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2013 Unit Guide Template

MAE3405

Flight Vehicle Propulsion


This unit builds on concepts in MAE2402 and relates aircraft and rocket
engines to the laws of thermodynamics, various fuel-air power cycles, their
real behaviour plus fuel and combustion chemistry. Efficiency and
performance of aircraft engines based on piston and gas turbine platforms is
examined along with piston and turboprop engines and propeller design for
subsonic speed. For jets and turbofan engines, nozzle design for transonic to
supersonic speed is covered, as are supersonic engines. The unit concludes
with an introduction to rocket motors and their design and performance for
both atmospheric and space flight.
Mode of Delivery
Workload

On shore
3 hours lectures, 2 hours prac classes per week
One laboratory class

Unit Relationships
Prerequisites
Chief Examiner
Unit Coordinator:
Campus:
Phone:
Email:
Office hours:

MAE2402
Prof Chris Davies
A/Prof Damon Honnery
Clayton
51004
Damon.honnery@monash.edu
By email

Campus Coordinator
Campus:
Phone:
Email:
Office Hours:
Tutor(s)
Campus:
Phone:
Email:
Consultation hours:

See Unit Moodle web pages

SEMESTER 2
2012

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

www.monash.edu

ACADEMIC OVERVIEW
Learning Objectives
This unit intended to introduce students to the design, operation and performance of
engines used for aircraft and rockets. After successfully completing this unit students will
have developed skills and the knowledge to be able to:
1. Understand the thermodynamics of fuel-air power cycles used for aircraft propulsion
systems and undertake calculations of their thermodynamic properties.
2. Recognise the differences in real versions of the power cycles relative to their fuelair analogues.
3. Demonstrate knowledge of the fuels used in aircraft and rocket engines and be able
to undertake simple combustion related calculations dealing with these fuels.
4. Understand and undertake calculations on the operation and performance of piston
engines, turboprops, and ramjets.
5. Understand and calculate the effects of high speed flight on jets, turbofans and
ramjet intakes.
6. Demonstrate knowledge of propeller design through the application of various blade
theories.
7. Understand and undertake calculations on propeller operation and performance.
8. Understand and undertake calculations on the operation and performance of
propulsion systems used in rockets operating in the atmosphere and in space.
Through lectures, laboratory work and tutorials a student is encouraged to develop an
appreciation of:
1. Fuelling requirements of propulsion systems.
2. Aircraft and space flight propulsion systems, their operation and performance.
3. Propeller design, operation and performance based on simple aerodynamic
Graduate Attributes
Monash prepares its graduates to be:
1. responsible and effective global citizens who:
a. engage in an internationalised world
b. exhibit cross-cultural competence
c. demonstrate ethical values
2. critical and creative scholars who:
a. produce innovative solutions to problems
b. apply research skills to a range of challenges
c. communicate perceptively and effectively

Engineers Australia stage 1 competencies


The Engineers Australia Policy on Accreditation of Professional Engineering Programs requires
that all programs ensure that their engineering graduates develop to a substantial degree the stage
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

1 competencies. Listed below are the activities in this unit that will help you to achieve these
competencies.
Note: that not all stage 1 competencies are relevant to each unit.
Stage 1 competencies

Activities used in this unit to


develop stage 1
competencies

PE1.1 Knowledge of science and engineering


fundamentals

Theoretical lecture material,


prescribed texts and
recommended reading

PE1.2 In-depth technical competence in at least one


engineering discipline

Competence in the
thermodynamics of piston
engines, gas turbine engines
(and derivatives) and rocket
motors.

PE1.3 Techniques and resources


PE1.4 General knowledge

Students require a general


knowledge of
Thermodynamics, heat
transfer,. Gas dynamics, fluid
mechanics and aerodynamics.

PE2.1 Ability to undertake problem identification,


formulation, and solution

Development of engine layout


and thermodynamic cycle
construction from written
description, then calculate
cycle properties.

PE2.2 Understanding of social, cultural, global, and


environmental responsibilities and the need to employ
principles of sustainable development

Examination of alternative
aircraft fuels (eg alcohols for
piston engines)

PE2.3 Ability to utilise a systems approach to complex


problems and to design and operational performance

Examination of complex
thermodynamics engines
cycles (eg turbofan engine,
afterburning turbojet).

PE2.4 Proficiency in engineering design


PE2.5 Ability to conduct an engineering project
PE2.6 Understanding of the business environment

Material on engine design is


given which links layout to
performance which is linked to
aircraft operations: design for
purpose.

PE3.1 Ability to communicate effectively, with the


engineering team and with the community at large

PE3.2 Ability to manage information and


documentation
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

PE3.3 Capacity for creativity and innovation

PE3.4 Understanding of professional and ethical


responsibilities, and commitment to them

PE3.5 Ability to function effectively as an individual and


in multidisciplinary and multicultural teams, as a team
leader or manager as well as an effective team member

PE3.6 Capacity for lifelong learning and professional


development
PE3.7 Professional attitudes

Assessment Summary
Assignments
There will be five submissions based on the assignment questions listed in this document.
There will also be one laboratory session on gas turbines.
Questions are attached to this document. The five assignment submissions are worth 25%
of your final marks and are of equal value.
Laboratory
You will be assigned a laboratory group for the laboratory session. Each student is to
submit an individual laboratory report. Detailed instruction regarding this submission will
accompany the laboratory sheets. Failure to attend and submit a laboratory may result in a
fail being returned for this unit. The laboratory is worth 5% of your final mark.
Examination
See the student information index for detail regarding operation of examinations and
assessment tasks. The major assessment task in this subject is a three hour long closed
book examination. The examination will consist of a number of questions similar but
different to those from the assignments. The examination is designed to test not only your
ability to solve problems, but your understanding of the related course material as well.
See Objectives above
Teaching and Learning Method
The learning objectives of this unit as stated in the unit synopsis will be achieved by a combination
of lectures, guided learning in tutorials, self learning through assignments and laboratory classes.
Objectives 1-9 are designed to provide both a linear and integrated approach to the unit material.
For example, foundation engineering science objectives such as 1-3 form the basis of, and are
integrated within, the more linear practical and performance oriented material represented by
objectives 2-7. Project-based laboratory work involving groups will be used to achieve objectives 2,
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

and 6. Self guided learning projects are intended to assist students to broaden their understanding
of the material.

