass

The

analogy to the contralto and

artists

who

play the part oC the

cannot play that of the bass, and

side^ these

it

vice

two divisions of the horn, there

which has received


cause

and

fir.-t

the

in

because the diapason of the instrument, when

thus divided, bears souk

alto

it

These considerations

second horn, which Dauprat, professor

/torn,

is

the

name

o\'

r<r.<<r.

Be-

another,

is

mixed horn,

be-

participates of the fust two, without reaching

the low extreme of the One r the high extreme of the


other.

of

This division

is

the easiest for the acquisition

neat and sine execution, because

moved from

the inconveniences of a

or contraction of the

lips.

The

it

t<>o

ins

is

eqin

great diration
iA'

the oi
%

tra

are always ranged in one or the other iA the

first

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

CH. Will.

two categories

it

last is the least

limited to a small

is

easier than

is

it

but some solo performers have adopt

This

ed the third.

24]

the

number of
others.

esteemed, because

notes, and because

Frederick Duvernoy,

who enjoyed a great reputation, twenty-five years


lie never went
since, made use of the mixed horn.
beyond the extent of an octave of the medium.
After the difficulty of

making the sounds with


and

ness, and that of executing with facility

there

neat-

volubility,

none greater than that of equalizing the

is

strength of the open and stopped sounds.

The

latter

are almost always subdued, while the others are round

and
this

No

brilliant.

artist

appears to have possessed

important quality of evenness of tone in so great

a degree

much

as

Gallay

skill, that

it

is

two kinds of sounds

who,

has so

in this particular,

very difficult to distinguish these

He

in his playing.

is

model

young horn players.


After Hampl, the first horn player who acquired

for

lebrity,

appeared Punto, his pupil,

Teschen,
ist,

in

Bohemia, about the year 1755.

whose true name was Stick, which

ing, (punto, in Italian,)

ce-

who was born


This

at

art-

signifies prick-

had an admirable talent

for

obtaining fine tones from the horn, in the high notes,

and

for the

execution of embellishments and

correctly as a violinist could do


fie
said,

constantly

made use

upon

trills,

aa

his instrument.

of a silver horn, which, he

possessed a purer quality of tone than those of

brass.

Lebrun, a French horn player,

in the service

of the king of Prussia, was the rival of Punto,


1()

ana

242
him

excelled

in the art

He was

instrument.

making use of

of

PART

III.

of playing gracefully open

his

EXECUTION.

the

first

who conceived

conical pasteboard

the idea

pureed

box,

&

with a hole, to give the effect of an echo.

other French horn players have been distinguished


lor

particular qualities.

AYe may

and Gallay.
who,

have mentioned Duvernoy

add the name of Dauprat,

also

much improved

in his capacity of professor, has

the school of the horn in the Conservatory.

we

In the orchestras,

happens
and

to

frequently

horn players

to the

make what

is

to

fail in

observe that

it

their intonations,

These

vulgarly called a quaaek.

accidents almost always arise from a neglect on the


part of the

is

artist to

remove the water which

tube by means of the breath.

in the

sufficient to arrest the air in

less likely to

collects

happen

t<

Accidents
in the

drop

lr;ist

passage, ami

its

vent the articulation of the sounds.

kind would be

The

oi"

prethis

use of horns

with pistons

The

trumpet, an instrument of the same kind as

the horn,

also very difficult

is

to play:

and the

faults

of the performer are more readily perceived, because


it<

sounds are

more acute and penetrating.

It

is

particularly difficult to play with softness and purity.

The French
not

English.
father

arti-ts

who

the skill of the

Among

the

play

upon

this

Germans

are the Altenl

and son, who were ?irtU06O8 o( the

and many other-, who execute


difficulty,

instrument

Germans, nor even of the

j>

with softness and precision.

first
f

order,

singular

Some

^\

the

5B.

Win.

works of Handel contain parts


sible to play

trumpets, which
it

pos-

them, and which induce the belief that,

in his time, there

pet

for the

we can hardly conceive

thai

difficult

>

243

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

must have been

England

in

day, Mr. Harper

is

remarkable

trum-

At the present

player of extraordinary talent.


for

the art of modi-

fying the softness and strength of the sounds, for the

with which he executes difficult pass

precision

and

happy conformation of

the

for

his lips,

which

permits him to rise without difficulty to the highest


notes.

The

brass instruments, the intonations of which are

modified by mechanical means, as the keyed trumpet,


the ophicleides and trombones, have also their
culties

diffi-

but they have the advantage of not exposing

the performer to

continual

fail

in

motion of the

The

producing the notes.


slide of the

trombones, and

the opening of the keys of the bugle-horn and ophijoined to their

cleides,

great diameter, prevent the

water from being condensed


stroying the vibration of the

ment.
it

is

in
air

them, and thus dewithin the instru-

In order to play well upon these instruments,

merely requisite to be a good musician, to have

firm lips and a robust chest.

There

are

some

artists

who

distinguish themselves by the execution of

cult

passages, on the trombone;

ances are singular rather than useful

which

is

diffi-

but these perform


in the

orchestra

the proper place for this instrument.

Hitherto,

have spoken only of execution upon

those instruments which are united into a collection

844

PART

EXECUTION.

more

or less

numerous

it

are

most frequently played

remains

for

orchestras;

in large or small

me now

and

to

III.

speak of those which

hy

themselves,

the

as

organ, piano, harp, and guitar.

When

the dilliculties to be encountered

in

the art

of playing upon the organ, and particularly a large


organ, are enumerated,

it

is difficult

to conceive that

any one can be found possessing the qualities requisite to

overcome them.

composed,

is

first,

and of rules

fingers,

In

of the

free

is

besides

that

the

diffi-

complicated by the resistance of

the keys, which sometimes require the strength

weight of two pounds each to


the finger,

is

it

move

learn to

make them

yield

left

and

hand

this

at

with rapidity, to play the b


to

leave

liberty to play the intermediate parts,

double attention requires

that he should

i^(

under

necessary that the organist should

his feet

upon the pedal key-board, when he wishes


the

art

of the

articulation

for the fingering, as for the other

instruments with key-boards,


culty of fingering

fact, besides that this

know how

to

make

a
a

wry

great effort;

proper DS6 of the

various key-boards, to unite and separate them, and


to

pass from one to another, without interruption to

his

performance;

that

knowledge

he should p

of the effects ^( the different >top<, and

a taste for

the

new combinations of them: and. finally,


(Mice and
he should at the same time p

invention of
tint

genius, to treat the service of the church with

m ajestv,

and to extemporize preludes and pieces of every kind

A thousand other

details

also enter

into the dutv of

the organist;
to the

for

example, he must not be a stranger

knowledge o

understand

its

plain-chant, and must he able to

notation,

which

ordinary notation; he must

promptly

we

and must be

church;

to his instrument.

consider this complication of difficulties,

are not astonished at the small

ganists
is,

the usages of each

remedy any temporary accidents

to

which may happen

When we

from the

different

is

know

locality for the service of the

able

245

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

CH. Will.

who have appeared

number of great

in three centuries,

from the sixteenth to the nineteenth.

Germany have produced

who

or-

that

Italy

the greatest number.

the Italian organists are Claude Merulo,

and

Among
lived

at

the end of the sixteenth century, the twoGabrielli, his

contemporaries, Antegnati, and especially Frescobaldi,

who were conspicuous from 1615 to about the year


1640.
Germany has produced Froberger, de Kerl,
Buxtehude, Pachelbel, John Sebastian Bach, and the
pupils of the latter.

The

greater

number of these

organists are distinguished for particular qualities, but


there are very few

who have

all those which


John Sebastian Bach

possessed

have been above enumerated.


is,

believe, the

phenomenon.
geniuses
the ages.

who

consist

who

artist

has exhibited this

was one of those rare

are placed like beacons to enlighten

a performer,

his successors,
in

one

His superiority was such,

composer and
for all

only

This great

that,

both as a

he has served as a model

who have made

their

ambition

approaching, as nearly as possible, but not

equa.ling, his merit

The French

organists have

al

246
most

EXECUTION.
been deficient

all

bad taste

viere,

alone

of steps, and

from them.

effect

in the art

and severe

The

the true

of the organ, that

st\ le

which belongs

style,

of

Conperin, Cal-

Marchand, Daquin, had no other merit.

knew

III

knowledge; tut they have

in

in their selection

drawing the best

PART

is,

Kameau
the grave

to that instrument.

piano has scarcely any other relation to the

organ, than that of a key-board, upon which the fingers


are to be
are not at
is,

moved

and the qualities of a good pianist

those of an organist.

all

The

touch

the striking of the keys by firm and supple

ments of the

which

lingers,

ing well upon the piano

is

indispensable to play-

does not resemble the

t<

of the organ, which should be tied rather than

One

liant.

of the greatest difficulties

piano consists

ment, by

in

drawing

manner of

a peculiar

order to acquire this


restrain the

a fine

art,

touching the

in

striking the

position of the hand, and


at

is

constant study of certain

slowly and with evenness,

fust
in

rapidity, will, in the end,

not saying that the art

from the piano,


as with

is

o\"

drawing

purely mechanical.

every other

art

hi

to the fingers

give this necessary quality of suppleness,


ever,

ya.

arm upon the key-board,

thing which requires great practice.

and gradually increasing

the performer must learn to

action of the

passages, executed

ncfa
bril-

tone from the instru-

and to give equal suppleness and strength

that

move-

\\<

It

This, howa

fin<

i<

with this

principle resides in the

soul of the artist, and diffuses it-elf. with the rapidity

of lizhtnins even to the end of his fingers.

There

is

II.

win.

nn inspiration of sound, as iIhtc

which

is

it

217

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

of expression, of

is

one of the elements.

fine tone,

and a

free

and easy mechanical move-

ment, are the indispensable requisites of genuine

skill

on the piano, but they are not the only ones.

The

must possess

artist

two extremes,

taste, to

enable him to avoid the

one or the other of which the

into

majority of pianists

namely, that of making the

fall,

merit of touching the instrument consist in the ability


to

produce

a great

manner

possible

pression

alone,

number of notes

of

these

most rapid
to ex-

it

which does not naturally belong

the sounds of the instrument.

ture

in the

and that of restraining

to

the proper mix-

It is

two things which makes the treat

pianist.

The

variations of taste,

which the performance of

harpsichord players has undergone,


into three principal epochs.

The

may be

first

divided

includes the

legato style, in which the fingers of the two hands

played, in

four

or

five

distinct parts,

on a plan

of

harmony rather than melody. This epoch ended with


John Sebastian Bach, who had the finest talent of
which has ever

that kind
skilful
-s

pianist,

upon

this

In order to be a

existed.

system,

it

is

necessary to

a strong perception of harmony, and that,

all

the fingers should be equally apt in the execution of


difficulties.

These

difficulties,

which are of

a peculiar

kind, are so ureat, that there are very few pianists of

our days

who have

of Bach

and Handel

sufficient skill

to play the

The second

epoch,

music
which

248

TART

EXECUTION.

commences with Charles


which the

that in

Emanuel Bach,

Philip

feeling the necessity

pianists,

III.

ig

of

pleasing by

means of melody, began

densed

of their predecessors, and introduced into

style

their style those different

which,
all

to quit the con-

combinations of the

lor nearly sixty years,

the brilliant passages for the piano.

ties

were much

began to consist more

pianists

gance than
head of

The

difficul-

second manner than

in

the

from that time, therefore, the merit of

and,

first;

less in this

have been the type of

in

new

this

expression and ele-

in

The

the overcoming of difficulties.


school, in

Germany, was

John Sebastian Bach, already mentioned

the son of

and

after

him came Mozart, Midler, Beethoven, and Du


Clementi, who was born in Italy, pursued the same
course, and improved the theory of the

upon the piano.

art

of playing

His pupils or imitators, Cramer,

KJengel, and some others, brought this second epoch


to a close.

but

his

Steibelt

talent,

was

a pianist

of the same period;

which was genuine, though

hifl

chanical performance was incorrect, was of a peculiar


character.

A man

of genius, be

never thought of

Hi*

Btudying any master, or of imitating any model.


playing, like his music,
ties

prevented

powers

but,

arti-t.

The

brenner.
free

his

him from going


as

third

began with

These

great

Bchool,

in

own.
to the

he was, he was

such

and judicious

preceding

was

artists,

the

extent of his
a

Hummel

preserving

mechanical

introduced

His irregulari-

into the

remarkable
and
all

Kalk-

thai

action
style

was

o( the
oi

the

til.

Win.

inmki MENTAL PERFORMANCE.

new

piano a

249

plan of brilliant passages, consisting in

the dexterity of taking distant intervals, and in group-

bug

he fingers in passages of harmony independent

This novelty, which would have en

of the scales.

riched die music of the piano,

if

had not been

it

abused, completely changed the art of playing upon

When

the instrument.

one step had been taken

boldness of execution, the

this

Moschelles,

progress.

their

whom

in

in

not stop in

artists did

suppleness,

firmness, and agility of finger, have been wonderfully

ped by labor, did not hesitate to encounter

diffi-

Hummel

and

than

greater

culties

those

of which

Herz

Kalkbrenner had given the model.


a

still

carried to

greater height these perilous leaps and rattling

new

notes of the

Like Moschelles, he ob-

school.

tained great success, and

the

all

young

pianists put

themselves in the train of these virtuosos.

still

more singular and

difficult

The

been previously attempted.


piano has

at

become the

last

perfectly assimilated to the

respect,
to

that

amuse.

stitutes

its

almost

pianist
its

direction of the

apparent to
Moschelles,
artist

in

object

Thought

of the

talent

One

of

Schunck, has even conceived passages

the latter, Mr.

is
;

is

art

art

art

of playing the

of astonishing, and

of dancing

no longer

mechanical

has,

in

this

to interest, but

no longer any thing

whole merit.
art

than any which had

in

execution

The

folly

the

con-

of thin

however, already become

men of correct minds and of read talent.


who possesses more ability than any other

overcoming

all

mechanical

difficulties,

has

250

come

and

some time

to a stand in this career, and for

devoted himself to the expressive

now

PART

EXECUTION.

excels as

Hummel

much

style, in

h;is

which he

Kalkbrennei

as in the other.

have resisted the torrent.

able that they will find imitators, and

III

It

is

prob-

that the art of

playing the piano will again become worthy of

its

origin.

