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Wardatun Malatsih




 Pi bond: A covalent bond resulting from the formation of a molecular orbital by side-to-side overlap of atomic orbitals along a plane perpendicular to a line connecting the nuclei of the atoms. and d orbitals. The geometries of the five different sets of hybrid atomic Figure 3 Hybrid atomic orbitals orbitals (sp. Hybridization has a sound mathematical fundation. so bonds formed by hybrid orbitals or stronger than those formed by ordinary atomic orbitals. denoted by the symbol π. Leaving out the jargons. sp2. sp3d and sp3d2). Example: sp Hybridization in Magnesium Hydride . Hybrid orbitals overlap better with other orbitals than the pure atomic orbitals from which they are formed. we can say that an imaginary mixing process converts a set of atomic orbitals to a new set of hybrid atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals. Figure 2 Formation of a pi bond Figure 1 Formation of a sigma bond    Quantum mechanical approaches by combining the wave functions to give new wavefunctions are called hybridization of atomic orbitals. this atomic orbital describes a region of space in which there is a high probability of finding the electron. sp3.  Sigma bond: A covalent bond resulting from the formation of a molecular orbital by the end-toend overlap of atomic orbitals.ATOMIC ORBITAL  A wave function for an electron in an atom is called an atomic orbital. but it is a little too complicated to show the details here. Hybrid Atomic Orbitals  Hybrid orbitals are formed by mixing pure s. p. Energy changes within an atom are the result of an electron changing from a wave pattern with one energy to a wave pattern with a different energy (usually accompanied by the absorption or emission of a photon of light). denoted by the symbol σ.

These two sp orbitals bond with the two 1s orbitals of the two hydrogen atoms through sp-s orbital overlap.In magnesium hydride. The two frontal lobes of the sp orbitals face away from each other forming a straight line leading to a linear structure. Figure 4 sp Hybridization in Magnesium Hydride MOLECULAR ORBITAL BONDING (MO)  Molecular orbital theory takes the view that molecules and atoms are alike. The following assumptions lie at the core of this model. the 3s orbital and one of the 3p orbitals from magnesium hybridize to form two sp orbitals. They are treated as collections of nuclei and electrons. Both have energy levels that correspond to various orbitals that can be populated by electrons. . One common approximation that allows us to generate molecular orbital diagrams for some small diatomic molecules is called the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) approach. 2. Only atomic orbitals of about the same energy interact to a significant degree. Figure 5 Combining 1s atomic orbitals to produce bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals   Molecular orbitals can spread over two or more nuclei and can be considered to be formed by the constructive inteference of the overlapping electron waves corresponding to the atomic orbitals of the atoms in the molecule (Fugure 1). with the electrons of the molecule distributed among molecular orbitals of different energies. 1. Molecular orbitals are formed from the overlap of atomic orbitals.

mpcfaculty. Figure 6 Approimate relative energies of molecular orbitals in Period 2 diatomic molecules.ucdavis.) http://chemwiki. antibonding Mos remove electron density from between nuclei. a bonding molecular orbital and an antibonding molecular orbital. the more stable the bond.htm (Accessed 2015-02-09 at 00:33 a. bond order = 1/2 (#e.   The stability of the molecule can be predicted using bond order.. & Hyslop. they interact in two extreme ways to form two molecular orbitals. The ability of MO theory to describe delocalized orbitals avoids the need for resonance theory. 445-453.m. A bond order of greater than zero suggests a stable molecule. United States of America: John Wiley & (Accessed 2015-02-09 at 00:40 a.3.) http://chemed. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter (5th ed).in bonding MO's .) . If the bond order for a molecule is equal to zero. Neil D. 277-284. Martin S.m. The higher the bond order is.m.m. http://www. A.) https://sites. Boston: McGraw-Hill. REFERENCES Jespersen. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change (2nd ed). Inc. (b) O2 throgh Ne2 Bonding MOS concentrate electron density between nuclei. 293-307. 2.chem. p. Delocalization of bonds leads to a lowering of the energy by an amoun called the delocalization energy and produce more stable molecular structure. Nonbonding Mos do not effect the energy of the Silberberg. 3. When two atomic orbitals overlap. the molecule is (Accessed 2015-0209 at 01:17 a. (2000). (a) Li2 through N2. James E. Brady.purdue. (2012).com/site/ed350201003/Task (Accessed 2015-02-08) (Accessed 2015-02-09 at 00:51 antibonding MO's) 1.