Tutorial allocation
See tutorial groups on Moodle

Communication, participation and feedback


You can also find information on inclusive teaching practices for students with learning
disabilities or mental health conditions at:
http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/inclusivity/
Feedback
Our Feedback to You
Feedback on your work is provided via two methods in this unit:
1. Before handing In: By discussing your work with the tutors and unit coordinator. It
is essential you take advantage of the problem solving classes to discuss your
progress. You are responsible for initiating this process and, as always, our effort
will correlate with your effort. This is the most important feedback method.
2. After Handing Back: You will be assigned a work group for your assignments
(these are based on lab groups). You will have the chance to discuss the returned
assignment with the tutor in the assignment group meeting which occurs in the
problem solving class following the submission week.
Your Feedback to Us
Monash is committed to excellence in education and regularly seeks feedback from
students, employers and staff. One of the key formal ways students have to provide
feedback is through SETU, Student Evaluation of Teacher and Unit. The Universitys
student evaluation policy requires that every unit is evaluated each year. Students are
strongly encouraged to complete the surveys. The feedback is anonymous and provides
the Faculty with evidence of aspects that students are satisfied and areas for
improvement.
For more information on Monashs educational strategy, and on student evaluations, see:
http://www.monash.edu.au/about/monash-directions/directions.html
http://www.policy.monash.edu/policy-bank/academic/education/quality/student-evaluationpolicy.html
Previous Student Evaluations of this unit
If you wish to view how previous students rated this unit, please go to
https://emuapps.monash.edu.au/unitevaluations/index.jsp
Required Resources
Notes will be provided via the units Moodle pages.
Recommended Resources
Texts
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

Aircraft performance:
Anderson, Aircraft Performance and Design, 1st Edtn, McGraw-Hill, 1999
Thermodynamics:
For the thermodynamics component of the subject the following may be of use,
Sonntag and Van Wylen, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2000
But any general thermodynamics text should be sufficient.
Piston Engines
Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 1988
McMahon, Aircraft Propulsion, Pitman, 1971
Gas Turbines:
Cohen, Rogers and Saravananuttoo, Gas Turbine Theory, Longman, 1987
Mattingly, Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion, McGraw Hill, 1996.
Shepherd, Aerospace Propulsion, Elsevier, 1972
Rockets
Hill and Peterson, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion, 2nd edt, Addison
Wesley, 1992.
Field trips
None.
Additional subject costs
None.

Examination material or equipment


1. The following scientific calculators that are not programmable, but are capable of
1-variable and 2-variable statistics, (with the authorised Faculty of Engineering or
Faculty of Science sticker ) are approved for use in this unit examination:
Graphical calculators and programmable calculators are not permitted in exams.
APPROVED Scientific Calculators:
Caieion: FM-83
Canon: F720, F720i
Casio: fx-82, fx-83, fx-85, fx-100, fx-115, fx-350, fx-570, fx-911, fx-991, and fx-992 and fx3650P series
Citizen: SR-135, SR-260, SR-270, SR-275
Hewlett Packard: HP-6s, HP-8s, HP-9s, HP-10s, HP-30s, HP smartcalc-300s
Texas instruments: TI-30 and TI-34 series
Texet: Albert 2, Albert 3, Albert 5
Sharp: EL-506, EL-509, EL-520 and EL-531WH series
3. IMPORTANT: Only these listed calculators with the authorised Monash UniversityScience or Monash University-Engineering STICKER will be allowed into the
examination by the invigilators.
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

The sticker will be available from the Faculty office ground floor building 72. You
must bring your calculator with you to the Faculty office at any time during the semester to
receive a sticker. We recommend you do this well in advance of the exam.
UNIT SCHEDULE

Unit schedule 2012


Topic
(Week)
1
(1)

2
(1)

3
(2-3)

Material
Some Important Thermodynamics Concepts
Review of first law and Gas processes
Second law Isentropic efficiency
Introduction to Air Breathing Engine Performance
Piston engine performance
Turbo jet and turbo fan performance
Otto and the SI Cycle
Air standard cycle
Stoichiometry and enthalpy of combustion
Fuel-air cycle
SI cycle and the Performance of real engines

4
(4)

Spark Ignition Engines


Typical engine characteristics
Fuel and gas exchange processes
Altitude

5
(5)

Superchargers and turbochargers


Types
Performance

6
(5-6)

Propellers
Propeller types and design
Classical momentum theory and static performance
Simple blade element and vortex theory
Introduction to helicopters operation

7
(6-7)

Introduction to Gas Turbines


Engine Types
Stagnation conditions
Air standard gas turbine cycle
Overall and system efficiencies

8
(7-10)

Gas Turbines for Propulsion I and II


Typical engine characteristics
Turboprop engine operation and calculations
Turbojet operation and calculations
Intake nozzles and propelling nozzles
Turbofan operation and calculations
Thrust augmentation
Ramjets and supersonic intakes

9
(10-11)

Rocket propulsion
Rocket propulsion systems
Introduction to rocket mechanics
Thrust, performance and multistaging
Electric Motors

10

Chemical Rocket Motors and Nozzles

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

(11-12)

Supersonic propelling nozzles


Chemical motor performance
Design of conical nozzles
Solid propellant motors

(13)

SWOT VAC

Examination period

LINK to Assessment Policy:


http://www.policy.monash.edu/policybank/academic/education/assessment/asses
sment-in-coursework-policy.html

ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS
See Attachment A for more details.
Criteria for Marking:
Marking Scheme: each question will be marked as:
0/5: Not submitted or completely incorrect
1~2/5: Some attempt showing development
2~3/5: Mostly correct, mostly developed
4~5/5: Correct with full development
Development means presentation of working, sketches, assumptions, figures,
explanations (etc) and where necessary development of equations.
Assignment submission
Hard Copy Submission: Assignments must include a cover sheet. The coversheet is
accessible via the Monash portal page located at http://my.monash.edu.au under the
heading Learning and teaching tools. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your
records.
Extensions and penalties

University and faculty policy on assessment


Due dates and extensions
The due dates for the submission of assignments are given in the previous section. Please make
every effort to submit work by the due dates. Students are advised to NOT assume that granting of
an extension is a matter of course.
If you need an extension for any of the assignments, you must submit a written request 48-hours
before the due time and date, and attach supportive evidence such as medical certificate.
The form should preferably be forwarded as an email attachment, sent to the unit coordinator.
The email should be sent from your University email address with your name typed in lieu of
signature.
Note that other lecturers cannot grant extensions. Lecturer-in-charge (unit coordinator) will indicate
at the time of granting the extension whether any penalty in marks will apply to the submitted work.
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

If an extension is granted, the approval must be attached to the assignment.