Among
among

all

the Greeks

and Romans, and

in

general

the nations of antiquity, both of the East

and the North, stringed instruments played by snapand those who played upon
first place
them with skill were regarded as most worthy of
In the modern
commendation among musicians.

ping held the

music, these instruments have

preeminence,

lost their

because they are limited in their means, and are

little

suited to keep up with the constant progress of the

musical

The

art.

harp and the guitar are the only

instruments of this kind which have survived, of

all

those which were in use in the fifteenth and sixteenth

The music

centuries.

composed only of
called

arpeggio.

of the harp was a long time

scales,

and of a

The same

forms

sort

of pass

were constantly

reproduced, because the construction of the instru-

menl scarcely permitted them

Kmmpholz,

to be varied.

nevertheless, contrived to

make

Madame
the most

of a kind of music so limited, and to find means


expression
it.

True

in

things which seemed

natural

talent

little

triumphs oter

^f

favorable to
all

obst

Afterwards cum' Mr. de Marin, who enlarged the


domain of the harp, and attained the art o( playing

CII.

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE.

XVIII.

music upon

of a higher kind than had ever before

it,

been written

251

His manner was

instrument.

the

for

dignified, his playing impassioned, his execution

enlarge the boundaries of the harp,

was because he

it

too soon to enjoy the advantages presented by

\ived

the harp with double

The

first

who

ability to use

harpist,

who

it,

movement.

discovered the effect which might

be drawn from this

new

instrument, and

who had

lived

London, and whe

a long time in

for this instrument,

new

which

Bochsa, who came


;

which are

filled

His lessons

with passages of

kind, have set the harp free from the narrow

limits within

tion

the

was Mr. Dizi, a celebrated Belgian

has recently established himself at Paris.

pow-

he did nothing further to

in difficulties, and, if

erful

it

had been previously confined.

after

him, never had a neat execu-

but he added greatly to the importance of his

instrument by the elegance and brilliancy of the style


of his

He

compositions.

first

now nothing more

is

than an ordmary harpist, and his latest works deserve

no esteem.
Labarre, and

young French

Mademoiselle

artist,

Mr. Theodore

Bcrtrand, have

carried

execution upon the harp to the highest point of perfection to

the

which

it

energy,

nre

talent.

style,

novelty

the distinctive

solid glory will

understands his

The

has yet attained.

most elevated

own

finest tone,

passages,

characteristics

be the

ability,

in

and

lot
if

of

of Labarre,

and
their
if

he

he hus the cour-

age to struggle against the natural monotony of his


instrument.

The
It

PART

EXECUTION.

!!.V2

to sustain the voice lightly in

vocal pieces, such as romances, couplets, bole-

little

Some

&lc.

ros,

known

limited resources of the guitar are well

seems calculated only

III

however, have not limited

artists,

themselves to this small merit,

but have Bought to

overcome the disadvantages of a meagre tone, the


of the fingering, and the narrow compass

difficulties

Mr. Carulli was the

of this instrument.

undertook to perform

and succeeded

in

it

difficult

guitar,

to such a decree as to excite

carried the art to a higher degree of perfection


if

were possible

it

as-

Agnado, have

Sor, Carcassi, Huerta, and

tonishment.

who

first

music on the

and

the guitar to take a place in

for

music, properly so called, these

have effected that miracle

would doubtless

artists

but to such a metamor-

phosis the obstacles are invincible.

2.

Of Execution
To
than
to

mere musician, music

the
a

play

and of Collective Execution,

in general,

mass of notes, sharps,


and

accurately

height of perfection

somewhat

rare,

it

is

nothing

rests,

time, seems

in

and

flats,

to

merit of this

as

must be acknowledged
what

more

and holds

him the
kind

is

he

is

that

from

not

altogether

this

mechanical execution, which leaves the soul of

flu-

hearer as

harmony of

wrong.

nnmowd

feeling

But

as

which

that
i^

i>(

distance

the player, to that

gradually

communi

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

CHAP. Will.

to those deli-

from the performers to the audience;

cate shades which color the thought of the composer,


show forth its sublimity, and frequently lend it new

music

is

but an idle noise!

Remarkable

effect

and proof of the power of talent

Suppose an orchestra,
who,

in their dull

company of ordinary

singers,

execution, leave our sensations

the requisite powers of

mind and body, appear

the midst of them: suddenly,' the sacred


nicates itself to these inanimate beings

fire

the metamor-

may even be such,


persuade ourselves that we hear

hardly

same

sical effect

ne plus ultra of

cannot take place unless

not onlv possess an equal


ity

The

players and singers.

skill,

all

fire

that

the

mu-

the performers

but also a like

of organs, and a like degree of

in

commu-

phosis produced in an instant

we can

at

ardent leader, a musician endowed with

rest; let an
all

without which

to that expression, in short,

beauties;

flexibil-

and enthusiasm.

Such combinations have always been rare, and are


The famous company of comedi-

only exceptions.

an- of 1789 offered an example of


time, Viotti, iccompanied by

and

Baillot,

Lamarre,

in

with choirs or

Bttain

that

which

known.

played by himself,

number, but which

this absolute

full

perfection,
is

This

Since that

it.

de Montgeroult,

Rode and

Conservatory, have given an idea of

which may be found

the perfection

of a few

a trio,

in

at the

Madame

it

in

is

orchestras.

we content

merely relative, since


latter

combinations

very difficult to

For want of
ourselves

with

none other

degree of perfection

is

results, as 1

'

part hi

execution.

2-j4

nave said, from a union of several

artists

of the

first

One who

others less happily constituted.

order, win,

has not been so liberally endowed by nature, as to be

communicate

able to

surround him,

lively

at least

is

impressions to those

who

capable of receiving them;

which explains the secret of those sudden transform*


which we observe

tions

in

cording as they are well or


Skill, in the

individual performers, acdirected.

ill

mechanical part of singing, or playing

on instruments,

undoubtedly necessary to the

is

tainment of a good execution

enough.

i>h

its

may sometimes

Dexterity

prodigies; but

it

is

aston

the privilege o( trn

pression alone to touch the soul.


sion,

at-

not

the most powerful resources, for exciting

who hear him.

by

is

it

In his sensibility, and in his enthusiasm, an

artist finds

those

but alone

What

expres-

I call

not that grimacing which consists in twisting

is

the arms, leaning over affectedly, moving the body,

and shaking the head; a sort o( pantomime of which

make use. but


True expression

^onie musicians

the dupes.
etfort,

of which they alone are


is

manifested

without

The

by the tones of the voice or instrument.

musician

who

has the sentiment

kA'

it.

transmits

it

from his sonl, as by enchantment, to his throat, to the

end of

The

his

fin<_r er<, t<>

his

bow.

string, or finger-board.

quality of Ins voice, his breathing, his touch, are

stamped with
ments; and,
tin re is

for

t:

him, there are no bad instru-

for

him.

would almost venture

no bad music, though be may be

in. -re

ble than another to the beauties ^( composition

to
-

CHAP

We

should

t>e

mistaken

we supposed

if

There

choly.

are tones proper to the expression of

Talent enables the performer

every emotion.

performing, to be simple with

with

simplicity,

its

ornament

passion, sparing of

its

embellishments

brilliant with

in the

fashion, and always great, even in

tions of divers kinds

simplest

placed,

note,

trifles.

There is
emo-

to excite

is

enough.

What do

or

say

even an appogiatura, properly

tone, sometimes calls forth bursts of admi-

At

whole audience.

ration from a

accused of exaggeration,

I will

which

the key.

the risk of being

even say that we have

an instinct that announces the great


in

in its severity,

a single phrase of cantabih

theme of a rondeau,

The

is

vehement

elegant follies of

no need of great or prolonged exertions

ner

to iden-

himself with the style of the piece which he

tify

the

that there

that of <^rief or melan-

no possible expression hut

is

255

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

{VIII.

artist

by the man-

bow strikes the string, or


know not what emanation it
his

his finger
is

which

then dilfuses itself through the atmosphere, proclaim-

we

ing the presence of talent; but


1

persuade myself that

my

>f

In
ted

I shall

are rarely deceived.

be understood by some

readers.

all

countries, there are persons happily constituart;

for

but their

number

differs,

according as

circumstances, climate, or other causes which


difficult

to

appreciate, are

more

it

is

or less favorable

Thus, among performers, France has produced Garat,

Rode,

Baillot,

many
who rivalled the greatest

Kreutzer, Duport, Tulou, and

others that might be mentioned,

250

of Italy or

irtists

;xi

<

Germany

of the French nation

is

part

rio.v.

in.

yet the natural character

not favorable to music


;

among them

the flourishing state of the art

rather

i-

The

the fruit of education than of an innate taste.

French know what perfection is, and aim at it hut,


though their taste is severe, they do not always obtain
;

good
is

results in their concerted pieces,

no unity

in their

manner of

on the contrary, are easily

we

see

them

poor opera,

because there

The

feeling.

satisfied

Kalians,

with mediocrity

listen patiently, for an entire season, to a

ill

performed, provided there occurs,

the

in

course of the representation, a cavatina, duet, or

air,

sung well enough

But

indemnify them

to

for the rest.

this people, apparently so indifferent

to the

execution, are capable of attaining to the

merit o(

finest

of collective execution, by the unanimity of feeling

which directs the sinners and the instrumental performers.

Experience proves

ble singers, taken

at

that

four or five tolera-

random, among the

Italians,

and

sustained by an accompanist,

who

could scarcely play

a sonata of Nicolai,

life,

a fire,

have

which could

not be found in the same piece, executed by

French

Bingers, and

no one of the

accomp

first

uiied by a virtuoso,

Italians could individually bear a

parison with the French.

With

us, there

is

rate

though

com-

a sort

of

distraction, generally opposed to that unanimity of in-

tention,

which

is

necessary to obtain great efiecta of

harmony; whilst the


away by the power of
It

Italians

are

evidently

carried

the music.

must be acknowledged that what

nature ha- re

(II

\V

XVIII.

257

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

fused, education has given us.

The

institution of the

Conservatory has given an immense


progress of music in France

impulse to the

not that greater talents

have been formed there than existed before

estab-

its

lishment, for Rode, Kreutzer, Baillot, and Duport, are


the models of our

still

of skilful persons

is

young

much

artists

number

but the

increased; several are dis-

persed in the provinces, where they have excited an

emulation

unknown

now

before; and the provinces

send back in exchange to the capital the elements of

new talents. The study of harmony, which has become general, begins to familiarize the amateurs with
which were hardly tolerated

combinations

The

sensible by this study, seizes

much more

meaning of the composer; and,


give their

minds

better effect.

we

before.

organ of hearing of the performers, made more

If,

to

it

readily the

for that reason,

the more, and produce

it

they

with

notwithstanding these improvements,

frequently observe a want of unity in choirs and

orchestras, and

if

even distinguished

artists leave

thing to be desired, in this respect,

me, because

it is,

it

some-

seems to

sufficient attention is not paid to prelim-

inary arrangements of great importance, and because

peculiar prejudices have retained in a state of inferiority essential parts,

The

which

it

would be easy

to

improve.

objects, which, in the actual state of things, de-

serve the most attention, are:

],

the arrangement of

.he orchestras; 2, the proportions of the orchestras,

noth in regard to voices and instruments

3, vocal

execution in the choruses and in the pieces of bar

17

n-^

mony

PART

EXECUTION.

accompaniment

4, the

III.

and, 5, the unity of

effect.

The

orchestras of concerts and of theatrical repre-

sentations

not

are

arranged

in

The

perceived.

same manner,

.tlie

though the cause of the difference

is

not readily to be

place of the leader, particularly,

is

selected in an entirely different manner, except at the


Italian Theatre.

It

is

acknowledged, on

all

hands,

mu-

that the leader of an orchestra should have the

whom

sicians

he directs, under his eye, and yet they

persist in placing

him

close to the lamps; so that

all

the performers are behind him, and he must turn round


in order to see

them.

At

least this

the greater

number of our

besides the

advantage which there

is

the practice in

Nevertl

theatres,

being able to see his subordinates,

is

in

to

;t

leader in

order to watch

them, to excite their attention, and to bring them back


promptly
change,

movement, when

to the

sometimes

to

it

has undergone any

also very important for the musicians

is

it

meet the eye of the director;

slightest 'motion of the

head

is

for the

often significant, and

such

man-

ner as to be instantly understood by every body.

Be-

promptly points out an intended

side-,

it

is

effect, in

almost impossible thai an orchestra should

remain indifferent or cold, when


tentive
Italian

and

full

of ardor.

it

sees

its

leader

The arrangement

Theatre, and the place

occupied

^\'

at-

the

by Gl

nearly corresponded to the arrangement of the Theatre

Feydeail,

Houssaye,

at

the

time when

it

was directed by La

This arrangement, which places the

lead-

259

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

C JAP. XVIII

towards one side of the stage, and ranges

er

musicians before him,


part; but

tal

it

seems

because

to the stage,

to be less

happy

what

in

head

in

The

order to see the stage.

ment appears

to be that

him

centre of the musicians, as

it

best arrange-

finally

little

behind the

enables him at a single

and the orchestra.

glance to see both the singers

This has been resumed


probably be

tlit

to turn

which places the leader of the

orchestra in front of the stage, and a

will

the

relates

separates the leader from

it

actors and the chorus singers, and obliges


his

all

excellent as to the instrumen-

is

at the Italian

adopted

at

Theatre, and

all

it

the other lyric

theatres.

As

to orchestras for the concert, there

that the desks of the violins

pendicularly to the hall, the

is

no doubt

ought to be placed per-

first in

view of the second,

the violas at the back of them, and the wind instru-

ments with the basses

The
left

in a sort

of semicircle behind.

leader, placed at the head of the

first

violins at the

of the audience, sees without difficulty, and

same time

seen by,

is

all

the musicians.

'

at the

The

ar-

rangement of the orchestra of the Philharmonic Concert,

at

London, seems

to

be made on purpose to

prevent the performers from seeing and hearing one

The

another.

basses are in front, the

first

violins be-

hind them, the second above them, in a kind of gal


lery, the flutes
in a gallery

ind

altos, the

.he other

and oboes about the centre, the bassoons

corresponding to that of the second violins


horns on one side, and the trumpets on

in fact,

there

is

no unity, no plan.

The

2G0

PART

EXECUTION.

III.

leader of the orchestra, placed in front, and facing the

audience, cannot possibly see the musicians

whom

he

In the matter of music, the English always

directs.

do precisely the reverse of what ought to be done.

The

proportions of theatrical orchestras have been

changed within a few

The new

years.

system of dra-

matic music, by multiplying the brass instruments, has

rendered the stringed instruments particularly the

vio-

Without speaking of the orchestras


of the provincial cities, this want of proportion is parlins,

too weak.

remarked

ticularly to be

where

Opera,

eight

at

first

the theatre of the

Comic

eight second violins

.and

cannot maintain themselves against two


oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons,

four

thites,

two

horns,

two

trumpets, three trombones, and the kettle drums.

