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Oasis montaj 7.

0
Mapping and Processing System
The core software platform for working
with large volume spatial data

QUICK START™ TUTORIALS

www.geosoft.com

The software described in this manual is furnished under license and may
only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of the license.
Manual release date: 1/16/2008.
Written by, Nancy Whitehead. Please send comments or questions to
info@geosoft.com
Copyright © Geosoft Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in
any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, reading, or
otherwise, without prior consent from Geosoft Inc.
Program Copyright© Geosoft Inc. 2008. All rights reserved.
Geosoft and Oasis montaj are registered trademarks of Geosoft Inc.
GEOSOFT, Oasis are trademarks of Geosoft Inc.
Windows®, and Windows NT™ are either registered trademarks or
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Geosoft Incorporated
8th Floor
85 Richmond St. W.
Toronto, Ontario
M5H 2C9
Canada
Tel: (416) 369-0111
Fax: (416) 369-9599
Web Site: www.geosoft.com
E-mail: info@geosoft.com

Contents
Geosoft License Agreement

Finding More Help Information

Contacting Technical Support

Geosoft Concepts

Oasis montaj Viewer

Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System

Why Oasis montaj?

Keeping you in touch with your data

Projects and the Project Explorer

What you need to know about Project files

Metadata

10 

Viewing and Editing Metadata

10 

Metadata Tool

12 

Databases and high-volume data processing

14 

Spreadsheets are the windows to your database

16 

How the Spreadsheet Displays Project Data

17 

Profiles and viewing your data graphically

18 

Maps are more than printed sheets of information

19 

ArcGIS MXD Files in Oasis montaj

21 

Dynamically link data and information to knowledge

22 

Geosoft Algorithms and Techniques

24 

Process Maker technology brings dynamic linking to data processing 25 

Oasis montaj

27 

Mapping and Processing System

27 

Getting Started

28 

Software and Hardware Requirements

28 

Oasis montaj eLicensing

29 

Installing Oasis montaj

30 

Install from the Oasis montaj CD ROM

30 

Install your eLicense (New User)

30 

Install from the Oasis montaj CD and/or upgrade to current version

31 

Parking (Uninstalling) your eLicense

31 

To Park (or Uninstall) your eLicense

31 

Transferring your eLicense

32 

View Computer ID on target computer

32 

Transfer eLicense

32 

Install the Transfered eLicense:

32 

Updating your eLicense

33 

Lock and Unlock eLicenses

33 

Setting High-Resolution Graphics

33 

Configuring Oasis montaj Settings

33 

Advanced Settings

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work
Welcome to the Oasis montaj Environment
System Files

Creating a Working Directory
Copying Tutorial Files to Your Working Directory

Before you Begin

36 

39 
39 
40 

40 
40 

41 

Creating a Project

41 

Loading Application and Tool Menus

43 

Finding FAST Answers to Questions

44 

Advantages of FAST Information Delivery

Printing Complete Manuals on Demand

Tutorial 2: Working with Data

45 

46 

47 

Database Menus

47 

Creating an Oasis montaj Database

47 

Database Lines/Groups

49 

Creating a New Line or Group

51 

Oasis montaj Supported Data Formats

52 

Importing Data into the Oasis montaj Database

53 

Drag-n-Drop XYZ Data

55 

Displaying Data in the Spreadsheet

55 

Channel Header Cells

57 

Current X and Y (and Z) Channels

58 

Processing Data in the Spreadsheet

58 

Displaying a Profile in the Spreadsheet

60 

Database Toolbar

61 

Protect and Unprotect Channels in a Spreadsheet

62 

Creating Working Channels in the Oasis montaj Database

62 

Editing a Channel in the Database

65 

Editing Data Using Conditional Expressions

67 

Using the Channel Math Expression Tool

67 

Interpolating Data

69 

Profile - Y Axis Options

71 

Profile – X Axis options

72 

Profile Options

72 

Master Sample

73 

Saving Changes to Databases

74 

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases

75 

Before You Begin this Tutorial:

75 

Getting Ready to Export to a Microsoft Access

76 

Exporting to Microsoft Access Database Format

76 

Importing a Database Table

77 

Exporting to an Excel Comma Separated Value (CSV) File

78 

Importing an Excel Comma Separated Value (CSV) File

79 

Drag-n-Drop Geosoft Database Files

83 

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

85 

Map Menus

86 

Selecting Data for Mapping and Processing

86 

Creating a New Map

87 

Creating a Map Template using Interactive Tools

88 

Working with Interactive Map Template Tool

89 

Automated Map Sheets

90 

Creating MAPPLOT Map Templates (manual)

90 

Creating a Base Map

93 

Plotting Survey Lines

98 

Plotting Profiles

98 

Moving Around the Map

100 
103 

Map Tools Bar

Configurable Hotkeys

105 

Gridding Data

106 

Grid and Image Menu

106 

Bi-Directional

106 

Minimum curvature

107 

Kriging

108 

Tinning

110 

Trend Enforcement Gridding

110 

Gridding using the Bi-directional gridding method

110 

Voxels (3D Gridding)
Create a Voxel Grid

Displaying a Grid
Recolour Grids

114 
114 

115 
117 

Drag-n-Drop Geosoft Grid Files

117 

Plotting Contours

117 

Snapshots

119 

How to Create a Snapshot

120 

How to View a Snapshot

120 

Close and Save Project

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

120 

123 

Before you Begin

123 

Create a Project

123 

Displaying an Interpretation Map

124 

Understanding the Parts of a Map

124 

Base and Data Views

125 

3D Views

125 

Groups

125 

View/Group Manager Tool

125 

Rendering Options
Other Tool Options

126 
127 

Create a New Group

128 

Selecting and Editing Groups

128 

Method 1
Method 2

Hiding, Moving and Masking Map Groups

128 
129 

130 

Hiding a Group.

130 

Moving a Group

130 

Masking a Group

131 

Drawing Lines, Polylines and Polygons

133 

Drawing Polylines

133 

Changing Line Attributes

136 

Creating Polygons from Lines

137 

Using the Get Colour and Polygon Colour Tools

142 

Get Colour Tool
Polygon Fill Tool

142 
142 

Polygon Edit Tools

142 

To Add/Remove Vertices on a Polygon

144 

Using the Windows Clipboard with Maps in Oasis montaj

145 

How does the Windows Clipboard work?

145 

Copying Georeferenced information between Maps

146 

Use the Clipboard to create a Montage Map or Poster

146 

Using the Clipboard to paste a picture from another application on a Map

147 

Using the Clipboard to export a graphics from a Map to another application 148 

Close and Save Project

148 

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking
Before you begin…

149 
149 

Creating Colour Shaded Images

149 

Interactive Colour Imaging and Shadowing

151 

Copying and/or Converting Grid Files

154 

Using Dynamic Data Links

154 

Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps

157 

Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts

161 

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

167 

Creating a Second Database in a Project

167 

Processing Data in the Spreadsheet

170 

Plotting Symbols, Colour Bars and Legends

171 

Gridding Random Data

182 

Gridding Geochemical Data

183 

Kriging – Quick Overview

184 

Importing Data for Kriging

185 

Calculating and Displaying a Variogram Model

186 

Selecting Variogram Model and Parameters

188 

Plotting Krigrid Data

191 

Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging

193 

Tutorial 11: Projections

197 

What is a map projection?
Parts of a map projection

Understand Geosoft projections

197 
197 

198 

Define a projection in Oasis montaj

198 

Define X, Y channels

199 

Set a projection to a coordinate pair in a database

200 
200 

B e f o r e yo u b e g i n …

Setting a Projected (x,y) projection to a database

200 

Setting a Geographic (long, lat) projection to a database

206 

Define the map projection of a grid

210 

Defining the map projection of a map view

214 

Create a new map from X, Y coordinates

215 

New map from Latitude – Longitude coordinates

218 

Displaying data with different projections on a map

220 

Applying a warp to a grid

220 

Warping image files

223 

Converting Elevations

223 

Projection concepts and FAQs

225 

Tutorial 12: Database Maintenance Utilities

227 

Checking Database Details

227 

Defragmenting the Database

228 

Growing, Verifying or Repairing your Database:

228 

Adding Database Comments

228 

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps

230 

Exporting Maps to a File

230 

Printing Maps

232 

Printer and Page Setup

232 

Change or Add New Printer Configuration

234 

Print Preview

235 

Print a Map

235 

Printing in Batch

236 

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

239 

Create a 3D View from an Existing Map View or Group

240 

Create a 3D View from an Existing Grid File

243 

Add a Plane to an Existing 3D View

246 

Draw a group directly onto a plane in an existing 3D View

248 

To Plot 3D Colour Range Symbols

249 

Notes about 3D Views

252 

Displaying a Voxel in a 3D View

252 

Plotting Voxel Isosurface (Contour)

253 

3D Tool and 3D Viewer

255 

Display Tab

256 

Plane Tab

257 

Voxel Tab

258 

Surfaces Tab

258 

3D Rendering Memory Requirements

258 

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)
DAP’s main features include:

260 
260 

Find Data with Dapple

260 

Find DAP Data

263 

Authorizing Your Internet Communication Settings

265 

Authorize Internet Communication Dialog

266 

Internet Trust Relationship Dialog

266 

Metadata Browser

266 

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool
Before you begin

269 
270 

Creating a project

270 

Accessing the Trend Enforcement menus

271 

Opening a Database

271 

Gridding your data using Bigrid

272 

Displaying a Colour Shaded Grid

274 

Finding Trends

275 

Accessing Trend Lines in Database

276 

Plotting Trend Lines

277 

Adding Your Own Trend Lines

278 

Gridding Trend Enforced Data

279 

Comparing the two grids

280 

Deselecting/Selecting Trend Lines

281 

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

283 

Spheroids

283 

Datums

283 
What does this mean?

Working with spheroids and datums

Understanding local datums

283 

284 

284 

Method 1

285 

Method 2

286 

Choosing a local datum transform

286 

Local datum CSV files

287 

Adding your own local datum transform

287 

Oasis montaj projection files and reference tables

289 

GI projection files (*.gi)

289 

Projection table files

289 

Projection name tables

290 

Table 1: Projection transformation methods
Parameter Notes:

Table 2: Length units

Appendix 2: Geosoft Line and Pattern Styles
L i n e S t yl e s
Pattern Styles

290 
290 

293 

294 
294 
294 

Glossary

300 

Index

302 

1

Geosoft License Agreement
GEOSOFT agrees to supply the Licensed Program(s) as specified in my purchase order. Geosoft shall grant me a nontransferable, non-exclusive license to use the Licensed Program(s), subject to the Terms and Conditions herein contained.
Should there be a separate signed agreement between you and Geosoft, or between your company and Geosoft, pertaining to
the licensed use of this software, that agreement shall take precedence over the terms of this agreement.
1.

DEFINITIONS:

In this Agreement:
"Licensed Program(s)" means the actual copy of all or any portion of Geosoft’s proprietary software technology, computer
software code, components, dynamic link libraries (DLLs) licensed through the Geosoft license server, including any
modifications, improvements or updates provided by GEOSOFT.
“Effective Date” is the date the Geosoft license is installed. This date is recorded by the Geosoft License server when the
Licensed Program(s) is installed.
"Services" means the Services described on Section 4.
"Termination" means the occurrences contemplated by Section 6 and 7.
2.

LICENSE:

GEOSOFT grants to me a non-transferable and non-exclusive license to use the Licensed Program(s) for my own purposes
whereby the Licensed Program(s) are being used only by myself, on one computer, at any one time.
Title and all intellectual property rights in and to the License Program(s), including, without limitation, copyright, trade secrets
and trade marks, shall remain with GEOSOFT. I agree to refrain from raising any objection or challenge to such intellectual
property rights, or from assisting or causing or permitting other(s) to do so, during the term of the Agreement and thereafter
I may not assign this Agreement or any part thereof or sub-license the rights granted herein, or lend, rent, time-share, sell or
lease the software without the prior written consent of GEOSOFT.
I may not attempt to reverse engineer, de-compile or disassemble the software.
I may not make any attempt to circumvent the License Manager that controls the access to the software use.
3.

TERM:

The Term of this Agreement shall commence on the Effective Date and shall continue until termination, as described in Section
6.
4.

SERVICES:

(i) According to the terms of my initial purchase, GEOSOFT shall make available to me, without additional fees such
corrections and improvements to the Licensed Program(s) as may be generally incorporated into the Licensed Program(s) by
GEOSOFT. (Normally this will be for a period of twelve (12) months).
(ii) GEOSOFT has a strong commitment to customer service and product support. GEOSOFT offers me, subject to applicable
Service Charge(s), continuing support in the form of email or telephone advice and other assistance in problem diagnosis and
the correction of errors or faults in the Licensed Program(s) during the life of this License. When a problem occurs which
appears to be related to errors or faults in the Licensed Program(s), I may contact GEOSOFT and GEOSOFT will make an
honest effort to solve the problem. However, GEOSOFT cannot guarantee service results or represent or warrant that all errors
or program defects will be corrected. Also it is to be noted that each Licensed Program is designed to operate on a Windows
NT (sp 6 or later), Windows 2000 or Windows XP platform.
(iii) Further, if I request service relating to the modification of the Licensed Program(s) to meet a particular need or to conform
with a particular operating environment, GEOSOFT may, at its discretion, modify the Licensed Program(s) to meet these
particular needs, subject to applicable Services Charge(s). However, all intellectual property or other rights which may arise
from such modifications shall reside with GEOSOFT.
5.

PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF LICENSED PROGRAM

I agree that all additions, modifications, revisions, updates and extensions to the Licensed Program(s) shall be subject to all of
the terms and conditions in this agreement.
I acknowledge that all copies of the Licensed Program(s), provided by GEOSOFT or made by me pursuant to this Agreement,
including, without limitation, translations, compilations, partial copies, modifications, derivative materials and/or updated
materials, are proprietary, and the property of GEOSOFT, and may not be distributed to any other persons, without
GEOSOFT’s prior written consent.
I will not provide or otherwise make the Licensed Program(s) available to anyone in any form without GEOSOFT's prior written
consent.
6.

TERMINATION:

This agreement shall terminate upon the termination date, if any, specified in your purchase agreement with Geosoft.

2
This agreement may be terminated only upon thirty-days prior written notice to GEOSOFT.
GEOSOFT may terminate this Agreement upon prior written notice effective immediately if I fail to comply with any of the terms
and conditions of this Agreement.
This Agreement shall terminate automatically upon the institution, or consenting to the institution of proceedings in insolvency
or bankruptcy, or upon a trustee in bankruptcy or receiver being appointed for me/us for all or a substantial portion of my/our
assets.
7.

EVENTS UPON TERMINATION:

I shall forthwith discontinue use of the Licensed Program(s), on the day Termination shall occur and agree not to resume such
use in the future without written authorization from GEOSOFT.
I shall uninstall and remove all software from my computer. Within thirty days after Termination, I shall destroy all physical and
digital copies of the Licensed Program(s). This obligation relates, without limitation, to all copies in any form, including
translations, compilations, derivatives and updated materials, whether partial or complete, and whether or not modified or
merged into other materials as authorized herein.
8.

WARRANTY:

GEOSOFT does not warrant that the functions contained in the Licensed Program will meet my requirements or will operate in
the combinations which may be selected for use by me, or that the operation of the Licensed Program will be uninterrupted or
error free or that all program defects will be corrected.
Each Licensed Program shall be furnished to me in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. No warranties, either
express or implied, are made to me regarding the Licensed Program.
THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.
9.

LIMITATION OF REMEDIES

I agree to accept responsibility for the use of the programs to achieve my intended results, and for the results obtained from
use of said Program(s). I therefore accept complete responsibility for any decision made based on my use of the
aforementioned Licensed Program(s).
In no event shall GEOSOFT be liable for any damages arising from performance or non-performance of the Licensed
Program(s), or for any lost profits, lost savings or other consequential damages, even if GEOSOFT has been advised of the
possibility of such damages, or for any claim against me by any other party.
10. GENERAL:
I agree that this Agreement is a complete and exclusive statement of the agreement with GEOSOFT.
This Agreement supersedes all previous Agreements with respect to the Licensed Programs, with the exception of a current
signed Technical Service Agreements.
GEOSOFT is not responsible for failure to fulfill its obligations under the Agreement due to causes beyond its control.
Should any part of This Agreement for any reason be declared invalid, such declaration shall not affect the remaining portion
which shall remain in full force and effect as if this Agreement had been executed without the invalid portion thereof.
The relationship between the parties is that of independent contractors. Nothing contained in this Agreement shall be deemed
to constitute or create a partnership, association, joint venture or agency.
The provision of this Agreement shall be binding upon me and GEOSOFT and my respective successors and permitted
assigns.
This Agreement will be governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario and applicable laws of Canada.
11. YEAR 2000:
The Licensed Programs have been tested to conform to DISC PD2000 1:1998 Year 2000 Conformity Requirements
(www.bsi.org.uk/disc/year2000/2000.html), with the exception of clause 3.3.2, paragraph b. Section 3.3.2 paragraph b) requires
that inferences for two-digit year dates greater than or equal to 50 imply 19xx, and those with a value equal to or less than 50
imply 20xx. The Licensed Programs will recognize all two digit years as 19xx. This is to prevent errors importing historical data
that pre-dates 1950. All dates that follow 1999 must use four digit dates in the Licensed Programs.

3

Finding More Help Information
There are several other functions included in the basic Oasis montaj help system that
may be useful to your work. The entire documentation for the system is available
through the online help system. This electronic library of information enables us to
constantly update the information and provide you with the most up-to-date
information available.
The best way to find information in this system is to use the Search tab to perform a
full-text search of all help topics. If you still can’t find the information you’re looking
for, the Manuals, Tutorials and Technical Notes help system contains complete
Geosoft manuals and tutorials in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.
Contacting Technical Support
The list below provides contact information for Geosoft Technical Support around the
world. Note that, technical support is for Licensed Users Only.
North America

Europe and North Africa

Geosoft Inc.,
85 Richmond St. W., 8th Floor
Toronto, Ont.,
Canada
M5H 2C9

Geosoft Europe Ltd.
20/21 Market Place, First Floor
Wallingford, Oxfordshire
OX10 OAD United Kingdom

Tel. (416) 369-0111
Fax (416) 369-9599

Tel: +44 1491 835 231
Fax: +44 1491 835 281
Email: tech.eu@geosoft.com

Email: tech@geosoft.com
South America

Australia and Southeast Asia

Geosoft Latinoamerica Ltda.
Praça Floriano 51 / 19º Andar
CEP: 20031-050, Centro
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Geosoft Australia Pty. Ltd
350 Hay Street
Subiaco WA 6008
Australia

Tel: (55-21) 2532-0140
Fax: (55-21) 2532-7197

Tel 61 (8) 9382 1900
Fax 61 (8) 9382-1911

Email: tech.sa@geosoft.com

Email: tech.au@geosoft.com

South and Central Africa
Geosoft Africa Ltd.
Buren Building, Second Floor
Kasteelpark Office Park
c/o Nossob & Jochemus Streets
Erasmuskloof X3, Pretoria
Tel: 27 12 347 4519
Fax: 27 12 347 6936
Email: tech.za@geosoft.com

4 Geosoft Concepts

Geosoft Concepts
This chapter contains information about the components included in Oasis montaj™
and describes the concepts you will need to know to use the system. A quick
overview of the concepts described in this chapter are available in the Oasis montaj
Viewer help system in the About directory called Tour for New Users.
Oasis montaj is Geosoft’s core software platform for working with large volume
spatial data. The core software platform consists of a free Viewer and a licensed
Mapping and Processing System.
Oasis montaj Viewer
The Oasis montaj Viewer is a free software product that enables you to view Geosoft
databases, Geosoft Grids and a variety of common image and data exchange formats.
Specifically, this version provides you with the following capabilities:
• Access Geosoft project data (databases, profiles, grids, voxels, maps), ArcGIS
MXD files, maps, tools (3D Tool and Project Explorer) and Geosoft tool bars
(Database Tools, Map Layout, Map Tools, and Standard)
• Evaluate data, information and interpretations by viewing and performing
specific tasks using Geosoft databases, profiles, maps, and grids as well as
Geosoft and third-party images (including Geosoft PLT, AutoCAD DXF,
MapInfo TAB, ArcView SHP, ArcGIS LYR, and Microstation DGN files)
• Verify data quality, analyses and interpretations by tracking processes applied to
databases and maps
• Perform selected processes made available through Geosoft menus or third-party
GXs
• Share results and knowledge by viewing and/or sending E-maps and 3D PDF
files (see the Export To PDF 3D for more details) to team members and other
professional contacts
• Prepare reports by exporting to 3D PDF or using clipboard image copying
capabilities
For more information on the free Viewer visit www.geosoft.com
Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System
The Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System contains a cross-section of builtin data import, processing, analysis, visualization, mapping, and integration
capabilities. This system enables you to perform complex processing, editing,
mapping, and interpretation tasks including the ability to:
• Access project editing tools (Undo/Redo Tool, Map Group Editing Bar, Map
Template Tools Bar, Polygon Edit Bar and Script Bar) and project auxiliary tools
(Histograms, Scatter plots, Probability plots and Triplots)

Geosoft Concepts 5






Create, import, and export: databases, profiles, maps, grids, voxels, images, and
ArcGIS MXD files
Process data using Geosoft’s gridding, contouring and 1D filter algorithms
Advanced grid utilities and gridding toolkit
Design and layout maps, consisting of base maps, grids, images, customized
annotations, labels, colour symbols, multi-parameter symbol plotting, and other
entities
Advanced CAD tools to draw interpretation features on your maps
Drag-n-Drop Geosoft grids, maps and databases and XYZ files for quick viewing
Automate tasks using scripts

The Oasis montaj environment provides direct access to data contained in Oasis
databases through a spreadsheet window and an integrated profile display window.
The Oasis database is a high-performance database that provides efficient storage and
access for very large spatial data sets.
The Mapping and Processing System enables you to edit maps and ArcGIS MXD
files interactively, applying dynamic linking to maps and track the map creation
processes. Visual data links are provided to dynamically connect data in the
spreadsheet, profile, grid, map and ArcGIS MXD views.
Data processing is achieved through the application of Geosoft eXecutable functions
(GXs), which can be used to control all aspects of the data processing sequence and
environment. DAT Technology (for Accessing Grids and Images) enables the
platform to use a variety of grid and image formats in Oasis montaj.
The Oasis montaj core platform provides the basic resources for all Geosoft
Applications and Tools. Geosoft provides a variety of systems that address specific
applications in exploration geophysics, drillhole geology, exploration geochemistry
and other areas. These systems consist of menus and corresponding Geosoft
eXecutables (GXs) that run on the core platform.

6 Geosoft Concepts

Why Oasis montaj?
The concept of an integrated environment for earth science data processing and
analysis emerged from over two decades of software development at Geosoft and is
now implemented in the Oasis montaj software platform. Geosoft’s vision reflects
the fast pace of today’s professional work environment and the significant changes in
data processing over the past twenty years:


An order of magnitude increase in data volumes and increase in digital data
availability and connectivity
Shift in processing from office to in situ (or field) environments
Replacement of proprietary software with commercial solutions

By design, Geosoft’s Oasis montaj software platform meets specific needs including:








Project Explorer Tool enables users to browse as well as open any ‘project’ item
and provides project items in convenient dropdown lists
Metadata Tool provides a context-oriented, interactive way to view and edit
attributes assigned to Geosoft data
View/Group Manager Tool enables users to manage and edit map View
and/or Groups
Drag-n-Drop display technology enables users to drag-n-drop Geosoft grids
(*.GRD), maps (*.MAP), databases (*.GDB) and XYZ files (*.XYZ) for quick
viewing of data
3D Mapping enables users to view their data in 3-dimensions, providing a realworld view of their data
Snapshot (bookmark) of currently viewed map extents enables users to quickly
and easily capture and return to a favourite location on their map
3D verticle exageration is also now available
‘True transparency’ has been added and is automatically enabled, with video
cards that support it.
Electronic licensing model enables Licenses to be handled by the Geosoft license
server enabling licenses to be moved between machines online, or via email or
disk (where necessary).
Geosoft’s DAP (Data Access Protocol) technology enables users to access very
large spatial datasets residing on an Internet Server (or locally on a Personal
Computer).
Connecting you to your data and information via dynamic linking – a unique
technology for graphically connecting data, profiles and maps in a single desktop
environment
Addressing high-volume processing requirements while delivering focused
solutions to specific Earth Science problems
Free Oasis montaj Viewer for Data and Information Sharing

Geosoft Concepts 7

Keeping you in touch with your data
An important design strategy in Oasis montaj was to keep you in touch with your
data. In fact, the system is intended to connect you with your data and information in
several unique ways:
• By providing an integrated environment that holds all of your project information
• By enabling quick and easy access all your project data via the Project Explorer
including; databases, grids, maps, tools and metadata information
• By providing unique views of data (spreadsheet, profile and map)
• By connecting you to data and information in these views (through a specialized
dynamic linking technology)
• By delivering a wide variety of algorithms and techniques
• By “memorizing” the processing you apply to data and maps by means of a
proprietary process “maker” technology. This capability is especially useful for
quickly testing and optimizing processing parameters. It also keeps a record of
processing so that you can remember your settings if you stop working on your
project and later return to it.
Geosoft’s approach is intended to give you a means of keeping in close contact with
your original and processed data and information — from start to finish. As you use
the system, you will find your own ways to take advantage of these capabilities.

The remainder of this section provides some brief details about projects, databases,
maps, views, dynamic links and process makers.

8 Geosoft Concepts

Projects and the Project Explorer
To work in Oasis montaj requires an open Project. An Oasis montaj "Project"
encompasses every item in your working project; from the data files in your project
(databases, maps, and grids), to the tools used (including auxiliary tools such as
histograms, scatter plots etc), to the project setup including the menus you have
displayed and whether you are working on a map or profile and the state in which you
left it the last time you used it.
The Project Explorer enables you to browse as well as open any project item. The
project file (*.gpf) is used to keep track of all information related to a working
project.
The Project Explorer has two windows, the Data window that includes all data files
included in the project and the Tools window that organizes and maintains the project
tools.

Project Explorer Data Tab

Project Explorer Tools Tab

Some of the capabilities of the Project Explorer are:
• Keeps track of all files and using the description and metadata tools enables you
to keep track of project information. Note that, in previous versions, file
information was maintained in the file system and the user had to keep track of
what the files were.

Geosoft Concepts 9




Explorer tools including; Tools, Toolbars and Auxiliary Tools (licensed version
only)

Tools; 3D Tool, Metadata Tool, Project Explorer and Undo/Redo Map Edit
Tool

Auxiliary Tools: Histograms, Probability plots, Scatter plots, and TriPlots

Toolbars; Database Tools bar, Map Edit Bar, Map Tools Bar, Polygon Edit
Bar, Script Bar and Standard Bar
File locations displayed in popup dialog when you mouse over item in the
Project Explorer
Data Description Tool enable users to add description to project items
Enhanced metadata capabilities enable access to the "View Metadata" of all data
items displayed in the Project Explorer
Recent Projects & recent Geosoft data files available under File menu

Note:

Grids appear in the Project Explorer under "Grids". Opening a grid opens a
view of the grid in its own internal "map". A grid map view is just like a real
map and can accept any graphics that a map can. It can also be saved as a
map, in which case the map will appear in the "Map" section of the project
explorer.
Whenever you create a grid in Oasis montaj it will be placed in the "Grids"
section of the Project Explorer. Some applications will also open the grid for
you to see it in the data viewing area. You can also open a grid for viewing
by double-clicking on the grid name, by dragging and dropping it into the data
viewing, or by dropping it onto an open map, in which case it will be placed
into the default data view.
When a grid is opened in its own window, you will see it either in a default
"equal-area" colouring scheme, or in the last colour scheme that was used to
look at the grid. The grid is actually displayed using a "map" window that
functions just like a real map window. This means that the shadow cursors
will trace locations from other windows and all the normal map drawing and
viewing tools will work just as they do in other map windows. However, this
view is only meant for temporary viewing of the grid and for "scratch-pad"
type rendering of graphics. If you do add any additional graphics to the grid
window you will be asked if you want to save the changes to a new map when
you close the window. If you choose not to save changes, all graphics that
you have added to the grid view will be lost.

What you need to know about Project files
You require an open project to do any work in Oasis montaj. The project also
controls your working directory. Projects are saved as (*.gpf) files. If you open an
existing project from a directory, the system assumes that your files are located in the
specified directory. To streamline your work, as well as keep it organized, you may
want to make sure that your project is in the same directory as the other files you
want to use.

10 Geosoft Concepts

We recommend that each project you work on have its own project (*.gpf) file. If you
use a number of applications or add-on tools in Oasis montaj that have different
menus, you can use the project to display only the menus you require.

Metadata
Metadata (data about data) is captured by Oasis montaj from the first time the data is
touched. The metadata information, which is based on ISO 19115 standards, is stored
inside the data (if supported) or as a companion XML file. When you import or work
with data in Oasis montaj, User name, Date, Time and any actions performed on the
data will be maintained in the Metadata. When data is derived from other data, the
Metadata is passed on and the lineage of what was done to the data is maintained in
the Lineage section.
Viewing and Editing Metadata
Attributes (or metadata), information about data, can be simple or complex and the
descriptive needs of different kinds of data are infinitely diverse. To allow for this
and provide flexibility, Geosoft developed the XML Metadata Viewer and Metadata
Editor to help you organize your metadata.
Even though each Geosoft data type (Database, Grid, Map, ArcGIS MXD, Voxel, etc)
exhibits many different attributes, using these tools are easy. The current selection
drives what exists inside the tool.
T O V IEW / E DIT

YOUR

M ETADATA:

1. From the Project Explorer window, you can select the data of interest, right-click

and from the popup menu, select Metadata. The Metadata Viewer will be
displayed.
or
2. From the Database (or Map, ArcGIS MXD, Grid and Image, 3D Tools) menu(s),

select Metadata. The Database Metadata dialog (or the appropriate data type
dialog i.e. Map Metadata, MXD Metadata, etc) will be displayed.

3. Using the Browse button, locate the Database file and click the [OK] button (or

Map file, ArcGIS MXD file, etc). The Metadata – tfmag dialog is displayed.

Geosoft Concepts 11

4. Use this dialog to View the Metadata associated with the selected database file.

The Stylesheet dropdown list enables you to select from 3 stylesheets (Geosoft,
Geosoft ISO 19139 and Xml).
5. To edit the Metadata, click the [Edit] button and the Edit Metadata dialog will be

displayed.

12 Geosoft Concepts

6. You can use this dialog to edit the Metadata associated with the selected database

file. Selecting the [General], [Location], and [Data] buttons, enables you to
access the different types of Metadata.
7. Click the [Save] button to save your edits and then click the [Close] button to

close the Edit Metadata dialog and return you to the Metadata Viewer.
8.

You can review your changes and then click the [OK] button to close the
window.

Metadata Tool
The Metadata Tool is a context-oriented, interactive method for viewing and editing
attributes assigned to DAP Data, Geosoft Global Settings, etc.
Note: Values displayed in a grey box cannot be edited. Values displayed in a white
box may be edited.
T O V IEW M ETADATA T OOL :
1. On the GX menu, select Global Settings|Advanced. The advanced global settings

will be displayed in the Metadata Tool.

Geosoft Concepts 13

2. To close the dialog, click the [Cancel] button.

14 Geosoft Concepts

Databases and high-volume data processing
Many commercial and governmental groups currently use Oasis montaj for routine
processing of high volume datasets (tested up to 10 gigabytes) and also for relatively
low volume processing in a variety of mapping and other applications. One key to the
system’s capabilities is the proprietary 3-dimensional database architecture, which
enables the rapid processing and analysis of high volume data. This object-oriented
database structure stores data in a form that enables rapid access and efficient storage
of your data.
Databases are displayed and organized in Oasis Montaj in the Spreadsheet Window.
The spreadsheet window organizes and displays data differently than conventional
(relational) spreadsheet and database programs. Conventional databases organize data
as tables, records and fields, as shown below:

Conventional databases organize data as tables, records and fields. This is effective
for querying and searching type applications but limits it as a data processing engine
because:
• Programs must read an entire record to access a single field
• It is computationally intensive to change record structures
• Data sampled at different intervals and starting points are difficult to store
Oasis montaj is based on a proprietary 3-dimensional-file format architecture that
overcomes these limitations, as shown below:

Geosoft Concepts 15

Organized in lines (or groups), columns and elements, the database stores all data
values of a particular type in individual columns or channels. This enables standalone processing of columns and eliminates the need to write results to interim
storage areas and then re-write them after processing. The result is a significant
increase in processing efficiency. This Geosoft file structure provides additional
advantages including:
• Ability to process any number of lines/groups
• Ability to handle lines/groups with unlimited columns
• Ability to handle very large datasets
In addition, since columns are stored separately, this file format is capable of storing
and manipulating data with different end point and sample intervals.

16 Geosoft Concepts

Spreadsheets are the windows to your database
When you create or open a database, you see a spreadsheet. The Spreadsheet view is
your “window” to the Oasis montaj database and it also provides you with flexibility
in setting up your working environment. All data is stored securely in the underlying
database — you simply decide which data you want to display in the spreadsheet and
keep all other data in the background, hidden from view.
The spreadsheet is organized in rows, channels (columns) and lines (also called
groups in other applications such as drillhole plotting). Rows and columns work
similar to standard spreadsheets in that you can edit and delete them as needed. The
system also enables multiple “worksheets” in your database – depending on the type
of data you are working with (line, random line or drillhole); the worksheets have
different names. To see what type of name is used, look at the Line Header Cell
located at the top left corner of the spreadsheet. An “L” for example, indicates that
you are working with line data.

General spreadsheet capabilities include:
• The ability to display data from your database through a spreadsheet window
• Handling of any sample interval
• Supports full editing and mathematical processing capabilities

Geosoft Concepts 17

The ability to process selected samples, selected channels and selected lines or
groups

How the Spreadsheet Displays Project Data
The spreadsheet does not display your actual data, but rather a view of the data.
Depending on your type of project, the spreadsheet will display your data as either
values or arrays.
For surveys where a single value is recorded at each station, for example a magnetic
survey, each data cell will contain a single value.