Late assignment
Late submissions of any assessed work will attract a penalty. No late submission will be accepted
once the current submissions have been returned. Extensions will only be granted in rare cases and
they must be discussed with the subject coordinator at least 48 hours in advance of the submission
date if possible. In some cases medical certificates may be required to justify the granting of an
extension. Submission of an assignment with your name on it indicates that it is all your own work. If
this is not the case you must reference work not yours. See the student resource guide for more
information.

Remember, you are required to keep an up-to-date copy of all submitted assignments to
safeguard against the loss of work through accident or error.

Return dates
Assignments will be returned the Friday following the submission date.
Assessment for the unit as a whole is in accordance with the provisions of the Monash University
Education Policy at:
http://www.policy.monash.edu/policybank/academic/education/assessment/index.html

Returning assignments
Done in the Friday Practice Class.
Resubmission of assignments
Not possible.
OTHER INFORMATION
Policies
Monash has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to
ensure that staff and students are aware of the Universitys academic standards, and to
provide advice on how they might uphold them. You can find Monashs Education Policies
at: www.policy.monash.edu.au/policy-bank/academic/education/index.html
Key educational policies include:
Plagiarism;
Assessment in Coursework Programs;
Special Consideration;
Grading Scale;
Discipline: Student Policy;
Academic Calendar and Semesters;
Orientation and Transition; and
Academic and Administrative Complaints and Grievances Policy.
Graduate Attributes Policy
http://www.policy.monash.edu/policy-bank/academic/education/management/monashgraduate-attributes-policy.html
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

Student Services
The University provides many different kinds of services to help you gain the most from
your studies.Contact your tutor if you need advice and see the range of services available
at www.monash.edu.au/students
Monash University Library
The Monash University Library provides a range of services, resources and programs that
enable you to save time and be more effective in your learning and research. Go to
www.lib.monash.edu.au or the library tab in my.monash portal for more information.

Disability Liaison Unit


Students who have a disability or medical condition are welcome to contact the Disability
Liaison Unit to discuss academic support services. Disability Liaison Officers (DLOs) visit
all Victorian campuses on a regular basis.

Website: www.monash.edu/equity-diversity/disability/index.html
Telephone: 03 9905 5704 to book an appointment with a DLO;
Email: dlu@monash.edu
Drop In: Equity and Diversity Centre, Level 1, Building 55, Clayton Campus.

Your Feedback to Us
Monash is committed to excellence in education and regularly seeks feedback from
students, employers and staff. One of the key formal ways students have to provide
feedback is through the Student Evaluation of Teaching and Units (SETU) survey. The
Universitys student evaluation policy requires that every unit is evaluated each year.
Students are strongly encouraged to complete the surveys. The feedback is anonymous
and provides the Faculty with evidence of aspects that students are satisfied and areas for
improvement.
For more information on Monashs educational strategy, see:
www.monash.edu.au/about/monash-directions/directions.html and on student evaluations,
see: www.policy.monash.edu/policy-bank/academic/education/quality/student-evaluationpolicy.html
Previous Student Evaluations of this Unit
We have identified that students who undertake the laboratory in the first weeks of the
semester require additional assistance with the laboratory. More details have been
provided on the Moodle web page for this purpose.
If you wish to view how previous students rated this unit, please go to
https://emuapps.monash.edu.au/unitevaluations/index.jsp

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

10

Attachment A

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

11

MAE3405 Flight Vehicle Propulsion


2013 Information, problems and assignments

This unit builds on concepts in MAE2402 and relates aircraft and rocket
engines to the laws of thermodynamics, various fuel-air power cycles, their
real behaviour plus fuel and combustion chemistry. Efficiency and
performance of aircraft engines based on piston and gas turbine platforms
is examined along with piston and turboprop engines and propeller design
for subsonic speed. For jets and turbofan engines, nozzle design for
transonic to supersonic speed is covered, as are supersonic engines. The
unit concludes with an introduction to rocket motors and their design and
performance for both atmospheric and space flight.

Unit

: MAE3405 Flight Vehicle Propulsion

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

12

Subject Coordinator : Associate Professor Damon Honnery


Room
: Clayton G15/31
Email
: damon.honnery@monash.edu
Details of this unit can be found at
http://www.monash.edu.au/pubs/handbooks/units/MAE3405.html
Student Information Index
All students are advised to read the information found in the student information index located at:
http://www.monash.edu.au/students/ you are also encouraged to look through the student resource
information on the Faculty and Department web pages.
Moodle Page
There is a Moodle page for this unit. This site contains a large amount of information as well as
data and links to interesting web pages. The Faculty of Engineering MAE3405 Unit Guide can also
be found on site. The unit guide provides more detailed information than listed here.
Assessment:
This subject will have three forms of assessment:
Examination:
70% (three hours closed book).
Assignments and Laboratories:
30%
Classes
For each week of the semester there will be three hours of lectures and a two hour problem solving
session. You will also each have a 1 hour laboratory session which will operate during the problem
solving session. You are expected to undertake at least 7 additional hours per week of private
study to complete the assessment tasks.
Attendance
Attendance at the laboratory is compulsory. Failure to attend and submit a laboratory report may
result in a fail being returned for this unit.
Class Notes
Class notes are listed on the Moodle page. Some notes will be provided in class (mainly worked
examples). You will have to copy these down.
Problem Solving Classes
Problem solving classes are intended to assist with assignments. They will not operate in the first
week of semester. To benefit from these classes you should be up to date with your work and
reading.
Lecture Topics
The lecture topics are listed in the table below along with their approximate week of delivery. The
timing of the lecture material is necessarily approximate as more or less time might be spent on
individual topics depending on the inclination and interest of the students.
Assignments
There will be five submissions based on the assignment questions listed in this document. There
will also be one laboratory session on gas turbines.
Questions are attached to this document. The five assignment submissions are worth 25% of your
final marks and are of equal value.
Laboratory
You will be assigned a laboratory group for the laboratory session. Each student is to submit an
individual laboratory report. Detailed instruction regarding this submission will accompany the
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