Whatever we may
and varied

do, the most

effects will

ments played with the how.


ing the use of the others.

music, and

it

cannot

rigorous, brilliant,

always be found

in

the instru-

am far from condemnThey serve to color the


I

he denied, that, in spite of

all

the genius of the ancient composers, the want of these

resources

is

perceptible

WOrka are rich


in

cffr<-t<.

Let

therefore, the

posers

hut

in

ii-

not

is

not

and

let

US

show

that

in

Their

melody, hut poor

from the orcfo

banish

new means which

augment the number oC the


It

Onmpoeitions,

in their

invention

it

are
is

offered to

com-

indispensable to

violins, altos,

and b

merely when they are accompanied by the

whole mass of wind and brass instruments, and those


of percussion, that the others appear feeble; but the

CHAP.

XV1I/.

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

impression which

when

it

is left

upon the ear by

2G1

all

this noise,

ceases, diminishes the effect of the stringed

instruments.

The pianos

appear meagre and deprived

of tone, after the formidable fortes of the wh<

Twenty-tour

chestra.

violins,

ten violoncellos, and eight


rv to preserve the

eight

Good

le or-

altos

contrebassos, arc nee

equilibrium with

above enumerated.

violas or

all

the instruments

proportions in the Btrength

of sound of the different parts of an orchestra are

in-

dispensable to the production of satisfactory effects of


execution.

There are too frequently two directions given


execution,

when masses of

orchestra, particularly at

more

difficult,

to the

voices are united to the

the

theatres.

Nothing

is

nor more rare, than a unity of feeling

between the singers and the orchestral performers, es


pecially in France,

an

air or a duet, is

cessory of

little

where every thing, which

no/

is

considered by the actors as an ac

importance.

The

conscience of the

leader of the orchestra, his love for the art, and his
skill,

are sacrificed to this prejudice of the actors.

vain Joes he attempt to

communicate the

animates him to the musicians

whom

feeling

In

which

he directs

in

vain does he desire to obtain shades and gradations of

piano, of forte, of crescendo, of diminuendo

the dis-

traction of the singers, their coldness, and their carelessness, oppose

quality

his efforts,

produce

at

once an

ine-

between them and the orchestra, and end

in

disorder and indifference.

But what results are to be expected, when those,

262

PAKT

EXECUTION.

who

III

unite in the performance of a piece, are not ani-

mated by the same

spirit

The

indifference, the at-

tention, or the enthusiasm, of the

nicates itself to the public, and


or

attentive,

commu-

performers

makes them

enthusiastic; for there

is

indifferent,

a reciprocal

action of the audience upon the artists, and of the art-

upon the audience, which creates the charm

ists

How

the torment of both.

often does

it

happen

or

tint

a virtuoso, by a happy and unexpected tone, attracts


a

sudden burst of applause from

himself, as

it

audience, feels

his

were, transported into a new* sphere, by

the effect which he produces, and discovers in himself

new

resources, which he had

It is

upon these occasions that music

to

which we owe the most

apart

from

becomes
it

is

this

When

a torment.

livelj

insupportable, and one

is

a divine

say

It

music does not move


is

art,

enjoyments; but

What do

nothing.

is

it

not before suspected

tempted to say,

us,

like

Que wc vaii-tu? (What


Let those who desire to obtain

Fontenelle to the sonata,

do you want of me?)


BUCCess,

and

whose laudable ambition seeks

above the crowd, be themselves

convinced,

would convince others; be themselves moved,


would move; and be persuaded

that

to rise
if

thev

if

they

no one has

excited in another impressions which he did not himself feel.


\

linger

may

obtain applause in an

or ballad, simply by his skill

of Binging, or

by

pieces of harmony

tlu>
it

is

in

air,

cavatina.

the mechanical part

beauty k^ his \oicc;


quite otherwise.

but

in

In the latter.

203

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

CHAP. XVIII.

each performer loses the right of fixing the attention

upon himself exclusively, and concurs

in transferring

which becomes the principal object:


th individuals are effaced, that the whole may be
it

to the music,

seen, and that which

former

is

gained

harmony

a piece of

is

lost

by each particular per-

The

for the Whole.

What

unity of measure.

qualities of

first

are absolute precision of tone and


I

call

measure

not what

is

complimented with that name,

that

is

ordinarily

is,

a sort of near approach to jt, with

which perform-

come

together at the

ers are content, provided they

beats of the time,

but

a perfect feeling of time and

of rhythm, which reaches even to the smallest di-

and to the very shortest durations, without

visions,

diminishing the warmth or the freedom of the perPrecision

former.

is

commonly regulated

orchestra by careful tuning; but,


voices,

it

liable to

is

in

in

the

a collection of

be compromised every instant,

and almost with every note.

Nothing

more rare

is

than to hear a piece of harmony executed, without


leaving any thing to be desired in this respect.

number of performers, the more

greater the

of precision

is

to

be apprehended.

In choruses,

almost a permanent defect, especially

at

The
want
it

is

the theatre.

are

some exceptions, however, by which we

may judge

of the effect, which choruses would pro-

There
duce,

if

cite, as

We

they were always well performed.

examples, the choruses in Moses,

at

its

may
firs/

representations, those in Masaniello, in William Till,

and some of those that are suns

at the Italian

Theatre.

2G4

At

PART

EXECUTION.

Comic Opera, there is neither


among the chorus singers.

the

care, precision,

nor unity,

In the Royal

of religious music, directed

Institution

we have heard choruses which

III

by CI

sometii

perfection.

The
in

proportions which ought to be given to

choirs, have

chapel-masters.

number, nearly the same with


that the proportions

In the ancient system,

have been divided as follows:


or soprani

tenors;

2, ten high

to

that of our theatres

required to be given in

are

choir of sixty voices.

suppose

will

to

easy to see that they

It is

infinitely in size.

v<

many
may vary
take a mean

been an object of research

would

it

twenty-four treble,

!,

counters, or altos; 3, twelve

But the

and, 4, fourteen basses.

the high counter voice, which

is

only

rai

of the

a variety

tenor, has, for twenty-five years, produced remarkable

changes
the

the

in

arrangement of choirs,

high counter,

the second

treble

[nstead

of

voire, formerly

called mezzo soprano or contra/to, has been introduced.

Rossini and

all

his

imitators have divided the tenor

part into two, so that


in five

parts:

the choruses are

all

the result

which

o\'

is,

too

portion^ being divided

into

contrary has taken place


the

necessity

increasing

-hem

to

the
.e

weak

in

of forming

number

two

in

it

written

has been
I

the ancient proparts.

distinct

regard to the
a

now

number of

found necessary to increase the

who would have been

that

contralto

The

ti

part,

without

iA

voices,

in

order to adapt

pecuniary resources of the theatres, hai

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

CHAP. XVIII.
diminished

the

Dumber of

trebles,

lished the following proportion:

soprani; 2, twelve contralti;

5,

1,

266

and has estab-

sixteen

ten

first

ten second tenors; and, 5, twelve basses.

supposed that this

to be

much

of voices has

may happen

It

is

not

Generally speaking, the

for this

the weakest.

whose voice

particular singer,

drown

or that the basses

latter, that is, the basses, are

may make up

is

influence upon their proportions.

sound of the tenors.

It

invariable, as the quality

that the trebles, or the tenors, are too

brilliant for the contralti,

the

or

treble-

tenors; 4,

is

of feeble quality,

disadvantage, in an air or duet,

by the excellence of his style and his taste; but

in

chorus,

nothing can

voices.

With feeble voices, no effect can be hoped


the Comic Opera, for example, Ponchard

for.

and

At

Madame Rigaut
style,

taste,

them

in

their

voices

in

supply the place

and

airs,

are

brilliant

whose

singers,

vocalization,

distinguish

romances, cavatinas, and duets


are

wanting

pieces of harmony.

the Opera; but upon

in

but

penetration and force

This kind of pieces always

produces the greatest effect

excellent

of sonorous

at

the Italian Theatre or

majority of the other lyric

of France, they constitute the weakest part of

the performance.

withstanding

made among

us for

the

preserved something of
1

progress

some
its

which

music has

years, the public has


taste for the

song;

still

for the

rench are naturally more of song singers than mu-

sicians

The

rondeaus, romances, and couplets, are

266

PART

EXECUTION.

III.

the most applauded parts at the performance in our

comic operas; and

this

taste

cause and the effect of the

Accustomed

pointed out.

they never think of what

is

once,

at

is,

evil

the

botli

which has

just

been

to these small proportions,

elevated in the

meanness of a composition draws after


ent and mean performance; and the

it

The

arts.

an indiffer-

latter

prevents

the growth of the musical intelligence of the public.

There is no doubt that this


French comic opera. It

is

the

which

ought to hold

it

certain point
ariett

or

is still

and

>):

shall

sestette,

system, which to a

sung,

<i

quintette,

be substituted, like those which

Barber of'Seville, CinLadra, and which our actors

have learned to sing with the unity,

shall

[camedk

effect in the

La Gazza

derilla, or

its

that of the ballad opera

until, lor an vir well

produce so much

defect of

never take the rank

musical art until there

in the

be a complete reform of

shall

the radical

will

life,

and care,

Such a reform has taken place at the


Opera and we may judge, by the good which has followed from it, of what might be effected at the Comic
of the Italians.
;

)|>era.

There

are excellent orchestras in Prance, snd there

might be

still

In

the

more, with the elements which we

The

and vigor.

former

unrivalled, especially in

life

sometimes seduces them

to gi?e too great a degr<

rapidity

the

to

qnick movements, which

perfection o( the details:

fault,

which

it

|>o<-

symphony, the French musician are

is

but

is

injurious

to

they redeem this

ea-y to correct, by so

many good

qua)-

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

ll.ir. XVIII.

they have not the less a right to occupy the

Ities, that

place

first

among

Tlie reputation acquired by

composed of the pupils of the Conser-

thf orchestra,

vatory, in

the exercises of that establishment,

known.

The

others

become

.superiority of this orchestra over


still

more indisputable

due

in

to the rare talent of

best director of concerts that

\\<11

ia

the

all

new

the

This superiority

concerts of the royal school.


cipally

when

the Bymphonists of Europe,

they are well directed.

is

267

is

prin-

Mr. Habeneck, the

perhaps ever existed.

In regard to the accompaniment of vocal music,


formerly
and, in

made

against

general,

it

a reproach against this orchestra,

the

all

French

orche.-trus,

that they played too loud, and neglected the gradations.

This reproach

is

no longer merited

and there

some years, a remarkable delicacy


in the manner of accompanying by the orchestras of
the Opera and the Royal School of Music.
That of
h

is

even been,

for

the Italian Theatre has lost,

it is

lightness and unity; but this

circumstances, which

and which

it

is

is

true,

something of

its

the result of peculiar

may disappear

at

any moment,

useless to inquire into here, because

they have no relation to the actual state of the

art.

In according to the orchestras which have just been

mentioned
effect

tint there
Ct,

Jieir

a just

eulogium,

in

of their performance,
is

a great

fmrtii are but rarely

regard to the general

cannot be disguised

number of gradations which they

and which would add

performances.

it

much

to the effect of

For example, the pianos and


the maximum of what those gra

268

PART

EXECUTION.

dations ought to be

and the

last

the

are not sufficiently soft,

first

When

not sufficiently loud.

from the one to the other of these

up by

effects

the p
not

it

ordinarily

filled

is

much

be

a crescendo t their succession should

more abrupt than

which cannot take

is,

place, but by carrying the character of each of

The

to a high degree.

The

ciently gradual manner.


is

of elfect

fails

so that nothing

it

is

sometimes

happens

the

that

unequally, and without concert.

fects

may

also

be observed

good leader may avoid them.

in

the

are sure guides for the musicians.


less

his intelligence, und his

knowledge.

is

Paul

For example,

Every thing de-

though

in

is

the

and rarely give

it

is

it

movements which

lively, a crotchet followed

performed as

vet the difference

effect,

decreseendo.

sensibility of his organs,

real value of the DOtes,

written.

somewhat
is

is

these de-

that the performers generally pay little atten-

to the

it

ami

crescendo

All

certain natural indifference (nonchalance)

reason

are

delayed,
obtained,

is

His gestures and looks

pends on the greater or

as

is

it

and unsatisfactory; and,

v;i_nie

made

tion

suffi-

becomes weak-

other times,

at

more than a demicreseendo

the effect of which

to be

in

swelling of the Bound

frequently hurried, so that the end

finally,

much

because they are not executed

ened, and

them

crescendo and the dcercscendo

are also gradations which frequently leave


desired,

III

by

crotchet

minim by many musicians;

is

reiy observable in regard to

indifferent

of this description

in

regard

are multiplied

to

to

time.

infinity,

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

CHAP. Will.

and

account

little

is

made of them;

to injure the neatness of the effect

2()9

but they

much

i!o

upon the audience.

In order to feel the necessity of avoiding them, the

performers ought to

upon

that they

recollect

are called

any

to give the intention of the author, without

Exactness

modification.

The

not only a duty, but

is

it

means of contributing, each,

also a very convenient


in so far as

is

concerns himself, to a perfect execution.

French

traditions of the

fine

school

violin

have given birth to a kind of beauty of execution

which was formerly unknown

mean the regularity


we now observe

of the movements of the bow, which

among

who play the same part. This reguamong twenty violinists, who are

those

all

such, that,

larity is

playing the same passage, there


difference in

the

and pushed.

If

ists,

we

we

if

The

and ought not

it

tone, according as

The

the screw.
first,

to a

violin-

follow a uniform

move-

marked

public does not observe these things,

to see

without knowing

duced

bows

drawn

is

the drawing and the pushing were

by figures.

vras, at

bow

examine these

attentively

shall see all the

ment, as

not the slightest

is

times in which the

it

them

is

but

the

for

feels the result,

it

bow

gives

different

used near the point or near

choice of the drawn or pushed

an unreflecting instinct;

but

is

now

bow
re-

regular system, by an observation of what

has been found to be good and useful.