For surveys where a multiple readings where recorded at each station, for example an
Induced Polarization survey, each data cell will contain multiple values.

The spreadsheet represents these values as a profile line in an array channel.

18 Geosoft Concepts

Profiles and viewing your data graphically
The Profile view is your “graphical window” to the Oasis montaj database. You can
display profiles of one or more variables in your database simply by selecting the
channel and selecting a simple menu item. The profile appears directly below its
corresponding database in a profile window. You can have up to five “panes” with 32
variables in each pane.
A key point to note about profile windows is that they are linked dynamically to their
corresponding database. When you select a value or range of values in either the
database or profile window respectively, they are also highlighted in the other
window.
This capability keeps you in touch with your data and gives you an interactive means
of accomplishing quality control or analysis tasks.

Geosoft Concepts 19

Maps are more than printed sheets of information
Geosoft’s mapping capabilities are the result of more than a decade of programming
development, and the options for producing and editing maps — as well as the quality
of output — reflect this level of experience. You can use the system to produce a
variety of professional presentations quickly and easily.
However, you should also be aware that a map is more than a printed sheet of
information in Oasis montaj; the Map view gives you an electronic area for
analyzing, visualizing and editing your data and information.

When you create a new map the system opens up a new blank Map Window. After a
Map Window is open, you can add a wide variety of data- and base map-related
information. Oasis montaj Maps use Views to organize and display information. A
View divides the information on a map into a Base view, which uses paper
coordinates, and a Data view, which uses ground coordinates. Map surrounds, north
arrows, and scale bars are examples of map groups plotted in the Base view. Map
coordinates, contours, and grids are examples of map groups that are plotted in the
Data view.
Groups are a fundamental part of maps.. Oasis montaj uses Groups to determine the
order in which objects are displayed (rendered) on a map. Groups are layered on top
of each other in a specific order determined by the Map View/Group Manager Tool.
You can create, edit, move, hide, and mask groups. You can also move groups in
front and behind each other. Any new object you add to a map, such as a polygon or
line, is added to the current group.
Oasis montaj now supports on-the-fly image re-projection, so images may be used in
a single map (previously, images that used plug-ins would not re-project and you had
to create a separate map to display the image). Also the speed of redrawing re-

20 Geosoft Concepts

projected data groups on maps has been improved significantly. True transparency
has also been added and is automatically enabled, with video cards that support it.
For users who don’t have true transparency supporting video cards, the ‘Light table’
display technology is used.With this technology, each group or layer in a map has
individual transparency settings, controlled from the View/Group manager. These
transparency settings affect both 2D and 3D raster images and vector line work.

As you use the system, you will become familiar with the information that is stored in
each type of View and how to manipulate them (for example, by turning off a map
layer for plotting purposes). And as shown in the next section, you will also learn to
activate dynamic links between databases, profiles and maps so that you can perform
advanced processing (selection of parameters) as well as interactive analysis and
visualization.

Geosoft Concepts 21

ArcGIS MXD Files in Oasis montaj
ArcMap, the main application in the ArcGIS Desktop suite, is used for all mapping
and editing tasks as well as for map-based query and analysis. An MXD map is the
most common document type for users working with geographic information within
ArcMap. In Oasis montaj you can now open MXDs and view and manipulate them
in a similar fashion as in ArcMap. This enables ArcGIS desktop users to share maps
created in that environment with Oasis montaj users. Users can even drag layers to
Geosoft maps or the montaj background to make new maps. It is also possible to use
drag-n-drop to place a Geosoft group from the View/Group Manager Tool into a
MXD map.
An MXD represents geographic information as a collection of layers and other
elements in a map view. Common map elements include; the data frame containing
map layers for a given extent, a scale bar, north arrow, title, descriptive text, and a
symbol legend.
There are two primary display panels in an Oasis montaj MXD window: the data
frame and the layout view. The data frame provides a geographic "window", or map
frame, in which you can display and work with geographic information as a series of
map layers. The layout view provides a page view where map elements (such as the
data frame, a scale bar, and a map title) are arranged on a page.

22 Geosoft Concepts

When you save a MXD you have created in ArcMap or Oasis montaj, it uses the file
extension .mxd. MXD document files are managed in file system folders. You can
work with an existing .mxd in Oasis montaj by opening it from the ArcGIS MXD
menu. This will open an MXD window which enables you to switch between data
frame and layout view mode. You can save the visible layers and certain layout
elements to a new Geosoft map. It is also possible to create new MXDs in this menu
at some predefined page sizes or to save a Geosoft map as an MXD.
You can also save a map layer definition as an ArcMap .lyr file and add it in an
exisiting MXD window in the project using the toolbar or import it into a Geosoft
map. One special feature that Oasis montaj adds in addition to the normal ArcMap
tools in the toolbars is the dynamic linking using the Shadow Cursor Tool (see
below).

Dynamically link data and information to knowledge
Dynamic links are a key part of Geosoft’s strategy of helping professional’s stay in
close touch with their data—from import to processing to analysis. By definition,
dynamic links are interactive graphical connections that you can activate between
databases, profiles and any number of maps in your project. When you activate links

Geosoft Concepts 23

and select any item or position in a database, profile or map, a cursor automatically
connects the item or point in all items.
This capability gives you an important means of visualizing original or processed
results in any view and seeing the corresponding representation in another view. The
practical benefit is that you can quickly perform quality control, processing or
analysis using all available data and information. Applying dynamic linking is also a
highly efficient approach to building knowledge and making informed decisions.

24 Geosoft Concepts

Geosoft Algorithms and Techniques
The Geosoft eXecutable (GX) is the basic mechanism through which Geosoft
provides the basic resources for all Geosoft Applications and Tools. GXs are
programmed processes that are attached to the main menus in the system and to the
special menus used in application suites. GXs run interactively in the graphical user
interface but many GXs can also run in batch mode (using script commands).

All Geosoft GXs are signed. A Geosoft signed GX is a GX written and tested by
Geosoft. It contains no viruses or code that can harm your system. As a user you can
trust that this GX works and is safe to use. Non-signed GXs will generate a report
warning the user that there could be a problem with the GX or its contents, and that
Geosoft did not test or create this GX.
Individual users can create GXs using the GX Developer Toolkit. Geosoft’s own
developers also use this product to develop applications. The GX Developer is
designed for users who consider them selves to be computer-oriented scientists (i.e.
you do not have to be a computer scientist to use it effectively). If you encounter a
non-Geosoft GX a report warning will be displayed notifying you that this is not a
Geosoft signed GX.
Third party developers are also creating GXs and the product offers many
opportunities for integrating other products into the system either via DLLs or by
directly accessing Geosoft’s database and function library. For more information,
please contact your Geosoft representative.
The following dialog box shows a standard GX dialog box. Geosoft now supports
Visual Basic and .NET programming so that users can create even more advanced
dialogs boxes as required for their specific applications.

Geosoft Concepts 25

Process Maker technology brings dynamic linking to
data processing
A dynamic process link is a built-in feature that remembers the processing parameters
associated with a specific object such as a channel, grid or map and that enables you
to quickly rerun the process using different settings.
A quick tool for reprocessing data, the process link is also useful for remembering
processing settings. This latter capability is particularly effective if you are away
from your project for any length of time and want to recall the settings you were
using.
To access the maker for any object, select the object and click the right mouse button.
The last item in the popup menu is the maker associated with the object. Select this
option and you will see the corresponding dialog box and settings. You can either
change settings and re-process, or exit from the dialog as required.

Oasis montaj 27

Oasis montaj
Oasis montaj is Geosoft’s core software platform for working with large volume
spatial data and provides the functionality required to locate, manage, visualise,
manipulate, display and share located Earth Science data.
The Oasis montaj environment provides direct access to data contained in Oasis
databases through a spreadsheet window and an integrated profile display window.
The Oasis database is a high-performance database that provides efficient storage and
access for very large spatial data sets.
The interface provides visual data links that enable you to dynamically connect data
in the spreadsheet, profile, map and ArcGIS MXD views. DAT Technology (for
Accessing Grids and Images) enables the Interface to use a variety of grid and image
formats in Oasis montaj.
The Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System provides the basic resources for
all Geosoft Applications and extensions. Geosoft provides a variety of systems that
address specific applications in exploration geophysics, drillhole geology, exploration
geochemistry and other areas. These systems consist of menus and corresponding
Geosoft executables (GXs) that run on the core platform.
Mapping and Processing System
The Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System contains a cross-section of builtin data import, processing, analysis, visualization, mapping, and integration
capabilities. This system enables you to perform complex processing, editing,
mapping, and interpretation tasks including the ability to:
• Create, import, and export: maps, databases, grids, voxels, MXD files, images,
and profiles
• Automatic Metadata Creation. Oasis montaj creates metadata automatically when
you work with data, storing the name of the user, date, time, and actions
performed. A XML Metadata viewer and editor enables easy access to your
metadata.
• Process data using Geosoft’s gridding, contouring and 1D filter algorithms
• Advanced grid utilities and gridding toolkit
• 3-dimensional mapping that includes a range of options for visualizing data
including; voxels, multiple surfaces and sections, each with own relief and
contents, and each with its own orientation in 3D space
• Design and layout maps, consisting of base maps, grids, images, customized
annotations, labels, colour symbols, multi-parameter symbol plotting, and other
entities
• Drag-n-Drop Geosoft grids, maps and databases and XYZ files for quick viewing
• Advanced CAD tools to draw interpretation features on your maps
• Automate tasks using scripts

28 Oasis montaj

Getting Started
This section describes the basic installation and set-up procedures for getting started
with Oasis montaj. Topics discussed in this chapter include:
• Finding More Help Information (page 3)
• Software and hardware requirements (page 28)
• Oasis montaj eLicensing (page 28)
• Installing Oasis montaj (page 30)
• Park your eLicense (page 31)
• Transfer your eLicense (page 32)
• Updating your eLicense (page 33)
• Setting High-Resolution Graphics (page 33)
• Configuring Oasis montaj Settings (page 33)-

Software and Hardware Requirements
To run Oasis montaj, you require the following software and hardware:
Operating System

XP required (2000,95,98,ME,NT not supported), Vista
Business Edition under compatibility testing

CPU

No requirement on a specific CPU type. An Intel Celeron
processor is not recommended

RAM

2 GB recommended, 512 MB required

Graphics

256MB 3D (DirectX and OpenGL) Accelerated graphics
card recommended.

Printer/Plotter

Any Windows® supported colour printer. Hewlett Packard®
large-format ink-jet plotters are recommended

Installation

Oasis montaj MUST be installed by a user with Local
Administration rights on the machine.

Installation Disk Space

1 GB or more of free space on the Program Files drive is
required for the installation process

Data Disk Space

Data disk space depends on the volume of project data to
be processed and the printer driver you are using, however
100 GB is recommended. This is largely based on your
business and data requirements.

Internet

To use the Internet capabilities in Oasis montaj, you will
need to install Internet Explorer 5.0 or later. This does not
mean that you have to have Internet Explorer as your
default browser; Oasis montaj just uses the Internet
connection technology supplied in IE5

Oasis montaj 29

Oasis montaj eLicensing
With Geosoft’s electronic licensing (eLicensing) model, licenses are handled by the
Geosoft license server. This system enables licenses to be moved between machines
online, via email or if necessary by disk. Geosoft’s eLicensing management system
offers many tangible and real benefits, including:
• Regular upgrades and fixes. We release multiple upgrades a year (with interim
patches when possible). You can only access these with a valid eLicense.
• Transfer license from office to home computer without re-installing all software.
• Add new products to your license instantly.
• Evaluate products easily - for 30 days.
• Easy to manage "1 user - 1 license" model.
• Reduces costs by eliminating unauthorized use.
• Rent modules for specific time periods.
• The eLicensing technology also enables us to add extra services and products on
a regular basis.
• It may take some time to get used to the system and there are some restrictions
that apply:

Licenses are keyed to individual PCs. Therefore; you must park the eLicense
to switch computers.

Must park before changing Operating System (for a new hard drive, for
example).
The following Geosoft License Manager options enable you to manage your
eLicense:
Install eLicense – Installs your eLicense, using your ‘license key’, from the Geosoft
license server.
Show computer ID – Displays your computer ID, a unique alpha-numeric string that
identifies your computer and is used to link your Geosoft license to your computer.
View eLicense – Displays your eLicense information.
Update eLicense – Updates your eLicense from the Geosoft license server.
Park eLicense – Parks your eLicense on the Geosoft license server, enabling it to be
retrieved later.
Transfer eLicense – Transfers eLicense to a different computer ID.
Lock eLicense – Locks eLicense on the current computer.
Unlock eLicense – Unlocks eLicense from the computer using the ‘License key’.

30 Oasis montaj

Installing Oasis montaj
Oasis montaj is installed either from the CD-ROM. The installation method will
vary depending on your operating system.
When “installing” Oasis montaj you MUST be logged on as Administrator.
To use the Internet capabilities in Oasis montaj, you will need to install Internet
Explorer 5.0 or later. This does not mean that you have to have Internet Explorer as
your default browser; Oasis montaj just uses the Internet connection technology
supplied in IE5 to connect to the web.
Install from the Oasis montaj CD ROM
Please note that your installation procedure will vary slightly depending on the
operating system you are using.
1. Insert the Oasis montaj CD into your CD-ROM drive. The InstallShield Wizard

Setup dialog is displayed and tells you that the system is preparing the
installation.
2. When ready, the program displays the Geosoft Oasis Montaj – InstallShield

Wizard Welcome screen. To continue, follow the directions on the screens that
appear.
3. When the "Installation Completed" dialog is displayed, you can check the boxes

provided to launch Oasis Montaj or view the release notes.
4. Click the [Finish] button to complete the installation process.
5. To install your eLicense, new Oasis montaj users refer to the Install your

eLicense (New User) instructions below, current Oasis montaj users please refer
to the Upgrade Oasis montaj instructions.
Install your eLicense (New User)
Your eLicense is installed from the Geosoft license server, online, via email or if
necessary by disk.
T O I NSTALL

YOUR E L ICENSE AS A

N EW U SER :

1. Connect to the Internet.
2. On the Start menu select, Programs/Geosoft/Oasis montaj/License/Setup (or

double click on the Oasis montaj icon). The Geosoft License Manager dialog
will be displayed.
3. In the "License Key" box, enter your 8-digit alphanumeric license key (provided

with your CD-ROM) and click the [Internet] button. Geosoft’s license server will
retrieve your license from our Internet server and download it to your computer.
4. All of the software you are licensed for will now be accessible to you.

Oasis montaj 31

Install from the Oasis montaj CD and/or upgrade to current version
Currrent users or new users who have the Oasis montaj CD can install and then
upgrade their Oasis montaj software to the current version by following the
instructions provided below.
T O I NSTALL

FROM THE

CD

AND UPGRADE TO

C URRENT V ERSION :

1. Insert the Oasis montaj CD into your CD-ROM drive. The InstallShield Wizard

Setup dialog is displayed and tells you that the system is preparing the
installation.
2. When ready, the program displays the Geosoft Oasis Montaj – InstallShield

Wizard Welcome screen. To continue, follow the directions on the screens that
appear.
3. When the "Installation Completed" dialog is displayed, check the box provided to

launch Oasis Montaj.
4. Click the [Finish] button to complete the installation process and launch Oasis

montaj. The Geosoft License Manager dialog will be displayed.
5. In the "License Key" box, enter your 8-digit alphanumeric license key (provided

with your CD-ROM) and click the [Internet] button. Geosoft’s license server will
retrieve your license from our Internet server and download it to your computer
and all of the software you are licensed for will now be accessible to you.
6. On the Help menu, select Check for Updates. The Oasis montaj InstallShield

Updates page is displayed.
7. Click the [Show Updates] button and the currently available Updates will be

displayed.
8. Click the [Add] button to select the Update, and the [Next>] button will be

enabled.
9. Click the [Next>] button and you will be presented with the option to Download

or Install the Update. If you choose to Install, we recommend that you close
Oasis montaj at this point. Follow the instructions provided to complete the
process.

Parking (Uninstalling) your eLicense
The Oasis montaj eLicensing technology enables users to park their eLicense on the
Geosoft license server, enabling it to be retrieved later.
To Park (or Uninstall) your eLicense
1. Connect to the Internet.
2. On the File menu, select License/Park License.
3. The Geosoft License Manager dialog will be displayed. This is a warning

message that tells you that parking a license places your license on the Geosoft

32 Oasis montaj

license server so that it may be installed on a different computer for your own
personal use. Your license is non-transferable, and use of the license by anyone
but you may be a violation of your license agreement.
4. It then asks you if you are sure you want to park your license? Click the [Yes]

button. Your license is uploaded to the Geosoft license server to be downloaded at
a later time and Oasis montaj closes.

Transferring your eLicense
Your eLicense can be transferred to a different computer ID (i.e. transferring your
license from your desktop to a laptop or visa-versa). Before you can transfer your
eLicense you must determine the computer ID for the target computer (computer you
wish to install the license on).
View Computer ID on target computer
1. Install Oasis Montaj on your second computer (as shown above).
2. On the Start menu select, Programs/Geosoft/Oasis montaj/License/View

Computer ID. The Geosoft License Manager dialog will be displayed. The alphanumeric ID displayed in this window is your “Computer ID”.
3. Copy this number for use in the next step and Click the [OK] button to close the

window.
Transfer eLicense
1. On the computer that currently has your eLicensed installed, open Oasis montaj

and connect to the Internet.
2. On the File menu, select License/Transfer License. The Geosoft License Manager

dialog is displayed.
3. In the "Target Computer ID" box, enter the computer ID of the target computer

i.e. the computer you wish to install the license on and click the [OK] button.
4. Your eLicense is now linked to the new computer ID and can be downloaded

from the Geosoft license server or sent via email to the "Target Computer".
Install the Transfered eLicense:
1. Connect to the Internet.
2. On the Start menu select, Programs/Geosoft/Oasis montaj/License/Setup. The

Geosoft License Manager dialog will be displayed.
3. In the "License Key" box, enter your 8-digit alphanumeric license key (provided

when you "Transfered" your license) and click the [Internet] button. Geosoft’s
license server will retrieve your transfered license from our Internet server and
download it to your computer.

Oasis montaj 33
4. All of the software you are licensed for will now be accessible to you on your

other computer.

Updating your eLicense
You can update your eLicense (i.e. access additional applications or add-on tools) by
first contacting your local Geosoft representative and then simply connecting to the
Geosoft license server.
1. Contact your local Geosoft representative about adding additional applications or

add-on tools.
2. Open Oasis montaj and connect to the Internet.
3. On the File menu, select License/Update License. Your eLicense is updated with

the new licensed products.

Lock and Unlock eLicenses
The Lock and Unlock eLicenses options is used primarily by administrators of large
numbers of eLicenses. It is used to control and restrict the movement of licenses and
to prevent misappropriation and loss.

Setting High-Resolution Graphics
In order to view the colours in your maps and grids correctly, you may have to
change your video card settings.
1. Click right mouse button on desktop screen.
2. On the Properties menu, click Settings.
3. Set the colour palette to High Colour 16-bit or True Colour 24-bit.

Configuring Oasis montaj Settings
Before you start working with Oasis montaj you may want to configure your other
default settings. The program will work correctly with all of the standard default
settings; however these may be changed to reflect your personal requirements or
those of your computer. The default settings are the selections made for many of the
programs where there is no user input and are designed to yield logical results.
You may overwrite some of these intelligent defaults in normal use but this should
not create any problems since the defaults are only intended to get you started with
the system and may change as your knowledge of the system increases.
T O C HANGE

THE

D EFAULT S ETTINGS

OF THE

O ASIS

MONTAJ

E NVIRONMENT

1. On the GX menu, select Global Settings and then select General. The Default

settings dialog is displayed..

34 Oasis montaj
2. Select the desired choices from the available selections. You need not change any

selections at this time. Once you are more familiar with Geosoft, you may come
back to alter the settings.

The following list summarizes some of the more frequently changed
settings:
Default menus

Select the menu files (.omn) to load as the
default menus when creating a new project. If
more than one menu is selected, each menu must
be separated by the | character.

Default grid colour table

Select the default colour table to use for
displaying grids.

Default map font

Select the default map font. The file
TRUETYPE.INI will be modified to map the
"default" font from Geosoft PLT files to the
TrueType font specified here. To change the
mappings of other Geosoft fonts you can modify
the TRUETYPE.INI file directly.

Default symbol font

Select the default Geosoft symbol font (*.gfn).

3. Clicking the [Next>] button displays the More settings dialog, as shown below:

Oasis montaj 35

The following list summarizes some of the more frequently changed
settings:
Default input
grid format

Select the input grid format you would like to use by default.

Default
output grid
format

Select the output grid format you would like to use by
default.

Default grid
element type

This is the default grid element type to use for Geosoft grids.
If grids will be used with Geosoft DOS programs, select "16bit (DOS compatible)".

Error level
reporting

If All errors are selected, you will see more error messages
each time an error occurs. This is useful for GX
programmers who may need to see more error context when
debugging GX’s.

Print memory
(megabytes)

Select the amount of RAM you would like the Geosoft print
driver to use when printing. This only effects print
configurations that use the Geosoft drivers. Enter 0 to use
the default, which is 33% of the total physical RAM
available on the system.
The Geosoft print driver will slice each print job into bands
of this size. The more RAM you use for printing, the faster
printing will be. If you specify too much RAM, it is possible
to significantly diminish the performance of other tasks on
the computer. This amount should normally not exceed 50%
of the installed RAM on your system, although we will allow
the value to be up to 75% of the available RAM.
This setting is not used by the Windows driver. If you use
the Windows print driver, the printing process will use

36 Oasis montaj
virtual memory up to the size required by the print. This can
be up to 600 MB for A0 (E) size plots. We recommend that
you use the Geosoft drivers when working with large
plotters.
Image Cache

Select the amount of virtual RAM you would like to reserve
for the image cache. As images are displayed in Oasis
Montaj, an efficient access version of the image will be
stored in the cache if there is room. The cache copy of the
image greatly improves the performance of rendering the
image when zoom/pan/redraw operations are performed. If
there is insufficient room in the cache, the image will always
be rendered from the DAT interface, which is slower.
We recommend that you should set the image cache size to
about 4 times the largest images that you routinely work
with. Note that the image cache will be created in the
GEOTEMP directory, and there must be sufficient room to
hold the cache plus other Geosoft temporary files. The
image cache should not be more than 50% of the available
room in GEOTEMP.

4. Clicking the [Next>] button displays the Internet settings dialog, as shown below:

5. This dialog enables you to control the type of Internet connection you have. If

your browser accesses the internet through a proxy server or firewall, set the type
to "Proxy Server/Firewall". This will use the POST HTTP command instead of
the GET http command and should enable Oasis montaj to access the internet
through your proxy/firewall connection.
Advanced Settings
The Oasis montaj Advanced Settings are global variables that remain set for a given
installation of Oasis montaj. The Advanced Settings file (geosettings.meta) stores the
values, which remain the same for different data sets and Oasis montaj projects.
Oasis montaj Advanced Settings contains parameter settings that are used to
establish default settings in Oasis montaj. When Oasis montaj is first started, it will
read the contents of the Advanced Settings file and set default values. Changing the
Advanced Settings file after montaj has started will not change defaults in the
running program.

Oasis montaj 37

The Advanced Settings file, located on the GX|Global Settings|Advanced menu, are
displayed in the Metadata Tool and organised in sections. Each section will have
associated parameters that can be modified to user specifications.

The General Settings (SETTINGS GX) can be used to maintain the most common
parts of the Oasis montaj global settings.

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work 39

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work
In this tutorial, we will guide you through the basic steps to start working with your
new software. At this point you should have already installed Oasis montaj. You
should begin by starting the Oasis montaj softare application.
T O S TART U SING O ASIS

MONTAJ

1. On the Start menu bar click Programs and then click Geosoft and then click Oasis

montaj/Oasis montaj .

or
2. Double click on the Geosoft icon in Windows Explorer or File manager or the

icon located on you desktop screen.

Welcome to the Oasis montaj Environment
When you start Oasis montaj, the system opens to a Graphical User Interface (GUI)
with standard Windows style elements, including the Main Menu, Pop-up Menus and
Online Help as shown below:

40 Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work

System Files
As you work with the system, you will become familiar with a variety of standard
files used for specific functions. The following list provides a short summary of the
more important files.
Oasis montaj System Files

System File Extensions

Geosoft database file

*.GDB

Map file, including plots and grids

*.MAP

Geosoft grid file

*.GRD

Colour information for grids/images

*.AGG

ArcGIS MXD file

*.MXD

Oasis montaj XML file

*.XML

Geosoft eXecutable

*.GX

Geosoft script file

*.GS

Oasis menu, Oasis sub-menu

*.OMN, * .SMN

Geosoft project file

*.GPF

Geosoft projection information file

*.GI

Geosoft map file (used in the MapInfo
software to distinguish a Geosoft map file
from a MapInfo (*.map) file

*.GM

Creating a Working Directory
The system enables you to access files anywhere but it is a good strategy to carefully
organize your data (project information and files) before carrying out any processing.
To start this tutorial, please create a working directory called D:\Tutorial. A general
rule to follow in working with Geosoft applications is to avoid working in the
Geosoft directory. In these tutorials, we will follow this rule by keeping all the
working data files in D:\Tutorial.
Copying Tutorial Files to Your Working Directory
This tutorial is based on the following data and image files:
casaber.xyz
geochem.xyz
mag.leg
map04.con
map.prj
mag.agg
indexmap.jpg

krigsample.csv
krigsample.xyz
head.xyz
magvlf.xyz
sqltest.mdb
test.grd
projtest.xyz

mag.xyz
survey.leg
map04mag.grd
map04.mdf
mag.grd
omontaj.tif

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work 41

Before you Begin
This tutorial uses sample data provided on the Oasis montaj CD-ROM (or can be
downloaded with the tutorial from the Geosoft web site). These data are located in the
\Geosoft\Oasis montaj\data\various directory. Before you begin the tutorial, copy
the data files from the various directory to a working directory such as D:\Tutorial.

Creating a Project
To work in Oasis montaj requires an open Project. An Oasis montaj "Project"
encompasses every item in your working project; from the data files in your project
(databases, maps, and grids), to the tools used (including auxiliary tools such as
histograms, scatter plots etc.), to the project setup including the menus you have
displayed and whether you are working on a map or profile and the state in which you
left it the last time you used it.
The project also controls your working directory. Projects are saved as (*.gpf) files. If
you open an existing project from a directory, the system assumes that all your
project files are located in the same directory. To streamline your work, as well as
keep it organized, you may wish to make sure that your project file is in the same
directory as the other files you want to use. We recommend that each project you
work on have its own project (*.gpf) file. If you use a number of applications or addon tools in Oasis montaj that have different menus, you can use the project to display
only the menus you require.
The Project Explorer tool enables you to browse as well as open any project item.
The Project Explorer has two windows, the Data window that includes all data files
included in the project and the Tools window that organizes and maintains the project
tools. To access the Tools window click the Tools bar on the bottom of the Project
Explorer. To return to the Data window, click the Data bar on the top the Project
Explorer.
T O C REATE

A

P ROJECT :

1. Start Oasis montaj.
2. On the File menu, click Project and then click New. The New Project dialog is

displayed.

42 Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work

Oasis montaj assumes that your data is in the directory containing this
project
3. Specify a name and directory for the project. For example, name the project
GeoDemo and specify the working directory as D:\Tutorial
Note:

4. Click the [Save] button. The system saves the project and indicates it is open by

adding menus to the menu bar, adding buttons to the Standard Short-cut bar and
by displaying the Project Explorer window. These are visual clues indicating that
you are ready to start working with the system.

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work 43

5. To close a project, click File|Project and then click Close.

Loading Application and Tool Menus
The Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System menus are displayed directly
under the Title Bar when you open a project. These dropdown menus provide direct
access to all of the systems capabilities. Oasis montaj has reorganized its menus to
streamline workflows and improve your productivity. The new menus provide a
logical placement of tools, with new, consistent naming and the removal of duplicate
menu items.
The specialized applications or add-on tools (i.e. geophysical and geochemical
analysis, 3D drillhole plotting, gravity and magnetic filtering, leveling, interpretation
etc.) have their own menu files (for example, magmap.omn) that will include all of
the menus and submenus that you will need to use the additional software. Manuals
and tutorials for these applications and add-on tools can be opened from the
Help|Manuals and Tutorials menu or downloaded from the Geosoft website,
http://www.geosoft.com/resources/tutorials/.
Your Oasis montaj project keeps track of which menus are displayed. This means
that you can have a different set of menus displayed for each project. This is
especially useful if you are working on multiple projects and using many applications
or tools. For example, if you are working on a geochemistry project, you may want to
display different menus than if you are working on an UXO project. By creating
separate projects with differing menus you can customise the Oasis montaj
environment to suit your current project.

44 Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work
T O L OAD

AN

A PPLICATION

OR

A DD - ON

TOOL

M ENU :

1. On the GX menu, click Load Menu (or click the Load menu icon

on the
Standard Shortcut Toolbar). The Load menu dialog will be displayed.

2. Select the menu file (*.omn) from the list of files and click the [Open] button.

The system displays the new menu on your menu bar.
If you want to modify your default menus (i.e. load a specified menu with
every new project) you can use the GX|Global Settings|General menu to
display the Default settings dialog to change your settings. If you are really
interested in system configurations and want to view all of the System
settings open the Advanced Settings file (GX|Global Settings|Advanced). The
Advanced Settings will be displayed in the Metadata Browser.

Note:

Finding FAST Answers to Questions
Oasis montaj provides information through two different interfaces; the Online Help
system and the Manuals, Tutorials and Technical Notes. You can use the Online
Help, which can be accessed by clicking the Help ( ) button on the individual
dialogs or by selecting the Help|Help Topics menu, can be used to locate quick
information using the Contents (
), Search (
) and Favorites (
)
tabs. The Manuals, Tutorials, and Technical Notes system, accessed through
Help|Manuals and Tutorials, contains full-length PDF documents that you can print.
Geosoft’s electronic information approach is called FAST. The following table
summarizes FAST, how to use it and the types of information and assistance you can
expect to find.
?

Type

How to Find It

Information Available

F

Fastest
Information

Move the cursor to any part of
the Interface or menu item and
press the <F1> key.

Instant information on the
GUI or corresponding
Geosoft eXecutable (GX).

A

Application
Information

Click the Help (
any dialog (GX).

S

System
Information

On the Help menu, select Help
Topics to run the Help System.
Search the Contents or use the
Search Function.

Oasis montaj conceptual,
procedural and GX
information.

T

Tutorials

On the Help menu, select
Manuals and Tutorials.

Oasis montaj Quick Start
tutorial and applications
and add-on tools manuals,
tutorials and selected
technical notes are
available for online
viewing and printing in
Adobe PDF format.

) button on

To access technical
information for each
parameter on the current
Oasis montaj dialog (GX).

Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work 45

The following graphic gives you a preview of the “S” part of FAST. When you
access the main Help system, you see a screen similar to the following:

Advantages of FAST Information Delivery
Geosoft’s move from printed manuals to electronic information delivery is pragmatic:
• The system has become so full-featured that the optimal solution to providing
accurate, brief and complete (ABC) information was to centralize information in
a single information warehouse (i.e. the Oasis montaj Help System).
• Users would be able to print full versions of manuals based on the design and
technologies Geosoft was implementing.
• Electronic information retrieval is a powerful technique that enables users to take
advantage of the computer’s highly optimized searching capabilities.
• With over 40 manuals to support, manuals were updated infrequently; the new
system means that information can be updated and delivered much more rapidly
through media such as our web site.
• Users would have the ability to print partial information or full manuals wherever
they were – providing maximum flexibility, reducing the need to keep track of
manuals and putting the information at the user’s fingertips.
• Deploy resources more effectively as measured in terms of our users’ ultimate
benefit. By transferring resources spent in low-return tasks (such as
formatting, producing and distributing manuals) into creating and maintaining

46 Tutorial 1: Getting Ready to Work

information, Geosoft has committed itself to spending its resources to deliver
accurate, brief and complete information to its customers.

Printing Complete Manuals on Demand
To make sure our users have the latest manuals, we ship electronic versions of
selected manuals and tutorials with our Help system. Application manuals and Quick
Start™ Tutorials currently available include:
• montaj Geophysics (includes 1D-FFT Filtering)
• montaj Geochemistry
• montaj Drillhole Plotting
• montaj Airborne Quality Control
• montaj Geophysics Levelling
• montaj MAGMAP Filtering (includes 2D-FFT Filtering)
• montaj Gravity & Magnetic Interpretation (includes Euler 3D)
• montaj Gridknit
• montaj Induced Polarization
• montaj 256-Channel Radiometrics Processing
• montaj Gravity and Terrain Correction
• montaj UX-Detect
• Target Surface and Drillhole Mapping System
• GX Developer
• DAP Server
• DAP Cataloguing Metadata
In addition, as part of our new FAST strategy, we are allocating resources formerly
spent on formatting, preparing and delivering hardcopy manuals on adding more
manuals and tutorials to the system and updating the current ones on a timely basis.
For the most up-to-date manuals and tutorials visit Geosoft website at
http://www.geosoft.com/resources/tutorials/
T O P RINT C OMPLETE M ANUALS
1. On the Help menu, click Manuals and Tutorials. The system displays “The

Online Manuals, Tutorials, and Technical Notes” menu page in your default
HTML browser.
2. Click on the document you want to print. The system opens the PDF file for

printing.
Note: If the tutorial is not available locally you will be linked to the Geosoft
“Downloads” web page. Download the tutorial of interest from this page.
3. Once the PDF tutorial is opened in your default Reader, click the File|Print menu
to print the PDF file.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 47

Tutorial 2: Working with Data
Some of the more important components of the system are databases, spreadsheets
and profiles. The “window” to the database in Oasis montaj is a specialized earth
science spreadsheet that appears automatically when you create a new database. This
spreadsheet provides access to a wide variety of data management, data and profile
viewing and processing capabilities.
The purpose of this tutorial is to give you a general overview of how you can use this
data management system effectively in your applications.