13

laboratory sheets. Failure to attend and submit a laboratory may result in a fail being returned for
this unit. The laboratory is worth 5% of your final mark.
Examination
See the student information index for detail regarding operation of examinations and assessment
tasks. The major assessment task in this subject is a three hour long closed book examination.
The examination will consist of a number of questions similar but different to those from the
assignments. The examination is designed to test not only your ability to solve problems, but your
understanding of the related course material as well. See Objective section below.
Submission Penalties
Late submissions of any assessed work will attract a penalty. No late submission will be accepted
once the current submissions have been returned. Extensions will only be granted in rare cases
and they must be discussed with the unit coordinator at least 48 hours in advance of the
submission date if possible. In some cases medical certificates may be required to justify the
granting of an extension. Submission of an assignment with your name on it indicates that it is all
your own work. If this is not the case you must reference work not yours. See the student
information index for more detail.
Remember it is better to hand in an incomplete assignment, than not to hand in anything at all.
Suggested Reading
While the class notes are comprehensive, greater understanding of the unit material requires you
to read more widely than just these notes. The following books are suggested to assist you to do
this; there is of course an abundance of material on the internet.
Aircraft performance:
Anderson, Aircraft Performance and Design, 1st Edtn, McGraw-Hill, 1999
Thermodynamics:
For the thermodynamics component of the subject the following may be of use,
Sonntag and Van Wylen, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2000
But any general thermodynamics text should be sufficient.
Piston Engines
Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 1988
McMahon, Aircraft Propulsion, Pitman, 1971
Gas Turbines:
Cohen, Rogers and Saravananuttoo, Gas Turbine Theory, Longman, 1987
Mattingly, Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion, McGraw Hill, 1996.
Shepherd, Aerospace Propulsion, Elsevier, 1972
Rockets
Hill and Peterson, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion, 2nd edt, Addison Wesley, 1992.
Student Consultation Times
The best time to discuss this unit is during the problem solving classes. Should you wish to see me
outside the normal hours of the unit, the best time to catch me for a short consultation is between
9:30 and 10:00am Tuesday to Friday, or after 4:00pm most days but Friday. For a longer
consultation I should be contacted via email for an appointment.

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

14

READ THIS PAGE CAREFULLY AND OFTEN

Objectives of this Unit


This unit is intended to introduce students to the design, operation and performance of engines
used for aircraft and rockets. After successfully completing this unit students will have developed
skills and the knowledge to be able to:
1. Understand the thermodynamics of fuel-air power cycles used for aircraft propulsion systems
and undertake calculations of their thermodynamic properties.
2. Recognise the differences in real versions of the power cycles relative to their fuel-air
analogues.
3. Demonstrate knowledge of the fuels used in aircraft and rocket engines and be able to
undertake simple combustion related calculations dealing with these fuels.
4. Understand and undertake calculations on the operation and performance of piston engines,
turboprops, and ramjets.
5. Understand and calculate the effects of high speed flight on jets, turbofans and ramjets intakes.
6. Demonstrate knowledge of propeller design through the application of various blade theories.
7. Understand and undertake calculations on propeller operation and performance.
8. Understand and undertake calculations on the operation and performance of propulsion
systems used in rockets operating in the atmosphere and in space.
Through lectures, laboratory work and tutorials a student is encouraged to develop an
appreciation of :
9. Fuelling requirements of propulsion systems.
10. Aircraft and space flight propulsion systems, their operation and performance.
11. Propeller design, operation and performance based on simple aerodynamic principles.
Feedback (and your role in it)
Feedback on your work is provided via two methods in this unit:
3. Before handing In: By discussing your work with the tutors and unit coordinator. It is
essential you take advantage of the problem solving classes to discuss your progress. You
are responsible for initiating this process and, as always, our effort will correlate with your
effort. This is the most important feedback method.
4. After Handing Back: You will be assigned a work group for your assignments (these are
based on lab groups). You will have the chance to discuss the returned assignment with
the tutor in the assignment group meeting which occurs in the problem solving class
following the submission week.

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

15

Lecture Topics and Approximate Week of Delivery- All notes are on Blackboard
Topic
(Week)
1
(1)

2
(1)

3
(2-3)

Material
Some Important Thermodynamics Concepts
Review of first law and Gas processes
Second law Isentropic efficiency
Introduction to Air Breathing Engine Performance
Piston engine performance
Turbo jet and turbo fan performance
Otto and the SI Cycle
Air standard cycle
Stoichiometry and enthalpy of combustion
Fuel-air cycle
SI cycle and the Performance of real engines

4
(4)

Spark Ignition Engines


Typical engine characteristics
Fuel and gas exchange processes
Altitude

5
(5)

Superchargers and turbochargers


Types
Performance

6
(5-6)

Propellers
Propeller types and design
Classical momentum theory and static performance
Simple blade element and vortex theory
Introduction to helicopters operation

7
(6-7)

Introduction to Gas Turbines


Engine Types
Stagnation conditions
Air standard gas turbine cycle
Overall and system efficiencies

8
(7-10)

Gas Turbines for Propulsion I and II


Typical engine characteristics
Turboprop engine operation and calculations
Turbojet operation and calculations
Intake nozzles and propelling nozzles
Turbofan operation and calculations
Thrust augmentation
Ramjets and supersonic intakes

9
(10-11)

Rocket propulsion
Rocket propulsion systems
Introduction to rocket mechanics
Thrust, performance and multistaging
Electric Motors

10
(11-12)

Chemical Rocket Motors and Nozzles


Supersonic propelling nozzles
Chemical motor performance
Design of conical nozzles
Solid propellant motors

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

16

Assignment Submissions
Students: You must keep a copy of your assignment

The assignments are to be written on A4 sheets, single sided, corner stapled.


