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Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS - 13 - 22110 ( Group 3

)

Fluid Friction Lab Report
Objective :
 To find friction factor for water flow in pipes of different diameters.
 To find Head loss coefficient across in pipes of different diameter, smooth 90˚ bend, sudden enlargement
and sudden contraction tube, globe valve, gate valve and ball valve.
 To find coefficient of discharge for Orifice plate, Nozzle and Venturi-meter.
Losses :
Whenever a fluid flows through a pipe , pressure loss occurs along the flow passage. This pressure loss is
divided into two categories as
 Major losses
 Minor losses

So from Bernoulli equation

 P1 V12

P2 V22


Z


 Z 2  hloss 
1

 2g
  2g

Where hloss represents the total head lost
Major Losses are the ones that occur due to friction which results due to the viscosity. For a fully developed,
major loss due to friction is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation
ΔP

=

fLV2/(2gD)

Where




ΔP
f
V
D
L

= Pressure Loss
=
Darcy friction factor
=
Fluid velocity
=
diameter of pipe
=
Length of pipe

This major loss occurs in every piping system no matter how much smooth the pipe is since the even for smooth
pipe roughness is not zero
Minor Losses :
piping systems do not necessarily consist of straight pipes. They contains a considerable no of other components
like valves, bends etc losses due to such components are termed as the Minor losses.
It is given by the expression
ΔP
=
K(V2/2g)
i-e pressure loss is ‘k’ times the dynamic pressure of fluid.
‘K’ represents the ‘loss Co-efficient’ which is mostly given by the manufacturer. The value of ‘k’ strongly
depends upon the geometry of component considered. It may also depends upon the fluid’s properties. Loss
coefficient is a function of Reynold’s no and the component’s geometry but in most practical cases, in a flow in
which inertial forces are more dominant than the viscous effects, ‘K’ is only a function of component Geometry.

13 . . That’s why the friction factor for large diameter pipes is greater than the smaller diameter pipes for the same flowrate. Nozzle and Venturi meter : The objective of this section of the experiment was to find out the behavior of fluid as it flows across the orifice. The actual flow rate is given by the Rota meter.22110 ( Group 3 ) Measuring the Flow Coefficient for Orifice. And the fluid flow moves towards turbulence. In the end the relation between Reynolds’s number and Flow coefficient is seen graphically to easily visualize the observations. The result of this is a large quantity. The mathematical relations used are given below: These equations give us the theoretical flow rate. This is because with the increase in flowrate the velocity of flow increases. In case of venturimeter the value of velocity is higher than the other because in this case the pressure drop is effectively converted into velocity head with minimum friction losses. The flow coefficient is measured by following equation. nozzle or a venture meter. Because the velocity increases with the increase in flow rate.00013471 m^2 At the same flow rate the head loss coefficient for venturimeter is higher than other obstructions because the venture meter has the smallest area and a very smooth shape. Whereas the pressure drops also increase but not so significantly as the velocity. In this situation small quantiy/(small quantity)^2. And the square of small quantity becomes very very small. For venturimeter area = 0.00011116 m^2 For orificemeter area = 0. And the pressure drop increases not so significantly as the velocity increases (because where the speed becomes high the pressusre gets and the difference of pressure becomes more). For the same flowrate the friction factor is maximum for large diameter pipe. Graph between Head loss Coeffecient and Reynold Number: It is given by the expression ΔP = K(V2/2g) For the same obstruction the head loss coefficient will decreases with the increase in flow rate.00016963 m^2 For nozzle area = 0. (ΔP2gD) / (LV2 )= f With the increase in diameter of the pipe the velocity becomes very small. Due to this the friction factor decreases with the increase in flow rate for pipes of same diameter. Actual flow rate is measured with the help of rota-meter Discussions : Graph between Reynold Nunber and friction factor : The reynold number increases with the increase in flow rate for the given pipes because with the increase in flowrate the velocity increases. For the same diameter pipe with the increase in flowrate the friction factor decreases.Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS . Here in this case pressure drop in larger diameter pipes is small.

But the quantity theoretical discharge as a whole is less than the others at the same flowrate so its cd value is high. Now = (Area of instrument)*(Velocity at that area) For venturimeter area = 0.00016963 m^2 For nozzle area = 0.22110 ( Group 3 ) Graph between coefficient of discharge Cd and Reynold number: Q actual is same for all the instruments because all of them are connected to a constant diameter pipe i.00011116 m^2 For orificemeter area = 0. .e 1inch diameter pipe.13 . For venturimeter smallest area highest velocity at that point. Velocities at the certain area are calculated by using venture relation.Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS . the areas must be the same then we can compare them.00013471 m^2 Now here the areas are varying.