Database Menus
There are two main database menus, Database and Database Tools, as shown below:
Database menu

Database Tools menu

Creating an Oasis montaj Database
One of the fundamental technologies in Oasis montaj is its unique database
architecture. This architecture is designed to let you rapidly create and import data of
many kinds (ASCII and binary) into high-performance Oasis montaj databases. After
data is imported into a database, you have numerous options for editing, visualizing,
processing and performing other tasks.
Oasis montaj features a database compression option that enables you to reduce the
file size and improve the performance of Geosoft database files (*.gdb). Processing

48 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

speed is improved by compressing files because the computer takes less time to read
and write to disk. Power users will especially benefit from using compressed
databases.
You can choose either to compress for speed, compress for size or no compression at
all. Which type of compression you use is entirely up to you. It all depends on which
type better suites your needs. For example, you would more than likely compress for
speed if you have a lot of hard drive space available. However, if space is limited,
you may wish to compress for size.
T O C REATE

A

N EW D ATABASE :

1. On the Database menu, select New Database. The Create New Database dialog is

displayed.
2. Specify a New database name (tfmag.gdb). You can then specify the Maximum

lines/groups and Maximum channels/fields. The defaults are 200 and 50, which is
fine for the purposes of this tutorial, but generally we recommend that you specify
a number that is representative of the final estimated project size. This strategy
ensures that you have enough space available in your project while not consuming
excessive storage space. The size can be changed later via the
Maintenance…menu option from the Data menu, should your project expand in
scope.
3. Specify Compress for SPEED in the Compression box and select the Advanced

tab.
4. This dialog enables you to change the way Oasis montaj works with data in the

database file. These parameters control the database "page size", which is the
smallest unit of memory that is read/written and stored on the database. In almost
all cases, the default page size (1024 bytes) should be sufficient since this will
support a total database size of up to 4 Terabytes in size and will enable
individual channels on a line to hold up to 64 Megabytes of data. This is sufficient
for our database, for more information click theHelp (

) button.

5. Click the [OK] button. The system creates a new database with the database name

that you specified and opens a Spreadsheet window with empty Channel Header
Cells and Data cells.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 49

Database Lines/Groups
Geosoft databases are organized in lines, channels and elements. The database stores
all data “elements” of a particular type in individual “channels” (or columns).
Database “lines” are a collection of related “channels”.

Each database “line” has a line number, version number, line type, flight number
(only required for airborne data), survey date and selection status.

50 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

A “group” is a special kind of line. It also stores data in channels, but instead of using
a name based on line number, version number, line type and flight number, it can be
named using any alpha-numeric string (with some exceptions).

Each database “group” line has an optional “CLASS” name. Like a regular line, it
has a selection status.

While all the channels in a database are accessible inside a regular line, a group line
can restrict the available, displayable channels to a smaller subset, excluding those
not relevant to the group’s data.
A database may contain any number of lines and/or groups. If your survey data has
not been collected on a line basis (i.e. is random), or cannot be organized

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 51

conveniently into groups that can be thought of as lines (such as drillhole or UXO
target data), you can store all data in a single "line".
Note: An additional benefit of the Geosoft database structure is that since columns
are stored separately, this file format is capable of storing and manipulating
data with different end point and sample intervals.
Creating a New Line or Group
Creating a new Line (or Group) is made easy with the the Database popup menu.
1. On the current database, select the Line (or Group) header cell, right-click and

from the popup menu, select New Line (or New Group).
2. The Create Line (or Create Group) dialog will be displayed. Enter the parameters

as required and click the [OK] button.
3. The new “Line” (or Group) will be created in your current database.

52 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Oasis montaj Supported Data Formats
Oasis montaj provides seamless access to both original spatial data and processed
information (grids, images and vector plots).
Spatial data import formats include

Processed data import formats include

• AMIRA format files

• ArcView shape files (SHP)

• ASCII data files, CSV

• AutoCAD DXF (DXF)

• ASEG GDF files

• DATAMINE (DM)

• Blocked binary data files

• Geosoft plot (PLT)

• Database table files (single or all tables)

• Geosoft map files (MAP)

• Excel Spreadsheets

• Grid and image formats

• Flat archive data files

• MapInfo TAB files

• Geosoft binary data files

• Maxwell Plate files

• Geosoft XYZ data files

• Microstation DGN files

• ODBC data files

• Surpac (STR, DTM)

• Picodas PDAS data files

• GoCad (VO)

• RMS data files

• UBC (MOD, MSH, DEN, SUS)

• USGS data files

• LAS files (LAS)

Common Grid Formats (GRD) including

Common image formats (IMG) including

• DEM formats (GLOBE, ETOPO5, USGS)

• EOSAT MSS (Old 4 Band BIL)

• EOSAT Fast Format

• ER Mapper algorithm (ALG)

• ER Mapper grid (ERS)

• ER Mapper compressed (ECW)

• ESRI Binary Raster (FLT)

• GeoTIFF Image (TIF)

• Landmark ZMAP (DAT)

• GIF (GIF)

• Geopack (GRD)

• IMG Image (IMG)

• Geosoft grid files (GRD)

• JPEG 2000 (J2K and JP2)

• Geosoft Hypergrid (HGD)

• JPEG File Interchange Format (JPG)

• Grid eXchange Format (GXF)

• Landsat MSS (4 band BSQ) and Landsat
TM

• Surfer grid file (GRD)
• Texaco Startrax (GRD)
• USGS (DDF, DEM)
• World Geoscience (H)

• PCIDSK Format (GIX)
• Portable Network Graphics Format (PNG)
• Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
• Targa Image (TGA)
• Uncompressed PC Paintbrush (PCX)
• Windows Bitmap (BMP)

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 53

Importing Data into the Oasis montaj Database
There are a number of options for importing Geosoft and third-party formatted data.
In this tutorial, you will import and work with standard Geosoft XYZ files, default
templates and import modes. For more information about how templates and import
modes work refer to the Help system.
T O I MPORT D ATA INTO A D ATABASE
1. On the Database menu, select Import and then click Geosoft XYZ.
2. The system displays the Import dialog asking if you want to “Import data into the

current database?” Select (Yes) to import the data into our previously created
“tfmag.gdb” database and the Import XYZ data dialog will be displayed.

3. In the XYZ data file box, specify mag.xyz. You can click on the [Browse] button

to search for this file in your Tutorial directory.
Note:

The [Browse] buttons enable you to locate and select files from anywhere on
your computer or network drives. This assists in ensuring the selection of the
proper files from the correct directory are chosen.

4. Click the [Template] button. The system displays the Import dialog box with the

name of the file you are importing displayed along the dialog box title bar.

54 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

5. The name of the default import template file “default.i0” is displayed in the

Template Name box. This file will include the settings specified in this dialog. If
you have multiple files of the same format to import you can rename this file to be
used again (e.g. ImportTFMag. i0).
6. To modify the settings for a channel, select (highlight) the channel you wish to

edit and Source Data and Output boxes to the right, specify your changes.
7. In the Source Data box you can select a Format for your numbered data. (i.e.

normal, scientific, data, time) from the drop down menu. If your data contains a
value (for example –9999) that represents dummy values, enter this value in the
Dummy parameter box.
8. In the Output Channel box you can select or specify a Name you want to use for

the channel in the database. You can also select the Type of numbers to use, the
Width (number of digits), and number of Decimal places.
9. When you are done editing and modifying your data click the [OK] button to

return to the Import XYZ data dialog box.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 55

10. Click the [OK] button to import the data.
11. The imported data should look like the picture below.

Note:

The default placeholder for missing or blank data (i.e. dummy value) in an
XYZ file is “*”. If the dummy value was for example, -9999, then you should
enter this in the Dummy box on the template dialog box..

Drag-n-Drop XYZ Data
The ability to drag XYZ files and drop them into an open database file (*.GDB) is
now included in Oasis montaj. Only default parameters are used and XYZ files must
be in the correct format and the database must be large enough to hold the dropped
XYZ file.
The ability to drag other file types directly from Windows Explorer and drop them
into Oasis montaj for display is also available including; grid files (*.GRD), map
files (*.MAP) and database files (*.GDB) files. Items on the Project Explorer bar may
also be dragged and dropped.

Displaying Data in the Spreadsheet
Unlike traditional spreadsheets, the Oasis montaj Spreadsheet windows provide a
view of your database instead of the actual data in the database. This design enables

56 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

you to customize the spreadsheet to display data to your specifications. In addition, it
lets you work with data in the spreadsheet without actually making changes to the
data — until you decide to save the database. After you save the database, your
changes are permanent. For more information about our databases, please refer to the
Help system.
When you import data you will notice that the system automatically displays all of
your data in the Spreadsheet window.
Note: When the system creates a database, it automatically creates L0:0. During the
data import process, if the data that you import does not contain a line 0, so
that there is no data in this line, the line is automatically deleted. If the line
contains data it is retained.
T O R EMOVE

A

C HANNEL (C OLUMN ):

1. Click once on the channel header cell labelled mag to select it. Press the [space

bar] key on the keyboard or click on the right mouse button and select Remove
column from the popup menu. The channel is removed from the Spreadsheet
view.
Note: The database (*.gdb) file still contains all the data. The Spreadsheet is only
used to provide a view of selected channels.
T O L IST A C HANNEL :
1. Move your cursor to the top of the first empty channel header cell, right click and

from the popup menu, select List.

2. A box will appear beneath the empty channel header listing all the available

channels that currently are not being viewed in the Spreadsheet window. Select
mag to display the channel in the Spreadsheet.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 57

3. If you know the name of the data channel already, you can simply position the

cursor on a specific Channel Header Cell, type the name and click the [Enter]
button.
Note: If you see ‘**’, this convention indicates that the data are too wide for the
spreadsheet column. To change the width of a column, place the cursor on the
dividing line between the column headers. The mouse becomes a double
arrow. Click on the left mouse button and drag the line to the right to increase
the column width. Release the mouse button when done.

Channel Header Cells
The cells immediately right of the ID Cell are called Channel Header Cells. These
cells are used to identify a unique type of data contained in a column of the
spreadsheet. The data for a channel appears below the channel header.
The channel headers provide a visual indication of the current status of the displayed
channel. If the top left corner of the header cell is marked by a black triangle, the
channel is read-only, and it may not be modified. A red line at the bottom of the
header cell indicates that the channel has been re-sampled in order to present a view
of the data with one of the other channels on the screen.

58 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Current X and Y (and Z) Channels
Oasis montaj supports "current" X and Y (and Z) channels. This capability enables
users to select the channels that they would like to use as the current X and Y (and Z)
channels (for example, East, North, and Relative Level).
To set the current X and Y (and Z) channels, using the Coordinates|Change X, Y
coordinates menu item, select the names of the new coordinate channels. This makes
these channels the new current X and Y channels. You can also use this menu item to
review the current settings for the X and Y channels.
Markers have been added to the channel header to indicate which channels are
currently defined to be the "current" X, Y (and Z) channels. The markers are little
rectangles on the right side of the header cell, and contain "x", "y" (or "z") in reversed
display (like the triangle protection symbol on the left).
When you alter the current coordinate channels (Coordinates|Change X,Y
coordinates), these markers change too. Normally, users will just get "x" and "y", but
if you have a "Z" channel it will get the "z". The "z" will be used in Wholeplot
databases, where DH_EAST = "x", DH_NORTH = "y" and DH_RL = "z".

Processing Data in the Spreadsheet
After you open a Spreadsheet and display one or more channels, you have the option
of processing the data using the Oasis montaj database tools. These tools help you
apply formulas and perform database operations between channels for individual
groups of points, lines or the entire database. For more information about the
processing tools, please refer to the Online Help system.
T O C ALCULATE B ASIC S TATISTICS

ON A

C HANNEL :

1. Click three times on the channel header cell labelled mag to highlight the mag

data in all of the selected lines (groups) in the database. The selected data is the
data the system will calculate the statistics on.
Note: Clicking (highlighting) the channel header once selects the header cell,
clicking twice selects the channel and clicking three times selects the channel
in all of the selected lines (groups) in the database.
2. On the Database Tools menu, select Report and then select Mark Statistics. The
Stat Report dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 59

3. You can save a copy of the statistical report by clicking the [Save Stats] button.

The system will display the Save Stats dialog box where you can specify a name
for the New statistics file then click the [OK] button to have the system save the
file to your project directory.

4. On the Stat Report dialog box click the [OK] button to close the dialog box.

The following list summarizes how to obtain results on specific parts of your
database:
Click once on the channel header
cell to highlight the header cell.

No statistics can be calculated.

Click twice (double click) on the
channel header cell to highlight the
data in the current line (group).

Statistics are calculated for that specific line of the
database.

Click three times on the channel
header cell to highlight the data in
all of the selected lines (groups) in
the database.

Channel statistics are calculated for all of the selected
lines in the database.

Note:

The maximum value in the mag channel is 9999 - for this dataset, this number
may indicate a data spike or spikes in some or all of the lines of data.

60 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Displaying a Profile in the Spreadsheet
After you open a Spreadsheet and display one or more channels, you have the option
of displaying them in graphical (profile) form in a Profile window. The Profile
window is composed of sub-windows called panes. You can display up to five
separate panes with 32 channels of data in each pane. For more information about the
Profile window, please refer to the Online Help system.
T O D ISPLAY

A

P ROFILE :

1. Select (highlight) the channel header cell of the channel you wish to view in

profile format, for example, the mag channel. Right-click and from the database
popup menu, select Show Profile. . The profile of the channel data is displayed in
the Profile Window immediately below the spreadsheet.

Note:

To see where the mag values are located with regards to the profile line,
simply select a value (or a range of values) in the mag channel and the system
will highlight the corresponding area on the profile (or visa versa).

2. We recommend you experiment with the various options available for profile

display, appearance, scaling and plotting etc. available via the Profile popup
menu, available by right-clicking while holding the cursor over the profile
window.
T O D ISPLAY

THE

P ROFILE

OF

D IFFERENT L INE :

1. Move the cursor to the Line Header Cell in the top left corner of the spreadsheet.

The currently displayed line in the worksheet is L5:0.
2. Select (hightlight) the Line Header Cell, click the right mouse button and select

List from the popup menu. A list of all the line numbers in the current database

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 61

will be displayed. You can think of each line number as a worksheet in the
spreadsheet window. When you view a new line number a new worksheet is
opened in the spreadsheet window with corresponding line number information.

3. Click on L13:0 from the list and you will see that the spreadsheet and profile

window now displays L13:0, as shown below:

4. The profile view now shows the two data spikes, which peak at a value of 9999.

These spikes were also identified in the channel statistics and should be removed
from the data before performing any additional data processing.
Note:

When the Line Header Cell is highlighted, you can use the [Page Up] and
[Page Down] keys from your keyboard to scroll through lines. You can also
use the Database Tools Bar to scroll th rough the lines. The figure below
shows what each of these buttons do.

Database Toolbar
Display First Line/Group. Click this button to show the data and
profiles for the starting line in your database.
Display Last Line/Group. Click this button to show the data and
profiles for the final line in your database.

62 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Display Previous Line/Group. Click this button to show the data
and profiles for the previous line in your database.
Display Next Line/Group. Click this button to show the data and
profiles for the following line in your database.
Create a New Database Line/Group. Click this button to create a
new line in your database. A dialg box is displayed that enables you
to specify the line number, version, date, and type. If your database
contains groups of data instead of lines, a new group will be created.
Delete Selected Database Line/Group. Click this button to delete
the currently select line from your database.

Protect and Unprotect Channels in a Spreadsheet
You will notice that each channel header has a black triangle in its upper left-hand
corner. This indicates that the channel is Protected and cannot be edited by the user
until the “Protection” is turned off. Original imported data are automatically stored
as protected data.
T O R EMOVE /A DD C HANNEL P ROTECTION
1. Select (highlight) the channel header cell you want to remove the protection from,

right-click and from the popup menu, deselect (uncheck) Protected.
2. The system removes the black triangle from the top left corner of the channel

header cell, indicating the channel is no longer protected.
Note:

Using the database popup menu you can also select to Protect All or Protect
None of the database channels. Check the Protect All option to protect all of
the channels in your database and Protect None to remove the protection from
all of the channels.

3. To protect the channel, select the header cell, right-click and from the popup

menu, select (check) Protected. The black triangle is returned to the top left
corner of the channel header cell, indicating that the channel is protected.

Creating Working Channels in the Oasis montaj
Database
You can create new channels in your database to store the results of filters,
mathematical expressions, or any other processing operations. We recommend that
you create a new channel for storing any changes you make to the original imported
data. In this tutorial we need to create a new channel into which we can copy the
original mag channel to for editing purposes.
T O C REATE

A

N EW C HANNEL :

1. Move to the top of the next empty column and highlight the channel header cell

using a single click of your left mouse button.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 63
2. Type in the name of the new channel (magedited) and press the [Enter] key on

your keyboard. The system displays the Create Channel dialog box. Note that,
you can also select the channel hearder cell, left click and from the popup menu
select New, to display the Create Channel dialog.

3. Click the [OK] button to accept the default values. The system creates a new

channel in the database named magedited and fills this channel with dummy
values (i.e. *).
4. On the Database Tools menu, select Channel Tools|Copy channel. The Copy a

channel dialog is displayed.

5. Select mag from the dropdown list for the Copy FROM box and magedited from

the dropdown list for the TO box. Click the [OK] button.
6. The system copies values from the mag channel into the newly created

magedited channel.

64 Tutorial 2: Working with Data
T O C REATE A N EW C HANNEL U SING
(O PTIONAL ):

THE

M ATH F ORMULA T OOL - A LTERNATE M ETHOD

Follow steps 1 through 3 above; however use a different channel name such as
magedited2.
1. Click left mouse button three times on the magedited2 channel header cell to

highlight all of the data within this channel.
2. Press the [=] key from your keyboard to activate the Math Formula Tool. You can

see the Math Formula Tool is activated by looking at the status bar of the
spreadsheet window.
3. Type mag in the formula bar. Typing mag means the new channel will be equal

to the mag channel. Notice that as you type the formula, it is written in each
channel cell as well as at the bottom of the screen.

4. Press the [Enter] key on your keyboard to activate the formula and have the

system display the values in the selected channel.
Note: The math formula tool supports simple math and algebraic functions as well
as temporary variables for complex expressions using the channel names as
variables. For more information, see the Help system. We will use this math
tool later in the tutorial.
T O D ELETE

A

C HANNEL

FROM THE

D ATABASE :

We do not require two magedited channels; therefore we can easily delete the
magedited2 channel from the database.
1. Before you can delete a channel from the spreadsheet window you need to make

sure the channel is not protected (i.e. there is no black triangle in the upper left
corner of the channel header cell). If you try and delete a channel that is protected
the system will not allow you to proceed with the deletion process.
2. Right mouse click on the magedited2 channel header cell and select Delete

channel from the popup menu.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 65

3. The system will display the Delete dialog box. This dialog box is a safety feature

confirming that you really wish to delete a channel from the database.

4. Click the [Yes] button to permanently delete this channel from your database

(Note that, the default is No this is a secondary safety feature preventing you from
pressing the Enter key by mistake, deleting the channel).
Note: It is important to realize that deleting a channel is very different than just
hiding a channel from spreadsheet view. When you hide a channel from the
spreadsheet it is still there in the database and can be retrieved simply by
listing the channel again. When you delete a channel it is not only removed
from the spreadsheet view, but it is also deleted from the database as well.

Editing a Channel in the Database
Once you have made a copy of the channel you can now edit and process the data
found in that channel. In this case we wish to remove the two data spikes found on
line 13:0 of the tfmag.gdb database.

66 Tutorial 2: Working with Data
T O E DIT D ATA IN

A

C HANNEL U SING

THE

P ROFILE V IEW :

1. Before you can edit a channel you must make sure that channel is not protected.

Then, ensure that you are viewing the correct line 13 (L13:0) in the worksheet,
and that you have chosen the magedited channel to edit.
2. With the magedited channel selected, right-click and from the poup menu, select

Show Profile. The system displays a profile of the data in the profile window
below the spreadsheet.
3. Move to the profile window and click on the first data spike (there are two on the

line). You will notice that the corresponding data value to that spike, 9999, is
highlighted in the spreadsheet view at sample (fiducial) 32 and a small box is
drawn at the top of the data spike in the profile window. Clicking anywhere in the
profile view will display the corresponding value in the spreadsheet view.

4. Click with your mouse on the 9999 value in the corresponding magedited

channel. Press the [Delete] key from the keyboard to remove the value from the
database. A dummy value (*) will appear.
5. Repeat the procedure for the other data spike found at fiducial 131 and a second

dummy value (*) will appear. Your profile should now look like the one shown
below.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 67

Editing Data Using Conditional Expressions
Spikes may also be removed from a dataset by using a conditional math expression.
Select the magedited channel and press “=”, then using the Math Formula Tool, type
the following formula:

This formula states that if the mag value is less than 9000, magedited will equal the
mag value; otherwise it is set to the dummy value. This procedure works in this case
because the bad data spikes are outside of the valid data range.

Using the Channel Math Expression Tool
The ability to create, save, load and execute math expressions in Oasis montaj has
never been easier. Three new standardized Math Expression Builder tools have been
added, each of these tools provides all of the math expression keywords on a single
tabbed dialog, for each data type. These easy-to-use tools enable you to build
mathematical expressions for Channels (1D data), Grids (2D data), and Voxels (3D
data).

68 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

The Math Expression Builder uses normal algebraic notation that is a combination of
keywords, such as functions and operators that calculate values or change the values
of variables (i.e. Channels, Grids or Voxel data).
TO

ACCESS THE

C HANNEL M ATH E XPRESSION B UILDER

1. On the Database Tools menu, select Channel Math. The Channel Math

Expression Builder is displayed.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 69

2. To display the available Operators and Functions click the [Operators] button

and all of the Operators and Functions that are available to help you build your
math expression will be displayed.
3. For detailed information on the Math Expression Builder Components and how to

apply them, see the Help topic, Math Expression Builder (Help|Help Topics).

Interpolating Data
Now that you have removed the spikes and examined the database for other possible
errors, you may wish to interpolate the data through the gaps created when you
removed the data spikes.
T O F ILL G APS

IN A

D ATA C HANNEL U SING I NTERPOLATION :

1. On the Database Tools menu, select Channel Tools|Interpolate. The Interpolate

Dummies dialog is displayed.

70 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

2. Select magedited as the Channel to interpolate and also select magedited as the

Output interpolated channel. Select Minimum Curvature as the Interpolation
method. Click the [OK] button.
3. The system will interpolate the gaps created in the data during the editing session

using the minimum curvature method of interpolation. Click the Help (
for more information on this function.

) button

4. Display the mag and magedited channels in the profile window by right clicking

on each channels header cell and selecting Show profile from the popup menu.
You can now compare the edited data against the raw data.

Note:

By displaying the two profiles in the same profile window you can examine
the effectiveness of interactive editing and interpolation on the original data.
However, note that the profiles have different vertical scales magedited is
(4720.90 – 5974.10) and mag is (4639.92 – 10104.08).

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 71

Profile - Y Axis Options
The Y Axis Options enables you to set scale options for the Y axis of the profiles in
the profile window.
TO

DISPLAY THE TWO PROFILES AT THE SAME SCALE :

1. In the Profile window, right-click and from the popup menu, select Y Axis

Options.The Panel Options dialog will be displayed.

2. Select the Scale to fit for each line radio button option and then select (check) the

Same scale for all profiles in panel option.
3. Click the [OK] button to display the two profiles at the same scale.

The following list summarizes the different scale options available to you:
Scale to fit for each line

Adjusts the scale in the profile box to fit each
line that is displayed.

72 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Fix the range

Uses the same range for all the profiles that are
displayed.

Fix the scale, centre the range

Fixes the ranges and displays the line in the
centre of the window.

Same scale for all profiles in panel

All profiles (including those from different
channels) are set to the same scale.

Same range for all profiles in panel

All profiles are centred individually on their
own mid-data value.

Profile – X Axis options
The X Axis Options enables dialog enables you to select the channel to use as the Xaxis and automatically rescale the X-axis as well as display Vertical grid lines.
T O S ELECT X A XIS C AHNNEL :
1. In the Profile window, right-click and from the popup menu, select X Axis

Options.The All-Panel Options dialog is displayed.

2. Use this dialog to select the X-Axis to use in the profile window, to select to auto

rescale the X-Axis, to display vertical grid line and at what interval?
3. Click the [OK] button to continue and your profile will be updated.

Profile Options
Use the tabbed Profile dialog to specify the options for the current profile. This
dialog includes five tabs; Data Info, Line Styles, Colours, Symbols, and Grid. For
more information on the Profile dialog and the individual tabs, click the [Help]
button on the tab of interest.

Tutorial 2: Working with Data 73

Master Sample
The Master Sample channel is used to force all other database channels to be sampled
at the same fiducial rate as the selected channel. The Master Sample channel is
identified by blue line under the channel header.
This feature is useful when you want to edit data from a channel that has a larger
fiducial rate (data sampled less often) then other channels in the database.
By default, the spreadsheet window displays data using the channel with the smallest
fiducial (most frequent sampling) rate.
For example, consider a database with two channels. Channel 1 has a fiducial
sampling rate of 10 readings/second. This channel is considered to be smaller (more
frequent) than Channel 2, which was sampled at 1 reading/second. By making
Channel 2 the Master Sample channel, Channel 1 is displayed at the same rate so that
only every tenth fiducial is displayed.
T O A CTIVATE

THE

M ASTER S AMPLE :

1. Right click on a database channel header and select "Master Sample" from the

popup menu.
2. A blue line will be displayed under the channel header.
TO

REMOVE THE

M ASTER S AMPLE :

1. Right click on a database channel header and select "No Master Sample" from the

popup menu.
2. The blue line will be removed from under the channel header.

74 Tutorial 2: Working with Data

Saving Changes to Databases
When you are ready, you may want to make your changes permanent in the database.
T O S AVE C HANGES

TO

Y OUR D ATABASE :

1. On the Database menu, select Save Database Changes.
2. The system displays the Save Changes dialog box. Click the [Yes] button to

confirm the save.

3. The system updates your database and the changes are now permanent.
Note:

To undo changes, click the Discard Database Changes menu option from the
Database menu. This will restore your database to its last saved state.

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases 75

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases
Oasis montaj provides a variety of importing and exporting capabilities, including:
• Reading directly from common databases (Access, FoxPro, Dbase, Paradox and
OBDC)
• Importing ASCII data interactively via Excel-style import wizard
• Exporting your data as Microsoft Access database format (*.mdb)
• Exporting ASCII data
The following menus show you the importing and exporting options available to you
in the system.
Database|Import menu

Database|Export menu

Before You Begin this Tutorial:
Oasis montaj uses ADO and ODBC software developed by Microsoft to connect to
other spreadsheet and database applications.
In this tutorial, we will guide you through these tasks. The tutorial is structured using
the following steps:

76 Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases




First we will export some data from an Oasis montaj database to a Microsoft
Access database to familiarize you with the exporting process.
We will then proceed to import the Access database into a new Oasis montaj
database to familiarize you with the import process.
You will then create your own ASCII data set by exporting from Oasis montaj.
Lastly you will import this Ascii data back into a new Oasis montaj database.

Getting Ready to Export to a Microsoft Access
This tutorial will use the tfmag.gdb database file. This data file contains x and y
ground locations as well as data (mag) values. Although the data is magnetic data, it
is suitable for demonstrating the standard manipulations you will perform with any
type of data with which you are working. Data is arranged in lines (i.e. multiple
worksheets) which is not typical for certain types of data (i.e. random geochemical
data) but again, you should be able to generalize this to the case in which you have
only one line (i.e. random data). Database

Exporting to Microsoft Access Database Format
Before working with the database export capabilities, please be aware that Geosoft
currently supports table export only to Microsoft Access databases.
Typically this should not hinder you in practice since Access is widely supported by
other database applications. However, we apologize for any inconvenience this
limitation may cause. If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to
contact any of our Technical Support groups around the world.
The system offers you several choices for creating an Access database, namely
exporting to:
Individual
tables

Each line (or group in the case of drillhole data) has its own table in the
output database.

Single table

All lines are stored in one table in the output database.

As a rule of thumb, if you are working with multiple lines, we recommend that you
export lines as Individual tables so that you can keep track of them in future.
If you are working with a single line (i.e. geochemical data), it is more likely
that you will export the line as a Single table. In the following procedure, we
will export data as Individual tables within a database.
T O E XPORT

TO A

M ICROSOFT A CCESS D ATABASE :

1. Make sure the tfmag.gdb database is open in your project.
2. On the Database menu, select Export and then select Microsoft Access. The

system displays the Save to Microsoft Access database (MDB) dialog.

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases 77

Note:

If you choose Selected lines as the Lines/Groups to save option, you can
make sure the lines you wish to export are selected according to your
specifications. To do this, you can can choose certain lines to select via the
Line Selection Tool, which can be accessed from the line header cell popup
menu and selecting, Selections|Selection Tool (as shown below).

3. Specify an Output MDB file name (Export_Access) and the rest of the options as

shown above. Click the [OK] button.
4. The system displays a progress dialog box as it creates the new Access database.

Importing a Database Table
Now that you have created a Microsoft Access database we can show you how to
import an Access Database. Normally you would already have created your database
by actually using Access, but for purposes of this tutorial we had to create a (*.mdb)
file first to be able to show you how to import one later.
Geosoft’s database table import assumes that the database is a Microsoft Access
database (*.mdb) If it is not, the system prompts you for a database type (any of the
following):
dBase III
dBase IV
dBase 5

FoxPro 2.0
FoxPro 2.5
FoxPro 2.6

Paradox 3.x
Paradox 4.x
Paradox 5.x

78 Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases
T O I MPORT

A

D ATABASE T ABLE :

1. On the Database menu, select New Database. The Create New Database dialog is

displayed. Specify a New database name (Import_Access) and click the [OK]
button to open a new empty database.
2. On the Database menu, select Import| Database Table and then click All Tables.

We chose the All Tables option of importing because when we originally
exported this data we exported it as individual tables. Therefore, we would
like to import all the tables back into the database. If we choose the Single
Table option we could choose individual lines and fields we wished to import.
3. The system displays the Import Database dialog. Since you just finished creating
a database to import the data into, click the [Yes] button.
Note:

4. The system displays the Import Entire External Database dialog.

5. Use the [Browse] button to select Export_Access.mdb as the File to import.

Specify Lines from the Store tables as drop down menu. Click the [OK] button.
The system imports file into the database.

Exporting to an Excel Comma Separated Value (CSV)
File
An important capability is the ability to export to Excel-style comma separated value
(*.CSV) ASCII files. This timesaving feature enables you to quickly export your
processed data from Oasis montaj and perform specialized analysis or processing in
Excel as required.
T O E XPORT

TO AN

E XCEL F ILE :

1. Make sure the tfmag.gdb database is open in your project.
2. On the Database menu, select Export and then select the CSV etc. The Export to

Other format dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases 79

3. Specify the Format as CSV (Excel) and the output Data file Name as

Export_Excel. Click the [OK] button. The system exports the data to the
designated file.

Importing an Excel Comma Separated Value (CSV)
File
Oasis montaj provides a variety of options for easily importing Excel data. In this
tutorial, we demonstrate the use of Geosoft’s Import Wizard technology.
T O I MPORT E XCEL F ILES :
1. On the Database menu, select New Database. The Create New Database dialog is

displayed. Specify a New database name as (Import_Excel) and click the [OK]
button to have the system create the new empty database.
2. On the Database menu, select Import|Ascii. The Import Wizard dialog is

displayed.

3. Use the Browse (

) button to select the File to import as (Export_Excel.csv),
click the [Wizard] button to begin the ASCII import wizard.

4. The system scans the file and displays the first of three Data Import Wizard

dialog boxes. The wizard displays a preview of the data file and automatically
determines the File Type containing the data (i.e. Delimited — separated by
commas).

80 Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases

5. In the four fields in the middle of the dialog box specify which line in the file

contains the data headings (i.e. channel names), data units (“m” or “ft” ect.),
which line to begin importing data on and the number of lines to display in the
preview rows.
6. If your import data had several columns of data you can use the horizontal scroll

bar at the bottom of the display window to view the columns. Click the [Next>]
button to continue.
7. The second dialog box in the Data Import Wizard is displayed. Specify the

Column delimiters as Microsoft Excel CSV for the type of character used to
separate the column text. In this case, the system displays the data in columns by
drawing lines in the preview window indicating the way in which it is preparing
to import your data. Click the [Next>] button to continue.

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases 81

The Data Import Wizard enables you to easily import data from any Ascii
spreadsheet or data file. The Data Import Wizard supports both Delimited and
Fixed Field Ascii files. The Data Import Wizard also imports Microsoft
Excel Comma Separated Value (CSV), Comma Delimited, White Space
Delimited and Tab Delimited data files. The window at the bottom of the
dialog box shows the file that is being imported. For more information about
the Data Import Wizard settings, read the Ascii Import Wizard help topic or
click the Help ( ) button on the dialog box
8. The system displays the third dialog box in the Data Import Wizard. The wizard
has scanned your data and determined the Channel Type of data with which you
are working (Data in this case). It is always good practice to review your data to
ensure that the wizard has selected the correct columns. The Parameters area in
the dialog box shows the name, label, type and format of data of the column
highlighted in the preview window.
Note: In the dialog box below, we have selected the Y column to show how the
corresponding parameters are displayed in the Parameters box.

82 Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases

9. Click the [Finish] button. The system displays the Save the template? Dialog.

10. Click [Yes] to save the import template. For more information on the import

template click the Help (
displayed.

) button.The Save the template dialog box is

11. In the Template box you can either accept the default name for the import

template or rename the template. For our purpose we will accept the default name
and click the [OK] button. The Import dialog box is displayed.

Tutorial 3: Importing and Exporting Databases 83

12. Click [Yes] to import data into the current database.The Import Wizard imports

the data to the Import_Excel.gdb as shown below.