Do not place the assignment in a folder (clear plastic or otherwise).
An assignment cover sheet is to be attached to every submission.
Initial the top right-hand corner of each page.
Working must be neat and able to be read- any work that cannot be read will not be marked.
Complete answers are required to gain full marks (assumptions, working, figures, force
balances, graphs etc where required).
Penalties apply for late assignments.
Failure to follow any or all of these instructions might result in your assignment not being
marked.
You will need to check the MAE3405 Moodle page for data sheets etc to do some of these
questions.

Assignment Questions and due dates


The following questions are to be handed in by the due date and time in the tutorial. They
will not be accepted at any other time or place. Assignments will be returned in the tutorial
of the following week during which time the solutions and common problems will be
discussed.
Questions
2 and 4
6 and 13
18 and 24
25 and 28
30 and 33

Time and Date Due


By 4:00pm in the tute of week 4 (23/8) (check tutor group)*
By 4:00pm in the tute of week 6 (6/9) (check tutor group)
By 4:00pm in the tute of week 8 (20/9) (check tutor group)
By 4:00pm in the tute of week 10 (11/10) (check tutor group)
By 4:00pm in the tute of week 12 (25/10) (check tutor group)

*see below

You should attempt all questions listed. Assistance to questions not submitted as assignments will
be given in the tutorials but no assistance will be given to help with assignment questions. The
tutors have been advised not to answer any questions relating to the 10 assignment questions
listed above. Questioned marked * are typical examination questions.
*You will each be assigned a group for labs, assignment and tutorial submissions. You must make
sure you submit your assignment to the correct group on the day the assignment is due.
Assignment will be returned the following week in your groups during which you will have the
chance to discuss the returned assignment.
Marking Scheme: each question will be marked as:
0/5: Not submitted or completely incorrect 1~2/5: Some attempt showing development
2~3/5: Mostly correct, mostly developed
4~5/5: Correct with full development
Development means presentation of working, sketches, assumptions, figures, explanations
(etc) and where necessary development of equations.

Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

17

Question 1

Taking the data for the surface level atmospheric composition of Mars (table A.9 in the first chapter
of the notes), calculate the (i) average atmospheric molecular weight of the atmosphere noting that
table A.9 lists concentrations as volume fractions, (ii) the gas constant (R kJ/kg-K) and (iii) the ratio
of specific heats () (Cp=0.523 kJ/kg-K and mole weight 39.95 kg/kmole for Argon). [Answer: (i)
43.41 kg/kmole; (ii) 0.195 kJ/kg-K; (iii) 1.32]

Question 2
An aircraft engine with constant mass flow rate of 0.2 kg/s operates in an environment such that 15
kW of heat is lost from its surfaces through radiant and convective processes. Fuel flow is equal to
1/15 of the inlet mass flow and provides 45 MJ of energy per kg of fuel to the engine. The inlet gas
to the engine can be approximated by air at SSL conditions; while the exhaust mass flow into the
atmosphere is a mixture of 65% N2, 15% CO2 and 20% water (gas) by mass at 900o C. For an inlet
pipe diameter of 0.125m and exhaust pipe diameter of 0.15m, (i) determine the power output of the
engine and (ii) the engines efficiency. Use a reference temperature of To=25oC for your
calculations. [Assignment question]

Question 3
A small gas turbine engine has the following flight conditions. You may assume the exhaust
pressure to atmospheric.
Altitude
Flight speed Mach number
Intake diameter
Exhaust diameter
Exhaust speed
Exhaust gas temperature
Exhaust gas constant
Fuel density

6500m
0.398
0.300m
0.285m
950kph
2500C
250J/kg-K
850kg/m3

(a) Determine the ratio of fuel mass flow to air mass flow for the engine. [Ans: 0.0279]
(b) Calculate the net thrust developed by the engine and the thrust specific fuel consumption
(in kg/N.h) [Ans: 806.2 N; 0.688 kg/N-h]
(c) What percentage of the gross thrust is used to overcome ram drag? [Ans: 46.1%]

Question 4
In an air standard Otto cycle the maximum and minimum temperatures are 1400oC and 15oC. The
heat supplied to the cycle is 800 kJ/kg. (i) Calculate the compression ratio and cycle efficiency. (ii)
Calculate also the ratio of maximum to minimum pressures in the cycle assuming SSL as minimum
cycle pressure. (iii) What is the maximum possible efficiency that could be obtained from the
thermodynamic states that make up the cycle? [Assignment question]
Question 5
Methanol (CH3OH) is a possible alternative SI engine fuel. For a stoichiometric fuel/air mixture,
determine (i) the air to fuel ratio, (ii) the LHV (kJ/kg) for gaseous fuel and (iii) the percentage
reduction in LHV assuming the fuel to be liquid. [Ans: (i) 6.43; (ii) 21.12 MJ/kg; (iii) 5.54%]

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not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

18

Question 6
A 4-cylinder SI aircraft engine operates at SSL on the fuel-air Otto cycle. Its total swept volume is
2.0 Litres, and the clearance volume is 60 cm3 per cylinder. Assume the fuel is gaseous isooctane
and the A/F ratio is stoichiometric. Calculate (i) the LHV (kJ/kg) of the fuel (ii) the fuel-air cycle
thermal efficiency, (iii) the cycle MEP. [Assignment question]

Question 7
Measurement of the exhaust from a piston engine operating on a hydrocarbon fuel reveals the
following gas concentrations: CO2 9.14%, CO 5.1%, H2O 13.7% and H2 2.31%. Nitrogen makes
up the balance. The mass flow rate of the exhaust is 0.1 kg/sec. Determine: (i) the mass flow rate
(kg/s) of each of the exhaust species, (ii) the fuel flow rate and air to fuel ratio and (iii) a possible
fuel molecule in the form CnH2n+2 (find n). [Ans: (ii) 12.57; (iii) n=12.58]

Question 8
For the 4-clyinder Lycoming 0-360 engine operates on aviation gasoline (table A.3 chapter 1)
determine the following for this at SSL:
(a) The air standard thermal efficiency of the engine. [Ans: 57.2%]
(b) The valve clearance space. [Ans: 0.197 litres/cylinder]
(c) The BMEP for take-off and the 65% cruise condition. [Ans: 944 kPa; 758 kPa]
(d) The brake thermal efficiency of the engine at take-off assuming an air to fuel ratio of 14.7 and
volumetric efficiency of 85%. [Ans: 28.8%]
Question 9
For the 4 cylinder, 4-stroke aircraft engine below, determine its power output and its brake thermal
efficiency. Assume the fuel is liquid isooctane. [Ans: 66.8 kW; 40%]
Quantity
IMEP
Bore
Stroke
RPM
Air to fuel ratio