There

is

in

rently of small

all

these remarks

importance

but

much

it is

that

is

appa-

upon the more or

270
less

TART

EXECUTION.
scrupulous attention which

given to these

is

III

little

things, that the success of a piece of music, or even

The musician who

of an opera, frequently depends.

loves his art, does not neglect them, because he finds

charm

in

secret of a good execution

music which one plays or

to be

it,

The

them.

in

to love the

occupied with

to the exclusion of every

it

other object, and to be interested in

These things make

conscience.

the true feeling of his vocation.


this sense of

as a matter of

it

may be

It

the sign of

it is

We

it.

which we are placed, and

One who

which we occupy.

but

is

the

position

an

ordinary

scraper in the provinces, becomes a skilful


Paris, from the

als,

and
that

mere

The same

more

that

fact

is

artist

in individu-

An

numerous companies.

in

confide

is

excellent

in

little

it

is

possible to hear.

time

it

to an unskilful

it

at

require

thing which takes place

happens also

chestra

con-

thai of

<1<>

Every thing depends upon the circum-

carelessness.

him.

has

said that

we

tract a habit of scrupulous attention as

stances in

who

the artist

duty does not always accompany talent

however, that

I believe,

is,

sings, to delight

or-

leader,

become one oi" the worst


There is more than one

will

example of metamorphoses of this kind.

One

final

rare tint

which

his

observation

an author

work

is

is

in all

regard to execution.

performed

ilom fully Understood

hear music

in

satisfied

its

and

power.

it

with

the

intentions

his

c^i*
\

is

in

;ir

We

follows thai

When

It

manner

rarely

CHAP Will.

COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE.

~<1

he means that lie is relatively so, and


obtain any thing
in the persuasion that he cannot
however,
inspiration,
of
moments
There are
more.

he

is

satisfied,

the performers go beyond the thought of the


composer; and then music attains the height of ita

when

power.

But such occurrences are very

rare.

272

PART
HOW TO ANALYZE THE

IV.

SENSATIONS PRODUCED Br

MUSIC, IN ORDER TO JUDGE OF

CHAPTER

IT.

XIX.

OF THE PREJUDICES OF THE IGNORANT, AND OT THOS1


OF THE

There
and

is

\KN1.D, IN

Ml <IC.

more than one degree of ignoran


which consists in a repugnance

first,

the most

are horn
tin-

is

Tlie

art.

I.I.

in

ran\

is

it,

who

obscurity, and remote from cities, are in

second degree; their ignorance

their negative relation


rary,

to

Individuals

incurable.

to the

aits

i-

absolute, hut

may he

hut tempo-

and docs not necessariljf suppose an aversion

tor

The third degree belongs to those inhabitants


cities who cannot make a Bingle stop without find-

them.
of

ing themselves io contact with the results of music,

painting, or architecture, hut


Blight

who

give

them only

attention, and observe neither their delect-

their beauties,

from them

The men

though they ultimately come

certain degree of unreflecting

t>

QOI

enjoyment

of the world, and those who are enabled, by

PREJUDICES OP THE IGNORANT.

CHAP. XIX.

273

many

a liberal education and an easy position, to see

paintings, and to hear music frequently,

acquire knowledge;

cisely

do not

ssion of cultivated senses, which, to

point, stand to

them

we except

If

pre-

but, at last, attain to the

in the place of

certain

knowledge.

who

individuals of the second class,

have no opportunities to escape from their absolute


ignorance concerning things which are not connected

we

with their wants,

shall find in the other categories

none but those people who are forward

pronounce

to

upon the sensations which they receive from the


IS if those sensations

as

ought to be the rule

they themselves

if

to explain

and support their opinion.

but they find

Jirectly,

This

is

it

and

possessed the lights necessary

people do not say, This pleases


vir

arts,

for all,

more proper and

good, or,

This

is

Observe that
This displeases

/r, or,

dignified to say

good for nothing.

Even among beings so unhappily organized as to be


insensible to those arts which nature has given us for
none who have not

our enjoyment, there arc


their opinion
thy,

and who do not express

do not deny
something

that

their

incomplete

which are beyond

ordinary state presents

and

humiliating

are sensible to them.

vulgar, they have

also

their opinion,

in

The

delicacy of

ir

ili<

them

fashion.

they

understand

but
for

they

things

comprehension, and even

their

who

They

with confidence.

it

own

avenge themselves by affecting contempt


those persona

also

concerning the objects of their antipa-

only

its

art

As

for

to the

and express

it

never touches

grosser

portions

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

274
For example,

more

is its

in a picture, nearly

in

a statue

what they love

that strikes

them

or less exact imitation of material objects;

what they admire


marble

all

IT.

in

is made of
it
made up of the

that

is,

music

is

We

songs, and the airs for the dance.

scarcely dis-

cuss with these two classes of individuals;

of the world laughs

at the first,

man

the

and disdains the other.

Disputes do not take place except among sensible

and well-bred people, who take their prejudices


and their opinions

their opinions,

He who
name
exists

same

the pain sufficiently informs him of

in

music.

written, nor

It is

how

not necessary to

is

it

composed,

conviction of the pleasure


ness

it

But

causes.

if

medicine, to have seen

and

hospitals,

comparison,

to

it

it

in

know how

it

affords, or

many

resources, the varieties

of the weari-

sick persons, frequented

upon

the

syinpto:

I am

in

oleosa nn

or,

must

ire

^\

art, to
its

have studied

forms, and to

all

As, therefore,
bo

its

know how

of harmony, rhythm, and melody,

defects

/Kiin,

and

their character,

order to be authorized to decide on the mer

composition.

is

not less necessary to have learned the

elements of the musical

to discern

it

have perfected, by observation and

an aptness to detect

is

it

the

order to have a

upon the remedies which should be used,


agree that

It is

it.

the

tli it

be necessary to have studied

diseases, in order to decide

in

know

has lost his health needs not to

or the cause of his disease, to be sure


;

for

for truth.

we ought

// is

we simply
in

disagreeable.

music

say, in
to

d is

of a

PREJUDICES OF THE LEARNED.

CHAP. XIX.

We

should be

upon music

disposed to give ou? opinions

less

decided tone,

in a

if

change them more than once

Show me
ing

man who

the

things to which he

at

first

who,

who

latter

is

for

How many

averse.

were

repelled with horror the brilliant

first,

at

we
life.

first fecl-

one, and

partisans of the works of Gretry

extravagant
there,

was

new

renounce the

to

that

the course of

not given up his

lias

moment ready

not at any

we observed

in

admiration, to yield to a

i4'

Z4&

who

Rossinian innovations, and

afterwards forgot their

and their new antipathies to

ancient predilections

such an extent, as to become the most ardent defend-

new

ers of the

The

follow

it

in

its

are

Besides, education
of hearing

some

How

human
forced

more

as

we do

it

is

things,

wrong

to

be otherwise?

and must

change
g< with them

and our ignorance of others,

we

habitually, since

We

see, there-

manner

so positive

feelings.

to decide in a

to contradict ourselves.
in

it

or less advanced, the habit

must modify opinions and


fore, that

could

perfectibility,

onward progress; things and events

we

and

change,
'&*>

school

belong to

arts

are exposed continually

In general,

we

are too hasty

forming opinions.

The
are no

dices

and the learned in music or painting,


more exempt from prepossessions and preju-

artists,

than

the

ignorant;

only their

prepossessio r s

and prejudices are of another kind.

It

common

serious!}

to

hear musicians maintain

is

but

no
tuat

they alone have the right, not only to judge of music,

but also to receive pleasure from

it.

Strange blind-

2T6
Ill

by limiting

art

power!

its

painting or music be,

if

those arts were only

we had been initiated into


They would hardly deserve

their hieroglyphic
to be studied.

ways, though always vaguely, that this

If

artist.

it

life

were limited

long studies and

its

thing to

mon

feel,

to the

signs

It

in

be-

is

various

art is the

wor-

to interesting only a

its

and another

myste-

happily-constituted

of a

number of persons, what would be


of

not understand, until

cause music acts almost universally, and

occupation of the

to

What, indeed, would

we could

rious language, which

thy

IV.

which makes one believe that he does honor

ss,

his

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

the recompen-e

longer labors

To

to judge.

whole human race;

to

judge

It

feel
is

(me

is
is

com-

the prov-

ince of the skilful.

But the
their

latter

must not persuade themselves that

judgments are always without

self-love,

fault

wounded

opposing interests, enmities, national preju-

dices, and those of education, are causes

which often

exempt

from these

mislead.

weak;;
are

Ignorance
gainst

not

sufficiently

many examples
ought

i^

at

least

which the

arti-ts

on their guard.

and the learned

There

are

sc.

of errors occasioned by them, thai W

always to abstain

from

forming

an opinion,

we have examined our consciences, and separated from our heart and mind ('very thing that might
How many
paralyze the action of the understanding.
until

recantations would this

wisdom have avoided!


There is an intermediate cla>s between the man
who simply abandons himself to sensations purified by

education, and the philosophic

may be

culled the class of

geurs.)

277

PREJUDICE/? OP Tin: LEARNED.

CHAP. XIX.

It is

men of

ordinarily

which

It is that

artist.

the quill

who

under-

take this employment, though they are no more


it,

By the

improved by the habit of hearing or seeing.


assurance

of

throw out

which they every morning

with

musical theories

their

would take them

for

blunders did

tiplied

experienced
not every

the papers, one

in

artists, if their

mul-

moment show

their

ignorance of the end, means, and processes, of the

What

for

fit

any other persons whose senses have been

than

air

(ju-

critics

professional

art.

somewhat pleasant is, that their opinions


have been completely changed within ten years, and
is

language

their

is

as haughty, as if they

France,

had held an

Before Rossini was

invariable doctrine.

before he had obtained

known

in

his great success,

hey were perpetually crying out against science in


music,

that

is

to say, against

brilliancy of instrumentation,

pense
all

el'

the

is

as

many

errors as words.

Now,

changed; the wiseacres of the journals

have taken the music of Rossini

and every one of them has


tific

the ex-

at

melody and of dramatic truth; and upon

this they uttered

every thing

harmony, against that

which shone

set

for

learned music,

about affecting a scien-

language, of which he docs not comprehend a

word.

They speak

orrhestra,

this they build

other days.

of

modulations,

nothing
strettes t

but

&c.

forms of the
and upon all

systems of music as wise as those of

The

only dilTerence I find

Btead of proclaiming the opinions

is,

that,

in-

which they form

ANALYSIS OP 8ENSATKNS

2/8
general

as

make

principles, they

poetry of circumstances which


to cases

and

PART

use of a kind of

they apply according

and b\ means

individuals,

treds, or

favorable

or the reverse,

judgments already buried


should compare

all

that

is

in

all

written upon a

hor

fool

is

To

to attach

is

the fine arts.

so

is

Thia

if

he

is

is

mania
will-

is

seen

in

and especially

In the ordinary conversation of

which are uttered upon these subjects

do no great harm, because words


leave

once,

ignorant of

the sciences,

politics, in literature, in

ety, the follies

at

whole world, because do one

ignorant of any thing.

ing to appear

in

approves the other

any importance to such none

speak of what one


affects the

in

both

find

versa; so that the self-love of an

always gratified and wounded

enough

which

vice

we

if

new work,

we should

What one

questions.

condemns, and

influence

ignorance, that,

the daily or periodical publications,


sides of

which

solicitations, ha-

much

compliments, have so

<

But pi

they think to escape self-contradiction.


sessions,

IV.

are

fugitive,

and

no traces; but the newspapers have acquired

much

influence over ideas

o\"

every kind, tint the

blunders which they contain are not without danger


they give BO

much

the

more of

wrong

direction

t<

Dpinion, as the majority of the idle believe them blindly

and

as they circulate

ted,

however,

been
for

fell

every where.

that, for

some time,

It

must

periodical

works

among
to

those

speak

admit\

^^ apportioning the preparation

knowledge enables them

l>e

th
<>(

has

articles

whose peculiar
properly o( their

CHAP. XX
subjects; and

world

279

POETIC IN MUSIC.
is

it

be observed, therefore, that the

to

acquiring more JUSl ideas, and

is

is

learning to

speak with more propriety.

CHAPTER XX.
OF THE POETIC IN MUSIC.
If there were nothing

more

in

music than a prin-

vague sensation, founded only upon

ciple of

a relation

of propriety between sounds, and having for


result to affect the ear

would be

more or

worthy of the public attention;

little

its

sole

less agreeably, this art


for, its

object being merely to gratify one of the senses,

it

would not deserve any more consideration than the


culinary

There would,

art.

in fact,

ence between the merit of


cook.
is

But

it is

not

it

It is

so.

be but

little differ-

musician and that of a


not the ear alone which

If music unites certain quali-

affected by music.

ties,

in an indeterminate manner
more powerfully than painting, sculpture,

produces emotion,

indeed, but

or any other art.


It

must be acknowledged, however, that there was

a time

when

music was

it

was believed

to satisfy the ear.

the revival of the arts.

music of
to the

this period,

that the only object of

That was

the period of

All that remains to us of the

from the middle of the fourteenth

end of the sixteenth century, was evidently com.

280

TAUT

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

posed

even

say?

It

that the musicians then

was not

wrote, but

All their genius exhausted itself in the

the eye.

for

What do

for the ear alone.

for the car

IV.

arrangement of sounds

strange forms, which were

in

perceptible only on paper.

The

masses, and, in

music of these early times

of the

art,

fact, all the

found admirers, nevertheless, because noth-

The

ing better was known.


to be inferred from

At
of

its first

felt

it

was manifested

It

as in vocal music, and

was

It is

said, that

the pretext.

reach

its

its

lie

instrumental as well

especially in the opera.

Airs,
several

o\'

of this pretended dramatic music that

it

was a concert of which the drama wm


The art was improved by it, but did not
it

Though

true object.

the ear, yet, as

one of

in

occupied an entire drama

airs only,

hours.

All kinds

to please the senses.

the influence of this tendency towards

graceful.

and

rules of an art are never

attempts.

subsequent period, music became more ag

and more suited

able,

madrigals, mo:

it

music

this

did nothing more,

p]

performed only

it

functions.

In the second half of the eighteenth century,

turned towards truth


quired

that music

was neglected
it

went; but,

in

elocution.

should be

for recitative.
iu

It

was then

This was

seeking to use

this

correctness, they regarded only one

(A"

<uim]

ns fir as

language with
the pow<

music; they neglected the other-, and, instead


eras,

had what they called lyric tragedies.

revolution, the art

re-

language, and Binging

had evidently changed

its

o\

op<

In this

object;

it

281

POETIC IN MUSIC.

CHAP. XX.

could no longer be said to be the

of pleasing the

art

was settled that it should be that of pleasing


mind for the fundamental principle of the new

ear;
the

it

and

Bjstem,
tion,

was

the

answer

constant

truth.