Drag-n-Drop Geosoft Database Files
The ability to drag database files (*.GDB) from Windows Explorer and drop them
into an open project is now included in Oasis montaj.
The ability to drag other file types directly from Windows Explorer and drop them
into Oasis montaj for display is also available including; grid files (*.GRD), map
files (*.MAP) and users can also drag XYZ files and drop them into an open database
file (*.GDB). Items on the Project Explorer bar may also be dragged and dropped.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 85

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding
Maps provide a key tool for interpretation for many earth science applications. Oasis
montaj provides a wide range of capabilities for performing both basic and advanced
mapping. In addition, the map is an important part of the dynamic linking and
imaging capabilities in Oasis montaj.
In this tutorial, we guide you through basic map creation. The general steps to follow
when creating a map include:

Selecting data for mapping

Creating a new map

Setting up map layout templates

Creating a base map

Plotting survey lines

Plotting profiles

Moving around the Map

Gridding data

Plotting contours

Later tutorials focus on custom map creation, dynamic linking and imaging, and
adding special elements such as symbols to maps.

86 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

Map Menus
There are two main map menus, Map and Map Tools, as shown below:
Map menu

Map Tools menu

Selecting Data for Mapping and Processing
Oasis montaj creates base maps and map elements, and performs other processing
(such as gridding) based on the lines (or groups in the case of drillhole data) selected
in the database. By default, when you import data, all lines are selected.
For the purpose of this tutorial, we recommend that you leave all lines selected. After
you run through the tutorial initially, you may want to experiment with turning lines
on and off and re-creating your map.
T O S ELECT D ATA FOR P ROCESSING :
1. First ensure that the tfmag.gdb database is open and selected in your current

project.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 87
2. Select (highlight) the line header cell, right-click and from the popup menu select,

Selections and then select Selection Tool.
3. The Line Selection Tool dialog is displayed.




You can highlight the lines you want to select or deselect individually or click
the [Highlight lines by range] button to select lines by range.
Clicking the [Select highlight] button or [Deselect highlight] button will either
add a check mark beside the highlighted lines or remove a checkmark.
Lines that are selected will have a check mark beside them and lines that are not
selected will have no check mark beside them.
If the line is not selected, it will not be included in the maps you create or data
you process. For this tutorial make sure all the lines are selected. Click the [OK]
button.

Creating a New Map
Oasis montaj introduces an intelligent entity called a Map. Physically a map is a
special graphic file (*.MAP) containing drawings and images. In practice, however, a
map is smarter than a basic file because it enables you to edit interactively, apply
dynamic linking and track the map creation processes.
When you create or open a map in Oasis montaj, the system displays a Map window
in the project. For a new map, the window is initially empty. For an existing map, all
map elements are displayed when the window opens.
An important component of the map is the map template. Templates control
placement of base map elements (surrounds), contours, grids, plots, images and any
other graphics elements required to complete your map. You will learn more about
templates in a following exercise. For more information on mapping, map
components and working with maps see the online Help.
T O C REATE

A

N EW M AP :

1. Select the tfmag.gdb database in your current project.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select New Map and then select New Map from X,Y.

88 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding
3. The Data range to map dialog is displayed. Click the [Scan data] button to have

the system query the database for the Minimum X, Y and Maximum X, Y
coordinates and the Distance units.
Note: If the scanned data or grid file does not have an established unit, "metres" is
assumed. It is important that the distance units accurately reflect the units of
the data range. This default value can be modified in the Edit|Settings|General
dialog.

4.

Click the [Next] button. The Create a new map dialog is displayed.

5. Enter a Map name (tfmag.map), Map template (portrait letter) and then click

the [Scale] button. The system automatically calculates a scale that will fit the
data on the map template. Just remember to round the scale to a more efficient
number (100000).
6. Click the [Finish] button display the new blank map.
Note:

If no scale is specified, a scale will be chosen which will fit all of the data
within the chosen map sheet.

Creating a Map Template using Interactive Tools
The Interactive Map Template Creation Tool simplifies map making by providing the
ability to use standard map templates from our template library or interactively create
customized map templates for use within Oasis montaj.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 89

The template can be used to create simple base maps for standard presentations or
very sophisticated final maps. This XML based template supports the creation of
multiple data views on a single map. The user may define titles, text, logos, colour
bars, and may even include background graphics or images in each view. For the
power users, the templates are fully scriptable.

Working with Interactive Map Template Tool
The Interactive Map Template Creation Tool is designed to simplify map making by
providing easy-to-use interactive tools for modifying or creating customized map
templates for use within Oasis montaj. “Data linking”, which can be used very
effectively to organize the layout on an output map (especially "map" style maps
where the base view has a fitting view defined) is also available.
Adding a map template to your current project can be achieved in two ways:

90 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding


On the Map Tools menu, select Map Template and then select one of two
options, New Blank Map Template or New Template FromLibrary.
On the Map Template Tools Bar, select one of the following buttons; New
Template fromLlibrary (
(

), New Blank Template (

) or Open Map Template

).

Once you have a map template created and/or opened in your current project you can
quickly and easily add new base group to your map template using the Add new base
group button (
) on the Map Template Tools Bar or by selecting the view you want
to add the group to on the map template window, right-click and from the popup
menu, select Add new base group.
When adding new Data Views to your map template, you can define the data extents
and projection information or leave the area undefined. Data groups can be added
using the Add new data group to current view button (
) on the Map Template
Tools Bar or by selecting the view you want to add the group to, in the map template
window, right-click and from the popup menu, select Add new data group to current
view.
For more information on working with the New Map Template Interactive Tools, see
the Oasis montaj online Help Topics. To quickly locate help for the New Interactive
Map Template Tools, specify “Interactive Map Template Tool” on the Search tab.

Automated Map Sheets
The new Automated Map Sheets option creates a number of tiled maps given a map
template and a master map (the master map will contain the entire area that will be
divided into individual map sheets). Along with the interactive map template creation
tool, users can interactively create customized map templates for use within Oasis
montaj. These XML based templates support the creation of multiple data views on a
single map.
For more information on using the new Automated Map Sheets option, see the
Automated Map Sheets Technical Note, available online at
www.geosoft.com/resources/technotes/

Creating MAPPLOT Map Templates (manual)
The system provides a variety of default templates that enable you to create your own
standard maps with logos, custom layouts and other elements as required. For
example, you may use the default A4 or A3 templates to create your own layout that
you use regularly for making a map.
Note: When you create a map template, it is saved permanently in your system.
When you are learning the system, we suggest you experiment using the same
template until you are ready to create a final version with a custom name. You
may want to make up a testing template, called TEST, for example.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 91
T O C REATE Y OUR O WN MAPPLOT M AP T EMPLATE :
1. On the Map Tools menu, click New map and then click New map from X,Y.
2. The Data range to map dialog is displayed. Click the [Scan data] button to have

the system query the database for the data ranges and report the Minimum X,Y and
Maximum X,Y coordinates. Click the [Next>] button.
3. The Create a New Map dialog is displayed. Enter a Map name (New

Template.map) and choose portrait A4 as the Map template.
4. Click the [Templates] button. The MAPPLOT Template Manager dialog is

displayed.

5. Click the [New] button to create a new template, so that the original template is

not overwriten. The New MAPPLOT Template dialog is displayed.

6. Use this dialog to specify a New template name (e.g. NEW_A4) and click the

[OK] button. The Edit MAPPLOT Template dialog is displayed.

92 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

7. Change the Map style to (figure). Figure style maps have a layout with the title,

scale bar and north arrow located at the bottom of the map whereas map style
maps have a layout with the title box, scale bar and north arrow along the right
hand side of the map. You can leave the rest of the default values as they are.
8. Click the [OK] button to continue. The system will return you to the MAPPLOT

Template Manager dialog. Click the [OK] button.
9. The Create a new map dialog box is redisplayed with (NEW_A4) as the specified

Map template.

10. Click the [Scale] button. The system automatically chooses a scale that will fit the

data on the map template. Just remember to round the scale to a more efficient
number (150000).

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 93
11. Click the [Finish] button to create and open the empty map in your current

project.

Creating a Base Map
You can customize your base map with many elements, including map surround,
north arrow, scale bar, reference grids, latitude/longitude annotations, text
blocks/ballons and titles. The layout of your base map can either be map or figure
style. Figure style maps have a layout with the title, scale bar and north arrow located
at the bottom of the map whereas map style maps have a layout with the title box,
scale bar and north arrow along the right hand side of the map. The following pictures
show the difference in layout between the two styles.

T O C REATE

AND

P LOT

A

F IGURE S TYLE B ASE M AP :

1. Make sure your blank tfmag.map file is open and selected in the project.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Base Map and then select Draw Base Map. The

Basemap layout dialog is displayed.

94 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

3. This dialog box is the first dialog box in the base map layout wizard. The type of

Map style that you choose here will reflect the type of dialog boxes to follow.
Choose figure as the Map style and specify a Map scale of 100000. The rest of
the default values are fine the way they are. Click the [Next>] button to continue.

4. The system displays the Figure style base map dialog box. You can specify

different types of display styles for the Reference grid via the drop down menu.
Choose dotted lines for the Reference Grid box. Click the [Next>] button to
continue.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 95

5. The system displays the Figure titles dialog box. Specify a Title (Figure Map

Style) and a Sub-Title(s) if you wish. Click the [Finish] to plot the basemap in
your current open tfmag.map. Your map should look similar to the one shown
below.

T O C REATE

AND

P LOT

A

M AP S TYLE B ASE M AP :

1. Create a new blank map with using the NEW_A4 Template. You will need to

modify this template to change the map style from figure to map. Call this map
New Map_Map Style. Click the [Finish] button, your new blank map should be
open and selected in the project.

96 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Base map and then Draw base map. The Base

map layout dialog is displayed.

3. This dialog box is the first dialog box in the base map layout wizard. The type of

Map style that you choose here will reflect the type of dialog boxes to follow.
Choose map as the Map style and specify the Map Margins as shown above.
4. Click the [Next>] button to continue. The s Full map style base map dialog is

displayed.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 97
5. You can specify different types of display styles for the Reference grid via the

dropdown menu. Choose dotted lines for this tutorial.
6. Click the [Next>] button and the Map title block dialog is displayed.

7. You can specify the map titles and sub-titles as shown above and then click the

[Finish] button to plot the basemap on the current open map.
8. Your map should look similar to the one shown below.

98 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

Plotting Survey Lines
For line-oriented Geoscience surveys, you may want to display survey lines (flight
lines for airborne surveys.
T O P LOT S URVEY L INES :
1. Select (highlight) the New Map_Map Style.map.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Line Path.
3. The Line path plot dialog is displayed. You can leave the defaults as they are.

4. Click the [OK] button and the system displays the survey lines on your New

Map_Map Style.map map.

Plotting Profiles
For line-oriented Geoscience surveys, you can also display plan view profiles of the
data values for each survey line.
T O P LOT P ROFILES :
1. Make sure New Map_Map Style.map is selected in your project.
2. On the Map Tools menu, click Profile. The Profile plot dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 99

3. Choose the profile channel (magedited). Set the profile scale (units/mm) as 50

and the profile base as 5000. Change the line colour to red and click the [OK]
button.
4. The system displays the plan profiles of the channel selected on your map. Click

the Help ( ) button for more information regarding the parameter selections
available in the Profile plot dialog box.

100 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

Moving Around the Map
Once you have your map displayed, you may want to zoom into the map so that more
detail is displayed. You may also wish to move around the map using other options.
The following is a list of some of the different types of viewing options available, on
the Map Layout Bar, for moving around and viewing the map with ease:
Zoom Box

Click this button to activate the Zoom Box. Click on the map, then
while holding down the left mouse button, move your cursor to box
in the area of the map you want to zoom, click the left mouse button
to select the area. Click the mouse button again to zoom to the area
selected.
Note: Once the box has been defined, the cursor and the box are
linked and by moving the cursor around the map you can move
the box to another location, and then click the left mouse
button to zoom to the boxed area.
You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Zoom Box from the popup menu.

Pan

Click this button to Pan around in the currently selected map. Click
the left mouse button and while holding the button down, move the
hand cursor to pan around the current map area.
You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Pan from the popup menu.

Interactive Zoom

Click this button to activate the interactive zoom. Click on the area of

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 101
the map you want to zoom (e.g. an anomalous location on a grid),
then while holding down the left mouse button, move your cursor left
to zoom out and right to zoom in on the selected area.
You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Interactive Zoom from the popup menu.
Click this button to zoom in and increase the displayed map features
by 50%.

Zoom In

You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Zoom In from the popup menu.
Click this button to zoom out and shrink the displayed map features
by 50%.

Zoom Out

You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Zoom Out from the popup menu.
Click this button to display the whole map area in the map window.

Full Map

You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Full Map from the popup menu.
Zoom to Selection

Click this button to zoom to the selected map view or group.
You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Zoom to Selection from the popup menu.

Previous Extent

Click this button to undo all changes that you have made since the
last time you saved the map. This command is useful for removing
text and graphics that you may have added accidentally.
When working on a map, you may prefer to use this command
periodically so that you undo only a few changes at a time rather than
your entire set of map edits and other changes.
You can also access this command by clicking the right mouse button
on a map and selecting Last View from the popup menu.

Next Extent

Click this button to redo the latest changes that you have made since
the last time you saved the map. This command is useful for adding
text and graphics that you may have removed accidentally.

For more information, see the May Layout Bar help topic (Help|Help Topics).
T O U SE

THE

Z OOM B OX O PTION :

1. Click the Zoom Box button (

) on the Map Layout Bar, or right click on the map
and select Zoom from the popup list.

2. Your cursor will turn into a crosshair. Define a box by clicking the top left and

bottom right corners of the area of interest. Then click once to execute the zoom
command.

102 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

.
3. The system zooms into the defined area.

T O U SE

THE

P AN O PTION :

1. On the Map Layout Bar, click (

the popup menu.

) or right click on the map and select Pan from

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 103

2. Your cursor will turn into a hand

. Holding the left mouse button down, use

the mouse to pan around the map.
T O U SE T HE Z OOM I N O PTION :
1. On the Map Layout Bar, click (

) or right click on the map and select from

Zoom In from the popup menu.
2. The map will be reduced by 50% in the map window.
T O U SE

THE

F ULL M AP O PTION :

1. On the Map Layout Bar, click (

) or right click on the map and select Zoom to

Full Map from the popup menu.
2. The map will be displayed in full view in the map window.
T O U SE

THE

L AST V IEW O PTION :

1. On the Map Layout Bar, click (

) or right click and select Last View from the

popup menu.
2. The map will be displayed as it was last displayed before a new view was shown.
M AP T OOLS B AR
T O U SE

THE

R EDRAW O PTION :

1. If you manually resize the map window or perform editing on the map you may

need to redraw the map to refresh its current view. On the Map Tools Bar, click
( ) or right click and select Redraw from the popup menu.
2. The map will be redrawn and redisplayed in the map window.

The last three buttons on the toolbar determine on which maps the zooming will
occur:
Map Only] button
will zoom only the current map, which will be
highlighted.

[All Maps] button
will zoom all the maps, which share the same
coordinate system.

[Other Maps Only] button
will zoom all the other maps, which share the
same coordinate system, with the exception of the current map. This allows
the use of one map as a reference.
To find out the function of the other buttons on the Map Tools Bar, hold the cursor
over the button until a description appears. For more information on the tools on the
Map Tools Bar and any other toolbar, see the online Help.

[This

104 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding
Map Views - Popup menu
(Hotkeys displayed on the right)

Map Groups – Popup Menu
(Hotkeys displayed on the right)

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 105

Configurable Hotkeys
Oasis montaj now provides configurable Hotkeys enabling quick and easy access to
menu items including all map tools. The GX|Database Settings|Configure GDB
Shortcut Keys menu item provides an interactive dialog enabling you to set your own
hotkeys or view the defaults.

106 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

Gridding Data
Gridding refers to the process of interpolating data onto an equally spaced “grid” of
values in a specified coordinate system, such as X-Y. In this system, the following
gridding methods are available:

Bi-Directional (page 106)

Minimum curvature (page 107)

Kriging (page 108)

Tinning (page 110)

Trend Enforcment Gridding (page 110)

Grid and Image Menu
There is a main menu for grids and images, Grid and Image as shown below:
Grid and Image Menu

The Grid and Image menu includes options for creating, processing, displaying,
analyzing, and converting grids and images.
Bi-Directional
Bi-Directional is a numerical technique for parallel survey lines, lines with some tie
lines or roughly parallel lines. Use BIGRID, if the data is collected along lines that
are roughly parallel, as in the following examples:

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 107

Parallel Lines

Lines with some tie lines

Roughly parallel lines

BIGRID is not able to use the tie lines, as shown in the middle example,
because of the way the gridding algorithm works. If the data on the tie lines is
important, RANGRID or KRIGRID should be used.
The Bi-directional gridding method (BIGRID GX), is ideal for line oriented data
because it inherently tends to strengthen trends perpendicular to the direction of the
survey lines. In this way, BIGRID can take advantage of the fundamental
characteristics of line-based surveys.

Note:

The gridding process is carried out in two principle steps. First, each line is
interpolated along the original survey line to yield data values at the intersection of
each required grid line with the observed line. The intersected points from each line
are then interpolated in the across-line grid direction to produce a value at each
required grid point.
Geological trends in the data can be emphasized by the appropriate orientation of the
grid so that the second interpolation is in the direction of strike. In addition to trend
enhancement, BIGRID allows the method of interpolation to be selected
independently for the down-line and across-line directions. The interpolations
available are linear, cubic spline (minimum curvature) or Akima spline.
Filtering of the line data before interpolation is also possible. BIGRID can design
and apply non-linear and/or linear numerical filters to the original line data. The use
of the non-linear filter is a very effective way to remove data spikes (undesired highamplitude short-wavelength features) from the original data.
BIGRID has the following features:
• Unlimited number of data points per survey line
• Unlimited number of survey lines
• Unlimited output grid size
Note: The actual maximum size of the dataset or grid that you can use depends upon
the available free disk space of your computer.
Minimum curvature
The random gridding method (RANGRID GX ) fits a minimum curvature surface to
the data points using a method similar to that described by Swain (1976) and Briggs
(1974). A minimum curvature surface is the smoothest possible surface that will fit
the given data values.

108 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

RANGRID first estimates grid values at the nodes of a coarse grid (usually 8 times
the final grid cell size). This estimate is based upon the inverse distance average of
the actual data within a specified search radius. If there is no data within that radius,
the average of all data points in the grid is used. An iterative method is then
employed to adjust the grid to fit the actual data points nearest the coarse grid nodes.
After an acceptable fit is achieved, the coarse cell size is divided by 2. The same
process is then repeated using the coarse grid as the starting surface. This is
iteratively repeated until the minimum curvature surface is fit at the final grid cell
size.
A very important parameter in the RANGRID process is the number of iterations
used to fit the surface at each step. The greater the number of iterations, the closer
the final surface will be to a true minimum curvature surface. However, the
processing time is proportional to the number of iterations.
RANGRID stops iterating when:
• It reaches a specified maximum number of iterations, or
• A certain percentage of the observed points are within a limiting tolerance of
the surface
By default these limits are 100 iterations and 99% of points within 1% of the data
range..
The RANGRID GX also has the following capabilities:
• Accessing unlimited number of input observation points.
• Adjustable internal tension.
• Applying de-aliasing filter.
• Applying linear and logarithmic gridding.
• Applying projections.
• Blanking un-sampled areas.
• Outputing grids up to any size.
Note: The actual maximum size of the grid that you can use depends upon the
available free disk space of your computer.
Kriging
Kriging is a statistical gridding technique for random data, non-parallel line data or
orthogonal line data.
Use RANGRID or KRIGRID when the XYZ data is not sampled along lines that run
in roughly the same direction. Such data are often called random, because they give a
random appearance when the data locations are plotted. Also, line data with survey
lines that are orthogonal (or have random directions) should be gridded with
RANGRID or KRIGRID.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 109

The following figure illustrates these types of data:
+

+
+++
+

+

+
+

Random Data

Non-parallel Line Data

Orthogonal Line Data

If the data is relatively smooth between sample points or survey lines, then
RANGRID should be used.
However, use KRIGRID, if the data
• is variable between sample locations,
• is known to be statistical in nature (such as geochemical data),
• is poorly sampled, or
• is clustered.
The statistical gridding method (KRIGRID GX) uses the method of Kriging to
determine a value at each grid node based on the XYZ data. KRIGRID first
calculates a variogram of the data, which shows the correlation of the data as a
function of distance.
Simply speaking, the further data points become, the less correlation we expect
between points. A variogram shows this phenomena for a given dataset, and based
on the variogram, you are able to select a model that best defines the variance of the
data.
The technique of Kriging uses this model to estimate the data values at the nodes of
the grid. A significant by-product of Kriging is the ability to estimate the error of the
data at each grid node.
Geosoft supports ordinary Kriging as well as universal Kriging. Universal Kriging
differs from ordinary Kriging in that it allows the data to contain a regional trend.
For a more in-depth understanding of geostatistical analysis and Kriging, refer to
Mining Geostatistics written by A.G. Journel and C.J. Huijbregts, 1978.
KRIGRID has the following capabilities:
• Applies de-aliasing filter.
• Applies linear and logarithmic gridding options.
• Blanks un-sampled areas.
• Calculates a variogram from the input data channel.
• Output grids up to any size.
• Processes unlimited number of input observation points.

110 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

Supports linear, power, spherical, Gaussian, exponential and user defined
models.
Note: The actual maximum size of the grid that you can use depends upon the
available free disk space of your computer.

Tinning
The ability to create a TIN (Triangular Irregular Network), and to use this TIN file to
grid data using the Nearest Neighbour , Linear or Natural Neighbour methods has
been added to the Oasis montaj environment.
The TIN is created from a set of spatial data using the public domain Sweepline
algorithm implemented by Steven Fortune of Bell Laboratories (Fortune, S 1987).
The TINDB GX applies the Sweepline algorithm to the X, Y (Z-optional) data values
in a Geosoft database (*.gdb) to create a binary TIN (*.tin) file.
When Z values are included in the (*.tin) file, a TIN grid can be created using the
TINGRID GX. The TINGRID GX applies the Nearest Neighbour, Linear or Natural
Neighbour (Sambridge, Brown & McQueen 1995) algorithm to the Z values in the
(*.tin) file to create a grid.
The TIN gridding method requires one data point for each (X, Y) data location in the
database. Tinning provides the ability to sum or average duplicate samples − data that
have multiple Z values at single point locations. (Note that, when Z values are
included in the (*.tin) file, only data point locations with non-dummy Z values are
included.)
Geosoft Tinning provides a number of ways of visualizing the TIN, including the
ability to plot the TIN Nodes, the TIN Mesh (or Delaunay triangulation), the Convex
Hull, and the Voronoi cells of your data.
Trend Enforcement Gridding
A traditional problem in gridding geophysical data, is the aliasing problem that
occurs due to the presence of more samples “along the lines” than across lines. This
problem leads to obvious effects including ellipsoids or ellipsoidal “beads” between
lines in gridded data. There are various solutions to these types of effects including
filtering and gridding along trend directions. However, these techniques may reduce
geologic signal or obscure local trends. Oasis montaj “Trend Enforcement
algorithm” is designed to provide a solution that preserves the character of local
trends while eliminating aliasing effects. To learn how to perform trend enforcement
gridding in Oasis montaj, refer to Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding page
269.
Gridding using the Bi-directional gridding method
In this example, we will use Bi-directional gridding (since the data are oriented in
parallel lines and we expect to have cross-line trending). You can apply Bidirectional gridding by using the Bi-Directional Line Gridding menu option or
running a Control File that contains the gridding commands and parameters. The

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 111

procedures for both methods are provided. However, you will only need to follow one
of the methods to perform the Bi-directional gridding successfully. If you are a new
user, we recommend choosing the first method.
T O A PPLY B I -D IRECTIONAL G RIDDING

TO

XYZ D ATA:

1. Select the tfmag.gdb database.
2. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding|Bi-Directional Line Gridding. The

Bi-directional gridding of line data dialog is displayed.

3. From the Channel to grid dropdown list, select (magedited) and specify the

Output grid name as tfmag (note that, the file extension *.grd will be added by
the system).
4. The grid cell size should be 1/4 to 1/8 of the line separation distance. The line

separation is 200 metres; therefore, we will use a Grid cell size of 50. For more
information on these parameters, click the Help ( ) button. Click the
[Advanced>] button to continue. The Advanced Gridding options dialog is
displayed.

112 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

5. We can leave these parameters to the intelligent defaults, for detailed information

click the Help ( ) button. Click the [Finish] button and the data will be gridded
and displayed in your current project.
Note: The cell size is the distance between grid points in the X and Y directions. In
most situations the cell size can be selected as 1/4 to 1/8 of the line separation,
or the minimum station interval, whichever is greater. By default, BIGRID
will choose a cell size based upon these criteria, although we do recommend
that you choose the cell size directly
T O A PPLY B I -D IRECTIONAL G RIDDING

TO

XYZ D ATA U SING

A

C ONTROL F ILE :

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding|From Control File and then select

Bi-Directional Control File. The Bi-directional gridding dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 113

2. Specify the Data channel to grid (magedited) from the drop down menu. Also

specify a name for the New grid file (tfmag_con). We will leave the Transverse
gradient channel blank as this parameter doesn’t apply to our data. For
information on this parameter, click the Help (

) button.

3. The next step is to specify a Control file. Normally you would specify an existing

control file that contains your bi-directional gridding (BIGRID) commands and
parameters. However, in this tutorial, since no BIGRID control file exists, specify
the name of a new control file to create (tfmag.con).
4. Click the [Edit Controls] button and the Select a default text editor dialog is

displayed.

5. This dialog is only displayed if you have not selected a default text editor yet. Use

the [Browse] button to locate a text editor (like Notepad) and click the [OK]
button to display the Edit file using notepad.exe dialog.

6. The ftmag.con file is selected by default, click the [OK] button. The system

displays the control file you specified (tfmag.con) using your default text editor.
7. The control file contains comments that explain how to use the BIGRID

parameters. The rest of the control file is blank.
8. Close the tfmag.con control file and click the [Grid] button on the Bi-directional

line gridding dialog to grid the data and display it in your current project.

114 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding
Note:

We did not specify any parameters in the bigrid control file, therefore the grid
was gridded using only the intelligent defaults.

Voxels (3D Gridding)
You can create a Voxel using the Voxel Gridding option, located on the 3D
Tools|Gridding menu. A "voxel" is short for "volume pixel" the smallest
distinguishable box-shaped part of a three-dimensional image. A Voxel is the 3D
conceptual counterpart of the 2D pixel.
3D Tools Menu

The 3D Tools menu includes options for creating, processing, displaying, analyzing,
converting, extracting (sections and plans) and generating isosurfaces from 3D grids.
Create a Voxel Grid
Use the 3D Tools|Gridding|Voxel Gridding menu option to perform 3D Gridding,
which will use a basic statistical kriging algorithm to create a 3D voxel grid model
from 3D data contained in a Geosoft database (GDB file). The data to be gridded
must have defined X, Y and Z fields that locate the data within a coordinate system in
which Z coordinates are interpreted as positive up.
Note: When gridding your data it is important to note that if you reduce the cell size
by half then both the file size and processing time are increased by 8 times (2
cubed).
T O C REATE 3D V OXEL G RID :
1. Open a database that includes defined X, Y and Z fields that locate the data within

a coordinate system in which Z coordinates are interpreted as positive up.
2. On the 3D Tools menu, select Gridding|Voxel Gridding. The 3D Gridding dialog

will be displayed.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 115

3. Using the dropdown list, select the Data to grid and a default Output voxel file

name will be provided. You can rename the voxel or accept the default name.
4. Select to Display the voxel in the Current map, New map or to not display it. The

Cell size can be left to the intelligent defaults. Note that, if you reduce the cell
size by half then both the file size and processing time are increased by 8 times (2
cubed).
5. Clicking the

button displays the Advanced and Variogram tab dialogs.

6. Click the [OK] button when you are satisfied with your selections and the Voxel

will be created and displayed (if selected) to the current map.

Displaying a Grid
There are a number of options for displaying grids; these include displaying single
grids, colour shaded grids, ternary image grids, two-grid composites (for shadedrelief maps), three-grid composites (for ternary maps) and four-grid composites. In
this example, we will display a single grid.
Grids appear in the Project Explorer under "Grids". Opening a grid opens a view of
the grid in its own internal "map". A grid map view is just like a real map and can
accept any graphics that a map can. It can also be saved as a map, in which case the
map will appear in the "Map" section of the project explorer.
When displaying grids, you must specify a colour table to use (supplied with the
product). You may want to experiment with different colour tables to see how
they affect your image.
T O D ISPLAY

A

S INGLE G RID

ON A

M AP :

1. Open and select the tfmag.map that we created earlier with a basemap.
2. On the Grid and Image menu, select Display|Single grid. The Place a grid on a

map dialog is displayed.

116 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

3. Use the Browse (

) button to select the Grid name as (tfmag.grd).

4. We can leave the remaining parameters to the defaults and click the [Current

Map] button. The tfmag.grd grid is displayed as on the tfmag.map.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 117

Recolour Grids
Click the Auto-Recolour Grids (
) button in the Map Tools Bar to toggle the Auto
Recolour Grids option on/off. This option recolours the displayed grid area as the
grid extents change within a map window (e.g. when zooming or panning).
Note that, when turned ON the grid values stay the same. However, as the viewed
extents of the grid change; the grid colour is recalculated and redrawn using the entire
colour palette over the current displayed grid area.
• When this option is ON any changes made to the extents of the viewed grid area
will cause the grid to be recoloured based on the grid values in the current
viewed area, using the entire colour palette.
• When this option is ON all displayed grids will be recoloured when changes are
made to the extents of the viewed area.
• When Auto Recolour Grids is OFF the grids return to their original colours.
The Auto Recolour Grids option is a temporary viewing tool. To save/share a
recoloured view of a grid you can Create a Snapshot (see page 119) or print the
current map extents.
Note: If the Auto Recolour Grid mode is turned ON when you print, it will apply to
the printed page. Either turn OFF the mode when printing or print out a
selected area and it will apply the recolouring.

Drag-n-Drop Geosoft Grid Files
The ability to drag grid files (*.GRD) from Windows Explorer and drop them into an
open project is now included in Oasis montaj.
The ability to drag other file types directly from Windows Explorer and drop them
into Oasis montaj for display is also available including; database files (*.GDB),
map files (*.MAP), and users can also drag XYZ files and drop them into an open
database file (*.GDB). Items on the Project Explorer bar may also be dragged and
dropped.

Plotting Contours
Contours refer to the lines drawn at specified intervals or multiples of intervals on
your map based on a gridded dataset. After you create a grid, you may want to
contour your data and display these contours on your map. In Oasis montaj,
contouring is specially designed to handle the very large dynamic data ranges that
characterize Earth Science data sets. For more information on plotting contours, refer
to the Adding Contours to Maps topic in the Online Help system.
Contouring options include quick, custom, log and from a control file (for batch
contouring).
• Quick - uses default parameters.

118 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding



Custom - uses parameters you specify the system to use. This method generates
simple or log contours.
Log contour - Draws contours on a map using a specified grid in logarithmic
mode
Have Control File - ASCII control file enables full cartographic cosmetic
control of plotting options

In this example, we will use the automatic (quick) method.
T O Q UICK C ONTOUR

A

G RID :

1. Make sure the tfmag.map is open and selected in your project.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Contour and then select the Quick. The Contour

dialog is displayed.

3. Click the Browse (
4.

) button to select the grid you want to contour (tfmag.grd).

Click the [OK] button. The contours are drawn on the map.

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 119

Snapshots
Use the Manage Snapshots dialog, found on the Map menu, to open, rename or delete
your map snapshots.

Map snapshots (or bookmarks) are saved views of the map extents, based on the
coordinate system and units of the map view. Map snapshots enable you to return to a
favourite location on your map quickly and easily.

120 Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding

The snapshot option was designed to help improve your workflow and ease of use.
For example, if you are working on a regional scale map and have a number of active
project areas (or a number of anomalies in one project area) you can use this tool to
quickly and easily zoom into your areas of interest.
How to Create a Snapshot
The Create Snapshot option can be found on the Map menu, Navigation Bar (
and various Map popup menus.

)

1. Zoom into an area of interest on your current map. Right-click and from the

popup menu select Create Snapshot. The Set Snapshot Name dialog is displayed.

2. Specify a descriptive name for your snapshot and click the [OK] button. The

snapshot will be saved with the current map.
How to View a Snapshot
Snapshots can be quickly and easily viewed using the dynamic Snapshot menu item
on the Map popup menus.
1. Open and select a map that already includes associated “Snapshots”. Right-click,

and from the popup menu select Snapshots. A dynamic sub-menu will be
displayed listing all of the snapshots associated with the current map.

2. Select one of the previously created snapshots and your current map will be

redrawn to the extents of the selected Snapshot.

Close and Save Project
The next tutorial (Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools) is designed to introduce
you to basic map editing and CAD tools. In order to preserve your current databases

Tutorial 4: Basic Mapping and Gridding 121

and maps we will save and close this project. We will open this project to use again in
Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking.
Closing a project will save all of your project databases, maps and profiles, plus
information that tells the system whether you are working on a map or profile and the
state in which you left it the last time you used it.
T O C LOSE

A

P ROJECT

1. On the File menu, select Project and then select Close. The Save Modified

Documents dialog is displayed.

2. This dialog enables you to select All, None or Selected (highlighted) files. To

select more than one file at a time hold the <Shift> key to select consecutive files
or hold the <Ctrl> key to select individual files.
3. For this tutorial, click the [All] button to save all open databases, maps and grids

in the project.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 123

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools
This tutorial is designed to introduce you to the basic map editing and CAD functions
in Oasis montaj. The procedures are designed to show you how you can use these
tools to draw an interpretation from geophysical data. The tutorial also shows how
you can use the clipboard to copy, import, and export map groups and images.
This tutorial will show you how to:
• Display an interpretation map
• Create a group
• Hide, move, or mask a group
• Create and apply a mask
• View and edit groups
• Draw lines on a map
• Convert lines to polygons
• Use the “Snap to line” and “Snap to point” tools
• Change line symbols and polygon patterns
• Using the eyedropper and fill tools
• Using the Polygon Edit Tools
• Use the clipboard to copy, import and export map elements

Before you Begin
This tutorial uses a background map called mag.map. These files are provided on the
CD-ROM in the Oasis montaj/data/various directory. Before you begin this tutorial
you will need to copy the background map to a working directory and create a new
project.