Value
1.0MPa
0.1m
0.12m
2500
14.8

Value
Quantity
Volumetric efficiency
Mechanical Efficiency

78%
85%

Altitude
True airspeed

3000m
175kph

Question 10
The engine dynamometer test results for a 4-stroke air-cooled 4-cylinder horizontally opposed
spark ignition aircraft engine operating on isooctane are listed in the table below.
Speed
RPM
2100
2300
2500
2700
2900

Brake Load
N
462.135
480.838
502.890
497.984
470.747

Air
kg/min
2.311
2.457
2.654
2.839
2.966

Fuel
L/min
0.222
0.238
0.260
0.279
0.292

The dynamometer used had a torque arm radius of 0.4m. The test cell conditions on the day of the
test were a temperature of 25C, and pressure of 101.3kPa. The fuel used was aviation gasoline.
The cylinder bore is 82.6mm, and stroke 102mm.
Copyright Monash University 2012. All rights reserved. Except as provided in the Copyright Act 1968, this work may
not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

19

Calculate and plot against speed (i) torque, (ii) brake power, (iii) SFC, (iv) BMEP, (v) volumetric
efficiency, (vi) brake thermal efficiency, (vii) air to fuel ratio and (viii) equivalence ratio.
Question 11
(i) Assuming the linear relationship between power and density in the notes, construct a plot of
maximum brake power against altitude up to 8,000m for the engine in question 10. (ii) Determine
the maximum ceiling of an aircraft using this engine for an equivalent airspeed of 150knots and
ceiling altitude drag force 350N. You may also assume a constant propulsive efficiency of
85%.[Ans: (i) eg z=2000m, 43.5kW; (ii) ~3250m]
Question 12
An engine with mass flow rate of 0.1 kg/s has an inlet manifold pressure boost of 1.3 provided by a
supercharger. If flying at an altitude of 2000 m, (i) determine the power required to drive the
supercharger assuming a mechanical efficiency of 90% and isentropic efficiency of 80%. (ii) If an
intercooler was used to reduce the supercharger temperature increase by 50%, determine the
increase in charge air density relative to atmospheric. [Ans: (i) 3.0 kW; (ii) 24%]
Question 13
An in-line 6-cylinder water cooled 4-stroke aircraft engine of 75mm bore and 100mm stroke has a
brake power output of 110kW at 2800RPM. The volumetric efficiency at this operating condition
referred to SSL is 80%. The engine is now fitted with a mechanically driven supercharger with an
isentropic efficiency of 70% and pressure ratio of 1.6. The supercharged version has a volumetric
efficiency of 100% referred to supercharger delivery pressure and temperature. Assume the
indicated power developed per unit volume flow rate of induced air at ambient conditions is the
same for normal aspiration and supercharging. Calculate the net increase in brake power resulting
from the supercharger. Take the mechanical efficiency of the engine at 80% in both cases and the
mechanical efficiency of the supercharger drive as 95%. [Assignment question]
Question 14*
A 2m diameter propeller is being tested on the 4 cylinder SI engine whose data is listed below runs
on avegas. If the test is done at an altitude of 2000m, determine the static thrust developed.
Assume the engine operates on the fuel/air Otto cycle. [Ans: 3.25 kN]
Piston Engine
Quantity
Compression ratio
Bore
Stroke
RPM
Cp reactants
Cv reactants

Value
7.5
0.1m
0.125m
2700
1.055kJ/kg-K
0.768kJ/kg-K

Value
Quantity
Combustion efficiency
Mechanical Efficiency
Volumetric efficiency
Air to fuel ratio
Cp products
Cv products

99%
85%
80%
14.5
1.486kJ/kg-K
1.199kJ/kg-K

Question 15*
A helicopter hovers at 1000m. It has a mass of 750kg. Its main rotor is made up of two blades
each having a length of 4m. The tail rotor also has two blades each having a length of 0.75m. If the
power required to drive the tail is 10% of that required to drive the main rotor and the hovering
condition can be considered a static thrust case, determine: (i) the volumetric fuel consumption per
hour, (ii) the brake specific fuel consumption in kg/kWh and (iii) the thermal efficiency of the
engine. Specifications of the SI 4-stoke engine are listed below.
Quantity
Bore

Value
0.1m

Value
Quantity
Combustion efficiency

98%

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not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

20

Stroke
RPM
Cylinders
Fuel approximated by
Cp (fuel & air)
Cv (fuel & air)

0.12m
2500
6
CH2.2
1.055kJ/kg-K
0.768kJ/kg-K

Mechanical Efficiency
Volumetric efficiency
Air to fuel ratio
Fuel
Cp (exhaust products)
Cv (exhaust products)

90%
85%
Stoichiometric
Avgas
1.486kJ/kg-K
1.199kJ/kg-K

Question 16*
A three bladed aircraft propeller with symmetric section is to be tested at SSL conditions under
zero advance speed. The section lift coefficient, angle of attack and chord are given as functions
of the blade radius. From the data below, estimate the thrust if the blade speed is set to 2700RPM
on the test bed.
[Ans: 7.2kN]
Section Lift coefficient gradient

a = 0.1[1+0.1(r/R] (deg-1)

AOA as a function of bade radius, r

= [15-10(r/R)] (deg)

Chord as a function of blade radius, r

c = (R/5)[1-(r/R-0.5)2] (m)

Hub radius
Blade radius

RH = 0.1R (m)
1.0m

Question 17*
An intercooled turbocharged 4 cylinder 4-stroke spark ignition aircraft piston engine fuelled by
avgas drives a 1.8m diameter twin blade propeller. Data on the engine is listed in the table below.
The turbocharger provides a pressure ratio of 1.3 at an isentropic efficiency of 85%. It is located
between the intake and fuel injection system. The turbochargers intercooler reduces the
turbocharger temperature rise by 75%. Assuming the engine to operate on the fuel/air Otto cycle,
calculate the static thrust available at SSL using Froude theory. [Ans: 4.3kN]
Piston Engine
Quantity
Compression ratio
Bore
Stroke
RPM
Cp (fuel & air)
Cv (fuel & air)