Now,

it

objec-

every

to

evident that truth does

is

The mind alone enjoys


this system into
brought
who
Happily, Gluck,
it.
a philosopher
genius
than
man
of
was
rather
a
vogue,
not address itself to the ear.

and, in seeking for this truth, which

The

of the heart.

is

which

the mind, he found expression,

a pleasure of

a pleasure

is

advanced nearer

art thus

to

its

object.

When

people had once determined that truth was

the principle of music, as of

all

the other arts, they

Music

wished always to be true.

is

capable

of

imitating certain effects, such as the motion of the

waves, a tempest, the singing of birds, &,c.

from thence concluded that


but

tive;

tation

and

is

was

was not observed that

it

It

was

essentially imita-

this faculty

merely a specimen of one of

was not remarked that

it

when

it

it

was more

of imi-

functions;

its

satisfactory

expresses passion, grief, joy, or, in a word,

it

Thousands of examples
it was an art of expresevery one made it what he

any of our various emotions.

might have demonstrated that


sion

but, instead of this,

wished

it

to be.

Expression,

in its

most extended sense,

is

the pre

senting of the simple or complex ideas of the mind, or


the affections of the heart, in a sensible form.
is

Music

hardly susceptible of any thing more than the com-

282

ANALYSTS OF SENSATIONS.

munication of the
ed

When

it

it is

not absolutely limit-

is

it

shall see hereafter.

music expresses the affections

said that

is

of the heart,

but

latter;

them, as we

i'

not pretended

that

is

it

capable of

rendering an account of what such or such an individual experiences

it

in the hearer, creates

does more
will

at

or of joy, and exercises over

power, by means of which

him

art

it is

is

also the art of

expresses only bo

It

touches, and this distinguishes


is

sai

of magnetic

a sort

Music, therefore,

of expression;

producing emotions.

em

excites

places him in relation

it

with external sensible objects.

not merely an

it

impressions of

it

from language, which

Th

capable of expression only to the mind.

tinction shows the error of those who have thou


a

mode of speech analogous

to other langUl

Music excites emotion independently of

Words and

aid.

gestures add nothing to

they only enlighten the mind,

of

expression.

its

know

in

all

foreign

its

power

regard to the object

which musi-

that the force

receives from a neat and well-articula-

cal expression

ted pronunciation of the words, will be urged against

me

as an objection;

but

we must make

If the question be i^ a

which paints

Bation, the tone

pronunciation
.

>n,

therefore
not

which

vivid

a distinction.

word, or of an exclam

sentiment

<>r

which the singer infuses

becomes

suffices to

weakens the

bo organized

rery

move

effect

as to

active

ition

profound >euinto

by

it

ms

me
which

the hearer, and

of the music

for

we

receive several sensati

arc
I

TIIAP

once through the same sense


produced

2S3

POETIC IN MUSIC.

XX.

but

in us,

power of words

music

in

one

is

is

music, has not

deep

The

as a foundation for the

object one of those strong and

for its

by a few words,

feelings, portrayed

supremacy

latter al-

in the repeats.

which serves

a long description,

in

an alternate predom-

inance of the words and of the music.

If the poetry,

This

especially observable

the recitative; in which there

most always prevails

cannot be

effect

the expense of another.

at

then the music

then, as

if it

requires

restored to

is

its

have said, the words are of no


as the

mind

conceives them, the words become useless, so

far as

concerned, and serve only to

facili-

use but to convey the ideas.

the expression

is

The music

of the voice.

tate the articulation

dominates, and

As soon

pre-

succession of syllables which

that

strikes the air without affecting the hearer,

is

no longer

This demonstrates that the reproach some-

heard.

times brought against composers, that they repeat the

words too

through

when

often, is not well founded,

of the repetition
all

is

to

the purpose

give the music time to pass

degrees of passion, which

the

portant point.

must be remarked

It

is

the im-

that, in speak-

ing of the effect of music upon the hearer, in such


cases, I take

it

for

granted that his senses are

suffi-

comprehend the intentions of the


convey them to Ins mind.

ciently cultivated to

composer, and to

From
The firsl
sion

of

all
i-.

this several

tint

what

the words,

is

is

inferences

commonly

may be drawn.

called

the expres-

not the essential cbject of music

284

To

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.
explain

mouth of

which the

that

lyric poet puts

drama

the personages of his

IV

into the

the exhibition

is

of one of two tiling which they experience, namely


either these personages are

passion which

is

under the influence of

be shared by the audience, or they

to

are in danger, and the audience

In both cases,

their fate.

emotion

and, of

enough

it is

The words

be interested

to

in

the most pow-

is

lend

only

it

a fee-

they enable the audience to

if

understand the situations.

on the contrary, the

If,

mixed kind, which, without being

feeling be of a
inert,

is

necessary to produce

it is

the arts, music

all

erful for that purpose.

ble aid

not a strong emotion, the music corre-

is still

sponds with

by the ajreeableness of

it,

airs of

no deci-

ded character, by the richness of the accompaniment,


or by the novelty of the

sensations rather thin


action of the words

harmony,

emotions.

more

is still

which produce

all

In

this

case, the

Finally,

feeble.

if

it

be required that the music should be the interpreter


of witticisms, pleasantries, and
once, that
If the

musician wishes

of the poet,
that

for

to

is

mam:

such

purpose.

bring out any such thoughts

must place himself

lie

it

for

in the

background

purpose, and so immediately becomes feeble

and constrained;
forward, he
I

j<>ke<.

completely unsuited

is

it

is

if

he persists

in

bringing

himself

out of place.

foresee objections, for

received notions.

all

this

i-

not accord

Let us attempt to meet and an-wer

them.

"Gretry,"

it

will

he gid, "the idol of the French,

CHAP.

POETIC

XX.

'285

MUSIC.

I\

this very

during nearly sixty years, shone precisely by

which you refuse

faculty

to his art,

He

RxpressioD to the words.


talent into his

and

is

it

by

that of giving

frequently puts

music than the poet docs into

We

more

his verse

he has obtained BUch

this very thing that

a brilliant reputation."
try,

must

distinguish.

Grc-

though a feeble harmonist and an ordinary musi-

cian,

a talent for the inven-

had received from nature

much

happy melodies,

tion of

musical sensibility, and

Those
his books seem to indicate.
works which have survived him, and which the

more mind than


of his

connoisseurs will
the

art

admire,

still

and fashion

shall

when

the progress of

have forever banished his

Operas from the stage, are his melodies, the true inspirations of a creative instinct,

which enabled him

As

passion.

to discover

to the talent,

and that sensibility


tone of every

the

which he piqued himself

upon possessing, and which consisted in giving point


to a word, in seeking comic inflections, in sacrificing
the musical phrase or period to the rapidity of the dia-

logue,

certain

this

perhaps

system,

may be something

but

it

is

not

music.

very good in a
It

formerly

French audiences, who desired nothing


but the vaudeville in their comic operas, and whose
pleased the

Benses were not trained to the understanding of any


thing else; but, even at the epoch when Gretry wrote,
the other nations of

an end more

Europe had begun

and to weaken the one, to attain the


*

You

Talk

to see in

music

noble than to bind one's self to words,

too

much

for a

level of the other.

man who

sings,

and you

286

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

much

s'mg too

for a

man who

PART

talks," said Julius Cae-

sar to a certain professor of declamation,


to

make music

cism

serve as an aid to speech.

applicable to

is

those musicians

all

IV

who

desired

This

criti-

who have had

the weakness to suffer themselves to he governed by

men

who were jealous of the glory of their


who thought that their verses were the

of letters,

couplets, and

most important part of an opera.

Not

we ought

that

from words de-

to banish talent

signed for music, nor even from the work of the mu-

The

sician.

best Italian,

German, and French op-

eras furnish passages in which the musical intonation

happily seconds the words.


tint

it

It is

enough

to recollect

not the essential object of the music.

is

sides, these passages, in


effect with the

The musician

Be-

which the music divides the

words, arc always of short duration.


never makes

the poet

shine, without

turning attention from his music.


It

will

be objected against me, also, that there are

many comic

which the hurried articulation

pieces, in

of the words produces

be objected

prevented

men

effect

Italian

to be

Stirring,

ceived.

ideas

is

In
less

and

it

ma]

which have

n-.t

examined.

comic operas are

which are called note end word, the


lively.

of genius from making hhh\ music.

These objections deserve

The

good

that there are narratives

and witty;

but

filled

with

elicit of

we must

pieces

which

n<>t

is

be de-

these pieces, the quality oC the musical

important than the rhythm.

M' Pioravanti are

full

The works

of these things, which are per-

287

POETIC IN MUSIC.

though the thoughts of the musician are

feet in effect,

commonplace.

The

reason

excellent.

This rhythm

The more

or less

is,

rhythm

that their

that we

is all

remark

in

ia

them.

comic arrangement of the words

afterwards draws the attention, and finally

we hardly

think of the music, which becomes nothing more than


a

Observe, besides, that the accent

mere accessory.

and comic action of the performer are of much effect


All this is good in its place; but,
in these pieces.
yet again, the

As
first,

music only plays a secondary


are of

to narratives, they

part.

two kinds.

In the

the composer, in order to put no obstacle in the

way of

avoids giving

of the words,

the articulation

the melodious phrase to the voice, throws the interest

nto the orchestra upon

theme, and

appropriate

an

jives to the voice only an

almost monotonous utter-

ance, which permits what the actor says to be distinctly heard.

In this case, the effect

recrurd to those of the hearers,

and their attention


the music

is

complex,

is

whose ear

is

in

cultivated,

divided between the play and

the others hear only the words, and

little

or nothing of the music.

The

other

manner of

treating narration consists in

taking nothing of a subject but

character, as gay

its

or sad, tranquil or animated, and in

making

a piece

of music in which the words hive only a secondary


place, whilst the attention

musician.
ti,

in the

Such

is

is

drawn

the admirable

work of the
Pria chc Spun-

to the

air,

Matrimonii) Stgrtto.

In whatever manner

we may regard

the union of

238

ANALYSIS OP SENSATIONS.

words and music,


from

the music

words, or the words govern the music.

ro

governs the

There can be

between them, unless they are

division

possible

IV.

we cannot escape

that

clear

it is

alternative: either

this

TART

both so feeble that we are as indifferent to the one as

The music which produces emotion

to the other.

when

expresses situations, and not words; and,

the

obtrude themselves, the music becomes a mere

latter

accessory

moved

continually

sary, and. especially, variety in our

rept se

to

he

neces-

is

mode of being.

power of exciting emo-

better proves the

which music

tion,

toman

not given

is

it

emotions weary,

in the

Both are good, when

engaged.

is

properly employed; for

Nothing

moved

in the first case, the soul is

mind

other, the

of the

independently

-.

words, than the effects produced by instrumental music.

Its effects are felt only

well

educated; but

proposition, for

Who

there,

this

by those

we have no

however

who have been

proves nothing
ideas but

by

the

against

education.

initiated in this

;irt.

that

his not been moved by the impassioned tones of

Mo-

is

zart's

symphony

little

Who

G mimr?

in

elevation of soul by the grandeur of the

hoven's Bymphony

But,

it

will

vague, and

and

it

much
is,

C minor 1

in

examples might be

lar

the

is

less

march

felt

an

in

Beet-

Thousands of

simi-

cited.

be said, the nature of these cmoti-

has no

precisely

effect

has not

upon
the

determinate object
that

for

us.

mind

is

reason

The

less

Don!

that they

evident the object

occupied, the more

tl

:il

is

U\ XX.

IN

POF.i 'IC

moved;

for

2S9

Ml BIC.

nothing distracts

from what

it

ex-

it

Our perceptions are weakened by their


multiplicity.
They are the more sensible, as they
periences.

are simple.

Let us lay aside the habit of comparing those things

which have no analogy, and of thinking that all the


Poetry
arts produce their effect in the same manner.
always has an object upon which the mind seizes bePainting has no effect ex-

fore the heart

is

moved.

cept so far as

it

presents to us with truth the scenes

or the objects

which

addresses

itself

nothing of
is

all

this

seeks to reproduce, and as

it

our

to

from music

let

enough.

By what means?

It is

know

it

require

excite us, and

it

But upon what subject?

sequence.

We

convictions.

it

of no con-

not; and, fur-

ther, I care not.

Will

be said that this

it

mere pleasure of the


would be a mistake;

which has

art

senses,

for

would be reduced
if

it

like the passion of love,

it is

a moral as well as a physical effect.

often been attempted to

to a

This

were so?

compare music

to

has

It

something

but nobody has thought of the only passion, the symp-

toms and
music.

effects of

which are analogous

Like the passion of

tuous sweets,

its

and

its

to those of

music has

explosions,

passionate

grief, its exaltation,

Facruenesy,

love,

vagueness,

its

its

From

address itself to the mind,

it

imited to satisfving the ear

19

the fact that

idea, but

it

docs not

does not follow that


;

for

its

that delicious

which presents no determinate

which excludes none.

volup-

joy,

the ear

is

it is

only

its

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

290

organ, and the soul

Music

object.

is its

means of expressing

the

itself,

this,

all

words

for the

is

informed, the music suffices,

The

time

in

to enlighten the hearer;


for

Music, are

lie

produces emo-

seeking the boundaries of shades which

in

his

it

is

which

All the counsels

Gretry has given in this respect,

Essays on

illusory.

principles of the poetry and of the philosophy

of music are very

clearness

much bound

and more

to apprehend,

we

it

It

as soon as

musician, therefore, ought not to lose his

not in his power to express.

The

tones

it-

but they have nothing positive.

is

tion.

by

lias not,

the shades of strong

passion, such as anger, jealousy, or despair

partake of

IV

together, very difficult

difficult still

with

to present

manner we consider them,

but, in whatever

-hall arrive at this conclusion,

that music

is

nei-

ther an art of imitation, nor a language, but the art (^

expressing, or rather of producing, emotion.

This being established,

become- evident

it

that

the

enthusiasts of such or such a manner, of such or such


a

school, of such or such

persons express

means, or
are BO

for

many

the actiou

errors, by

iA'

the

it

r
<_

art,

was necessary

for

harmony,

simple

for

and multiplied modulations,

which they undertake


which has need of

many

rcat

do not comprehend

preferences which certain

melody,

recondite

things, and of a
that

for

a style,

The

the object of music.

to

others.

connect

to limit

these

all

Gluck thought
the

recital;

closely with the airs, that one should scarcely be able


to perceive

where the

latter

commenced.

The

CHAP

Bary result of his system

was

which has perhaps made

his

grow

kind of monotony,

dramatic masterpieces

For some years

prematurely.

old

291

POETIC IN MUSIC.