Create a Project
In order to begin working in Oasis montaj you must have an open project. The
procedures below describe how to open a new project.
T O C REATE

A

N EW P ROJECT :

1. On the File menu, select Project and then select New. The New Project dialog is

displayed.
2. Specify a name and directory for the project. For example, name the project

Interp and specify the working directory as D:\Tutorial\cad. Oasis montaj will
automatically look for your data in the directory containing this project. Make
sure you copy the sample data file (mag.map, mag.grd and mag.GRD.gi) for
this tutorial to your project directory (D:\tutorial\cad).
3. Click [Save]. The system saves the project with the corresponding name.

124 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

Displaying an Interpretation Map
Now that you have opened a project, you can display the map you want to interpret.
1. On the Map menu, select Open map the Open Map dialog box is displayed. Select

the mag.map file in your project directory (C:\tutorial\cad). Click the [Open]
button to select the file.
2. The map which includes a geophysical grid will be displayed in the map window,

C:\tutorial\cad\mag.map

Note: If you would like to change the colour pallet of your grid to pastel, as shown
above, simply redisplay the mag.grd file using the Colour table as (pastel.tbl) or
while in Map Group Mode (click the (

) button) select the grid, right click and

from the popup menu select Image Colour tool. Using the Load from File icon ( ),
select the pastel.tbl from the “…\Oasis montaj\tbl”directory. Click [Open] and then
[OK] on the Image Colour tool, the grid will be displayed using the pastel colour
table. (Note, if the grid is not redrawn on closing the Image Colout Tool. click the
Redraw ( ) button on the Map Tools Bar, and the grid will be refreshed, displaying
the pastel colour table.

Understanding the Parts of a Map
In Oasis montaj, Maps are special items that serve a number of purposes in the
system. First, the map window provides the basic mechanism for creating maps,
images and linking to other maps and data. Secondly, Maps provide a means of
editing graphics, adding text and creating highly customized final presentations for
output to printers and plotters. To work effectively with maps, you need to be familiar
with the purposes of maps in the system as well as the role of views and groups.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 125

Base and Data Views
Geosoft Maps use Views to organize and display information. A view divides the
information on a map into a Base view, which uses paper coordinates and a Data
view, which uses ground coordinates. Map surrounds, north arrows, and scale bars
are examples of map groups plotted in the Base view. Map coordinates, contours, and
grids are examples of map groups that are plotted in the Data view.
3D Views
A 3D View can be created from an existing 2D View or Group already displayed on a
map, or directly from a grid file. Specialized GX’s may also create 3D views for their
own purposes. Like 2D Views, a 3D view also represents coordinates, but in this
case in X,Y AND Z. 3D Views may also contain any number of drawing planes.
Any Group or drawing object that can be drawn on a 2D View can be drawn on a
Plane in a 3D View. Each plane in a 3D view can be oriented independently in the 3D
coordinate system. A Plane in a 3D view can be flat or it can have a surface relief
defined by a grid file.
The 3D Tool has a simple tab dialog box with a corresponding 3D Viewer window.
The 3D Viewer enables you to change the orientation of the 3D View relative to your
point of view by rotating the coordinate system horizontally and vertically and by
zooming and panning. The 3D View can be modified using the 3D Tool, including
defining the orientation, setting relief grid controls and transparency levels of
individual planes, and specifying axis labels.
For more information on creating and working with 3D Views see Tutorial 14: 3D
Views in Oasis montaj page 239.
Groups
Oasis montaj uses Groups to determine the order in which objects are displayed
(rendered) on a map. Examples of Groups in the Base view include a north arrow,
title text box, or a scale bar. Examples of Groups in the Data view include lines,
polygons, grids, and images. You can create, edit, move, hide, and mask groups. You
can also move groups in front and behind each other. Any new object you add to a
map, such as a polygon or line, is added to the current group.
View/Group Manager Tool
You can use the View/Group Manager tool ( ) to display and edit the Views and
Groups in a map. This tool (see example on next page) consists of a ‘tree’ structure
that contains two main branches representing the Base view and the Data view. Under
each view, a number of groups are listed according to their layer on the map.
Each group in a view shows an icon beside its name that identifies the group as
either a map vector object ( ) or an aggregate ( ) . Views can either be normal 2D
views ( ) or 3D views (
visibility of an item.

). The check boxes in the tree controls and indicates

126 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

To select single items in the tree click on the item desired. Multiple selections of
groups within a view can be achieved by holding the <Ctrl> key and clicking on the
desired items. Changing the selection during group editing will end group editing
without cancelling any current changes.
The effect of a double click on any item depends on the state of the map. If in shadow
cursor mode the map will switch to either group or view selection mode and select the
item that was clicked upon. If the map is already in either of these selection modes a
double click has the same effect as hitting the
button or using the activate
shortcut key (default <Enter> key).
The group on the top layer (closest to the front) is listed first, followed by the next
layer behind it, followed by the rest of the layers to the bottom layer at the end of the
list. It is possible to control the render order in the tree by using the Drag n Drop
technology. The Drag n Drop capability enables you to move map groups up and
down within Views and also to move Views relative to each other.

R ENDERING O PTIONS

Check the Render images first box to render (draw) the images groups first.
Check the Auto-Redraw box to automatically redraw the map when a change is
made to it.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 127

Click the Redraw button to redraw the map when changes are made to the groups
in the View/Group Manager and the Auto-Redraw option is off.
Frozen Scale
Click this button to freeze the scale of the currently selected map group,
independent of the view scale of the map. For example, when zooming in the text
size in a group will not grow but remain the same size on the screen.
Visible Scale
Click this button to set a scale range in which the currently selected Group will be
visible. For example, individual groups may be made visible only at specific
scales. Then, while zooming, if the map scale is outside the range, the group is
not drawn.

The View/Group Manager Tool is a “modeless” dialog, which means it can remain
open while you work on your map. It can be toggled on or off using the “M” hot key
and can even be docked on the side of your screen or at the top with the toolbars.
O THER T OOL O PTIONS

The other Tool options include moving, masking, transparency settings, editing and
deleting. All of the following properties require the licensed version.
Moveable
Check the Moveable box to enable the movement of the selected group on the
map using the cursor.
Masked to View
Check the Masked to View box to mask the selected view using the mask
applied to the View (Map Tools|Masking|Apply View Mask VIEWCLIP.GX).
This option enables you to apply a mask to selected groups within a View.
Mask to Group region
Using the Mask to Group region dropdown list, select the extended view
mask applied to the View (Map Tools|Masking|Add|Replace group mask in
view - VIEWEXTCLIP.GX).
This option enables you to save the mask into the map and activate it on
specific groups in the View.
Transparency
Check the Transparency box to enable the slider (Transparent - Opaque).
Move the slider to the transparency level wanted for the selected group.
Edit
Click the button to edit (or activate) the selected item.
Note: Double click on a group or view in a map or using the activate shortcut
key (default Enter-Key) will also activate the edit mode for that item. The edit
mode depends on the item; group edit mode for vector groups, image color

128 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

tool for images and color symbols and 3D Viewer for 3D views.
Delete
Click the Delete button to delete the selected View/Group.
Note: If you delete a group my mistake or make any other undesired changes,
you can click the Undo last map change ( ) button on the Standard Toolbar
or use the shortcut (Default Ctrl-Z) at any time to undo any changes and
revert to the original map.

Create a New Group
The following procedure demonstrates how to create a new group. The procedures for
moving, hiding and Masking groups are included in later steps of this tutorial.
T O C REATE

A

N EW G ROUP :

1. On the Map Tools menu, select CAD Tools|New group. The Create a new empty

group in a view dialgo is displayed.

2. Using the View dropdown list, select (data) and in the New group name box,

specify the name as (Interp).
3. Click the [OK] button. The Map Group Editing Bar is enabled.

Selecting and Editing Groups
When you create a new group, this group becomes selected and you can edit it. A
group is open for editing whenever you see the Map Group Editing Bar displayed.
There are two different ways to select another group to edit.
M ETHOD 1

The first method is to use the View/Group Manager Tool . This manager tool
provides a single dialog that enables you to switch between different groups, change
their properties (moveable, hidden, masked), and changing their layering order (move
groups to the front or back).

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 129
U SING

THE

V IEW /G ROUP M ANAGER :

1. First select the map you want to edit and make sure the Map Group Mode (

)

button is selected.
2. On the Map Tools Bar, select the View/Group Manager (

) button.

3. The View/Group Manager Tool is displayed. The currently selected group

(Interp) is highlighted. To switch to another group, click on the group name so
that it becomes highlighted.

4. Click the [Edit] button and the group is selected and in edit mode on your map

and the Map Group Editing Bar is displayed.
5. When you are done editing the group, right-click and from the popup menu, select

End Editing.
M ETHOD 2

The second method of selecting and editing a group is to use the Mapping popup
menu. You may find this method quicker when you are editing and switching
between groups frequently.

130 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools
TO

QUICKLY

S ELECT

AND

E DIT

A

G ROUP

1. Make sure the Map Group Mode (

) button is selected. Place your cursor on the
map, right-click and from the popup menu, select Groups and then select the
name of the group you would like to select (e.g. Data\Interp). Then, right-click on
the map again and this time select Edit this group from the popup menu. The
group is selected and in edit mode on your map and the Map Group Editing Bar is
displayed.

2. When you are done editing the group, right-click and from the popup menu, select

End Editing.

Hiding, Moving and Masking Map Groups
The following three procedures will show you how to control how groups are
displayed on a map.
Hiding a Group.
Sometimes, when you have many groups on a map you may not want to display all
them on your final map. The procedure below shows you how to hide the grid in your
map.
T O H IDE

A

G ROUP

ON A

M AP :

1. First select the map you want to edit and make sure the Map Group Mode (

)

button is selected.
2. Click View/Group Manager tool button (

).

3. In the dialog box, highlight the group (AGG_mag) you want to hide and remove

the check box from the box directly infront of the icon.
.
4. Click [OK]. The grid on the map is hidden from view. To display the group

again, add the check mark back again.
5. You can also make a group hidden or visible by selecting the group in a map,

right clicking and from the popup menu, select Status|Hidden.
Moving a Group
To move a group around a map with your cursor, you must first select the Moveable
option for that group. Once this option is set, you can move the group by selecting it
and moving it with the cursor.
T O M OVE

A

G ROUP :

1. First you must make sure the Moveable option is set for the group. There are two

methods of doing this:

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 131

One method is to select the View/Group Manager Tool button ( ). Using
the Manager tool, select (highlight) the name of the group, then place a check
in the Moveable box. Click [OK].

The second method is to select the group in the map by clicking on the group
with the left mouse button. Then click the right mouse button. On the popup
menu, click Moveable.
2. Now place the cursor anywhere inside the group. The cursor will change into a set
of directional arrows ( ).

3. Holding down the left mouse button, drag the group in the direction you want to

move it.
Masking a Group
Masking a group involves using a polygon or rectangular mask file to make only a
specific area of a group visible. To mask a group, you must first create and apply a
mask to a view. You can then use this mask on specific groups in the view areas of
the group outside the mask. The following three procedures show you the steps to
create a mask, apply it to a view, and turn Masking on for a group.
T O C REATE

A

R ECTANGULAR PLY F ILE :

1. On the Database Tools menu, select Window Data, then select Create

Rectangular PLY file. The Define a rectangular plot mask dialog is displayed.
2. Click the [Interactive] button. The Define rectangle dialog box is displayed.

Click the [OK] button to continue.

3. Use the mouse to draw a rectangle on the map (Mag.map). The Define a

rectanglular plot mask dialog is then displayed with the coordinates of the
rectangle, as shown in the dialog below.

132 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

4. Specify the mask file name as rectanglemask.ply and from the dropdown list

select inclusive. This means that when the mask is applied to a group, only
features inside the rectangle mask will be visible.
5. Click [New File] to save the mask file.
T O A PPLY

A

M ASK

TO A

V IEW :

1. On the Map Tools menu, select Masking, then select ApplyView Mask. The Reset

view clip region dialog is displayed.

2. Using the Browse button, specify the Clip polygon file (.ply) as

(rectanglemask.ply) and select the Map view as Data. In the Clip all groups box,
select (no). This will set the Masking option to off for all other groups in the
view.
3. Click the [OK] button.
T O M ASK

A

G ROUP :

1. Select the map you want to edit and make sure the Map Group Mode (

) button

is selected.
2. Click View/Group Manager Tool button (

). In the dialog box, highlight the

group (AGG_mag) you want to mask.
3. Place a check mark in the Masked to View box. Click the Redraw (

) button.

4. The map is redrawn to display only the section of the grid inside the mask.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 133

5. You can also turn Masking on or off by selecting a group in a map, and on the

Map Tools menu, select Masking|Clear View Mask. The mask will be cleared
from the View.

Drawing Lines, Polylines and Polygons
You can use the line and the polyline tools to draw linear features such as dykes and
faults. You can then connect these lines and create shaded polygons to mark different
geological or geophysical areas of the site.
Drawing Polylines
The procedure below shows you how to draw polylines on your map and how to
create polygons from these lines. This procedure also shows you how to use the Snap
to point and Snap to line tools, which are useful for ensuring that your lines connect
each other without overlapping.
D RAWING P OLYLINES

TO I DENTIFY

L INEAR F EATURES :

1. Select the mag.map.
2. Make sure the Map Group Mode (

) button is selected. Right-click mouse

button on the map.
3. On the popup menu, select Groups, then select name of the group you would like

to select (Interp).
4. To edit the selected group, right-click on the map and select Edit This Group from

the popup menu. The Map Group Editing Bar is displayed.
5. On the Map Group Editing Bar, click the Polyline tool (

) button.

134 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools
6. Draw a line along the edge of an anomaly. Click cursor on the place you want the

line to start, and then move the mouse, clicking wherever you want to change
direction. When you are finished, right click and from the popup menu, select
Done.

7. Draw another polyline roughly parallel to the first (as shown below).

8. You can now connect other polylines to the ones you have just drawn. To do this

click on the polyline tool button.
9. Click right mouse button. A dialog box is displayed that enables you to choose

whether you want the new polyline from a location along the existing line or a
point on the line.
Note: To just draw a line and not connect it to a previous line, select Cancel and left
click to draw the line (as you did in step 2 for the first polyline).

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 135
10. Choose the Snap to point option. The cursor will change to a circle with a shaded

centre.

11. When you move the cursor over a point or node along the line, the cursor changes

to a target symbol with the shaded circle indicating the location of the point.

12. To begin drawing a new polyline from this point, click left mouse button.
13. Move the cursor and click left button to define the shape of the line. Draw the

polyline so your last point is located just short of the second line (see below).

14. Click right mouse button. On the popup menu, click Snap to line. The cursor will

change to a circle. Use this cursor to search for a section of the line to connect to.
The Snap to line cursor works like this:

When the cursor is searching for a line to connect to, it looks like:
When the cursor finds a line it can connect to, it changes to:

15. Once you have the cursor on the line where you want it, click left mouse button to

insert a point.
16. Click right mouse button, and then select Done to finish drawing the line.
17. Repeat the previous steps to add more polylines to your map so that it looks

something like the following:

136 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

Changing Line Attributes
This procedure shows you how to modify the attributes (thickness, colour and
pattern) of the lines you drew in the previous steps.
C HANGING L INE A TTRIBUTES :
1. Select the line you would like to edit by clicking the left mouse button on it.

Sizing handles are displayed around the line, indicated it is selected.
2. Right-click and from the popup menu, select Attributes. The Polyline Attributes

dialog box is displayed.

3. In the Thickness box, you can specify the line thickness in millimetres (0.1 is the

default).
4. To change the line colour, click on the Draw Colour box. A colour palette dialog

box is displayed for you to choose a colour.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 137
5. To change the line pattern, make sure there is a check mark in Styled Line check

box. Double click in the Styled Line box to display the LineAttributes dialog box.

6. In the Pattern Family box you can select from a variety of different sets of

patterns (Standard Patterns, Fancy lines, Geology, Arrows, Slashes, and Shapes).
In the Pattern box, click on the pattern you would like to apply. You can also set
the pitch (which is the distance between the symbols or dashes in the line). Click
the [OK] button when you are finished.
7. Click Smooth check box to smooth the rough edges in the polyline into smooth

curves.
8. Click [OK] to apply the changes to the line or click [Cancel] to exit the dialog

without making any changes.
Creating Polygons from Lines
After delineating different areas of your map with polylines and/or lines, you can use
these lines to create polygons. This process will convert all the lines in the current
group into polygons. If you have lines that you do not want converted to polygons
either create these lines in a different group or ensure that the lines are not connected
to other lines to create polygons.
T O C REATE P OLYGONS

FROM

L INES :

1. On the Map Tools menu, select CAD Tools|Create PLY File from Map Group.

The Create polygon file from group dialog is displayed.

138 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

2. Using the Select a View/Group dropdown list, select the View\Group as

(Data\Interp) and then in the Output polygon file box, specify the name of your
polygon file as (group_polygon.ply).
3. Click the [OK] button to create a polygon file from your lines in the selected

group.
4. To create fills for the closed polygons, on the Map Tools menu, select Create

Fills for Closed Polylines. The Create a polygon area group from a line group
dialog will be displayed.

5. The Line group to process box should contain the group of lines that you want to

convert to polygons.
6. The Use colours or patterns box has three options for shading polygons: colours,

patterns or both. Choose (both) to use both colours and patterns.
7. The number of units indicates the number of boxes of categories you want to

create in the legend. The default is 10. You can edit these boxes later.
8. Select Yes to add a legend to the map. Click [OK] to continue.
9. Specify the legend settings in the Legend dialog box.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 139

10. Click the [OK] button to create polygons and a legend similar to the map below.

E DITING P OLYGONS

AND

L EGEND B OXES :

1. You can edit both polygons and their associated legend boxes in the same way.

While you are in Map Group Mode, move the cursor to the polygon or box you
want to edit and double-click the left mouse button. The Polygon Attributes
dialog box is displayed.

140 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

2. To change the fill colour, click on the Colour box. A colour palette dialog box is

displayed for you to choose a colour. To turn line colouring off (i.e. make the line
invisible) remove the check mark from the Filled check box. You can select a line
colour the same way using the Draw Edge | Colour box instead.
3. To change the fill pattern, make sure there is a check mark in Fill pattern check

box. Double-click in the Pattern box to display the Pattern Attributes dialog.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 141

4. In the Pattern Family box you can select from three different sets of patterns

(Objects, Hatches or Solid Fill). In the Pattern box, click on the pattern you
would like to apply.
5. You can also set the Tile Size and Tile Density, which changes the space between

the pattern symbols and the Line Thickness (% of Tile Size), which changes the
size of the individual pattern symbols. Click the [Refresh] button to see what the
pattern will look like in the example box.
6. Click the [OK] button when you are finished selecting a pattern or click [Cancel]

to exit the dialog without making any changes.
7. Click [OK] on the Polygon Attribute dialog box to apply the changes to the

polygon or click [Cancel] to exit the dialog without making any changes.

142 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

Using the Get Colour and Polygon Colour Tools
Using the Get Colour Tool (eyedropper) and the Polygon fill tool (bucket) on the
Map Group Editing Bar, you can copy fill colours and patterns from one polygon and
apply them to another polygon. A description of each tool and how to use them is
provided below.
G ET C OLOUR T OOL

You access the Get Colour Tool by clicking on its
button in the Map Group Editing Bar. The image
cursor will change to an eyedropper.

Button
Cursor

P OLYGON F ILL T OOL

You access the Polygon Fill tool by clicking on its
button in the Map Group Editing Bar. The image
cursor will change to a bucket.
T O C OPY

A

C OLOUR

FROM ONE

P OLYGON

1. Click on the Get Colour button (

TO

Button
Cursor

A NOTHER :

) in the Map Group Editing Bar. The image

cursor will change to an eyedropper (

).

2. To get a colour (and pattern) from a polygon, place the eyedropper cursor over

the polygon containing the colour you want and click left mouse button.
3. The cursor will change to a bucket (

). Click on the polygon to which you
want to apply the fill. The polygon now contains the new colour (and pattern).

Polygon Edit Tools
Polygon Edit tools are now provided with Oasis montaj. These tools will enable you
to edit polygon vertices, add exclusion regions to polygons, and tools to switch
between editing the vertices of main polygons (Islands) and vertices of the exclusion
regions polygons (Holes).

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 143

Map Edit popup menu

Edit polygon vertices
The ability to edit polygon vertices has been added to
the Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System.
The Edit Vertices option is available on the “Map
Edit” popup menu when you are in Group Edit mode
and have a polygon selected on your current map.
For instructions on Editing Vertices see To
Add/Remove Vertices on a Polygon below.

Polygon Edit Tools

Description
Edit Vertices. Use this tool to edit the vertices of a previously
created polygon.
Add Vertices. Use this tool to add new vertices to a polygon.
Delete Vertices. Use this tool to delete vertices from a polyon.
Add New Rectangular Island. Use this tool to add a new
rectangular “Island” to a previously created polygon.
Add New Polygon Island. Use this tool to add a new polygon
“Island” to a previously created polygon.
Add New N-Sided Polygon Island. Use this tool to draw a new
N-sided polygon “Island” to a previously created polygon.
Add New Rectangular Hole. Use this tool to add a new
rectangular “Hole” to a previously created polygon “Island”.
Add New Polygon Hole. Use this tool to add a new polygon
“Hole” to a previously created polygon “Island”.
Add New N-Sided Polygon Hole. Use this tool to draw a new
N-sided polygon “Hole” to a previously created polygon
“Island”.
Cycle to Previous Hole/Island. Use this tool to cycle (switch)
to the previous Hole or Island.
Cycle to Next Hole/Island. Use this tool to cycle (switch) to
the next Hole or Island.
Delete Current Hole/Island. Use this tool to delete the current
Hole or Island.

144 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

To Add/Remove Vertices on a Polygon
Vertices can be added or removed from polygons by using the plus (+) and minus (-)
keys on your Number Keypad.
Note: The plus (+) and minus (-) keys on the main alpha-numeric keypad will not
work; you MUST use the Number Keypad only.
T O A CCESS

THE

E DIT P OLYGON V ERTICES O PTION :

1. Click the Map Group Mode (

) button and select the group on your map that
includes the polygon you wish to edit.

2. While holding your cursor over your map, right click and from the “Map Edit”

popup menu select, Edit This Group. The group will now be in Edit mode (you
will see a box with hatch marks around the group, this is a visual clue that you are
in Edit mode).
3. Select the “Polygon” that you want to edit and then right click and from the “Map

Edit” popup menu you can now select Edit Vertices. The vertices on your map
will change from grey to white.
TO

ADD ADDITIONAL

V ERTICES

ON A POLYGON :

1. While in Edit mode, select Edit Vertices from the “Map Edit” popup menu.
2. Place your cursor, between two vertices on the polygon, where you want to place

the new vertices. Press and hold the “+” key on your Number Keypad (note that, a
plus sign (

) is added to your cursor).

3. While holding down the “+” key, use your mouse to select the location for the

new vertices.
4. Or, you can select the Add Vertices button on the Polygon Edit Bar. Your cursor

will change to a cross-hair and it will be linked to the polygon lines. Left-click to
add new vertices to the polygon.
TO

REMOVE VERTICES FROM A POLYGON :

1. While in Edit mode, select Edit Vertices from the “Map Edit” popup menu.
2. Place your cursor on the vertices you want removed. Press and hold the “-” key

on your Number Keypad (note that, a vertices selection box and a minus sign
are added to your cursor).
3. While holding down the “-” key, use your mouse to select the vertices to be

removed.
4. Or, you can select the Delete Vertices button on the Polygon Edit Bar. Your

cursor will change (vertices selection box and a minus sign added). Left-click to
delect vertices from the polygon.

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 145

Using the Windows Clipboard with Maps in Oasis montaj
The Windows clipboard can be used to move maps and map component objects from
one map to another within Oasis montaj. In addition, you can use the clipboard to
copy and paste objects between Oasis montaj and other applications.
The Windows clipboard lets you perform the following tasks:
• Copy text and graphics (as EMF objects) from Windows applications to Oasis
montaj maps.
• Copy map objects from Oasis montaj to the clipboard as EMF picture graphics
and bitmaps. You can then paste these pictures into most word processing,
presentation and graphic applications.
• Copy objects from one map to the clipboard and paste these into another map.
The objects can be pasted either as georeferenced information in an existing data
view, or in a separate view centreed on the currently displayed window.
How does the Windows Clipboard work?
The Windows clipboard allows applications to perform two separate operations:
1. Information can be copied (or cut) to the clipboard.
2. Information on the clipboard can be pasted into an application document.

When information is copied to the clipboard, it can be placed on the clipboard in a
variety of formats. When information on the clipboard is pasted into another
application, that application will choose a format on the clipboard that it understands.
For example, when text is copied to the clipboard from the Microsoft Word program,
it is placed as raw ASCII text, a formatted EMF picture of the text, and a Word
document that includes formatting information. When this information is pasted into
a simple text editor, only the ASCII text can be used. When this information is pasted
onto a PowerPoint slide, the text and formatting is used, and when pasted onto an
Oasis Montaj map, the EMF picture is used.
When information is copied from an Oasis Montaj map to the clipboard, the
following will be placed on the clipboard:
• A text block that contains geo-referencing information about the object. This
includes the locations of the corners of the picture formed by the information and
the map projection of the coordinate system.
• A map view and its contained groups, or all map groups if nothing on the map
was selected. If a map group was selected, only that group and the view that
contained the group are placed on the clipboard.
• An EMF picture of the map or view/group selected and clipped to the currently
displayed window.
• A bitmap of the map or view/group selected and clipped to the currently selected
window.

146 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

Copying Georeferenced information between Maps
All data plotted in a map data view carry with it the geo-referencing information of
the view. Georeference information includes the map coordinates of the data, a
transform that translates the view coordinates to the map (paper) coordinates, and
optionally a full map projection. When data is copied to the clipboard, all this
information is included.
If you use the paste georeferenced command to paste the clipboard information into a
map view on another map, the geo-referencing information will be used to locate this
information correctly in the new data view. If the new data view is in a projection
different from the original data view, the data will be re-projected to the coordinate
space of the new view.
T O C OPY G EOREFERENCED O BJECTS (G ROUPS )

BETWEEN

M APS :

1. On the first map, select the entire map, a view or a group you want to copy.

To select the entire map, make sure you are in the normal cursor tracing
mode by clicking the Shadow Cursors button (

).

To select a view, click on the Map View Mode button
. Then click on the
click on the view you want to select.

To select a group, click on the Map Group Mode button
, then choose the
group.

To select a single entity within a group such as a single line or polygon,
click on the Map Group Mode button
. Then double-click on the group to
change to the group edit mode (or select the group, right-mouse button, “Edit
this group”). Once in group edit mode, select the entity you want to place on
the clipboard.
2. Click the right mouse button. On the popup menu, click “Cut”, “Copy”, or “Copy
map to clipboard” (if displayed), or (or press CTRL+C).

3. Click on the map you want to paste the information into.
4. Click on the right-mouse button and select paste georeferenced. You will be

presented with a dialog that lets you choose the view that you want to paste the
information into.
Use the Clipboard to create a Montage Map or Poster
At times, you may want to make a single map that contains separate data views from
multiple map presentations. This is often called a montage. Each data view may show
different data for the same map area. This can be done using the cut and paste feature
of Oasis Montaj as follows:
T O C REATE

A

M ONTAGE M AP

FROM COMPONENT MAPS

1. Create separate maps of all the different data sets that you want to show together

on your montage.
2. Create a new empty map that will be the montage. It is easiest to create this map

by duplicating an existing map without its contents. From the Map menu, select

Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools 147

Duplicate map and specify a new map name and make the contents “blank”. The
blank map that is created will be your montage map.
3. Go to a map that contains data and select the data by changing to the Map View

), then click on the view you want to select. Click the
Mode mode (button
right mouse button and choose “Copy” (or press CTRL+C).
4. Go to the montage map, click the right mouse button, on the menu click Paste.

On the dialog that is presented, choose the Same scale at offset option and
specify a location at which to place the view on the montaj map. You can also
simply move the view after pasting.
5. Repeat steps 3. and 4 for each data view to be placed on the montaj map.

When working with a montage map, you can also turn on the Map/Snap mode to limit
the location of moved items to an even increment from the map origin. This helps you
to exactly line up map views vertically and horizontally. Use the Map/Snap
resolution option to specify the smallest increment to use for moving views.
You might also choose to create your montage map from the entire contents of other
maps, including their base views. To do this, choose Copy map to clipboard instead
of “Copy” in step 3. In step 4, always choose to offset the location of the inserted
views as required. This is because once inserted, only individual views can be
selected and moved on the map and it is difficult to move all map views and keep the
alignment between views.
Using the Clipboard to paste a picture from another application on a
Map
You can use the clipboard to paste an image onto a map from another application that
can copy Enhanced Metafile Format (EMF) or Bitmap information to the clipboard.
For example, you might create marginal notes for your map in Word for Windows.
This information can be selected and copied to the clipboard, where it will be in EMF
format (among others). This information can then be pasted on your map, sized and
located as you like.
T O P ASTE

A

P ICTURE

FROM ANOTHER

A PPLICATION

TO A

M AP :

1. In the other program, select the graphical information and copy it to the clipboard

(in Word, just select the text, or in PowerPoint, select a slide or an object on a
slide).
2. In Oasis montaj, select the map you want to paste the graphic into.
3. Click on the right-mouse button and select paste. You will be presented with a

dialog that lets you choose the view that you want to paste the information into

148 Tutorial 5: Map Editing and CAD Tools

Using the Clipboard to export a graphics from a Map to another
application
You can use the clipboard to copy maps, or parts of maps to other applications that
can accept EMF or Bitmap graphics, or can understand Oasis Montaj map objects on
the clipboard. For example, you map wish to place your data view and the images it
contains on a PowerPoint slide, or add this as a figure in a Word for Windows
document.
T O P LACE

A

G RID I MAGE

ON A

P OWER P OINT S LIDE :

1. In Oasis montaj, display the grid in a data view and add whatever other graphics

you want to include.
2. Click the Map View Mode button (

) and choose the view you want to place in

PowerPoint.
3. Click on the right-mouse button and select “Copy” (or press Ctrl-Insert).
4. In PowerPoint, create a new slide, or open the slide to receive the picture.
5. In PowerPoint, on the Edit menu, click Paste Special. This will display a dialog

box enabling you to choose the format that you want to use to paste the image.
Choose “Picture (Enhanced Metafile).
Note: You can use the same procedure in almost any Microsoft application. Other
applications that support pasting of Enhanced Metafile or Bitmap information
will have a similar procedure.

Close and Save Project
The next tutorial (Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking) is designed to
introduce you to imaging and dynamic linking and we will be using the data and
maps from Tutorial 4. Therefore, we need to close the current project.
Closing a project will save all of your project databases, maps and profiles, plus
information that tells the system whether you are working on a map or profile and the
state in which you left it the last time you used it.
T O C LOSE

A

P ROJECT

1. On the File menu, click Close|Project. The Save Modified Documents dialog box

is displayed.
2. Click the [All] button to save all open databases in your project. (Maps are always

saved when you close a project.)

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking 149

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking
As described in Tutorial 3, the system provides a variety of capabilities for imaging
and linking maps to data and profiles. This tutorial introduces you to these concepts.
Before you begin…
In this tutorial will be using the data and maps from Tutorial 4. Therefore, we need to
open the GeoDemo project.
T O O PEN

A

P ROJECT

1. On the File menu, select Project and then select Open. The Open Project dialog

box is displayed.
2. Select the GeoDemo.gpf file and click the [Open] button. The project is open

exactly as you left it.

Creating Colour Shaded Images
The shaded relief image is a common method used to present geophysical and other
types of data. This presentation technique creates a 3-dimensional effect using 2dimensional rendering or plotting capabilities. The result is useful for checking the
quality of the data and for data interpretation.
When you create a shaded relief map the system automatically creates a new grid file
for that map with _s after the original grid name. For example, mag.grd will become
mag_s.grd.
Shaded relief maps can be created interactively using the Run Dynamic Shawdowing
button (
) in the Image Colour Tool, or manually by creating a shaded grid using
the Grid and Image|Display|Colour-Shaded Grid.
T O C REATE

A

C OLOUR S HADED I MAGE :

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Display and then select Colour-Shaded Grid.

The system displays the Colour-shaded grid image dialog box.

150 Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking

2. Click the [Browse] button to select the Grid name (tfmag.grd). For the Shading

effect select Normal (RGB) from the drop down menu. Accept the default
parameters for the Colour table, Colour method, Illumination inclination and
Illumination declination.
Note: The illumination inclination and illumination declination simply means the
sun illumination angles.
3. Click the [New Map] button. The Map Exists dialog is displayed.

4. This is a safety feature built into the system to make sure that you that you do not

overwrite your tfmag.map. Click the [No] button so that you do not overwrite
your current map. The system prompts you for a New map name.

5. Type the name of the new map as tfmag_shaded.map. Click the [OK] button.

The system will create a colour-shaded image from the grid file tfmag.grd and
place the image in a new map window called tfmag_shaded.map.

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking 151

Interactive Colour Imaging and Shadowing
Oasis montaj provides an Image Colour tool that enables you to modify colour grid
zoning interactively on the screen, store custom colour configurations in a specialized
colour palette file and apply these to all of your grid image products. The system
supports the following transform methods for zoning the data.
• Linear - The system divides the range of grid values linearly into even
increments.
• Normal - The system assumes your grid data are normally distributed and
determines zones based on the distribution for a standard bell curve.
• Equal Area (Histogram) - The system evaluates your grid values and
statistically determines the zones, such that each colour occupies an equal area of
the map.
T O A CTIVATE

THE I MAGE

C OLOUR T OOL :

1. Make sure tfmag_shaded.map is selected in your project.
2. Click the Map Group Mode button (

).