Value
7.0
0.1m
0.12m
2500
1.055kJ/kg-K
0.768kJ/kg-K

Value
Quantity
Combustion efficiency
Mechanical Efficiency
Volumetric efficiency
Air to fuel ratio
Cp (exhaust products)
Cv (exhaust products)

95%
90%
100%
14.5
1.486kJ/kg-K
1.199kJ/kg-K

Question 18
Using the McCormick approximation to blade propeller theory, determine the thrust power, torque
power and efficiency of a 3 bladed 5868-9 Clarke-Y section propeller with a diameter of 2.0m,
rotational speed of 2700RPM, advance speed of 150kph and pitch of 150 at 75% of the blade
radius operating at SSL. Assume that the blade lift slope can be approximated by
a=0.1(1.0+t/c)/deg where t is the section thickness and the hub occupies about 5% of the blade
radius. You may also assume that section drag polar for the blade is given by, Cd=Cdmin+0.01(Cl0.15)2 where Cdmin=0.004+0.017(t/c). Additional blade data from page 89 of notes. [Assignment
question]
Question 19
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not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the host Faculty and School/Department.

21

A helicopter with total mass 600 kg, drag coefficient 0.35 and rotor diameter 10 m, moves with a
forward speed of 25 knots at an altitude of 1000m. By determining the relative speed of the air to
the blade, find the power required. [Ans: 12.9 kW]
Question 20
A single spool turbojet with a fixed overall pressure ratio of 20 and maximum cycle temperature of
1400 K operates with an ideal compressor, turbine and nozzles. Assume here also that the
specific heats are the same for cold and hot sides and fuel mass flow is negligible. (i) For a mixed
air speed of Mach=0.8, plot the specific thrust and TSFC against altitude up to 10,000m. (ii) For a
fixed altitude of 5,000m, plot the specific thrust for air speeds ranging from Mach=0 to 0.8.
Question 21
A turbojet is operating with the conditions below.
Quantity

Value

Compressor Ratio
Turbine Inlet Temp
Isentropic Efficiencies
Compressor
Turbine
Intake
Propelling Nozzle
Mechanical Efficiency
Combustion Efficiency
Combustor Pressure drop

9.0
1250K
87%
87%
95%
95%
99%
98%
6%

Value
Quantity
Compressor Cp
Compressor
Turbine Cp
Turbine
Exhaust Gas Constant R
Engine Mass Flow
Airspeed
Altitude

1.005kJ/kgK
1.4
1.148kJ/kgK
1.333
0.287kJ/kgK
15kg/s
260m/s
7000m

Calculate the propelling nozzle area required, the net thrust developed and the TSFC using the
combustor temperature diagram from the notes page 162. [Ans: 0.0644 m2; 8.86 kN; 0.120 kg/N-h]

Question 22
The exhaust gases in the jet pipe of the engine above are reheated to 2000K by supply of Jet A1
fuel to an afterburner; the combustion pressure loss incurred is 3% of the pressure at the outlet
from the turbine. Calculate the percentage increase in nozzle area required if the mass flow is to
be unchanged, the percentage increase in net thrust and fuel flow rate. [Ans: 49%; 63%; 144%]

Question 23*
For the single spool turbo-prop engine below, determine the thrust power assuming the propeller to
be 85% efficient and the propelling nozzle pressure ratio to be 1.3. [Ans: 1.8MW]
Quantity
Compressor Ratio
Turbine Inlet Temp
Isentropic Efficiencies
-Compressor
-Turbine
-Intake
-Propelling Nozzle
Spool Efficiency
Combustion Efficiency
Gear Box efficiency

Value
8.0
1200K
87%
90%
93%
95%
99%
98%
90%

Value
Quantity
Combustion Pressure drop
Compressor Cp
Compressor
Turbine Cp
Turbine
Exhaust Gas Constant R
Intake Nozzle Area
Altitude
Airspeed

4%
1.005kJ/kgK
1.4
1.148kJ/kgK
1.333
0.287kJ/kgK
0.1m2
5000m
125m/s

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22

Question 24*
A new turbo-prop engine is being designed. As well as having a gas generator spool, the engine
also has a second power spool which drives the propeller through an epicyclic gear box. As well as
having a combustor located between the compressor and turbine of the gas generator spool, the
engine also has a re-heat combustor between the exit of the gas generator turbine and the power
turbine. This is designed to increase thrust power. For the engine specifications below, determine
the thrust power for a take-off speed of 75knots and propulsive efficiency 85% at SSL.
[Assignment question]

Quantity
Compressor Ratio
Combustor F/A ratio
Isentropic Efficiencies
- Compressor
- Turbine and power turb.
- Intake (subsonic)
- Propelling nozzle
Gas generator spool eff.
Combustor efficiency
Combustor pressure drop
Propelling noz. press ratio

Value
10
0.015
85%
90%
95%
95%
99%
98%
3%
1.2

Value
Quantity
Compressor Cp
Compressor
Turbine Cp
Turbine
Exhaust gas constant R
Intake nozzle area
Reheat F/A ratio
Reheat comb. eff
Reheat pressure drop
Gear box efficiency
Fuel

1.005kJ/kg-K
1.4
1.148kJ/kg-K
1.333
0.287kJ/kg-K
0.2m2
0.005
98%
2%
85%
Jet A1

Question 25*
The following data is for a twin-spool turbofan gas turbine engine, with the fan driven by the LP
turbine and the compressor by the HP turbine. Separate cold and hot nozzles are used. Determine
the net thrust and TSFC. [Assignment question]
Quantity
Overall Pressure Ratio
Turbine Inlet Temp
Fan Pressure Ratio
Compressors, Fan and
Turbine isentropic Eff.
Intake Isentropic Eff.
Propelling Nozzles Eff.
Spool Mechanical Eff.
Combustion Efficiency
Combustion Pressure
drop

Value
20.0
1300K
1.7
90%
95%
95%
99%
98%
4%

Quantity
Compressor Cp
Compressor
Turbine Cp
Turbine
Exhaust Gas Constant R
Airspeed
Altitude
Area Cold Nozzle
By-pass ratio