XX.

been admitted that the effect of pieces

past,

it

has

increased by

is

our perceiving clearly where they begin, because the


attention of the audience

is

greater

from the recitative.

and hence compo-

much as possible
They have done nothing in this,

sers have sought to separate

them

as

but to recommence that which was practised before


the revolution brought about in dramatic music by the

whom

great musician

But from

have mentioned.

mode has changed,

the fact that the

it

not to be

is

supposed that the system of Gluck was positively bad;


for,

except in

its

monotony, there

is

in this

vivacity of expression, the application of

be excellent

in

system

many circumstances, and which

longs to the real domain of the

The

art.

which may
he-

simplicity

of instrumentation has given place to a richness which

sometimes partakes of profusion.


either?

demand

No;

for

simplicity,

Must we condemn

there are certain situations which

and others which require

development of means.

Finally,

all

a greater

the composers of

the ancient school have considered the luxury of

em-

bellishments as destructive of dramatic expression; in


the music of our days, on the contrary, they are multiplied to excess.

The

partisans of the ancient lyric

tragedy declare that this

cause

it

is

last

method

is

ridiculous, be-

frequently in opposition to the sentiments

with which the personages

are

animated

and the

amateurs of the new school consider as Gothic that

292

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

which

not enriched with these brilliant fan;

is

Both are

IV

wrong; the

in the

first,

ln-causc the music

ought to have moments of repose, and cannot always


be expressive or exciting; the others, because there
are situations, in which

ments,

trills,

we cannot employ

embellish-

groups, and cadences, without destroying

every principle of truth.

Rossini,

who

has multiplied

things of this kind in his music beyond any former

knows how

precedent, shows that he

them,

at a

proper time, as particularly

of William Tell.

In a word, to excite emotion or to

please the ear being the object,


it

renounce

to

in the fine trio

all

means of attaining

are good, provided they are properly employed.

do not know any system or any process, which may


not have

its

effect

the advantage which would result

from not rejecting any, would be

which we do not meet with

at

some

ry of the art, because

to obtain

a variety

any epoch of the histo-

particular system always

has the preference, to the exclusion of every Other.


In regard to instrumental music, the course

more extended, because


order to succeed

in

it,

the object

or to judge of

sable to divest one's self of

aversions which have their


dice-.

above

all,

it,

it

is

in

"I
I

" Gii e

Haydn," says

me

a third.

In

indispen-

those inclinations or

source only

be graceful," say other-.

savs another.

tne

all

is still

mure vague,

"It must be scientific," say some.

cy and rapid p

nf

is

our preju"It must,

love brilliandetest thein,''

the judicious and pure music

" No," Bays

fourth, "let

have the penetrating passion o( Mozart

No,

398

POETIC IN MUSIC

(HAP. XX.
indeed," says a

fifth

"

prefer the vigorous originality

What docs

of Beethoven."

mean?

this

all

ing that each of these great

artists,

Is

Bay-

it

opening new

in

paths, has had a greater or less degree of merit than the

And

others?

because there

is

one of them who ap-

peared later than the others, and did things of which


the

want had not before been perceived,

must

it

be

supposed that he alone knew the true object of the art?

Do

you wish

for

You

only one style?

be tired of what was

at first

will very

delightful.

Some

soon
other

novelty will appear, and will displace the object of

your affections
Saturn,
ally

and thus the musical

who devoured

his

own

going towards an object which we

reach,

we

shall

lose,

What
to

extravagance

resemble

In continushall

never

without the power of recovery,

the recollection of the paths which

and

art will

children.

it is

we have

followed.

to believe only in one's self,

imagine that our senses are more improved, or

our judgment more sound, than those of our predeces-

One

sors!

feels, or

judges, differently from another,

Circumstances, education, and, more

and that

is all.

than

prejudices, beset us in every thing that

all,

do, and the results of their action

a superior reason.

which
at the

is

Again,

let

to our taste; let us

we take

for those

we
of

us not reject any thing

make use of

every thing

proper time, and we shall be the richer.

In order to enjoy the beauties which have p


ef fashion, and to feel their merit, let us place

J>ut

ourselves in

the position in

*'hen he wrote his

work

let

which the author was

us recall his predeces ors

294

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

PART

;\.

us represent to ourselves the mind of his contempo-

let

raries,
shall

and forget

an instant our habitual ideas

for

be astonished

becoming sensible

at

we

to things the

we should have been unable to


we were to persist obstinately in taking

merit of which

nize,

for

if

object of comparison the productions which are


in relation with the

advanced

and with

state of the art,

For example,

our inclinations.

we wish

if

to ju<l_rc

of the merit of Haydn, and of what he has done


the progress of music,

Van Malder

first

play a

or Stamitz, or a quartette

Cambini, and we

it

composers make use


to

him

shall >ee in

order, creating, as

come down

us

let

were,
at

all

for

symphony of
of Davaux of

genius of the

tir>t

the resources of which


If we, then,

the present day.

Beethoven,

an

more

in

order to compare him

with the father of symphony, and examine the qualities

which shine

other,

we

shall

Haydn

superior to
is

much

in the

his

works of the one and of the

be convinced that,

inferior

in

the relations

We

and of plan.

Conception

veloping ideas which are


infinite

art,

elegance,

Beethoven

if

neatness of

o\"

Haydn

see

shall

majesty,

the productions of

we

whilst

Beethoven

shall

first

gush which

by means of developments drawn out


frequently

ranee, and end by


i.id

not finished

lose

in

making

their

into

effect

us regret

them sooner.

form,

in

remark

admirable, and ideas which are gigantic, but

fantasy,

de-

ordinary, with

frequently

and making of them miracles

and

is

boldness of his effects, he

lor the

as

in
is

which,
a

the]

that the author

CHAP. XXI.

With

this

in stripping

his exclusive

himself of his prejudices

and the

inclinations;

enjoyments which
change.

*2 (

wise direction of his impressions, every

one may succeed

and

J5

POETIC IN MUSIC.

Enlightened

artists

advantage over people

have one indisputable

in general

that of pleasing

themselves by hearing the music of


of

all

epochs and of

mit only that which

and the

art

procures will gain by the ex-

it

all

is

in

The

prehend any other.

men

of genius

systems, whilst others adfashion, and

seek

first

in

do not comancient

the

music no other qualities than those which belong


essence; but the others, not finding in

its

accustomed sensations, imagine that

them sensations of any kind.

who thus put narrow limits


who do not even attempt to
is

as

Men

it

it

to

their

cannot give

are to be pitied,

to their enjoyments,

and

enlarge their domain.

It

probable that their number will diminish as soon

composers

understand that

shall

all

with

styles,

all

their

means, are good to be employed, and when they

shall

be determined to reproduce in their works the

history of the art.

CHAPTER

XXI.

THE ANALYSIS OF THE SENSATIONS PRODUCED BY

DF

MUSIC.
I

imagine

that,

not studied this

art,

in

music, one

hearing

and who

is

who

ignorant of

its

has
pro-

296

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

more from

cesses, receives nothing

sensation.

For him,

number of

voices, is only

than a simple

it

composed of a great

a choir,

one powerful voice

He

orchestra, one great instrument.

an

hears neither

chords, harmony, nor melody, neither flutes nor


lins

IV.

vii>-

he hears music.

But, as he continues to

The

complicated.
sensibly

at

listen, his

become

sensations

education of his ear goes on

length he distinguishes the

air

in-

from the

accompaniment, and forms notions of melody and


harmony.

If his organization, physical and mental,

is

well adapted to the purpose, he will soon be able to

distinguish the differences in tone of the

composing the orchestra, and


sensations which

which belongs

instruments

recognize,

to

in

the

he receives from the music, that

to the composition,

and that which

the effect of the talent of the performers.

pression of the words,

more

or

less

is

Th

successful, the

dramatic proprieties, and the effects o( rhythm, are


also matters

ions

upon which he

his ear

will

want of precision, or
all

will

learn to form opin-

not remain insensible either to


to a

mistake

in

the time;

but

these things will affect him only by instinct, and

the habit of
er.

Arrived

comparing
this

at

educated persons,

his sensations

point,

whom we

he

carry

mblie

its

artists,

analysis

does

no'

anj

hear

well-

all

meet continually

theatres; for the enlightened public,

reputations of

one with anoth-

be like

will

at

the

which makes the

knows no more, and cannot


farther.

the

In

chords;

harmony,
and

this

phrase

which

represented to

is

manners,
varieties

297

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS.

XXI.

;:IIAP.

accompanied

it

in

different

The

always the same phrase.

is

delicate

of form, which compose a great part of the

merit of a composition, do not exist for this class; so


are less offended than

that, if they

artists

with the

defects of an incorrect composition, they are also less

touched with the beauties of perfection.


any means of going beyond

Is there not, therefore,

this

incomplete perception of the effect of sounds, short

of being initiated into musical science?

make

absolutely necessary to

And'

minute study of the principles and processes of


science, in order to enjoy

speak as an

and

me which

for

this

should answer in the affirmative,

artist, T

say, with pride, that there are certain

music

in

it

If I should

results?

all its

is

and tediously

a long

will

never

be

enjoyments
shared

by

people in general; and I would even maintain that


they are the most vivid,

show
Lr i\c-

ken
the

that superiority

me.

But

to write

it is

in

order that

which

my

not for this that

my book; my

might better

peculiar knowledge

purpose

have underta-

is,

to point out

means of increasing enjoyment, and of directing

the judgment, without the necessity of a loner noviciate,

to

which one rarely has the time and the

go through.

we may,

inclinati< n

Let us see, therefore, by what means

to a certain extent, supply the place of the

experience of the

artist,

and the knowledge of the

professor.

Suppose
music,

is

that ;m

audience, capable of appreciating

assembled

;ii

the representation of

;i

new

298

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

opera; that the

name

of the composer

and that the kind of music


originality, that

would be the

think,

new

composition.

name

of a celebrated

first effect

unknown,

the musical habits of the audience

all

proper way to analyze the

The

is

IV

new, and of such an

is

This, then,

are disturbed.

PART

to inspire

is

confidence, and to give us favorable preposses>i":ieffect, we feel a sort of distrust of an


unknown name; and the first impulse is to condemn
things with which we are not acquainted. We desire
novelty, but we must determine what is new.
We fea

by a contrary

to

compromise ourselves; and

are fewer good things than

condemn,

at

it

of public

something; then,

it

is

think

safer to

it

There

much

is

does not require the an-

and

opinion,

this

all

is

almost certain that beaut

found

well as defects will be

we may

general, there

in

we

than to approve.

first,

security in reputation;

nunciation

as,

bad,

in

work; and thus

the

express opinion-; which will not compromise

Such, one cannot doubt, are the

us for the future.

causes of the premature opinions which are every day

These things

expressed.

The

nature and society.


before

proceeding

to

an

rule to be established

analysis

iA'

which we experience upon hearing


therefore,

to

satisfied tint
at

first.

<li^t

we

The

rust

human

are the results of


first

the

sensations

new work,

is

our prepossessions, and to be

them

rarely escape being deceived by

difficulty

of escaping deception

creased when the ^luc ofmusic

is

hew

lor

rare tint extreme originality ihu^s not offend

it

is
i<

at

in-

\<tv
first

FORMATION OP JUDGMENTS.

CHAP. XXI,

2U9

Let one recall the unfavorable judgmenl which wag

upon the music of the Barbt r of Seville at its


and upon the compositions of

representation,

first

Beethoven when they were heard for the


These examples ought to serve as lessons.

time.

first

We

shall

much when we cease to be precipitate in


opinions
for it costs much less to suspend our

have gained
our

judgment than
often has

errors, only

to take

back what wc have

happened to us

it

to persist

How

said.

manifest

in

because we have avowed them, and

lie-

cause we are interested in them, by an ill-understood


self-love

There

are other reasons,

which ought

to put us

on

our guard against the tendency to preconceived opin-

What music

any thing.

ions, for or against

however good, which has not

lost its

quence of a bad execution?

charm

What

is

in

there,

conse-

insipidity

has

when interpreted by great


comes from the hand of the

not fascinated the senses,


artists?

Music, as

it

mere idea: the performance, good or


bad, makes something or nothing of it.

composer,

It

is

is

also

result

that

every thing

and

in

is

literature,

human

of

nature

going on improving

as in

industry.

to
in

believe

the

arts

Hence we think

ourselves entitled to call in question ancient reputations,

But

and to pronounce

in these strange

erally inclined to

done wrong
times,

in

find opinion upon them.

decisions, in which

we

are gen-

determine that past generations have

admiring the productions of their own

we mike no account of

the difference of

cii

300

PART

ANALYSIS OF BEN8ATION8

IV

cumstances, of the prevalent forms of fashion, nor of


the traditions of execution which are

ourselves

informed,

sufficiently

hearing, in which

We

lost.

we were much more

disposed

look for the ridiculous, than to listen in a true

How

frequent are judgments of this kind

seen a striking example of


tion to the

it

in

our

own

think

imperfect

an

after

We

attention, in the

have

time, in rela-

This

famous llalhlujah Chorus of Handel.

fine piece, after

to

spirit.

having been studied with

a religious

Royal Institution of Classical Music,

directed by Choron, was performed there, with a conviction

which drew

after

which produced the most

Some

dience.

time

that of the public, and

enthusiasm

in tin- au-

same piece was


the Royal School >f Music

after, the

by the Concert Society

One might have

it

lively

at

expected every thing from the choirs

and admirable orchestra of those concerts; but the


majority of the

artists

who composed them, being

exclusive admirers of Beethoven, and of the


school, performed this masterpiece

modern

Handel's under

the influence of unfavorable prepos-e-sions. Mieerimdy

and carelessly.

The work produced no

was

this

settled that

of date, a&

tin

When we

full-bottomed wig

succeed

in

^i'

its

and

effect,

sublime music was as

much

it

out

author.

divesting ourselves

iA'

all

tin 1

weaknesses which mislead our judgment, and injure


our sensations, then will really
of the understanding,

and

in

in

judging of their nature.

examined

will

commence

the action

the analysis of our sensations,

The

first

thing

be the object of the dran

i.

i'.

o be
I

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS

CHAP. XXI.

have said, the matter


subject

overture

is

subject,

all

in

question be an opera.

we may

historical,

is

analogous

if

Whether

every body can decide; whether

The good

is

it

An

may be

overture

made;

for, if

among

union

it is

agreeable
is

the
it

in the ideas.

rich in invention, and

still

be bad-

themselves, they will weary the attention

matter of constant

It is a

experience, that a phrase, whatever


is

a fancy

the abundant ideas have no point of

without charming the ear.

ableness,

is

made

well

it is

the

or bad structure of

depends upon the system which prevails

ly

it

be to judge whether

will

agreeable and well made.

point of difficulty.