3. Since there is only a colour shaded image in this map and no other groups, click

on the map once with the left mouse button to have the system select the map.
You will notice that the cursor has changed to show that it is in the Map Group
Mode.

152 Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking

4. Right click while your have the grid selected and from the popup menu selct

Image Colout Tool. The Image Colour Tool dialog is displayed. This dialog
shows the data distribution relative to the colour table (colour.tbl) selected
earlier.

T O M ANIPULATE

THE

C OLOUR S PECTRUM / P ERCENTILE G ROUPS :

1. Press and hold your left mouse button on the left or right arrows at the top corners

of transform box. This will expand or contract your view of the transform in the
window.

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking 153
2. Click on the up or down arrows on the colour slide bar and notice how the colours

compress and stretch through the data range. The percentile value is displayed on
the right-hand side of the colour tool bar. Also notice how the colour values
change at the same time on your tfmag_shaded.map.
Click the [Reset] button (
T O A CTIVATE

) to set the colours back to their original settings.

THE I NTERACTIVE

C OLOUR S HADING T OOL :

1. Ensure that the Image Colour Tool is still activated.
2. Select tfmag_s.grd as the image to be used by the Image Colour Tool from the

dropdown menu that displays the current grid name.

3. A new image transform is displayed for the tfmag_s.grd.
4. Click the [Dynamic shadowing] button (

). The system displays the Shadow

Tool dialog box.

5. Move the Shadow Tool dialog box so that it’s not blocking the map.
6. Click the [DynaShade] button. Your cursor will turn into a sun icon (

).

154 Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking
7. Use the sun cursor and click and hold the left mouse button on the image. As you

move your mouse around the image, the sun illumination will change relative to
the centre of your map window.
Note: The illumination is relative to the centre of the map window and not the centre
of the image.
8. To save your new sun angles, release your mouse button and click the [Stop]
button, then click the [OK] button.
9. The system returns you to the Image Colour Tool dialog box.
10. Click the [OK] button to save your changes.

Copying and/or Converting Grid Files
Oasis montaj enables you to copy and/or convert any supported grid format to any
other supported grid format.
C OPYING

AND / OR

C ONVERTING G RID F ILES

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Utilities|Copy/Convert. The Copy/convert

grids dialog is displayed.
2. Using the [Browse] button, select the Input Grid File, and specify the Output

Grid File.
3. Click the [OK] button. The grid is copied and/or converted as specified.
Note:

For more information on copying and /or converting grid files, click the Help
(

) button on the Copy/convert grids dialog box.

Using Dynamic Data Links
Dynamic links are “virtual” georeferenced connections between spreadsheets,
profiles and maps. These links work in two-directions so you can select any window
and see the equivalent data in the other windows you are using.
T O L INK S PREADSHEET , P ROFILE

AND

M AP D ATA:

Desktop linking enables you to place a special Link cursor on one or more maps and
locate a specific part of the data.
1. Make sure only tfmag_shaded.map and the database tfmag.gdb are open in your

project (do not remove them from your project, just close the map, grid and
database windows of the other items).
2. On the Window menu, click Tile Vertically. The system arranges your database

window and map window side by side.
3. The system automatically turns on a map link and activates the Shadow Cursors

button on the Map Editing toolbar. ( ). You can tell a button is activated
because it will appear to be depressed more than the other buttons on the toolbar.
4. Click on a value in the database or on a point in the profile view, and you see that

the Link cursor (large black cross) moves to the same location on the map. This

Tutorial 6: Imaging and Dynamic Linking 155

type of linking enables you to quickly identify discrete anomalies on a map and
view their corresponding values in the database.
5. You can display multiple maps and use this function to locate and visualize the

same anomaly locations for different data types. It is quite useful for quality
control (searching for anomalous noise spikes, for example) and for multiparameter interpretation.

Dynamic
Data Linking

Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps 157

Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps
Many users have the need to create custom base maps based on corporate standards
or client requirements. Custom base maps can be prepared using the commands
available in the MAPPLOT GX.
In this exercise, we will build a MAP using the control file, Map04.con, along with a
few support files.
T O C REATE

A

C USTOM B ASE M AP :

1. On the Map Tools menu, select Base map and then select Mapplot Control

File|From Control File. The MAPPLOT control file and load on current map
dialog is displayed.

2. Click the [Browse] button and select the Control file name, (Map04.con). From

the Draw to dropdown list select a new map. We can leave the Match strings
blank, for more information on match string, click the Help (
3. Click the [OK] button and the New map dialog is displayed.

) button.

158 Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps
4. . Specify the New map name as (Map_04) and click the [OK] button. The new

map with the basemap based on the Mapplot control file (map04.con) is
displayed.

5. The control file Map04.con is shown below. To view the control file, on the Edit

menu, select Edit a file. Click the [Browse] button to locate the control file. The
four letter commands (for example, SURR) are all described in the help for the
MAPPLOT GX. This file accesses several text files for legend information:
survey.leg and mag.leg. It also places three images on the map: a Geosoft format
grid file, map04mag.grd; a TIF file, omontaj.tif (Oasis montaj logo); and a JPG
file, indexmap.jpg.
MDFF map04.mdf
DATT s1=kt100
DATT s2=kt200
DATT s3=kt500
DATT t1=kt100
DATT t2=kt200
DATT t3=kt300
MGRP Surround,0,0
SURR s3,0.15,s1
DATT s1

Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps 159
MGRP Coordinates,0,1
ANOY ,,,,,2000,0.15,,-1,-1,,,-0.15,,1
ANOX ,,,,,2000,0.15,,-1,,,,-0.15,,1
DATT refgrid=kt150
GRID 2
PROJ
DATT
GRID
ALAT
ALON

map.PRJ
llgrid=kt050
-3,0.05,0.0230
,,0.5,,,-1
,,0.5

DATT
RECT
MGRP
SCAL
SCAL

s1
12
Scale_Bar,0,0
1,6,2,,ft,,,,1
1,6,3,,mt

MGRP North_Arrow,0,0
NARR 9,-6,-4,0.0,4,s2,80.3,23.4
MGRP Index_Map,0,0
RECT 3,-10,7,-2.65,15
TEXT 3,-9.8,7.2,-1,"Index Map - Topography"
s1,,,,,TI
RECT 3,-8,10,-6,13
s3
TEXT 3,-8.2,9.7,-1,"Survey Area"
s1,,,,,TI
MGRP Color_Bar,0,0
CBAR 6,-14,-8,1.2,0.6,s1
mag.agg,,,,-1
"Magnetics"
"[nT]"
DATT s1
MGRP Legends,0,0
TXTB 3,-6,20,0,,mag.leg
s1
TXTB 3,-10,30,-1,,survey.leg
s1
MGRP Titles,0,0
TITL 3,0,0,12
a,"Goldhunter",0,t2,.4
b,"Total Field Magnetics",0,t3,.3
b,"Northern Province",0,t2,.3
b,"Canada",0,t2,.3

160 Tutorial 7: Creating Custom Base Maps

MGRP
AGGR

MGRP
AGGR

MGRP
AGGR

c,"Data collected by ",0,t1,.25
c,"Helicopter Magnetics System",0,t1,.25
c,"flown by",0,t1,.25
c,"Surveys 'R Us",0,t1,.25
d,"Gold Mapping Corp.",0,t2,.3,,,15
Mag,0,1
0
AGG_mag
mag.grd,colour.tbl,3
Logo,0,0
2,-5,1,18,6,1
AGG_logo
omontaj.tif(IMG;t=tif)
IndexMap,0,0
3,-10,7,36,15,1
AGG_indexmap
indexmap.jpg(IMG;t=jpg)

6. Open map04.con file in your text editor program (i.e. Notepad).
7. Experiment with the map04.con file. Adding a forward slash character “/” at the

start of a line changes the line to a comment. If a line has this type of character
you can add any text for your informational purposes. Add a forward slash
character “/” to the following lines at the end of the file.
/MGRP IndexMap,0,0
/AGGR 3,-10,7,36,15,1
/

AGG_indexmap

/

indexmap.jpg(IMG;t=jpg)

8. Save the changes you made to the map04.con file as map04_no-index-map.con.
9. Create a new map using MAPPLOT, following the procedure in Step 1 above,

substituting map04_no-index-map.con for the control file name, and map04_noindex-map.map for the map name. The indexmap JPG image (brown topographic
map) will be missing.
10. Try other modifications. Click the Help (

) button from the MAPPLOT control
file and load on current map dialog box. You can add any commands found in the
MAPPLOT GX to the control file.

Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts 161

Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts
Scripting refers to the act of creating and running a file that will carry out many
operations in a row. Oasis montaj Scripts are ASCII files that define a series of
processing actions to be performed on selected data in a database. You can run scripts
interactively in Oasis montaj using the script toolbar buttons
Scripting commands found under the GX menu.

or the

We will create a script file using the script file record option. This operation writes a
script file (*.GS) by recording each GX that you run during this session – until you
stop script recording (from the GX menu). The resulting (*.GS) file contains
sufficient parameter and database information to run the selected GXs in the same
sequence. We will try this by recording a script of three different GXs - create a map
using MAPPLOT, add line path, and add line profiles - then run the file.
For more information on using Scripts, see the Creating Scripts In Oasis montaj
Technical Note, available online at: www.geosoft.com/resources/technotes/
T O C REATE

A

S CRIPT F ILE :

1. On the GX menu, select Scripting |Record Script. The Create Script File dialog is

displayed.

2. Specify a File name (Script_map) and then click the [Save] button.
3. On the Map Tools menu, select Base Map|MAPPLOT control file and then select

From Control File. The MAPPLOT dialog is displayed.

162 Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts
4. Using the [Browse] button for the Control File Name parameter, select the

control file map04.con. Then, from the Draw to dropdown list, select a new
map.
5. Click the [OK] button and the New map dialog will be displayed.

6. Specify a New map name as (Script_map), and click the [OK] button and the

new map (Script_map.map) will be created and displayed in your current
project.
7. On the Map Tools menu, select Line Path. The system displays the Line path plot

dialog box. The default settings will be used for this tutorial. Click the [OK]
button.

8. On the Map Tools menu, select Profile. The Profile plot dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts 163

9. Specify magedited from the dropdown menu for the profile channel, 50 units/mm

for the profile scale and 5000 for the profile base. Specify blue from the
dropdown menu for the line colour. Click the [OK] button.
10. On the GX menu, click Stop recording.... The system stops recording your

actions. All of your actions were recorded and saved to the script_map.gs file.
11. On the Edit menu, click Edit a File. The Edit file dialog is displayed.

12. Click the [Browse] button and select the file Script_map.gs as the File you wish

to open to view the Script parameters that you just created. Click the [OK] button
and the system opens up the file in your default text editor.
Below is the Script_map.GS file. The three GXs that were recorded are shown
beside the GX command: MAPPNEW, PATH, and PROFILE. For information about
the scripting commands, please use the Help system and look under script commands.
/-------------------------------------------------------/ LOG OPENED : Wed Mar 17 00:55:00 2004

164 Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts
/-------------------------------------------------------CURRENT
Database,"D:\Tutorial\tfmag.gdb"
CURRENT
Map,"d:\tutorial\Map_04.map"
SETINI
MAPPLOT.CON=".\\map04.con"
SETINI
MAPPLOT.NEW="1"
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS1=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS2=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS3=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS4=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS5=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS6=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS7=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS8=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS9=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MS10=""
SETINI
MAPPLOT.MAP=".\\Script_map.map"
GX
mapplot.gx
CURRENT
Database,"D:\Tutorial\tfmag.gdb"
CURRENT
Map,"d:\tutorial\Script_map.map"
SETINI
PATH.LINE_COLOR="K"
SETINI
PATH.LINE_THICKNESS="0.15"
SETINI
PATH.TICKFLAG="0"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_FORMAT="TL"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_DIR="0"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_COMPASS="0"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_LOCATION="1"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_SIZE="2.5"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_COLOR="K"
SETINI
PATH.LABEL_WEIGHT="0"
SETINI
PATH.H_OFFSET="2"
SETINI
PATH.V_OFFSET="0"
SETINI
PATH.GAP="0"
GX
path.gx
CURRENT
Database,"D:\Tutorial\tfmag.gdb"
CURRENT
Map,"d:\tutorial\Script_map.map"
SETINI
PROFILE.CHANNEL="magedited"
SETINI
PROFILE.SCALE="50"
SETINI
PROFILE.BASE="5000"
SETINI
PROFILE.LOG="0"
SETINI
PROFILE.LOGBASE="1.0"
SETINI
PROFILE.SMOOTH="0"
SETINI
PROFILE.COLOR="CM"
SETINI
PROFILE.THICKNESS="0.15"
SETINI
PROFILE.STYLE="0"
SETINI
PROFILE.PITCH="5"
SETINI
PROFILE.PFILCOL="N"
SETINI
PROFILE.NFILCOL="N"
SETINI
PROFILE.GAP=""
SETINI
PROFILE.JOIN="1"
SETINI
PROFILE.PLOTORDER="1"

Tutorial 8: Batch Processing with Scripts 165
GX
profile.gx
/------------------------------------------------------/ LOG CLOSED : Wed Mar 17 00:56:43 2004
/------------------------------------------------------13. The map script_map.map that was created in Step 2 is displayed showing the

custom base map, line path, and magedited profiles in the colour chosen.
14. Close script_map.map, as we will be re-creating it by running the script.
15. On the GX menu, click Run Script. The system displays the Run a script with

parameters dialog box.

16. Click the [Browse] button and select the Script file you wish to run

(Script_map.gs). Click the [OK] button. The system will begin to process the GS
file containing the three GXs you recorded and display the map for you.
17. As an additional exercise, try modifying a parameter in the GS and run it again.

For example, in the editor change the parameter, PROFILE.COLOUR from “B”
(blue) to “R” (red).

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 167

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding
As more information becomes available in digital format, earth science specialists are
recognizing that it is essential to work with a variety of data from different sources.
This approach not only spreads resources as far as possible but it also enables
professionals to pool their knowledge and interpret results more effectively and make
more informed decisions.
In this tutorial, we investigate the integration of geochemical data in to an
environment that has focused on a single type of data (i.e. geophysical) only.

Creating a Second Database in a Project
We are going to create a second database, in the same project you have open now
(GeoDemo.gpf), that contains geochemical data covering the same area as the
magnetic data.
T O C REATE

A

N EW D ATABASE :

1. On the Database menu, select New Database. The Create New Database dialog is

displayed.
2. Specify a New database name (geochem.gdb). Click the [OK] button.
3. The system creates a new database with the database name that you specified and

opens a Spreadsheet window with empty Channel Header and Data cells
T O I MPORT D ATA I NTO A S ECOND D ATABASE :
1. On the Database menu, select Import and then click Geosoft XYZ.
2. The system displays the Import XYZ data dialog box.

3. Click the [Browse] button and select the geochem.xyz file located in your

Tutorial directory. Make sure the Import Template box is blank and click the
[Template] button.
4. The system displays the Import dialog box with the name of the file you are

importing displayed along the dialog box title bar.

168 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

5. Highlight the Z1 channel, and in the Output Channel box change the Name from

Z1 to As. Repeat this procedure with the remaining Z* channels so that the
channels have names as shown below.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 169

6. Click the [OK] button to return to the Import XYZ data dialog box. A temporary

import template file (default.i0) is created with the settings you specified. Click
the [OK] button to import the data.

7. An Import XYZ progress dialog box will be displayed on the screen while the

system imports the data into the database. The imported data should look like the
picture below.

170 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

Processing Data in the Spreadsheet
The following utilities allow the user to apply formulas and perform database
operations between channels. In the following example, we will take the Log10 of the
As channel and store the results in a new channel called LogAs.
T O A PPLY

A

F ORMULA TO

THE

D ATABASE :

1. Select (highlight) the first empty channel header cell, then right click and from the

popup menu, select New. The Create Channel dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 171
2. Specify the Name for the channel as Log_As and then click the [OK] button. The

system creates a new channel in the database and displays it in the spreadsheet
window.
3. Click three times on the Log_As channel header cell to highlight the entire

channel.
4. Press the [=] key from the keyboard to activate the formula bar at the bottom left

hand corner of your screen and type Log10 (As) then press the [Enter] key from
the keyboard.
5. The system applies the formula to the channel as shown below.

6. On the Database menu, select Save Database Changes to save your changes.
7. The Save Changes dialog is displayed, click [Yes] to continue.

Plotting Symbols, Colour Bars and Legends
Oasis montaj provides the ability to create a variety of symbol type plots of spatially
located Earth Science data. This functionality is ideally suited to the presentation of
data sets that are not line-oriented, such as geochemical survey results.
The types of symbol plots available in the system include:

172 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

An effective method for geochemical data is to plot coloured symbols on a map.
Oasis montaj enables you to create fixed size coloured symbols or symbols that are
sized in proportion to the data values. Colours can be based on a variety of colour
files, including zone (*.ZON) , aggregate (*.AGG) , table (*.TBL) or image
transform (*.ITR) . Symbols can have different fill and edge colours. The fill and
edge colours are independent, so they can be set to different values for different
channels.
C REATE

A

M AP

1. Select (highlight) the geochem.gdb.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select New map and then select New map from X,Y.
3. The system displays the Data range to map dialog box. Click the [Scan data]

button to have the system query the geochem database for the data ranges and
report the Minimum X,Y and Maximum X,Y coordinates.
4. Click the [Next] button. The system displays the Create a New Map dialog box.

Enter a Map name (geochem.map) and from the Map Template dropdown list,
select (Portrait A4).
5. Click the [Scale] button. The system automatically chooses a scale that will fit the

data on the map template. Just remember to round the scale to a more efficient
number (e.g. 75000).
6. Click the [Finish] button to open a new blank map.
Note:

If no scale is specified, a scale will be chosen which will fit all of the data
within the chosen map sheet.

T O P LOT L OCATION P LOT S YMBOLS :

The most basic type of symbol plotting in Oasis montaj is to draw location plot
symbols on a map for all data points in the database.
1. Select (highlight) the geochem.map.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols and then select Location Plot.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 173
3. The system displays the Symbol plot dialog box. Specify the parameters for your

symbols as shown below. Click the [OK] button.

4. The system plots and displays the symbols on your map.
T O P OST D ATA V ALUES

ON A

M AP :

Assay data values can be posted next to sample locations on your map.
1. On the Map Tools menu, select Posting. The Post data values on a map dialog is

displayed.

174 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

2. Specify the parameters for posting the data as shown above. Click the [OK]

button. The map is redrawn with the As assay values posted.
Note: By defining different Posting locations, it is possible to post the values of
numerous elements for each sample location (for example, Au, As, Cu,
and Pb).
T O P LOT P ROPORTIONAL S IZED S YMBOLS :
1. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols, then select Proportional size.
2. The Proportional size symbols dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 175
3. Specify the Data channel you wish to process (As), as well as the rest of the

parameters as shown above. The symbol Scale factor value indicates how many
data units are represented by a 1mm wide symbol. For example, if you specify
that the scale is 1000 then a symbol, which has a data value of 20000, is plotted
20 mm wide.
4. Click the [Symbol] button and the Symbol Attributes dialog is displayed.

5. Select the Symbol as a (circle) and then select (check) the Fill box to enable the

Fill Colour box and select the colour as (red). When you are satisfied with your
symbol attributes, click the [OK] button to close the dialog and then click the
[OK] button again on the Proportional size symbols dialog to display the symbols
on your map.
Note: If you specify a base value, the value is subtracted from the data before
calculating the symbol sizes. Any negative values that are left after
subtracting the base are not plotted.

176 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

T O P LOT Z ONE C OLOURED S YMBOLS :

You may wish to create a new map (geochem2.map) at a scale of about 75000 at this
point since the map above already has many symbols plotted on it.
1. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols and then select Zone Coloured. The

Coloured symbols dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 177

2. Select As as the Data channel and specify the rest of the plotting parameters as

shown above. Click the [OK] button. The system displays the Colour Symbol
Tool dialog box.

3. You can select the Log Distribution and if you are satisfied with the colour

distribution click the [OK] button. The system plots the zone coloured symbols
on the map.

178 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

T O P LOT C OLOUR R ANGE S YMBOLS :

The Colour Range Symbols are the most flexible of the entire symbol tools collection.
It allows for different ranges of data to be plotted using different symbols, colours
and sizes.
1. Create a new map (geochem3.map) at a scale of 75000.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols and then select Colour Range Symbol.
3.

The system displays the Classified symbol plot dialog box.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 179
4. Specify Au for the Classification channel box and the rest of the parameters as

shown above. Click the [Ranges] button.
5. The system displays the Specify Ranges dialog box.

6. Specify the extent of each range by entering the maximum value for each range as

shown above. Click the [Symbols] button.
7. The system displays the Specify Symbols dialog box.

8. Specify the desired symbol shape for each range. In this example, circles were

chosen for all of the ranges.
9. Click the [OK] button to return to the Specify Ranges dialog box, then click the

[Sizes] button.The system displays the Specify Sizes dialog box.

10. Specify the Symbol Size for each level.

180 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding
11. Click the [OK] button to return to the Specify Ranges dialog box, then click the

[Colours] button. The system displays the Specify Fill Colours dialog box.

.
12. Choose the colours for the 5 levels and click the [OK] button to return to the

Specify Ranges dialog box.
13. Click the [OK] button to return to the Classified symbol plot dialog box.
14. Click the [Plot] button. The system plots the classified symbols for all 5 ranges

on the map. A close up picture of the range classified gold samples is shown
below. The large yellow circles represent those samples that were greater than
100ppm.

This is a very useful tool. As an exercise, try using different symbols to classify the
range of the Cu data.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 181
T O P LOT L EGEND S YMBOLS :

When you use classified symbols, you will most likely create a legend showing the
symbol colours and size ranges used on the map.
1. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols and then select Colour Range Symbol

Legend. The Classified Symbol Legend dialog will be displayed.

2. Click the [Locate] button. The Locate Legend dialog is displayed. Click the [OK]

button and your mouse will turn into a crosshair. Position the cursor on the map
where you want the lower left corner of the legend to be located and click left
mouse button.
3. The system redisplays the Classified Symbol Legend dialog box with the X and Y

Positions of where the legend will be located.

4. Specify a Title for Legend Au (ppm) and click the [Plot] button. The system plots

the legend on the map.

182 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

Note 1: When you select this option, the system automatically records the
colour, symbol and size settings you specified when creating the range
classified symbols. This makes generating a legend easy.
Note 2: This option is also used for plotting legends for the zoned colour
symbols where a (*.ITR) file must be specified. A (*.ITR) file is created when
the zoned colour symbols are plotted. The default name is the channel-name.itr,
e.g. Au.itr.

Gridding Random Data
The random gridding method (RANGRID GX) fits a minimum curvature surface to
the data points. For details on minimum curvature gridding, refer to the Help system.
T O P ERFORM M INIMUM C URVATURE G RIDDING :
1. Select the geochem.gdb database.
2. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding and then select Minimum

curvature. The Minimum Curvature Gridding dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 183
3. Using the Channel to grid drop down list, select (As) and then specify the Name

of new grid file (As.grd) and a Grid cell size of (50).
For more information on the Advance gridding parameters, click the Help (
) button.
4. Click the [OK] button. The system processes the data and creates the output grid
file (As.grd).
Note:

5.

Experiment with the data you have generated so far by creating a map displaying
the As.grd grid you just created with proportional size symbols displayed as
well. This map will allow you to compare two ways of processing your data and
the validity of both. The following map shows an example of what such a map
would look like.

Gridding Geochemical Data
There are four potential methods to use for gridding data:

184 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding
1. Bi-directional

Suitable for highly sampled data surveyed along regular lines. Can work well
with potential field geophysical data.
2. Random

Suitable for randomly oriented data with a relatively large number of samples.
Can work well with geochemical data from comprehensive regional and local
surveys.
3. Kriging

Suitable for clustered data in which clusters are characterized by a relatively large
number of samples and may be widely spaced. Can work well with geochemical
data from stream sediment surveys and similarly sampled data.
4. Tinning

Suitable for randomly oriented data with a relatively large number of samples, or
clustered data in which clusters are characterized by a relatively large number of
samples and may be widely spaced. Can work well with geochemical data.
Based on these very general criteria, random gridding and kriging are the optimal
methods for statistical data such as that from geochemical surveys. Since
geochemical data are statistical in nature and have a high range from sample to
sample, it may also be appropriate to reduce the range of data through standard
processing (i.e. application of a logarithmic transform).
In this brief tutorial, we provide an overview of kriging and describe how to select an
initial model (variogram, or more strictly, a semi-variogram) for creating a grid.
Selecting a variogram model is the key to obtaining high-quality results – the actual
gridding process is relatively routine. We also provide summaries of how to apply
kriging in Oasis montaj and create a map of your final results.
Kriging – Quick Overview
This statistical gridding method uses the method of Kriging to determine a value at
each grid node based on the located data you provide. A significant by-product of
Kriging is the ability to estimate the error of the data at each grid node.
In Kriging, the approach is to first calculate a variogram of the data, which shows the
correlation of the data as a function of distance. Simply speaking, the further apart the
data points become, the less correlation we expect between points. A variogram
shows this phenomena for a given dataset, and based on the variogram, you are able
to select a model that best defines the variance of the data. There are five types of
variograms you can generate in the system, including:
• Power
• Sphere
• Gaussian
• Exponential
• User-defined

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 185

The technique of Kriging uses the model you select to estimate the data values at the
nodes of the grid. In geochemical applications, the sphere and gaussian model are
typically most effective. The spherical model is mathematically simpler and we
typically recommend this model as your starting point. Advanced users may want to
experiment with gaussian and user-defined variogram models.
Geosoft supports ordinary Kriging as well as universal Kriging. Universal Kriging
differs from ordinary Kriging in that it allows the data to contain a regional trend. For
a more in-depth understanding of geostatistical analysis and Kriging, refer to Mining
Geostatistics written by A.G. Journel and C.J. Huijbregts, 1978.
Importing Data for Kriging
For the purpose of this tutorial, we provide a specific dataset called krigsample.csv.
This dataset contains clustered data suitable for this method.
T O I MPORT S AMPLE D ATA:
1. Create a new database and call it Kriging.gdb.
2. On the Database menu, select Import and then select Geosoft XYZ. The Import

XYZ data dialog is displayed.

3. Using the XYZ data file [Browse] button, locate the krigsample.xyz file. Accept

the default import template and import mode.
4. Click the [OK] button and the system imports the data into the database.

186 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

Calculating and Displaying a Variogram Model
After importing data, the next step is to calculate a semi-variogram (referred to as a
variogram for convenience in Geosoft). The variogram shows the correlation
(semivariance) of the data as a function of the distance away from the sampling point.
The further apart the data points become the less correlation we expect between
points.
In this tutorial, we will create a variogram to represent this correlation and then use it
to determine the grid values. The normal procedure for creating a variogram is to:
• Create a variogram file (*.var) of the channel you wish to display
• Select a variogram model
• Plot the variogram
• Repeat this process for other models.
In general, you must specify a geochemical data channel, output variogram file, log
option, log minimum and variogram model. In addition, depending on the model you
are using, you may have to set additional parameters as follows:
Power

Specify a power value to use.

Spherical, Gaussian and
Exponential

Specify the Range/Slope, Nugget and Sill.

User-defined

Specify an input grid containing your custom variogram model
and select the User-defined Variogram model.

T O C ALCULATE

A

V ARIOGRAM M ODEL :

In this procedure, we will use the default model (linear) to simply generate a
variogram of our data that we can then use to select the optimal variogram model and
parameters.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 187
1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding and then select Kriging. The

Kriging dialog is displayed.

2. Complete the entries as shown above and then click the [Advanced>] button. The

Krigging – Advanced options dialog is displayed.

3. In the Name of output variogram file box, specify (Cu). We will leave the

remaining parameters to the defaults.
4. Click the [Variogram Only] button. The system creates a variogram and displays

it in a map in the current project.

188 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding

In this example, we see a variogram based on the data with a linear model
superimposed. The variogram shows the anticipated increase in variability as distance
increases. At the right end, it may appear to decrease but this is usually the result of
too few pairs for the statistics to be valid. Normally the variogram reaches a point
(sill value) at which the semivariance plateaus. The corresponding h value is called
the range value – beyond this distance there is no similarity in samples.
We also see a plot of sample pairs. This latter plot shows how many sets of samples
occur within specified distances of each other – this curve may help you to refine
your variogram in the selection of the data points used to visualize your model curve.
Here, most of the data occurs within 10 000 m and data beyond this point should not
be given as high an emphasis when building your variogram.
Selecting Variogram Model and Parameters
Selecting a model and parameters is the toughest part of your kriging decision and
requires considerable experience. Typically, you would use kriging to grid data
within clusters accurately and then truncate the model between clusters so that
clusters do not affect the gridding of neighbouring clusters. In this application, data
integrity is maintained both within and between clusters and you can examine the
error grid to verify that this effect is maintained.
For a spherical model, typically you will have the following values:
• Nugget (starting value): The nugget is the average error in each data point, and is
indicated by the intersection of the variogram model with the h=0 axis. The
default is 0 indicating that there are no repeated samples.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 189


Sill: This is the value corresponding to the point at which the variogram becomes
uncorrelated and reaches its plateau point (or goes flat).
Range/Slope: The range is the distance at which the variogram model reaches
the sill value. Beyond the range, the data is uncorrelated.
T O S ELECT

A

V ARIOGRAM M ODEL :

1. After displaying the starting linear model, evaluate the data and verify that the

spherical model is appropriate.
2. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding and then select Kriging.
3. The system displays the Kriging dialog box, click the [Advanced>] button and

specify the following settings on the dialog:

Select spherical for the Variogram model.

Specify a different Name of the output variogram file such as
Cu_spherical.VAR.

Specify the Range/Slope value from inspection of the variogram and pairs
graphs (4000)

Specify the Nugget value from inspection of the variogram and pairs graphs
(0.06)

Specify the Sill value from inspection of the variogram and pairs graphs (0.16)
4. Click the [Variogram Only] button. The Cu_spherical_variogram.VAR is
plotted and displayed in your current project.

5. You are now ready to grid the data using the model.

190 Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding
T O G RID

THE

D ATA:

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding and then select Kriging. The

Kriging dialog is displayed.

2. Select the Cu Channel to grid and the Name of new grid file as Cu.grd. Click the

[Advanced>] button to display the Kriging – Advanced Options dialog.

3. The system displays the Kriging dialog box. Specify the information as shown

above and click the [<Back] button to return to the Kriging dialog.
4. Click the [OK] button to grid the data and display it in a map window in your

current project.

Tutorial 9: Advanced Mapping and Gridding 191

Plotting Krigrid Data
As an exercise, try displaying your krigrid grid. The basic steps are as follows:
1. Create a new map
2. Display the grid
3. Display the variogram (using the Grid/Gridding/Plot Variogram menu option)
4. Display sample locations
5. Draw the Base map

Your completed map containing the Krigrid data should look something like this:

Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging 193

Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging
It is often helpful for interpretation to combine multiple types of data together using
special colour schemes. Two common methods of combining grid images are:
• Using a grey-shade for one type of data, and full colour for another (for example,
grey shaded topography with colour magnetics).
• Using a ternary diagram presentation – three data grids using either a cyanmagenta-yellow (CMY) or red-green-blue (RGB) colour model (commonly used
with airborne radiometric data).
As we have seen previously, it is possible to create maps and add images to them,
including single colour grid images, colour-shaded grid images, and JPG files. In
addition, the system also supports a variety of advanced options that you can access
via the Grid|Display Grid. Following are examples:
G REY S HADED M AGNETICS

WITH

C OLOUR A U :

1. Open the geochem.gdb database and the tfmag.map map. (Note: if your

tfmag.map does not have all these groups (path, profile etc.) you will not need to
hide them. However, if your tfmag.map does not have a base map add this now.)
2. Click the View/Group Manager button (

) and hide all Data groups except the

coordinates group.

.
3. On the Grid and Image menu, click Display grid and then click 2-grid composite.
4. The system displays the Display 2.grid composite on map dialog box. Specify the

parameters for the dialog box as shown below (if you do not already have an
As.grd file, create one using minimum curvature gridding).

194 Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging

5. Click the [Current Map] button. This procedure loads the grey-shaded image of

the total field magnetics, plus a colour image of the gold channel, As. The map
appears as follows:

3-G RID T ERNARY P LOT :
1. Before you begin this tutorial, you must have grid files, (*.grd) for the Au, Cu

and Pb channels from the geochem.gdb database. If you have not already gridded
this data please do so now using the minimum curvature gridding method.

Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging 195
2. Open the geochem.gdb database and the tfmag.map map. Click the View/Group

Manager button (

) and hide all data groups except the coordinates group

3. On the Grid and Image menu, click Display grid and then click Ternary image.
4. The Ternary colour image dialog is displayed. Enter the parameters for this

dialog as shown below.

5. Click the [Current Map] button. The system processes and displays the ternary

image of the Pb-Au-Cu grids, using Red-Cyan for Pb, Green-Magenta for Au,
and Blue-Yellow for Cu.

6. On the Grid and Image menu, click Display grid and then click Ternary legend.

196 Tutorial 10: Advanced Imaging
7. The system displays the Ternary Colour Legend dialog box. Enter the parameters

as shown below and click the [OK] button.

8. The system displays the Locate Legend dialog box. Click the [OK] button and

locate an area on the map to display the legend

9. The system creates and displays the ternary legend on you map.

Tutorial 11: Projections 197

Tutorial 11: Projections
Oasis montaj features "smart projections" that reprojects data "on-the-fly" as it is
displayed. This functionality enables maps to have several views; each containing a
different set of projection coordinates. In addition, dynamic links between maps and
data are maintained, even if different projections are used.