1.005kJ/kgK
1.4
1.148kJ/kgK
1.333
0.287kJ/kgK
Mach 0.8
10,000m
0.8m2
4

Question 26
For a ramjet, plot the specific thrust and TSFC against Mach number for speeds, from Mach
number 0.75 up to 5, for an altitude of 20,000m. Assume that the maximum flame temperature is
2200K and combustion pressure drop is 1% of the ram pressure. The intake may be considered as
being divided into two sections: supersonic and subsonic. In the supersonic section, should the
Mach number be greater than 1, use is made of a normal shock in the inlet plane to reduce the
airspeed to subsonic conditions. The subsonic component of the inlet leading to the combustor
section has an isentropic efficiency of 95% while the converging propelling nozzle has an
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23

isentropic efficiency of 95%. Assume the usual air and product property data. Comment on the
results. [Ans: Ma=1.75 Fs= 730 Ns/kg TSFC= 0.25 kg/N-h]
Question 27
Repeat question 26 but assume after an airspeed of Mach=1 an isentropic converging-diverging
propelling nozzle is used to fully expand the exhaust gas to atmospheric pressure. Given the
nozzle area ratio, is acceleration from Mach 1 to Mach 5 using the same nozzle system practical?
[Ans: Ma=1.75 Fs= 792 Ns/kg TSFC= 0.23 kg/N-h]

Question 28*
The single spool turbojet with afterburner, see table below, operates at an airspeed of Mach=1.5.
At this speed the intake is designed to operate with a single normal shock entry after which the
flow is subsonic. Both combustor and afterburner operate on aviation turbine fuel. For an altitude of
15,000m, determine the net thrust and TSFC in kg/N-h. [Assignment question]
Quantity
Compressor Ratio
Turbine Inlet Temp
Isentropic Efficiencies
- Compressor
- Turbine
- Intake (subsonic)
- Propelling nozzle
Mechanical efficiency
Combustor efficiency
Combustor pressure drop

Value
10
1350K
87%
87%
95%
95%
99%
98%
6%

Value
Quantity
Compressor Cp
Compressor
Turbine Cp
Turbine
Exhaust gas constant R
Engine air mass flow
After burner efficiency
Afterburner temperature
Afterburner pressure
drop

1.005kJ/kg-K
1.4
1.148kJ/kg-K
1.333
0.287kJ/kg-K
20kg/s
95%
2000K
5%

Question 29
A single stage rocket is being designed to launch a satellite. The launch angle of 800 is used for a
programmed burn time of 50 sec. The mass of the probe is 50kg, and over all structure mass
1500kg. The rocket motor has a combustion chamber pressure of 3.0MPa. If a
convergent/divergent nozzle is used with throat area 0.1m2, and it is designed to have an exit
pressure equal to that found at a pressure altitude of 15km. Calculate using the rocket fuel data
table in the notes for following fuels (i) Kerosene/O2 and (ii) H2/O2 :
(a) The exhaust exit velocity. [Ans: (i) 3061 m/s; (ii) 4423 m/s]
(b) The propellant mass flow. [Ans: (i) 176 kg/s; (ii) 122 kg/s]
(c) The thrust. [Ans: (i) 0.54 MN; (ii) 0.54 MN]
(d) The specific impulse. [Ans: (i) 312 s; (ii) 451 s]
(e) Total propellant mass and its volume. [Ans: (i) 8815 kg; 8240 m3; (ii) 6095 kg; 23175 m3]
(f) The velocity increment [Ans: (i) 5333 m/s; (ii) 6573 m/s]
(g) Burnout height and coast height. [Ans: (i) 89.9 km; 1966 km; (ii) 119 km; 3483km ]
Question 30*
A single stage rocket is used to launch a satellite. A launch angle of 850 is used for a programmed
burn time of 75 sec. The mass of the probe is 100kg, and mass of the rocket structure 3000kg. The
rocket motor has a combustion chamber pressure of 3.0MPa and temperature of 2750oC. A
convergent/divergent nozzle is used with throat area 0.1m2. The nozzle is designed to have an exit
pressure equal to that found at SSL. Exhaust gas specific heat ratio is 1.15, and molecular weight
22 kg/kmole. Determine (i) the launch thrust at SSL; and (ii) the motor burnout height assuming
the nozzle exit velocity remains constant at its launch value. [Assignment question]
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24

Question 31
A rocket is being designed to launch a deep space probe. The total mass of the rocket is limited to
1000kg resulting in a structure stage fraction of 0.075 (constant for any number of stages). For the
fuel used the rocket is expected to have an effective exhaust velocity of 4500m/s. Determine the
variation in possible payload and total propellant mass if the rocket is made up of either (i) 1 or (ii)
2 stages. [Ans: (i) 8 kg; 917kg; (ii) 45 kg; 864 kg]

Question 32
Undertake a force balance on a rocket undergoing atmospheric flight that includes the effects of
gravity, drag and thrust. Assume that gravity, thrust and drag are all functions of altitude. Based on
the data below, calculate the gravity turn trajectory f(z,x) from take off to the end of the fuel burn.
The rocket is a single stage rocket with a probe mass of 10kg, structure mass 50kg and 1000kg of
H2/O2 propellant. The rocket motor has a combustion chamber pressure of 3.0MPa and a
convergent/divergent nozzle is used with throat area 0.1m2. Assume the nozzle exit pressure is
fully expanded to the altitude condition. The launch angle is 80deg and you may assume an
effective area of CdA=0.1m2. Solution of this problem will require numerical integration of the force
balance over a small time interval until the total propellant mass is consumed.
Question 33*
A rocket motor is fuelled by a stoichiometric mix of hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel and oxidiser
enter the combustion chamber at a temperature of 23oC, then burn at a constant chamber
pressure of 7.0Mpa. The efficiency of the combustor is 90%. The formation enthalpy of the water
vapour produced from the combustion process is 241.827MJ/kmole. For an altitude of 20,000m,
determine:
[Assignment question]
(i) The thrust produced assuming a converging nozzle with exit diameter 0.5m and isentropic
efficiency 95%.
(ii) Whether the thrust produced would be increased over (i) above by adding a diverging section
with the same isentropic efficiency to the nozzle that expands the exhaust gases to atmospheric
pressure for the given altitude.

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25