If"

whether the

see, at once,

character;

to its

we can do

301

not understood at the

may be

first

its

agree-

hearing.

It is

not until after having been repeated several times, that


it

engraves

ceive

all its

itself

upon the memory, and


But

qualities.

a piece, and if each of

work

the

would be
well

will

if

them

there are

is

great

to

per-

'Besides,

it

and apprehend equally

retain

number of

we

ideas in

repeated several times,

be very long and tiresome.

difficult

that

many

different

phrases.

There

should not be, therefore, more ideas in a piece than


its

dimensions

will

admit

attention of the audience

small

number of

without fatiguing the

whence

follows that a

it

phrases, well arranged and skilfully

brought together, compose


to understand.

of,

On

made and

piece well

the other hand,

if

easy

the principal

ideas of an overture were represented always in the

same mannei such uniformity would beget weariness.

An

overture, .hen, will be well made,

when

the ideas

ANALYSIS

302
(shall

IV.

be successively presented under forms that are

rich ia
shall

TART

bBNSATIONS.

Ol

harmony

instrumentation, and so that they

or

terminate with a brilliant peroration, into which

the composer shall introduce unexpected modulations,

reserved for that

moment

final

he used them

for if

sooner, he would finish more feebly than he

which, in every thing,

contrary to the progr<

is

emotion.

Once informed

of these things,

one has

if

himself the trouble to follow them into their details,


he

will at

readily,

length obtain a habit of distinguishing them

and

get rid

will

brings indecision in
sy for

him

to

its

thenceforward

will

It

form an opinion of

Doubtless, one

sort.

of that vagueness which

train.

can

piece of

tl'is

become capable,

never

without being a profound musician, of distinguishing,

performance, one chord from another; of

in a rapid

perceiving the

been
other

in

advantage which

might have

there

making use of one harmony rather than

in a

particular passage;

ty of certain

of certain

or

ol'

an-

feeling the beau-

movements of harmony, or the r


Long study alone can L ive

others.

the

readiness of perception necessary to enable us to form

opinions of this kind;


sical

positive

The

know

sic.

we may increase our mu-

air, a

not always

The

this

point of

ledge.

pleasure

hearing an

da

but

enjoyments, without attaining to

or

the

indifference

experienced

in

duet, a concerted piece, or a finale,

depend upon the

qualities

dramatic situation has

much

^\'

the

mu-

influence in

FORMATION OP JUDGMENTS.

BIIA1.XXI.
the effect

which

This

pieces produce.

these*

303
effect is

satisfactory or otherwise, according to the congruitj

or incongruity of the music

with the object of the

Thence it happens that certain pieces, which


much pleasure in a parlor, with a simple accom-

scene.
give

paniment of the piano,

;ire

displeasing at the theatre.

The

bad

air,

duct, or any other piece,

may

arise

of an

effect

from the

fact that its character

too

much

it

prolongs

a languishing situation, or, lastly, that the

principal and prominent idea

The

oped.

not anal-

is

ogous with the object of Umj scene, or that

is

not sufficiently devel-

when one wishes

thing to

1x3

done,

to judge of a scenic piece,

is,

therefore, to distinguish

first

between the dramatic merit and that of the music,


properly so called.

good

may

it

place which

be,
it

is

It is true that this

so only as far as

who

suitable to the

occupies; but this settles nothing as to

the merit of the composer


genius,

music, however

it is

for there are

musicians of

are not born to write scenic music, though

they are capable of producing fine things of another


kind; whilst there are others, whose ideas are com-

mon, though they have the perception of scenic proThis distinction is one of the most difficult

priety.

to

make;

for, to attain to

we

impressions by which

persuaded that
hearing.

it

is

it,

we must

resist

impossible to

make

it

it

at a first

Professional musicians, even the most ex-

perienced, are rarely capable of such an

Biases

powerful

are governed, and even be

apparent that

effort.

we should preserve

This

ourselves

from those precipitate judgments which self-love


quently induces us to form.

fre-

304

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

When

have become able to distinguish that

v e

which

relates to the scenic

music

itself,

men

from that of the

we must then proceed,

examination of the

fore see, in the

Variety, like

many

ways.

It

is

The

is

order,

in

must there-

ire

this

monotony, may

is

exist

in

provided
great

especially observable in the

airs

one

qualities,

its

and

variety,

place, whether

first

for.

Among

latter.

of the most important

of pieces.

1?

rm

of an opera, for example, as we

have already seen, may be presented under the form


of rondeau; of cavatiua, or

without repetition

air

an air in a single movement, or in two or three

ternately lively and slow; or, lastly, in the shape

the

romance

or simple couplet.

at least, the greater part

If

all

these form-.

of them, are presented

course of an opera, we

i^(
<>r,

in the

without noticing the

feel,

cause, the effect of this variety

of
al-

hut if the

same forms

are cont nuallv reproduced, like the airs in three move-

ments

most of the modern Italian operas, or the

in

couplets and romances


ras, the

many

in

inevitable effect will

oi'

the

French ope-

he monotony, and cun-

sequen'.ly disgust

he

w.ll

It

still

the form of airs;


id<

acter
if

itl

is

if

worse

if

and,

in

the

duets are divided into


it*

the nature o( the

Bimilar, if the melodies are

of a uniform char-

the

means

o\'

-mentation, are

weariness

will

Bhort,

modulation, of harmony, or

analogous

in

their

doubtless be the result o(

o\"

character,

composition,

eac\i part of which, considered by itself, might, never-

thders, be worthy of praise.

This

effect

is

more

en

m*

mon

than

is

In

There

generally supposed.

tudes of pretty

perfoimed

305

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS.

(HAP. XXI.

airs,

are multi-

which have been BUCCessful when

themselves, and which lose their whole

effect at the theatre,

on account of

to other pieces of the

same

kind.

their

resemblance

Next

to the

exam-

ination of the dramatic proprieties, that of the variety

or resemblance of the

most necessary,

in

forms

is;

one of the

therefore,

order to judge of the merit of a

composition.

The melodious

qualities of an air or of a duet, like

those which relate to dramatic conception, belong to


the

domain of genius, and are subject

to

no laws but

those of pleasing or exciting; provided that the rhythm

and the regular measurement of the phrases be constructed according to rule, the rest

is

the department

of fancy, and cannot be limited by any authority whatr

soever.
tion to
to

ne less the work of the musician has rela-

what has been previously done, the nearer

the end which he seeks

please every body, for there

joyed this advantage;

but.

attain.

to
is

no

artist

no one has

tarily

we

on hearing a melody.

call the

who

has en-

is felt

for his

are pleased or displeased involun-

There

sure sign of the goodness of a melody


bation of the

is

cannot

a right to dis-

cuss the inclination or aversion which


productions, for

it

He

crreater

is,

however, a

it is

the appro-

number, which we commonly

general approbation.

do not mean by

this

the suffrages of the frequenters of a particular theatre,


the inhabitants of a particular city, or of a certain

country, but those of

20

all

polished nations, sanctioned

200

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

given to ordinary things, and

always

much

with

sense that

this

in

is

is

right.

of music

that

one who has

is,

which

relation to this art but by the sensations

procures him
to

it

justice, that the public opinion

The mere amateur


no

IV

This kind of approbation has never been

by time.

.ve say,

TART

deficient in the

is

it

knowledge neo

determine whether the invention of certain melo-

dies belongs to the author of an opera in which they

occur, or whether they are only a plagiarism


is

a research with

self.

but this

which he scarcely need trouble him-

Plagiarisms are of two kinds: the

tir.-t

consists

which the author

of those vulgar reminiscences, in

reproduces, without shame, what twenty others have

done before him, without giving himself the trouble,


or perhaps without being able, to disguise his
nies.

Public contempt

is

commonly

these things, and the utter oblivion

speedily

the just

is

fall

The

it

with so

other kind of plagiarism

is

from forgotten Works, and

useful, by

animating them as

thing which

it

touches.

the pedants, never

tail

The
to

It

consists

animates every

learned, or.

if

you please,

discover the sources from

whence they

are

drawn, and

ace trdingl)

but

the

con-

art

in

(.renins

little

one which

may be enmaking them

taking good things, with which the

riched,

iA"

which they

into

the greatest geniuses have not disdained.


in

irce-

punishment o( those who de-

spise their art sufficiently to treat

science.

reward

the

public

to

make

care

great

DoisC

nothing about

it,

provided they are amused; and the public are right

We

have

which nothing

clothed in a

effects;

who wishes
them more

give

torture

would disturb

his

may

say, an

ama-

only to

therefore do well not to

discover resemblances, which

to

enjoyment

end by making him

One

the learned

activity, will

brain

his

be

from shipwreck to

analyze his sensations

to

to

produce the

compositions, by lending them

Whatever

grices.

teur

new

in

dress, to

saving them

is

it

phrases and

fine

wanting, but

is

modem

more

little

reproduce them

new

many

aside but too

laid

melodies, to

finest

307

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS.

CHAP. XXI.

to

no purpose, and would

imaginary ones.

find

of the errors into which most persons com-

monly fall, when they attend the representation of a


new opera, consists in confounding the ornaments,
which the singers add
dies themselves,

and

to the melodies, with the melo-

in

persuading themselves that the

merit of the music consists in these ornaments.

The

foundation, upon which these embroideries are placed,

remains unperceived, even to such a de-

frequently
gree, that
tre

it

happens to certain frequenters of a thea-

not to recognize an

manner from

different
miliar.

slight

air

because

that with

it

is

sung

in

which they were

a
fa-

degree of attention given to the struc-

ture of the phrases of the

the habit of separating

melody

them from

will

soon produce

all

the flourishes

with which they are adorned by the singers; for these

embellishments have no musical


applaud
skill,

it

ure, but

a
is

sense.

When we

singer to the utmost for his mechanical


not

because

because

it

it

gives us the slightest pleas-

astonishes.

All that

is

to be done,

308

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

.tnrefore,

which arc

to the ear those finished proportions


tible

of being decomposed

With

this

which

is

that

we

habit,

into elementary

phrases

no longer confound

shall

are

that

genius of the composer.

to the

some musicians, who

vague mel-

affirm that

odies, of little character, are the only ones

which admit

of these embellishments of the singers; and they


in

IT

the result of the flexibility of the throat, with

which belongs

There

ART

melody presents

to observe whether the

is

cite,

proof of the truth of their opinion, the music of .Mo-

zart's operas, into

which the boldest

introduce any thing foreign; but


false

mode

always by

is

we draw conclusions from


general.
The melodies of Mo-

of reasoning that

the particular to the


zart,

flourishers cannot
it

which are ravishing

stamped with

in

expression, arc almost

all

character of harmony, so that we infer

from the succession of their sounds the harmony with

which they are


from

this, that

be accompanied

to

the singer

limits by the fear of

is

and

reMiIts

it

restrained within narrow-

producing sounds

embel-

his

in

Add

lishments which do not belong to the harmony.


to

this, that

these

melodies, admirable

have a Construction which

i>

as

the]

not favorable to the free

and natural emission of the voice,

like tin' Italian airs

The

always manifest

genius ^( the compi >er

them, but
with the

melody

mented

it

art
is

is

is

of singing.

In line,

it

ordinary, merely because

and

in

apparent, also, thai he was Dot familiar

varied

with

ease.

not true that a

is
it

can

There

be orna-

is,

doubt, excellent music, which does not admit

without
oi

CHAP. XXI.

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS.

309

jellishment, but for other reasons than arc given in


this rule.

It

would be more

just to say, that there are

Borne melodies, not

composed to admit of embellishments, and others which have been made to favor the
singer

both

may be

amateur

attentive

excellent, each in

will

kind

its

never be deceived

in

an

them.

If

the singer confines himself to giving the melody in


all its

simplicity,

may be concluded

it

nature to be ornamented

resist their desire


skill

for the

have sufficient taste to

some cases

which they

in

melody

is

but this

is

that the simple

feel

better than any thing they

not of

it is

by an exhibition of their

to shine

there are, however,

that

performers rarely

can add to

it;

very rare.

From

all

that has been said,

we

see that, in order to

form an opinion of the qualities of an


it

is

necessary,

scenic propriety

1, to
;

in

it

or of a duet,

air,

under the relation of

compare its form witli


same kind, which occur

2, to

other pieces of the

work,

consider

order to be satisfied that

it

that of

the

in

contains a proper

variety; 3, to ascertain the regularity of

rhythm and
symmetry of construction 4, to observe whether
melody .leaves impressions of novelty or the re-

the

the

verse; 5, and, lastly, to separate the

poser from that which


the singer.

is

work of

By means of

this

analysis,

com

the

only the effect of the

skill

we may

of

dis-

cuss the goodness or defects of a piece of that kind


in

such a manner

well

founded.

as to give only opinions

There

are,

doubtless,

which enter into the conception of an

which are

other

air or

things

duet

the

310

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

harmony,

as

more

it is

instrumentation, as

more

or less elegant and ap-

which deserve to be exam-

made

but they cannot be

IV.

or less well chosen, the plan of

it is

propriate, are also qualities

ined

TAUT

to enter into the edu-

cation of the ear, until after the subjects of which I

have above spoken;

for the

perceptions of the latter are

more simple than those of the

others.

in

make

this analysis with readiness,

shall

to

ultimately

to the system of instrumentation, there will doubt-

less

among my

be

tomed

some one who is accusi^ endowed


with mu-

readers

and

to the lyric theatres,

and

sensibility;

sical

what has passed


tinguishes

him

to

which,

There

is

at

mere

of the

act

the

and hence the

to r n
i

j,

Dpera.

and

and

We

difficult to

difficulty

an opinion
finales,

are

n them, which

of the
the

at

commonly
is

the

flute, or

without effect
to gee or

to

do

will to

combinations

becomes more

it

tions;

violin,

ear

voice- are multiplied with the

In proportion as the

personages,

heard

beginning, and that


the

nothing which we cannot learn

hear, by the

cated,

for

struck his

first,

tir>t

multitude o( details,

in the

he enjoys pleasing passages


oboe,

examine

will

perceive that his ear now dis-

will

which were nothing

one

himself since he

orchestra

the

in

such

if

within

dramatic music, he

in

we

them with the combinations of harmony.

familiarize

As

do not doubt

accustoming the ear and the judgment

that,

first

become compli-

analyze our sensa-

which we experience
quartettes,

concerted

representations of an

Btruck with only one thing

^ r .*

interest

but most com-

FORMATION

CHAP. XXI.

JUDGMENTS.