What is a map projection?
A projection is a systematic construction of features on a plane surface (a map) that
represents corresponding features on a spherical (or curved) surface (the earth).
Projections include actual objects (highways, coastlines) as well as constructs
(meridians, political boundaries). For more information on projections see the
Appendix: Understanding Spheroids and Datums page 269.
Parts of a map projection
Understanding how projections work requires a basic knowledge of the different
components. When working with projections, you should be familiar with some
terms. The terms below represent different components of a projection:
• Ellipsoid: A solid figure (shaped like an egg or oval) for which every vertical
cross-section is an ellipse.
• Spheroid: A spheroid is an oblate ellipsoid of revolution (basically an ellipsoid)
that is used to model the surface of the earth for the purpose of making maps.
• Datum: A reference value to which other measurements are referred. Also, an
arbitrary reference level to which measurements are corrected. For example, a
datum for elevation would be sea level.
• Local Datum Transform: A datum adjusted for use in a specific location on the
earth. Earth centre offset, rotation, scale factor relative to the WGS84 datum.
• Projection Method: The mathematical algorithm used to transform points on a
spheroid to their relative locations on a flat surface (i.e. Transverse Mercator,
Lambert Conformal).

198 Tutorial 11: Projections

Understand Geosoft projections
When dealing with map projections, it is important to be aware that the geographic
map location (X,Y) of any objects are either an implied or a known map projection. If
you do nothing to define map projections in your data, Oasis montaj will assume that
all locations (X,Y) are in the same map projection, which is unknown.
However, you must define map projections if you want to:
• Annotate maps with longitude, latitude locations.
• Convert the location of information (data or grids) from one map projection to
another.
• Display information on a map that is in a different map projection.
• Defined a warped coordinate system to fit data to a desired map coordinate
system.
Note: If you do not need to do any of these things, you do not have to deal with map
projections. For more information on projections see the Appendix:
Understanding Spheroids and Datums page 269.
In Oasis montaj, working with map projections requires that the map projection
information be attached to coordinate information of a database, grid or map. Once
you have attached a map projection to a set of coordinates, Oasis montaj will deal
with any re-projections that may be required to properly display data together on
maps.
Map projections can be defined for any pair of channels in a database, for a grid
coordinate system, and for a data view in a map. In most cases, all that is required is
to define the map projection of the "X" and "Y" channels of an original database. This
map projection will then be passed on to grids when data is gridded, and map views
will inherit this projection when they are created. Map projections of data channels,
grids and views can also be viewed and modified at any time, although the
modification of map projections does require specific and accurate knowledge of the
projection information.

Define a projection in Oasis montaj
In Oasis montaj a projection is always attached or applied to something. This can be
a coordinate pair on a database, a grid, or a map view. Before you can apply a
projection, you will need to know the following information about your data. The
type of projection coordinates that contain the location information for your data: For
more information on projections see the Appendix: Understanding Spheroids and
Datums page 269.

Projected (x,y) The coordinates are in a known projected coordinate system,
such as UTM, or some other map-based projection.

Geographic (long,lat) The coordinates are longitudes and latitudes in
degrees. Only a datum is required.

The coordinate subset to use (e.g. UTM, USA State Plane).

The units of measurement you want to use (e.g. feet, metres).

Tutorial 11: Projections 199

The Datum (or ellipsoid) to use (i.e. WGS 84 / UTM zone 44N) and local
datum to use.
Important Note:
When you define (or modify) a projection the coordinates of
the data (database, grid or map view) remain unchanged. This
process only sets the “projection label”. However, when you
reproject data into another coordinate system the numerical
representation of the coordinates will change.

Define X, Y channels
Once your data has been successfully imported into Oasis montaj you can set the
coordinate system and projection information for your database.
One of the first steps in setting a projection is defining your X and Y channels. (This
can be done during the import process, or will be automatically set if your coordinate
channels are called X and Y by default.) Note that, you cannot create a map until your
X and Y channels are defined.
In Oasis montaj we have introduced "current" X and Y (and Z) channels. This
feature enables users to select the channels that they would like to use as the current
X and Y (and Z) channels (for example, East, North, and Relative Level).
Markers have been added to the channel header to indicate which channels are
currently defined to be the "current" X, Y (and Z) channels. The markers are little
rectangles on the right side of the header cell, and contain "x", "y" (or "z") in reversed
display (like the triangle protection symbol on the left).
When you alter the current coordinate channels, these markers change too. Normally,
users will just get "x" and "y", but if you have a "Z" channel it will get the "z". The
"z" will be used in Wholeplot databases, where DH_EAST = "x", DH_NORTH = "y"
and DH_RL = "z".
Note:

All grids, maps, and databases derived from a database that has projection
information attached to it, will also include the projection information.
T O D EFINE X

AND

Y

CHANNELS :

1. When you first import your data, your X and Y coordinate channels may be called

East and North (or any other valid naming system).
2. To define X and Y channels select the Coordinates/Set Current X, Y, Z,

Coordinates menu item. The Set current X, Y channels dialog box is displayed.

200 Tutorial 11: Projections
3. Select your X and Y channels (in this example, you would select the East and

North channels) from the database, and click [OK].
4. Your database now has set X and Y channels (titled East and North) which can be

seen by the inverse x and y on the right side of the channel header cell.

Set a projection to a coordinate pair in a database
The Oasis montaj Coordinate System interface has been redesigned to make
creating, editing or viewing projections a simple, one-step process. Oasis montaj
uses a single dialog to set and modify projection settings.
The Coordinate System tool also now supports ESRI projection files (PRJ).
B EFORE

YOU BEGIN …

To define a projection, you must know the type of projection that is used for the data.
If the wrong projection type is specified, Oasis montaj may return strange results or
take an unusually long time to process the data.
A projection can be defined from any pair of channels in a database. These two
channels must contain coordinate information. Normally, the X and Y coordinate
channels are used. Users can define projection from any of the following sources:
a.
Projected (x,y)
b.
Geographic (long,lat)
c.
No Projection
d.
Copy from channel
e.
Copy from a grid
f.
Geosoft PRJ file (projection file)
g.
ESRI projection files (PRJ).
h.
Geosoft warp file
Setting a Projected (x,y) projection to a database
You would use the Projected (x,y) projection if your database coordinates are in a
known projected coordinate system, such as UTM, or some other map-based
projection.
T O S ET

A

P ROJECTED (X, Y) P ROJECTION

FOR

D ATABASE C HANNELS :

1. Open a Database (geochem.gdb) that contains at least two channels with

coordinate information (X, Y).
2. On the Coordinates menu, click Set Projection. The Georeference database

channels dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 11: Projections 201

3. Select the X and Y coordinate channels that you will use to set the projection, and

select Set as current X,Y? as Yes, then click the [Projection] button. The
Coordinate System dialog is displayed. This dialog displays the current projection
information for the database. If the database contains no projection information,
the Unknown radio button is selected in the Coordinate System section of the
dialog.

Whenever you work with projections in Oasis montaj, the projection
information for the current database, grid, or view is displayed in this dialog.
When the fields in the dialog are shaded grey, you can only view the
information. If the dialog box fields are white, you may edit the values.
4. In the Coordinate System section of the dialog, select the coordinate reference
system for the data. For example, if the data in your database is organized by X
and Y locations, you would choose the Projected (x,y) option, however if the
data in your database is organized by latitude, longitude locations, you would
choose Geographic (long,lat). For more information on setting a Geographic (lat,
Note:

202 Tutorial 11: Projections

long) projection see the following topic; To set a Geographic (long,lat)
Projection for a Database page 206.
5. The Coordinate System section also includes a [Copy from] button that displays

the Copy Coordinate System From dialog.

6. Use this dialog to copy a coordinate system from another file. The file types

supported include, Database, Grid, Geosoft Voxel, Geosoft projection (*.prj),
ESRI projection (*.prj), Geosoft warp (*.wrp), Geosoft polygon (*.ply) and
GMSYS model.
7. In our case, as our data is organized by X, Y locations we will select the

(Projected (x,y)) radio button to set the projection reference system. The
appropriate dialog parameters will become enabled.

Tutorial 11: Projections 203
8. Using the dropdown lists you can select the Datum, Local datum transform and

Projection method. Note that, the Local datum transform dropdown list provides
all the local datum transforms, which apply to the selected Datum.
9. For our tutorial data, select the following coordinate system parameters:

Datum: NAD 27
Local datum transform: [NAD 27] (8m) Cnaada (Northwest Territories;
Nunavut; Saskatchewan
Projection Method: Alaska CS27 zone 7
Note:

If the projection method you want to use does not exist, but you know the
parameters for it, you can click the Projection method dropdown menu ( ),
which along with displaying the Projection method information includes a
[New] button that displayes the New Projection Method dialog.

Use this dialog to create a new (custom) projection method.
10. Your Coordiante System dialog should now look like the following:

204 Tutorial 11: Projections

11. You will note that the Length units have been set to match the units used by the

projection, in our case (US survey foot) and should not usually be changed.
12. You can use the dropdown menus (

) to display the detailed information for
each of the coordinate system parameters, as shown below:

Tutorial 11: Projections 205

13. If all the projection settings are correct, click [OK] to apply the projection.

206 Tutorial 11: Projections

Setting a Geographic (long, lat) projection to a database
You would use a Geographic (long, lat) projection if your database coordinates are in
longitudes and latitudes degrees and only a datum is required.
Important Note:
When you select a “Geographic (long,lat)” projection the geographic
coordinates will be displayed as a Cartesian system with units of
degrees. This means that you will not be able to display latitude and
longitude annotations in the base map because the X, Y coordinate
system of the map will be represented by the long, lat coordinates.
TO

SET A

G EOGRAPHIC (L ONG , L AT ) P ROJECTION

FOR A

D ATABASE :

1. Open a Database that contains at least two channels with geographic coordinate

information (long, lat). For example, create a new database (projtest.gdb) and
then import the XYZ data (projtest.xyz). Using the Edit Channel dialog rename
the East and North channels to Longitude and Latitude, remembering to specify
the display Format as (Geographic), as shown below:

If your Longitude, Latitude channels display double astricks (**), that only
indicates that the channels are too narrow to display the data. Widen the
channels and the data will be properly displayed.
2. On the Coordinates menu, click Set Projection. The system displays the
Georeference database channels dialog box.

Note:

Tutorial 11: Projections 207

3. Select the X and Y coordinate channels that you will use to set the projection

(Note that, in this case the selected X, Y coordinate pair are called Longitude and
Latitude) and then click the [Projection] button. The Coordinate System dialog
is displayed.

Whenever you work with projections in Oasis montaj, the projection
information for the current database, grid, or view is displayed in a dialog box
similar to the one above. When the fields in any dialog box are shaded grey,
you can only view the information. If the dialog box fields are white, you may
edit the values.
4. Using the Coordinate system radio buttons, select the coordinate reference system
for the data. For example, if the data in your database is organized by latitude and
longitude locations, you would choose the Geographic (long,lat) option,
however if the data in your database is organized by X, Y, you would choose
Projected (x,y). For more information on setting a Projected (x, y) projection see
the topic; To set a Projected (x, y) Projection for a Database page 200.
Note:

208 Tutorial 11: Projections
5. In this case, as our data is organized by Longitude, Latitude locations and we will

select the (Geographic (long,lat)) radio button to set the projection reference
system. The appropriate dialog parameters will become enabled.

6. Using the dropdown lists you can select the Datum and Local datum transform.

Note that, the Local datum transform dropdown list provides all the local datum
transforms, which apply to the selected Datum.
7. For our tutorial data, select the following coordinate system parameters:

Datum: NAD 27
Local datum transform: [NAD 27] (8m) Cnaada (Northwest Territories;
Nunavut; Saskatchewan
8. Your Coordiante System dialog should now look like the following:

Tutorial 11: Projections 209

9. You will note that the Length units have been set to match the units used by the

projection, in our case (degree POSC) and can not be changed.
10. You can use the dropdown menus (

) to display the detailed information for
each of the coordinate system parameters, as shown below:

210 Tutorial 11: Projections

11. If all the projection settings are correct, click [OK] to apply the projection.

Define the map projection of a grid
When you create a grid from a database that already has location (coordinate)
channels with a defined projection, the projection information in the database is
automatically applied to the grid.
Note: To ensure consistency between your databases and grids it is good practice to
define a projection in your database before creating grids from it.
T O M ODIFY

OR

D EFINE

THE

M AP P ROJECTION

OF A

G RID :

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Properties. The Grid Properties dialog is

displayed.

Tutorial 11: Projections 211

2. Using the Browse (

) button, locate the grid you want to modify. Click the
[Next>] button to display the Grid Properties dialog. This dialog reports all of the
basic information about the selected grid.

3. Click the [Modify] button to display the Modify Grid Properties dialog. This

dialog displays the information that is used to locate the grid in a real coordinate
system. Note that, changing anything in this dialog will have the effect of moving
or changing the apparent size of the grid when displayed on a map.

212 Tutorial 11: Projections

4. Click the [CoordSys] button to modify (or define) the map coordinate system of

the grid file.
5. The Coordiante System dialog is displayed. This dialog displays the current

projection information for the grid. As this grid has no projection information set,
the Unknown radio button is selected.

6. Whenever you work with projections in Oasis montaj, the projection information

for the current database, grid, or view is displayed in this dialog box. When the

Tutorial 11: Projections 213

fields in any dialog box are shaded grey, you can only view the information. If the
dialog box fields are white, you may edit the values.
7. Using the Coordinate system radio buttons, select the coordinate reference system

for the data. In this case, as the data in our grid is organized by Longitude,
Latitude locations we will select the (Geographic (long,lat)) radio button to set
the projection reference system. The appropriate dialog parameters will become
enabled.

8. Using the dropdown lists you can select the Datum and Local datum transform.

Note that, the Local datum transform dropdown list provides all the local datum
transforms, which apply to the selected Datum.
9. For our tutorial data, select the following coordinate system parameters:

Datum: NAD 27
Local datum transform: [NAD 27] (8m) Cnaada (Northwest Territories;
Nunavut; Saskatchewan
10. Your Coordiante System dialog should look like the dialog above.
11. . You will note that the Length units have been set to match the units used by the

projection, in our case (degree POSC) and can not be changed.
12. You can use the dropdown menus (

) to display the detailed information for
each of the coordinate system parameters, as shown below:

214 Tutorial 11: Projections

13. If all the projection settings are correct, click [OK] and the Modify Grid

Properties dialog will again be displayed. Click the [OK] button to apply the
changes to the grid file and the Grid Properties dialog will be displayed. Click the
[Exit] button to close the dialog.

Defining the map projection of a map view
In Oasis montaj maps have several views that contain information about the map.
Projection information for a map is contained in a data view. Base map information
is contained in the base map view.
There are two choices available when you create a new map, from X, Y or from
latitude-longitude coordinates. When you create a new map the system either reads
the manually entered coordinates, or scans a user’s specified database or grid file and
attaches their projection and coordinate attributes to the specified map view.

Tutorial 11: Projections 215
Note:

The projected base map created from a latitude-longitude range will be
windowed based on lines of latitude and longitude, not X and Y, and the data
window will be oriented so that North is up at the centre of the map.

Create a new map from X, Y coordinates
Use the New map from x,y menu item to create a new blank map to fit the data range
specified. The data range can be entered manually, or it can be determined from the
range of selected data in a database or from a grid range.
T O D EFINE

A

M AP P ROJECTION

FOR A

N EW M AP

FROM

X,Y

1. The first step is to create a new map using the projection coordinates from an

existing database or grid. On the Map Tools menu, select New Map|New map
from x,y. The Data range to map dialog will be displayed.

2. This dialog shows the data range (coordinate), units and projection information

from the last projection that was used. To change the projection information, you
will need to scan an existing database or grid for the projection and coordinate
information.
To scan a database for the data range and projection information:
a. Click the [Scan Data] button.
b. The system will scan the current database open in your project.
c. The system will re-display the Data Range to Map dialog box showing the
new data range, coordinate information and projection information obtained
from the database.
To scan a grid for the data range and projection information:
a. Click the [Scan Grid] button.
b. The system will prompt you to specify a grid file that contains projection
information.
c. Select a grid file, and click [OK].

216 Tutorial 11: Projections

d. The system will display the Data Range to Map dialog box showing the new
data range, coordinate information and projection information obtained from
the grid.
3. Click the [Projection] button to view the projection information. The Coordinate

System dialog is displayed. This dialog will display the known projection
information as defined in the scanned database or grid file. The example below
shows the projection information for a map containing no projection information.

Whenever you work with projections in Oasis montaj, the projection
information for the current database, grid, or view is displayed in the
Coordinate System dialog. When the fields in any dialog box are shaded grey,
you can only view the information. If the dialog box fields are white, you may
edit the values.
4. For information on defining a projection using the Coordinate System dialog go to
Step 4 of the Setting a Projected (x,y) Projection on page 200.
Note:

5. Once the projection has been defined, the Coordinates System dialog will display

the projection information. Note to display the Datum, Local datum transform and
Projection method details, as shown below, click the dropdown menus (

).

Tutorial 11: Projections 217

6. If all the projection settings are correct, click [OK] to apply the projection and the

Data range to map dialog will again be displayed.

218 Tutorial 11: Projections

7. Click the [Next>] button to continue. The Create a New Map dialog box will be

displayed.

8. Specify a Map name for the new map. You can also select a Map template to use

for your map layout. To automatically calculate the map scale, click the [Scale]
button.
9. The default scale that will fit the defined data range to the specified template will

be displayed. You can modify this value to a more appropriate scale (e.g. 60000).
10. Click the [Finish] button when you are done. The system will create a new

(blank) map with projection information in the Data View.
New map from Latitude – Longitude coordinates
To create a new map from Latitude-Longitude requires a database that has a Projected
(x,y) coordinate system.
When using latitude-longitude degrees as the coordinates of your data and/or a
geographic projection you need to use New map from x,y menu item The resulting
map will have latitude and longitude displayed in a right angled Cartesian coordinate
system.
Note that, with a Projected (x,y) coordinate system, you can display Latitude and
Longitude annotations on the basemap of a new map created from x,y coordinates.

Tutorial 11: Projections 219
T O D EFINE

A

M AP P ROJECTION

FOR A

N EW M AP

FROM LAT / LONG :

1. The first step is to create a new map using the projection coordinates from an

existing database or grid. On the Map Tools menu, select New Map|New map
from lat,long. The Data range to map dialog will be displayed.

2. This dialog shows the data range (coordinates), units, and projection information

from the current (selected) database in your project. To change the projection
information, click the [Projection] button and the Coordinate System dialog will
be displayed.
To scan a database for the data range and projection information:
a. Click the [Scan Data] button.
b. The system will scan the current database open in your project.
c. The system will re-display the Data Range to Map dialog box showing the
new data range, coordinate information and projection information obtained
from the database.
To scan a grid for the data range and projection information:
a. Click the [Scan Grid] button.
b. The system will prompt you to specify a grid file that contains projection
information.
c. Select a grid file, and click [OK].
d. The system will display the Data Range to Map dialog box showing the new
data range, coordinate information and projection information obtained from
the grid.
Note: After creating a map from Longitude/Latitude the data view of the new map
will have a warp attached to it. This is because when we create a
Longitude/Latitude map we warp the view so that North is at the top and
centred. If you remove the warp on your map, new elements may not be
positioned correctly.

220 Tutorial 11: Projections

Displaying data with different projections on a map
Since grids, images, data and maps can have different projection information, you
may want to display one or more types of projections on a map. The following is a
list of data types that you can attach projection information to and place on a map:






A grid or image
Located data
ArcGIS LYR
ArcView SHP
MapInfo data
Vector files such as DXFs
etc

When displaying different projections on a map:
1. Identify the projection for each data type (i.e. grids, images, maps, or located
data). Data types with different projections can be placed on the same map.
However, make sure the data cover the same geographical area.
2. Data that is imported into a map is re-projected into the map projection when
it is displayed. For example, if you place a grid with latitude/longitude
projection coordinates on a map defined in UTM coordinates, the system will
display the grid on the map in the map’s projection while preserving the grid’s
projection information. In this example, the lat/long meridians on the grid
would appear curved, while the UTM meridians would appear straight.

Applying a warp to a grid
Warping is useful when you have an un-referenced grid file in an unknown
coordinate system or an un-referenced image.

To relocate data, define one control point.

To scale and rotate data, define two points.

To scale in X and Y and rotate, define 3 control points.

To perform a quadrilateral warp, define 4 control points.

T O D EFINE

A

W ARP :

1. On the Coordinates menu, select Georeferencing|Define a Warp. The Warp file

Creation dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 11: Projections 221

2. Specify an Output Warp file name (.wrp) and from the dropdown lists select the

Warp type and Definition Mode. Note that, the 4-point warp requires the points
are in a clockwise order. The multi-point warp (more than 4 points) is best for
small translations relative to the units of distance on the map.
Note: The Semi interactive mode is a good method, it enables you to select the
points on the map that you are warping from (for example, the corners of a
bitmap) and then manually input the points (in UTMs) that you are translating
to. If you find that you cannot accurately select these points, try the other
modes (interactive and manual) to enter the four points. Remember, that you
can use the right mouse menu to zoom, shrink, and pan around the map while
you are selecting the points.
3. Click the [OK] button. The Map projection dialog is displayed, asking if you
want to “Define the output coordinate projection”.

4. At this stage, you can define the coordinate system of the map, for the purposes of

this tutorial, we will click [No] button to continue applying the warp. The Define
Warp control points dialog is displayed.

5. This dialog tells you to click on the point location for each point in your warp file,

and then specify the new “warped” location in the following dialog. Click the
[OK] button to continue.

222 Tutorial 11: Projections

6. The cursor will change to a crosshair (

) enabling you to locate the first
point. Once you have located the first point, the Assign new coordinate 1 of 4
dialog(s) will be displayed.

7. Specify the New X Y coordinates and click the [Next>] button to specify the next

coordinate point location. Continue this until you have specified the 4
coordinates.
Note: Temporary circles will be placed on the locations that you select with the
crosshair cursor. These circles will be removed once all of the control points
have been set and the warp control file has been created.
8. To apply the warp to the grid, on the Coordinates menu, select
Georeferencing|Warp a grid. The Warp a grid dialog is displayed.

9. Using the dropdown list, select the Grid file to warp. Using the Browse () button,

locate the Warp definition file (.wrp) from your project directory and then specify
a New warped grid file. Click the [Next>] button to continue. The New warped
grid dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 11: Projections 223

10. If all of the parameters are correct, click the [Finish] button to warp the specified

grid file.
Warping image files
If you want to warp an image file (i.e. tiff, bmp) and the file is large, you may only
want to attach the warp to the file. "Attaching" the warp is suitable if you have a very
large file that is stored on a CD, for instance. The warp process is repeated every
time you display the file to a projected map but the original file remains unchanged.
When you warp an image, the warped output image must be a Geosoft COLOR grid
(*.grd) File type in order to keep the colours of the original image.
If the image of the new warped grid appears twisted or is an incorrect size, check the
warp points are in a circular order and the points are correctly located within the
defined map area.
Converting Elevations
The Geoid height menu option enables you to convert GPS elevations to elevations
relative to the geoid. Geoid height (GEOID GX) will create a channel of the geoid
height relative to the GRS 80 spheroid for a given pair of coordinate channels. This
GX requires a grid of the geoid model, which is the elevation of the geoid in metres
relative to the GRS 80 spheroid, which is found in the Oasis montaj/etc directory. For
more information, see the GEOID GX help topic.

224 Tutorial 11: Projections

Tutorial 11: Projections 225

Projection concepts and FAQs
A "Datum" defines the earth model used to represent the "Geoid", which is
effectively the surface that would be defined by the sea level throughout an area
being mapped. At this point, we should all understand that the "geoid" undulates
according to the gravitational field; hence, it cannot be defined perfectly by a simple
mathematical expression. The business of cartography is to map features that exist on
a local geoid to a flat piece of paper.
Q 1.) How do we get from a geoid to a map?
A 1.) The first step is the "datum". The datum consists of an ellipsoid, a prime
meridian, and a specific part of the earth for which the datum applies. The datum
ellipsoid is a perfect mathematical surface that best approximates the shape of the
earth over the area of a datum. Latitude, longitude locations on a datum is the closest
match of the geoid location to the datum ellipsoid surface. For example, latitude,
longitude coordinates on the NAD27 datum use the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid with
Greenwich as the prime meridian. One should note that the mapping of the geoid
shape to the ellipsoid is not perfect because of the afore-mentioned imperfections in
the geoid.
At this point, it is worth pointing out that many datums share the same ellipsoid. The
difference between them is that a specific datum only applies to a specific area of the
earth, and the geoid of that area is implied by the datum name. For example, "Luzon
1911", "Mound Dillon" and "NAD27" are all datums based on the "Clarke 1866"
ellipsoid, but are used to map the geoid from the Philippines, the island of Tobago,
and the North (and central) America respectively.
Once we have a longitude, latitude on a specific datum, it is the job of a map
projection to convert the latitude, longitude of the round earth to a Cartesian X,Y
coordinate for a flat piece of paper.
The next piece of the puzzle is to understand why we need a refinement of the datum
into what Geosoft calls "local datums". The advent of GPS and satellite mapping
required the definition of a single datum that best approximates the entire earth. After
a bit of evolution, we have settled on WGS 84, which is truly a "perfect" datum that
represents an exact ellipsoid, and the centre of that ellipsoid is at the gravitational
centre of the earth. A fundamental problem in modern cartography is how to convert
a latitude, longitude on the WGS 84 datum to, say, NAD27 so that a location can be
used on NAD27 maps, or vice versa.
Because datums like NAD27 represent a geoid, and WGS represents a perfect
ellipsoid, we need a way to convert the imperfect geoid shape of NAD27 to the
perfect WGS27. The best way to do this is to measure the difference between known
latitude, longitude locations on the NAD27 datum and the WGS84 location that one
receives from a GPS measurement. This has been done throughout Canada to produce
the NTv2 model of NAD27, and throughout the United States to produce the
NADCON model. This process is also being carried out at continental scale in other
parts of the world. Both NTv2 and NADCON are implemented as gridded corrections

226 Tutorial 11: Projections

models, that given a location, one can look up the correction (both are supported in
Geosoft).
A second way to make the correction is to force the surface of the WGS 84 ellipsoid
to lie as closely as possible to the surface of the datum ellipsoid (which in turn
approximates the geoid), such that a simple mathematical conversion is within
acceptable accuracy. This can be done by adjusting the location of the centre of the
earth of the datum ellipsoid relative to WGS84, which is the basis of the Molodenski
and Bursa Wolf corrections (parameters are in datumtrf.csv). However, such simple
conversions are only accurate over a relatively small part of the datum, depending, of
course, on the complexity of the geoid of that datum. For datums that cover a large
region, such as NAD27, one needs many different adjustments depending on which
part of the NAD27 datum you are on. For example, the very large area
approximations such as "MEAN Canada" are much less accurate in the Yukon than
"Canada (Yukon)". Both are less accurate than the NTv2 correction lookup.
Q 2.) When I buy a topographic map of Canada (of say B.C.) it says it uses the
NAD27 ellipsoid. It doesn't say what local transformation it uses?
A 2.) First, NAD27 is a datum, not an ellipsoid, and the NAD27 datum uses the
Clarke 1866 ellipsoid. You must choose which local datum transform is most
appropriate for your needs. We would recommend always selecting the local
transform that is most specific to your area, in this case "[NAD27] Canada Alberta;
British Columbia". You could also choose "[NAD27] Canada NTv2 (20 min)" if the
highest accuracy is required, but this is slower and more demanding of system
resources.
In our "Datum" list, we also include the names of all the common earth ellipsoids
(with a "*" prefix). This is because practitioners have commonly confused ellipsoids
with datums, and one often only knows the ellipsoid. By including the ellipsoid
names in the list, we make life a bit easier for you when you receive a map and the
information that it is "Clarke 1850, UTM 42S". However, if you need to do a local
datum transform, you must determine (or guess) at the real datum name, which is also
why we list the local transforms by area of use.
Q 3.) I found where the ldatum.csv file calls the datum for say [NAD 27] Canada
(Ont.&Man.) but couldn't find the call to the appropriate datum for [NAD27] Canada
(BC/AB). Did I just not look hard enough?
A 3.) Yes, these transforms are in the tables. When maintaining the tables, we load
the tables into Excel and use the Data/Sort function to sort by datum or area of use (or
any column) to help find things. The ldatum.csv file is used only by the projection
wizard to provide a list of the available projections by datum and by area of use. This
file refers to the actual local datum transform name and parameters in “datumtrf.csv”.
Note that, the tables are only used to construct the projection information the first
time something requires a projection. Once constructed, the parameters become part
of the object in question, and changing the tables later has no effect.
You can find more information on how the tables are constructed and related in the
Coordinate System help.

Tutorial 12: Database Maintenance Utilities 227

Tutorial 12: Database Maintenance Utilities
There are a number of utilities available for data maintenance. These are available to
allow the user to check the status of the database, generally in a troubleshooting or
preventative maintenance role. The following is a list of the data maintenance
utilities:
• Database details
• Verify database
• Defragment database
• Grow database
• Repair database

Checking Database Details
From time-to-time, you may want to examine the database details.
T O C HECK D ETAILS

OF A

D ATABASE :

1. Select the geochem.gdb database.
2. On the Data menu, click Maintenance and then click Details.
3. The system displays the About Database dialog box.

4. We are mostly concerned with whether we are close to exceeding the limits of our

Elements (Groups or Lines, Channels, Blobs, Block Size, Compression and File

228 Tutorial 12: Database Maintenance Utilities

Size). Another area of concern is what the Statistics show us. Statistics let us
know at a glance how large the GDB is and whether the space is being used
efficiently. If the Unused or lost space seemed excessive (say greater than 20%)
we might consider Defragmenting the database (to follow). For more information
about these statistics please refer to the Help System.
5. Click the [OK] button to close.

Defragmenting the Database
As you work with data in the database, new and modified data are saved to the end of
the database file and to space freed within the database before the last time you saved
the project. As the database grows you can lose space due to fragmentation or from
simply erasing data.
T O D EFRAGMENT Y OUR D ATABASE
1. Make sure you have backed-up the database before packing.
2. On the Data menu, click Maintenance and then click Defragment. The system

removes all unused space by repacking the data as efficiently as possible and
reduces the database file (*.GDB) size by the amount of freed space.

Growing, Verifying or Repairing your Database:
If you find that the original size limits that were selected for your database
(lines/groups and channels/fields), were too small, you can increase these limits using
the Grow command. If you wish to check the integrity of your database, you use the
Verify command. If your database has been corrupted (for example, if the computer
failed during a Defragment operation) you can run the Repair utility to try to recover
some or all of the data. For each of these three commands, please refer to the detailed
explanations in the Online Help System.

Adding Database Comments
Comments about your data can be added to the comment block of a database.
Comments are useful as a place to hold information about the data collection
procedures, instrumentation and surveyors used, any specific problems and the
solutions to them, and other bits of information that may have formerly been kept as
field notes, readme files, or other notes.
The comment block is an RTF file that can be edited with the Windows Wordpad
application, or another text editor.
T O A DD C OMMENTS

TO

Y OUR D ATABASE :

1. On the Data menu, click Database comments. This launches your editor and

opens the file _dbcmnt.RTF which is stored in your database. Edit this file
however you wish, adding text, pictures, etc. When you are done editing, close
the editor. You will be prompted to save the file. Click the [Yes] button.

Tutorial 12: Database Maintenance Utilities 229
2. On the Data menu, click Database comments again. You will see the comments

that you entered at Step 1.

230 Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps
The Oasis montaj Mapping and Processing System provides the ability to export
interim processed data to another systems for additional manipulation or to a GIS
system for creating final map products and integrating with other sources of data.
Required tools for exporting data to Geosoft XYZ and other formats are also
provided.
Oasis montaj uses your installed Windows system drivers to create printer or plotter
output. Depending on your installed driver, you may find it does not produce the
highest quality output or that it takes a long time to produce a plot.
Geosoft provides a special printer configuration capability that enables you to
initalize an internal raster engine that performs most of the print/plot processing and
passes it to the driver for final output.
If you are not satisfied with your driver's performance, you can try selecting this
option. Normally, with high-quality drivers, you should not have to use this option
but it can help with problem drivers or PostScript printing.

Exporting Maps to a File
Geosoft recognizes the need for the ability to move data, grids and images easily to
other software systems. Supported export formats for maps include:
Enhanced Metafile
ArcView Shapefile
CGM Plot
Bitmap
PCX
PNG
Encapsulated Post Script
TIFF Compressed
Geosoft COLOUR Grid
ER Mapper RGB
ER Mapper ECW Compressor

MapInfo TAB
Geosoft Plot file
DXF AutoCAD
DXF AutoCAD v12
JPEG
JPEG High Quality
TIFF
GeoTIFF
MapInfo TIFF
ArcView TIFF

For more information on exporting data, refer to the Exporting and Archiving topic
in the Oasis montaj Online Help system.
T O E XPORT M APS

TO A

F ILE :

1. Select an open map in your project.
2. On the Map menu, click Export. The Export Map dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps 231

3. Specify the Region to Export (Viewed Region, Full Map or Selection).
4. Select the Output Format, the Image Resolution and where to Export the map to

(File or Clipboard).
5. Using the Options dropsown list, select (Cluster Dither, Error Diffusion or No

Dither).
6. Click the [OK] button. If you selected to export to a file the system will display

the Exported file name dialog box. Specify a name for the file and click the
[Save] button.
7. The system exports the map.
T O E XPORT

TO

GIS, S PREADSHEET

AND

D ATABASE A PPLICATIONS :

1. On the Data menu, click Export and then click the Geosoft XYZ. The system

displays the Export XYZ data dialog box.

2. Specify the XYZ data file to export as Geoexport and click the [Template]

button. The Export XYZ Template dialog box is displayed.

232 Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps

3. All of the channels automatically included to be exported. If you wish to remove

certain channels from the export process highlight the channels in the Channel
box and click the [Remove] button. Click the [OK] button to once you have
selected the data you wish to export. The system will return you to the Export
XYZ data dialog box. Click the [OK] button again and the system exports the
data.
Note: The Include Comment Header option is not default, but may contain
important information that pertains to the database you are exporting. The
Include Dummies option allows you to omit dummy values when exporting.