OI

311

rronly dramatic considerations-are those which deter-

mine onr judgments.


of persons employed
is

These considerations

of great importance;

fact,

lor the

in a scene, the

more necessary

On

that the scene should be animated.

ject,

it

be well to

will

make some

are,

eral, they

it

this sub-

observations.

Since the invention of concerted pieces and


their dramatic object has

in

Dumber

greater the

been changed

finales,

but, in gen-

have been considered as means of increas-

ing the interest by contrasts of character and passion.

Musicians, although agreed upon this point, are not so

concerning the means to


that

action

tlie

effect

personages in the scene

and

finales,

this is the

German composers.
thought that

it is

sions where

many

musical

as the

number of

increased, provided they

is

do not take an active part


tettes, sestettes, or

gression

Some, considering

it.

must become feeble

in

it,

require that the quar-

should have a rapid pro-

system of the French and

Others, on the contrary, have

necessary to take advantage of occasingers are united, to produce fine

effects, at the

risk of causing

the dramatic

grow languid and hence the long harmonized pieces, which we find in the finales or other
action to

concerted pieces of the modern Italian school.

two systems have, among amateurs

many

what

is

two

dramatic propriety and their inclination

reasonable; others governed by their love

3f music; for
in

artists,

partisans and opponents; some, influenced by

their taste for


for

These

as well as

all

different

the difference of opinion

is

founded

systems, both of which have

cod qualities and their defects.

The

their

dramatic svs

J12

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

tern is

nore certain of 'effect, upon the

tation

an opera, especially

in

represen-

first

France, because the

subject and action of the piece occupy the

more than the music;

we

but, in the end,

att.

frequently

more

see that the musical system prevails, and gives


stability to success.

From what
and
to

has been said,

finales;

and

analyze them

ists

complex

sations are

in the

it

is

evident that

The most

once.

do not always succeed in

it;

experienced

art-

and they often pro-

nounce judgments which they afterwards


is

th<

hearing of concerted pieces

consequently, almost impossible

it is,

at

IV

retract.

It

not until after having heard pieces of this kind two

we can form

or three times, that

a clear

and appreciate their

construction,

relates to their

melody

is

analyzed

in

ner as in airs and duets; but there


stance required

which must
not

made

for

olfer

the

more

perfection

difficulty to

a serious study

idea of their

merit.

the
is

that

All

same man-

one circum-

of these

any one

piece-,

who

of the art; and this

is

has
the

arrangement of the voices, and the contrasted move-

ments which
difficulty,

result from

we must

first

them.

To

overcome

this

separate that which beta

the dramatic expression, and to the melody, from the

other constituent parts of the piece, and form an opinion

upon them; afterwards, giving our attention sucofthe movement ^( the

cessively to the details

of the Contrasts of character, harmony, and instrumentation,

and

we may gradually form ideas of all these


become so familiar with them as to

at last

tnce no difficulty

in

combining them, ami

in

things,
experi-

appre-

313

FORMATION OF JUDGMENTS.

fllAP. XXI.

dating them as a whole, instead of receiving from

them only

vague pleasure, such

the public,

as

which has never learned

is

experienced by

to reflect

upon

its

sensations.

The music

more simple than draand more compliorigin it was nothing more

of the church

is

matic music, in certain respects,


cated in others.

In

its

than an expression of religious sentiment, free from


passion, and consequently very simple.

But our

nat-

ural desire of emotion did not allow musicians to re-

main long within such narrow

limits.

The

sacred

writings, both the devotional and the historical, contain pathetic narratives, bursts of joy, and a figurative

language, stamped with

The

East.

and

this

the magnificence of the

all

feeling of piety, clothed in these figures

language, has not been discerned by

composers,

who have

many

only perceived the practicability

of expressing the grief and joy of the prophet-king,


or the events sketched in the apostles' creed.
that time

it

became necessary

to

have recourse

From
to the

ordinary means employed in the dramatic music, and

make use

of them with the modifications of a more

severe style.

These innovations have found both cen-

to

sors and partisans, like


into the arts.
is

The

all

the novelties introduced

part of wisdom, in these disputes,

to consider that there are beauties

rent in each kind, and that there


a

man

of genius

is

and defects inhenothing of which

cannot make a good use.

There

cannot be any music which does not follow the march


of general taste, and which
to the

is

entirely without relation

progress of the dramatic species; for the latter

is

of so general a use, that

and

it

is

known

IV.

to every body,

necessarily the regulator of the other-.

is

ha\ ing experienced


is

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

314

After

the emotions of the theatre, one

all

hardly prepared to enjoy a calm and simple music

during the whole of a service of the church

and the

composers, therefore, have been led by necessity to


introduce

into

sacred

their

music a

worldly expression of the opera.

It

little

of the

must not be sup-

posed, however, that the calm and majestic

mu-

the church cannot be relished at the present day.

Let

us take, for example, the masses or the motettes of Palestrina, or, in another

of Marcello, and

we

formance, this music

ence

is

kind of composition, the psalms


see that, with a good per-

shall

will act

modem

more

upon

a cultivated

audi-

might do, but with

style

different effects.

In order to be prepared to relish religious music of


a

grave and antique character,

we must,

in

the

first

place, divest ourselves

of our habits, and be firmly

persuaded of

this truth,

which our

will

opposes

more than

that the art has

one means of reaching the heart


to

for

the obstacles

certain emotioi

which we are prejudiced, prevent them from arising.


When we once have the disposition to attend, and the
de-ire to experience pleasure,

receive

i>.

it"

the

beauties, though they

our ordinary ideas.


t->

may be

in

The

the

sune w a\

as for

be slow to

-hill not
he;ir

contains real

of an order foreign to

Nothing more

analyze our feelings; and,

teed

we

work which we

for

necessary than

i-

this,

music of

we must

a iv

pr.--

other kind

melodic- of religious music are ran

be understood

to

Add

we most commonly

that

to this,

those of the dramatic, because

as

intimately connected with the harmony.

more

they are

315

FORMATION or JUDGMENTS.

('MM'. XXI.

find

imitations, fugues, and the other scientific

hi

that

we have

heretofore given the details, and also

scarcely possible to class this kind of melody

it is

in the

them

in

forms, of

memory,

account of

we do

as

it

necessary to receive

is

the impressions of religious music, as a whole;

do

to

more

this,

skill

On

the melodies of operas.

this difficulty,

the analysis of

in

and,

harmony

is

Consequently we ought to commence the

requisite.

As

education of the ear with this kind of music.


the ear can

become skibul only by degrees, we must

not suffer

to contract the habit of

it

music, until after

Observation on scientific forms

the dramatic style.

masses; and,

we

succeed to the study of harmony in

insensibly

will

judging of sacred

have become familiar with

shall

it

if

we

will only give

it

a little

attention,

soon acquire sufficient ideas of those combi-

shall

nations which are characteristic of the religious style.

The

last

amateur,
music,

step

who has

in

the

not

the instrumental

is

education

musical

made any

few persons, strangers to

style.

this

of

an

elaborate study of

art,

Thus there are


who like to hear

quartettes, quintettes, or other pieces, not designed to

show the
the end

skill

is

of a performer.

please the ear

is

certainly

also excite;

pression

it

has

its

is

not palpable.

one of the

of instrumental as well as of

must

In this kind of music,

not distinct, the object

all

To

essential parts

other music; but

it

peculiar language of ex-

which no other language interprets; and

316

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

we must

therefore,

comprehending

this requires practice.

say of instrumental music what

hear

not please
enj
this

it,

>y

and then we may begin

kind of music also has

harmony, and

effects of

By
sis,

we

with perseverance,

its

symmetrical quantities,

its

patience to

without prepossession, even though

it

its

shall

it

should

at

length

to analyze it;

melodies,

for

rhythm,

its

varieties of

its

would

have had occ

we must hive

times;

repeat several

to

IV.

divine this language instead of

and

it,

PART

form,

its

modes of instrumentation.

the application of the processes of dramatic analy-

we

shall acquire notions of

as well

it

as of every

other kind of music.

CHAPTER
WHETHER

IT is

USEFUL TO ANALYZE

TO WHICH MUSIC

\m sure that

ceding chapter,

man mean

many
will

continual

who can

the professors of

and not

tO judge,

" What

l).>r>
toil,

tli

pre-

does this

he wish to spoil

incompatible with

These must be

felt,

not

with these observations, and these

comparisons, which are


dry bouIs

BEN8ATIONI

readers, in running over

hive thought

the enjoyment of the art-

Away

nil

BIRTH.

Oil BS

with his analyses?

our pleasure by

analyzed.

XXII.

find

at

only to

best adapted

nothing else

counterpoint

v e

in

music,

<>r

to

wish to enjoy,

and therefore we nave Q0 D d of

xxn.

cii.vr.

its urn.:

This

reasonings."

is

317

Heaven knows

very well.

all

have no wish to disturb your pleasures; but

that

you

will

have

hardly

mouth, before you

What

theatre,
(lift

got

words out of your

the

exclaim,

will

stable composition

This

the

is

pretend to enjoy, and not to judge.


ignorant
it

is

conceals

you go

if

delightful music! or, perhaps,

to

way

that people

The

pride of the

not less real than that of the learned


itself

the

What

but

under the cloak of idleness.

Does any one persuade himself

am

that I

so desti-

tute of sense, as to desire to substitute an analysis of

the products of the arts for the pleasures

No, no; such

give?

lias

my

not been

which they

intention; but,

being certain that we see only that which


learned to look

know how

at,

that

to listen,

we hear only

that to

we have
which we

that our senses, in short,

and

consequently our sensations, are developed only by


exercise,

how

have sought to show

ing should be directed, to render

it

that of hear-

more capable of

appreciating the impressions of music.

thought

it

of themselves, when the organ


that

is

have not

necessary to add, that the exercises cease


instructed, because

is

we no longer need
and tables, when we have

understood, of course:

leading-strings, or chairs

lenrned to walk.

The

analysis,

which

have repre-

made with
when we have acquired the
becomes an clement in our mode of

sented as necessary for judging of music,

is

the rapidity of lightning,


habit of

it

feeling, to

it

such a degree, that

into a sensation.

compared with

that

And

what,

which a

itself

it

is

ask,

skilful

is

transformed

this

analysis,

composer has

to

318

TART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

He

make?

dofcs not limit

IV

himself to seizing some of

the details of form, to distinguishing the rhythm of

more

the melodies, the

or less dramatic expree

He comprehends

&lc.

all

the

of harmony,

details

which

takes notice of a sound in a chord

not

is

properly resolved, or of a happy employment of an

unexpected dissonance, of an

and of

uncommon

modulation,

the niceties of the simultaneousness or of

all

the succession of sounds; he distinguishes the

differ-

ent qualities of sound of the instruments, applauds of

censures

upon

innovations

rules,

the

or

abase

resources; in short, the immense details of

all

composes the grand musical masses are present

mind

Is

to his

he were carefully examining them upon

as if

paper.

of
that

it

supposed that he makes these remarks

with difficulty, that this prevents him from relishing


the

general

of the

effect

derives less pleasure from

composition, and
it,

thin one

gives himself up to his Bcnsationsl

never even thinks of

knowing

it,

Not

at

he

blindly

all.

lie

these things; they are pres-

all

ent to his thoughts, as


hi^

that

who

if

by enchantment, without

and even without any attention

his part.

Wonderful

effect

study and observation

weaken

an

o["

organization improved In

All that

would seem

likely to

the sensation, and to increase the share of the

understanding, turns to the advantage of this very Ben-

No

Bation.

pain to
o{'

doubt ordinary or hud music gives more

skilful

perceiving

its

artist,

than to one

detects

has the advantage: hut,

at

In

the

tins

same

who

is

incapable

respect, the latter


;

ne,

how much

more

319

ITS UTILITY.

TIIAP. XXII.

vivid are the enjoyments of the former, if

desirable qualities are united in a composition


qualities are necessary only as

ducing perfection

they concur

the

all

These

in

pro-

but perfection results from things

so delicate, so fugitive, that

we cannot

feel

except

it,

so far as these things are within our comprehension,

Hence

and we are familiar with them.

it

arises that

the merely curious do not perceive the difference be-

tween

a painting of

or of Guido.

It

Raphael, and a wok of Corregio,

cannot be questioned that perfection

gives rise to purer pleasure than that which merely

approximates towards

it;

but perfection cannot be

we have learned to see it: and, thereTurn the question


fore, we must learn how to see it.
as yon will, you must come to this conclusion at last.

perceived until

To
tions

learn to analyze the principle of musical sensais

doubtless a study which diverts the attention

from what may please the senses;

this study disturbs

the pleasure which one would experience in the hear-

ing of music; but of what consequence

pends

this pleasure only to

render

it

vivid

study will every day become less painful,


shall

have formed the habit of

come, when

fully sensible

in the
ties

The

when we

and the time

manner of

will

made unconscioush
our sensations.
If we could

the analysis will be

ami without disturbing


be

it,

sus-

is it, if it

more

of the changes which are produced


feeling

and of appreciating the beau-

and defects of musical works, by habit alone, and

independently of

remark

that

at last

make

all

positive

not only
the

is

knowledge, we should

taste modified, but that

analysis of

which

we

have spoken

PART

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS.

320

knowing

to a certain point, without

knowing the

which

rules by

it

and without

it,

Hence

made.

is

IV.

it

happens that the frequenters of the lyric theatres have


a surer

judgment than those who attend the represen-

tations of operas but seldom.

evident that what

It is

we do without any guide we should do much


with

Every thing which

one.

world and

is

idleness

Have

neither

inserted

might be expected
have done

the

so,

in

in

this sensibility by obser-

founded nor reasonable

well

accommodates
I

in

books, concerning the natural sensibility

in

and the diminution of

to art,

vation,

better

advanced

is

itself to these

this

it?

but

book every thing which


do not know.

That
body

the less probable,

is

follies.

will

not look for the same things.

reading of

it,

their opinions,

their

once, that which


will

is

can

their

affections, or

expect to remove,

only worn out by time

will

excited.

be

tin*

result of tin

believe

little
it

to

all

at

But that

reflections

to dispel

attention

this

ignorance.

the most

it

will

have penetrated the causes

of the voluntary ignorance which prevails

music

not be the immediate effect of the reading

of the book,

hoc

prejudices,

How

their antipathies.

which

In commencing the
number of readers wdl have

the greater

in

regard to

have asked only a

rebellious will

me, perhaps even without knowing

at
it.

last

MT
6

F4I3

Francois Joseph
Music explained fro the
world

Fe*tis,

UNIVERSITY

O.-

EDWARD JOHNSON
MUSIC LIBRARY