Printing Maps
By default, the system is set up to use your current Windows driver. When you start
printing maps for the first time, you will most likely accept the defaults. Depending
on your driver’s performance however, you may want to add a new configuration that
uses a more advanced printing option, such as Geosoft bands, Geosoft bands and
dither, or HP-RTL. Refer to the on-line help system for a complete discussion on the
pros and cons of the different printing modes.
Printer and Page Setup
For optimal printing, you may have to experiment with printer settings and properties.
Different drivers allow different selections (paper size, orientation, dithering patterns
and colour controls). However, they can be very slow especially for large plots.

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps 233
T O C ONFIGURE

YOUR

P RINTER

AND

P AGE ::

1. Make sure your GeoDemo.gpf project is open.
2. On the File menu, click Printer and Page Setup. The Page Setup dialog is

displayed.

3. Use this dialog to specify your page setup, i.e. Paper Size, Paper Source,

Orientation (Portrait or Landscape), and Margins.
4. Click the [Printer] button to configure your printer settings.

234 Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps
5. Use this dialog to select your printer and to modify your printer properties. Click

the [OK] button twice to exit these dialogs.
Change or Add New Printer Configuration
Use the Change Printer Configuration/Add Printer Configuration dialog(s) to change
the configuration of your printing mode, colour scaling and other print options.
T O A DD

A

N EW P RINTER C ONFIGURATION :

1. On the Print dialog, click the [Add Config] button. The Add Printer

Configuration dialog is displayed.

2. If you want to use Windows drivers for printing make sure Windows is selected

for the Print Mode.
3. If you are having problems with your Windows drivers and want to optimize your

printing speed, select the Geosoft bands or Geosoft bands and dither Print
Mode.
4. Select the Geosoft HP-RTL device if you have this type of printing device.
5. If you want to adjust the Colour Scaling, change the CYMK colour values.
6. If you want to adjust the Image print resolution change the default dpi value.
7. Click the [OK] button and the system will save your new configurations and

initializes it for use.
Note: To change your printer configurations click the [Change Config] button from
the Printer Setup dialog box.

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps 235

Print Preview
Use the Print Preview dialog to display the active map, as it would appear when
printed.
T O P REVIEW

A

M AP B EFORE P RINTING :

1. On the File menu, click Print preview. The Print preview dialog is displayed.

2. From this dialog you can specify the Region to Plot, the Plot Scale, Overlap and

Layout of the file you wish to print. Click the [Preview] button. The system
displays a preview of how your map will look when printed on paper.
3. Click the [Print] button if the map is ready for printing or click the [Close] button

to return to the Print Preview dialog box.
Print a Map
Use the Print dialog to specify how you want your print job to appear and to send a
job to the printer.
T O P RINT

A

M AP :

1. Select (highlight) the map that you would like to print.
2. On the File menu, click Print. The Print dialog is displayed.

236 Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps

3. Specify the Region you want to print (current Viewed Area or the Entire Map).
4. Specify the Plot Scale. To maintain the map scale, select the Use Scale Factor

option and specify a value, (1 = 100 per cent). If you use this option, the map may
require more than one page depending on the media to which you are printing or
plotting.
5. If the plot is being Panelled, specify either the All panels option or the Range of

panels option to print. If you are printing multiple panels, you can specify an
overlap in mm. This helps you to match panels later.
6. Specify the number of Copies to be printed.
7. If required, select the Print to File option box and specify a filename.
8. Select the Centre on Page option box to centre the plot on the page. To centre the

plot on a paper roll select the Fit On Roll option box.
9. To move the map from its origin (lower left corner of page or plot), specify an

offset distance in mm.
10. Click the [Print] button to send the map or plot to the currently configured printer

or plotter.
Printing in Batch
For high efficiency automated printing and plotting, Geosoft provides a batch printing
capability. This capability allows a number of plots to be printed sequentially without
any hands-on intervention.

Tutorial 13: Exporting and Printing Maps 237
T O P RINT

IN

B ATCH :

1. On the File menu, click the Batch printing. The Print Multiple Maps dialog is

displayed.

2. In the Maps to Print box, specify the maps you want to print. To specify more

than one map, map names should be separated by a ‘|’ (vertical bar) character.
You can also select multiple files by clicking the [Browse] button. In the Maps to
Print dialog box press and hold the [Ctrl] key and while clicking the left
mouse button to select the maps you wish to print.
3. Specify the other parameters as required. For more information about Batch
printing options click the Help (

) button.

4. Click the [OK] button. The system sends the maps to the installed printer or

plotter.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 239

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj
Oasis montaj 3D views are a representation of a 3D drawing space on a standard
Geosoft map. The 3D capabilities enable you to display multiple surfaces, each with
its own relief and contents, and each with its own orientation in 3D space.
To create 3D views requires the licensed processing engine, but 3D views on an
existing map can be viewed and manipulated in the Oasis montaj free Viewer.
Geosoft Maps use Views to organize and display information. Most Geosoft maps
contain both a Base view and a Data view, but some maps may have more views for
different purposes. Views contain Groups, and these groups in turn contain drawing
elements. All Groups within a 2D View are drawn in the coordinate system of that
View. The Base view uses coordinates in millimetres relative to the final printed
paper, and the Data view uses a coordinate system that can represent a projected or
geographic coordinate system on the earth, or simply an arbitrary X, Y Cartesian
coordinate system. 2D Views contain one flat drawing surface, which is defined by
the View’s coordinate system.
A 3D View can be created from an existing 2D View or Group already displayed on a
map, or directly from a grid file. Specialized GX’s may also create 3D views for their
own purposes. Like 2D Views, a 3D view also represents coordinates, but in this
case in X, Y AND Z. 3D Views may contain Voxel (3D Grids) and any number of
drawing planes. Any Group or drawing object that can be drawn on a 2D View can
be drawn on a Plane in a 3D View. Each plane in a 3D view can be oriented
independently in the 3D coordinate system. A Plane in a 3D view can be flat or it can
have a surface relief defined by a grid file.
Planes will normally share the X, Y coordinates of the 3D view, and flat planes will
have a constant Z value representing the vertical location of the plane. However, a
plane coordinate system may be oriented in any direction in the 3D space for special
applications. If a plane does have a relief View, the axis of the relief is always in the
Z direction of the plane.
3D views appear on a 2D map as a standard view, except that what you see is the 3D
representation of the view from a fixed viewing location. You can manipulate a 3D
view using the 3D Viewer. To do this, select the 3D view (Note, you must be in Map
View Mode
menu.

to select a view), right click and select 3D Viewer from the popup

When viewing the 3D view in the 3D Viewer, you can change the orientation of the
View relative to your point of view by rotating the coordinate system horizontally
and vertically, and you can zoom and pan into the view, and you can modify certain
display parameters such as delete planes, and adjust plane transparency using the 3D
Tool. The 3D Tool enables you to modify the 3D parameters, display characteristics
and the appearance of your 3D view in the 3D Viewer. The 3D Tool is available in
the Tools section of the Project Explorer and will appear whenever a 3D Viewer is

240 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

open. If more than one 3D Viewer is open, the parameters of the 3D Tool will
represent whichever Viewer currently has focus.
When you close the 3D Viewer window, the 3D View will be drawn on the 2D Map
as it last appeared in the 3D Viewer.
Create a 3D View from an Existing Map View or Group
Any map object that can be drawn in a 2D View can be drawn on a plane in a 3D
View. This includes images and drawn or vector features as well as directly from a
Grid file that can be used to represent the surface of a plane in a 3D view.
TO

CREATE A

3D V IEW

FROM EXISTING

V IEWS

OR

G ROUPS

ON A MAP :

1. Open a map that contains a dat view, in our case we opened the As.grd.map.

Click the Map View Mode (

) button so you are in View mode.

2. With the mouse cursor over the map window, right-click and select Create a 3D

View. The Create a new 3D View dialog will be displayed. This dialog will
enable you to create a new 3D View on a map or add a new drawing plane to an
existing 3D View (Note that, 3D Views can contain any number of drawing
planes).

3. Specify the New 3D View name (3D_View), and the Name of new plane in 3D

View (As).
Note:

It is extremely important that when you create a new 3D view that you create
a new name for the view rather than selecting a name from the dropdown list.
The dropdown list is presented to enable you to see what view names you
may already have. Do not overwrite one of the existing 2D views, unless you
want to replace it.

4. In the Plane elevation box you can specify the plane elevation (or constant offset

from the 3D origin in the direction normal to the new plane coordinate system).
We will leave this to the default, as (0).
5. Using the Browse (

) button for Relief surface grid (optional), locate the grid to
be used as the relief surface of the 3D View. In this case, we are using the
(As.grd) file.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 241
6. Click the [OK] button and the Surface relief grid dialog will be displayed.

7. Click the [Default] button to display the grid scaling parameters and clip-limits

calculated from the relief grid. The default Relief base and the Vertical scale are
determined from the relief grid for aesthetic purposes. For more information
about these parameters, or any dialog parameter, click the Help (

) button.

8. Click the [OK] button to plot the 3D view to the current map and open the 3D

Tool and 3D Viewer. You will notice that your 3D View and 3D plane appears
empty, you now must add a map View or Group to the plane.
9. To add a View or a Group to the new 3D plane, with the mouse cursor over the

3D Viewer window, right-click and select Draw a View/Group on a Plane. The
Draw a view or group on a plane in a 3D view dialog will be displayed.

10. This dialog enables you to select the View or View/Group to add to the 3D plane.

In our example we can select the grid or symbols to plot. We selected the grid
(Data\Grid) and to Draw on plane (As). Click the [OK] button and the selected
grid will be plotted to the 3D plane.

242 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

11. Using the 3D Tools in the 3D Viewer window, orient the view to the desired

perspective and when you are satisfied with the orientation close the 3D Viewer.
12. The 3D view is placed in the center of the current map. Using the standard 2D

map tools, you can move and size the 3D view into the desirable position on the
map.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 243

Create a 3D View from an Existing Grid File
A 3D View of a grid can be plotted either to a new map or in the centre of a current
map.
TO

CREATE A

3D V IEW

FROM A

G RID :

1. On the 3D Tools menu, select Display|Relief Surface to New or Current Map. The

3D Surfaces from a grid dialog is displayed.

244 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

2. You can select different grids for the Surface relief and Colour image grids, or as

shown above, you can select the same grid file for both so that the colour surface
will coincide with the relief surface.
3. From the New or current map dropdown list select (new). The remaining

parameters can be left the the defaults, click the [Next>] button to display the
Surface Grid dialog.

4. To calculate the Surface grid statistics, click the [Defaults] button. This surface

grid information may be modified here or you can do it later from within the 3D
Tool. Click the [Finish] button and the Data range to map dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 245

5. Use this dialog to create a new blank map to fit the data range specified. The data

range can be entered manually, or it can be determined from the range of selected
data in a database or from a grid range.For our map, we will select the [Scan
grid] button, which displays the Get a range from a grid file dialog.

6. Use the dropdown list to select the grid file (tfmag.grd) and click the [OK]

button to return to the Data range to map dialog. Click the [Next>] button to
continue and the Create a new map dialog is displayed.

7. Use this dialog to specify the Map name (3D_tfmag.map), Map template

(portrait letter). To calculate the Scale based on the data range and the map
template, click the [Scale] button. You can modify the map scale to a more
useable value, as shown above.
8. Click the [Finish] button to plot the 3D View to a new map. Note that, the 3D

Tool and 3D Viewer are now open in the foreground of your project. The 3D
Viewer enables you to change the point of view and work with all the attributes

246 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

that make up the 3D View by using the controls in the 3D Tool. When you close
the 3D Viewer, the view will appear on the 2D map just as it last appeared in the
3D Viewer.

Add a Plane to an Existing 3D View
You can add any number of new drawing planes to an existing 3D view. Anything
that can be drawn on a 2D view can be drawn on a plane in a 3D view.
In the next example, we will create a new plane that will include symbol Assay data
draped on an Assay grid that will appear in a plane coincident to the magnetic plane.
TO

ADD A NEW PLANE TO A

3D V IEW :

1. Select the 3D View in the (3D_tfmag_shaded.map) map; make sure you are in

View mode by selecting the Map View Mode (

) button.

2. Right click and from the popup menu select Add a new drawing plane. The Add a

new drawing plane to a 3D view dialog will be displayed.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 247

3. Enter the Name of new plane in 3D view as (As) (Note: if you enter the name of

an existing plane, that plane will be replaced) and specify the relief grid as
(As.grd).
4. Click the [OK] button and the Surface relief grid dialog will be displayed.

5. Click the [Default] button to display the grid scaling parameters and clip-limits

calculated from the relief grid. The default Relief base and the Vertical scale are
determined from the relief grid for aesthetic purposes. For more information
about these parameters, or any dialog parameter, click the Help (

) button.

6. Click the [OK] button to create the empty plane in the 3D view. The new plane

will be invisible because we have not yet drawn anything on it.
7. The new plane in the 3D View is now the default drawing plane, so anything we

now draw using the standard Oasis montaj drawing tools will appear on this new
plane.
Note: Note that you can control the vertical position of the plane either by
specifying the plane elevation for flat planes or the Relief base if a relief View
is specified.

248 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

Draw a group directly onto a plane in an existing 3D View
You can draw groups including grids, images, contours, and symbols to a plane in a
3D view just like drawing to a 2D view. After creating a 3D view, it becomes your
Default Drawing View so that the next group you plot will be drawn on the Default
Drawing Plane which is the most recent plane in the view unless set otherwise by the
user.
You can also use the clipboard to cut/copy groups from other maps to the default
drawing plane of a 3D view.
TO

MAKE A PLANE THE DEFAULT DRAWING PLANE :

1. Select the 3D View in an open map, make sure you are in View mode by selecting

the Map View Mode (

) button.

2. Right click and from the popup menu select Set default drawing plane.
3. If the 3D View contains more than one plane, the Set a default drawing plane in a

3D View dialog will be displayed.
4. From the Default drawing plane dropdown list, select a plane (As) from the view.
5. Click the [OK] button and the selected plane will now be the default drawing

plane.
Note: You can also change the default drawing view from the “Map Tools” menu
6. Open the (As.grd.map) created in an earlier tutorial and then click the
View/Group Manager Tool button (
). Select the symbol group
(PSYMB_geochem_As) and then while holding your cursor over the selected
group in the map (As.grd.map) right click and from the opup menu, slect Copy.
7. Then, select the map (tfmag_shaded.map) again, the default drawing plane (As)

should still be selected, and while holding your cursor over the selected 3D view,
right click and from the popup menu, select Paste. The As symbols will be copied
to the default drawing plane in your 3D view.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 249

To Plot 3D Colour Range Symbols
Oasis montaj provides a range of options for visualizing your data in three
dimensions including; displaying multiple surfaces, each with own relief and
contents, and each with its own orientation in 3D space.
The 3D colour range symbol plotting option enables you to plot 3D symbols with
fixed or variable colours to a 3D map. The colours can be varied based on the
values from another data channel.
This example uses the sample data (geochem.gdb) found in the \Geosoft\Oasis
montaj\data\various directory.
T O P LOT 3D C OLOUR R ANGE S YMBOLS :
1. Open the database that includes the data you want to plot using the 3D colour

range symbol option.
2. On the Map Tools menu, select Symbols|3D Colour Range Symbols. The 3D

Coloured symbols plot dialog is displayed.

250 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

3. Using thedrpdown lists, select the parameters that best suites your data. Note that,

if you want to colour your data using the values from a secondary channel, select
(Variable colour) from the Colour option. Click the [OK] button and the Data
range to map dialog is displayed.

4. Click the [Scan data] button to scan your current database. Click the

[Projection] button to set the coordinate system. For for information on these or
any dialog parameters, click the Help ( ) button. Click the [Next>] button and
the Create a new map dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 251

5. Specify a new Map name and then from the Map template dropdown list, select a

template.
6. Click the [Scale] button to calculate and display a default scale that will fit the

defined data range to the specified template. You can edit this scale to a more
usable value. Click the finish button and the 3D Controls dialog is displayed.

7. You can edit the 3D Controls parameters now, during the creation of the 3D

colour range symbol plot, or from within the 3D Viewer while linked to the 3D
Tool in real-time so that changes are displayed interactively.
8. Click the [OK] button to plot the 3D colour range symbols to a map. Note that,

the 3D Tool and 3D Viewer are now open in the foreground of your project. The
3D Viewer enables you to change the point of view and work with all the
attributes that make up the 3D View by using the controls in the 3D Tool. When
you close the 3D Viewer, the view will appear on the 2D map just as it last
appeared in the 3D Viewer.

252 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

Notes about 3D Views
3D Views are rendered coarsely when interactively changing the orientation or point
of view. When you release the mouse in any of these modes, the objects will be
refined in a way that is optimum for the given point of view. The time it takes to
refine the picture depends on processor speed, your 3D Graphics capabilities, the
complexity of the 3D model being drawn (number of planes, number of groups, relief
resolution, etc.), and the amount of RAM on your system.
If a plane has a relief View, the groups drawn on the plane will only appear where the
relief View is defined. Groups drawn on flat planes (those without relief Views) will
be drawn to the extents of the group.
3D Views may have clipping areas just like 2D Views. In 3D, the clip area is applied
vertically relative to the X, Y coordinate of each plane.

Displaying a Voxel in a 3D View
Use the 3D Tools|Display|Voxel menu option to place a Voxel in a 3D View. A
"voxel" is just another word for a 3 dimensional grid.
You can create a Voxel using the Voxel Gridding option on the 3D Tools|Gridding
menu (see page 114, for more information on creating a Voxel).
T O D ISPLAY

A

V OXEL

IN A

3D V IEW :

1. On the 3D Tools menu, select Display|Voxel. The Place a Voxel in a 3D View

dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 253

2. Using the Browse (

) button, select the Voxel file, included with the tutorial
data files, copied to your project directory as
(Tutorial_Assay_As.geosoft_voxel).

3. Select the Display as (New map) and then leaving the remaining parameters to

the intelligent defaults, click the [OK] button.
4. The Voxel file is displayed on a new map (Tutorial_Assay_As.map) and the 3D

Viewer and 3D Tool are displayed in the foreground of your project. The 3D
Viewer enables you to change the point of view and work with all the attributes
that make up the 3D View by using the controls in the 3D Tool. When you close
the 3D Viewer, the Voxel will appear on the 2D map just as it last appeared in the
3D Viewer.
Plotting Voxel Isosurface (Contour)
Use the 3D Tools|Utilities|Create Isosurface from Voxel menu option to extract an
isosurface from a voxel model and plot it to a map.
T O P LOT V OXEL I SOSURFACE

TO A

3D M AP :

1. Make sure the Voxel map file (Tutorial_Assay_As.map) created in the previous

step is open. Then, while in Map View Mode (
to display the 3D Viewer and the 3D Tool.

), double-click the “3D Voxel”

2. On the 3D Tools menu, select Utilities|Create Isosurface from Voxel. The Plot

Voxel Isosurface dialog is displayed.

254 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

3. The Voxel file by default should display the currently open Voxel as

(Tutorial_Assay_As.geosoft_voxel).
4. For the Surface value, specify the value for the Isosurface (this is the "contour"

value) as (10). Then, click in the Colour box to display the Color Tool, select a
suitable colour for the Isosurface. Then, using the Display dropdown list, select to
plot the Isosurface to (Current map).
5. Click the [OK] button and the Isosurface will be plotted to your current 3D View.
Note:

For a better view the Isosurface, move the Transparency slider, on the Voxel
Tab in the 3D Tool, to the left until you can see both the Isosurface and the
Voxel.

6. Repeat the steps 2 to 5 above, adding Surface values (contour levels) to best

display your data.
7. The 3D Voxel map shown below has had Isosurfaces plotted at 10, 20 and 30.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 255

3D Tool and 3D Viewer
The 3D Tool enables you to modify the appearance of your 3D View in the 3D
Viewer. The 3D Tool is available in the Tools section of the Project Explorer and
will appear whenever a 3D Viewer is open. If more than one 3D Viewer is open, the
parameters of the 3D Tool will represent whichever Viewer currently has focus.
Note: For more detailed information on the 3D Tool, select (highlight) the 3D Tool,
and press the F1 key, or use the Search tab in the Oasis montaj help system
to locate the 3D Tool help topic(s).

256 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

The following interactive viewing buttons are provided along the top of all of the 3D
Tool tabs:
Rotate Mode - enables you to rotate the displayed View 360 degrees in all

directions. Note that, users that have a mouse wheel can zoom in and out
while rotating the View, by turning the wheel.
Zoom Mode - enables you to zoom in and out of the displayed View. Note

that you can also move the model closer and farther in any mode using the
roller on your mouse (if you have one).
Pan Mode - enables you to move the entire displayed View.
Centre Map in Window - resets the focus point of the view and the current

3D View is centred in the 3D Viewer (independent of the zoom).
Toggle Redraw On/Off - enables the auto-redraw to refresh/redraw a map

automatically after changes are made to it.
Force Redraw of 3D window - forces the refresh/redraw of the 3D View in

the 3D Viewer.
Display Tab
tab enables you to modify the overall display of the 3D view. This tab
The
controls the overall orientation, distance, visibility and presentation of the 3D view.
The Inclination, Declination and Distance are the current viewing parameters,
relative to the central point. Inclination and declination can be fixed, so when

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 257

rotating, that particular angle will always be used (e.g. fixing inclination at 25
degrees will only allow a rotating view around the central point where the point of
view is locked at 25 degrees above the horizon). The Slider bar controls the
brightness of the 3D view image.
The
button displays the Axis Options dialog. Use this dialog to specify the
background colour of your 3D view, add a box around the 3D view and add an axis
with annotations for the X, Y and Z axis with whatever nomenclature you wish to
use. For clarity, we entered; Easting, Northing and Depth for this tutorial.
The
button displays the Rendering Options dialog. Use this dialog to set the
rendering resolution and scale for your 3D View. Rendering occurs every time you
modify the 3D view and the view is redrawn, Resolution occurs when the image is
constantly in motion; for example while rotating, zooming or panning and Scale is
relative to each other, the default is 1:1:1.
For users with graphics cards that are of low memory (below 64Mb) and/or slower
processors, then it is recommended to leave these at the default settings while
working in the 3D environment as it makes heavy use of the resources in the video
card.
Note:

The controls on this dialog are system controls and changes made to this
dialog will affect all 3D maps in your Oasis montaj system.

For more detailed information on using the Display Tab options, see the online Help
topic, Modify Display Options (3D Tool)
Plane Tab
The
tab enables you to modify the individual planes within each 3D View.
This tab controls the display and viewing characteristics of surfaces and images
displayed in the 3D Viewer.
All the planes in the 3D view are listed in the drop down box; in the example in this
tutorial the three gridded image of Au are listed as planes (225RL,275RL and
325RL) and the topography that we draped the magnetic image over is listed as
surface (by default).
If the Plane is a “flat” surface, i.e. the image is not draped over a topographic relief
surface, only the Offset and the Transparency can be controlled. If the Plane has a
topographic surface (i.e. has X, Y and “depth” components) there are additional
controls:
Sample – the sampling resolution of the relief surface grid (16 to 512, 256 is the
default)
Base – the base value of the grid relative to the Z-axis. Zero (0) implies that the relief
surface’s Z values are relative to the Z-axis.

258 Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj

Scale – the vertical exaggeration of the relief surface. A scale of 1 indicates that the
relief surface is to true scale.
Clip min and max – minimum and maximum values in the relief grid. These can be
set to clip higher or lower values in a surface.
For more detailed information on using the Plane Tab options, see the online Help
topic, Modify Plane Options (3D Tool)
Voxel Tab
The
tab enables you to modify the appearance of the Voxel in your 3D
view. For example, you can select the Voxel to modify from the Voxel dropdown list,
and then select (check ) to add a Box around the Voxel or to display a voxel Mesh.
The

button displays the Color Symbol Tool, which can be used to modify

button displays the Voxel Statistics dialog,
the colour of the voxel. The
which provides the statistics for the currently selected voxel.
The Clip Data slider bar (or the text boxes) can be used to modify the displayed data
range. Use the Transparency slider (or text box) to modify the transparency of the
selected Voxel.
The Clip Axis slider bars (or text boxes) can be used to modify the ranges for the X, Y
and Z coordinates of the Voxel.
For more detailed information on using the Voxel Tab options, see the online Help
topic, Modify Voxel Options (3D Tool)
Surfaces Tab
The
tab enables you to modify the appearance of a 3D surface extracted
from a Voxel grid to a 3D View. For example, you can select the 3D surface
(Isosurface) to modify from the Isosurface dropdown list, and then click inside the
Colour box to specify the background colour of the 3D View.
The Transparency of the Isosurface can be adjusted interactively by moving the slider
on the Transparency bar or by specifying a value in the Transparency text box.
Using the Clip Axis you can clip each of the 3D Axis (X, Y and Z) independently. The
Clip Axis can be modified interactively by moving the individual sliders or by
specifying an Axis range in the data boxes provided.
For more detailed information on using the Surfaces Tab options, see the online Help
topic, Modify Surfaces Options (3D Tool).
3D Rendering Memory Requirements
You can adjust the rendering resolution for 3D Views by clicking the
button on the Display Tab. The controls on this dialog are system controls and
changes made to this tab will affect all 3D maps in your Oasis Montaj system.

Tutorial 14: 3D Views in Oasis montaj 259

The 3D Views rendering process makes heavy use of the available memory on your
video card, and performance will be substantially reduced if your limits are exceeded.
Full render resolution:
When the full render resolution is set to maximum it can easily consume hundreds of
megabytes of memory (200-600 Mb). If you do not have adequate memory available
your computer will start to thrash, your hard drive light will turn on and stay on and
the rendering will take a very long time. If you have less than 256 Mb of RAM, you
should not increase this control.
Fast render resolution:
The fast render resolution moves 128k to the video card at the low range, 2 Mb at the
middle range and 24 Mb at the high range. This means that every time you draw in
FAST mode you move that much memory to the video card. Unfortunately, if your
memory bandwidth is low or your video card is not very fast this slows down the
rendering time.

260 Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)
Oasis montaj includes a Geosoft DAP client which enables users to search and
retrieve geoscientific datasets, imagery and other map data directly form a DAP
server on a local network or on the Internet. There are two types of DAP clients, a
thick client (a desktop software application) and a thin client (web browser).
Oasis montaj, MapInfo and ArcGIS are thick DAP client software applications.
Thick client applications enable you to download and save the actual data to your
hard drive, so you can use the data in Oasis montaj or any other GIS or spatial data
processing program.
Thin clients, like Geosoft’s DAP Data Explorer use a web browser to browse, view
and extract data from a DAP server. Visit www.geodap.com/map/ and see how it
works!
Geosoft’s DAP capability enables both licensed and free Viewer users to access
global and corporate spatial servers – Geosoft DAP servers, NASA servers, USGS
servers, and the many, many WMS servers currently available.
DAP’s main features include:

Large Volume Data Transfer: DAP technology handles the efficient transfer of
very high-volume spatial data, and its associated metadata, through a streaming
technology.

Spatially Aware: DAP is spatially aware, enabling user-specified spatial
querying and retrieval.

Ready-to-use Data: DAP provides localized data that matches your current
Oasis montaj map window and projection information.

Safe and Efficient Data Transfer: DAP data transfer technology provides direct
DAP client/server communication enabling the transfer of encrypted and
compressed data that maintains original data integrity.

The DAP menu includes two options for finding data, Find Data with Dapple and
Find Data.

Find Data with Dapple
Use the DAP|Find Data with Dapple option to search for data with Dapple. Dapple,
Geosoft's global data explorer, enables you to browse, discover and display
graphically rich data from global and corporate spatial servers – Geosoft DAP
servers, NASA servers, USGS servers, and the many, many WMS servers currently
available.
The Dapple project is an open-source activity sponsored by Geosoft and derived from
the NASA World Wind (http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/) open source project. Dapple
represents our effort to make this powerful technology accessible and useful to

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP) 261

professional earth scientists. For more detailed information about Dapple, visit
http://dapple.geosoft.com/default.asp
Dapple includes a set of menus (Tools, Servers, View, Settings, and Help), an
interactive Global Explorer window that displays the selected data layers, a Search
window that enables you to define your ‘Area of Interest’ via Servers or the Web
based on spatial extents and keywords, a Data Layers window that displays the
selected data, an Overview Map window that displays your current spatial extents,
and a Metadata window that displays the metadata for the currently selected Data
Layer.
TO

ACCESS

D APPLE

IN

O ASIS

MONTAJ :

The ability to access data from global and corporate spatial servers (Geosoft DAP
servers, NASA servers, USGS servers, and WMS servers) along with the Internet is a
powerful and insightful way to work with spatial data. Dapple provides effective data
browsing tools for locating geoscience data, satellite imagery, remote sensing data,
geology maps, geophysical data, and many other data sets of interest to geoscientists.
1. On the DAP menu, select Find Date with Dapple and the Dapple dialog will be

displayed.

262 Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)

2. To specify the spatial extents you can use the Global Explorer and Navigation

tools, or in the Overview map window you can select an area (including the entire
globe) or select a specific region using the dropdown list. You can further focus
your Search criteria by entering "Keywords" in the text box
) provided. To clear the search parameters, click the

(
Clear search (

) button.

3. In the Search window, select the "Servers" tab and click the Search (

) button.
The Available Servers will be searched for any data that falls within your spatial
extents and matches your keywords. (Note that, when you select the "Web" tab
the Internet will be searched for data files that fall within your area of interest and
match your keywords.)
The results are displayed on the "Servers" (or 'Web") tab and can be viewed in
either 'Tree view' or 'List view'.

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP) 263
4. To download your search results, the selected dataset(s) must be added into the

Data Layers window. To add datasets to the Data Layers window, select
(highlight) a dataset from the "Servers" tree view (or select multiple datasets from
the "Servers" list view), right-click and from the popup menu, select Add to Data
Layers and the selected data will be added to the Data Layers window (Note that
you can also use Drag-n-Drop to move the "Search" result datasets to the "Data
Layers" window).
In the Data Layers window, select (highlight) the datasets to download. Then, on
the Tools menu, select "Download Layers" and all selected data layers will begin
the download process.
5. Once the download is initiated, the Download Settings dialog will be displayed.

Use this tabbed dialog to set the "General" and "Individual" properties of the
downloaded dataset(s). Click the [Download] button to complete the process and
download the selected data to your current project directory.
For more detailed information on the Dapple dialog, select Help on the main Dapple
menu bar.

Find DAP Data
Use the Get DAP Data dialog to search for data on one or more DAP data servers.
This tool includes a set of menus, an interactive DAP browser window that displays
the browser map of the active server, an ‘Area of Interest’ window that enables you to
define your view area, and three tabbed dialog tools that control your data retrieval.
TO

ACCESS THE

G ET DAP D ATA DIALOG

IN

O ASIS

MONTAJ :

When data is downloaded from the DAP server, it will be windowed, resampled and
reprojected to match the current client context within the limitations of the type of
data you are dealing with.
Note that, you should have a map open and selected (with projection assigned to it) in
your current project.
1. On the DAP menu, select Find Data. The Authorize Internet Communication

dialog is displayed. Note: If your Internet Trust Configuration is set to "Trusted"
this dialog will not appear.
2. Click the [Authorize] button. The system will query the DAP server to determine

what data the DAP server has that matches the data view of your current map.
When a match has been made the Get DAP Data dialog will be displayed.

264 Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)

3. The Results tab, on the right side of the dialog window, will display the data that

is available for download. Note the number of data files available is specified
beside the DAP Server name (e.g. 10 datasets are indicated above). Select ( ) the
data you would like to downloaded and display on your map.
4. Your Results can be filtered to only display items that intersect your Area of

Interest (AOI) and/or contain Text that matches a Text string. These DAP Filters
are provided on the top of the Results tab (
more information on using the DAP Data Filters, click the Help (

). For
) button.

5. The Selected tab enables you to control the both the data to download and the

visibility of the data on the current browser map by placing a check in the box on
the left side of the list. You can also use this tab to control the rendering order of
the displayed datasets using the upward and downward arrows.
Note: To view the selected data sets in the Browser Map check the View Selected
Datasets check box ( ).
6. The Get Data tab enables you to specify your selected data options, such as
Filename, Resolution, Projection format and Display. Once you are satisfied with

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP) 265

the selected datasets and their download options, click the [Get Data] button to
download and display the DAP data on your current map.
Note: There are a variety of DAP display technology features available including:
re-project the grid to the projection of the current map view, re-project and
resample the grid to a specified resolution, save the grid in the native
projection format, display the grid as a simple colour image, display the grid
as a shaded colour image, and download and save only, do not display the
grid.
7. Once the download is complete click the Exit (

) button to close the window.
The gridded data will be displayed in your open map. For more information, click
the Help (

) button on the Get DAP Data dialog.

Authorizing Your Internet Communication Settings
The Authorize Internet Communication dialog box enables you to authorize what
communication takes place between your Oasis montaj system and the Geosoft
Internet Server. The Internet Trust Relationship dialog box enables you to select
the default setting for authorizing all future communication with the server.
All communication with the Geosoft Server is encrypted for your privacy and
security.

266 Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)

Authorize Internet Communication Dialog
This dialog box is displayed when Oasis montaj tries to communicate with an
internet server. For example, when you try to locate data on the DAP server.
• Click the [Authorize] button to authorize the communication and download the
data.
• Click [Deny] to cancel the communication. The data will not be downloaded.
• Click [Security] to view the Internet Trust Relationship dialog box and
change your default authorization setting (see below).
Internet Trust Relationship Dialog
This dialog box enables you to set the type of access you want when communicating
with an internet or external server to download and install software components.
You can select from three levels of access that will define how the Geosoft Server
will communicate with your computer:
Trusted
This setting will automatically authorize all communication with the server.
This means that you will not be prompted to verify each time you data from the
DAP server. All communication with the server is saved in a log file on your local
computer so that you can check to see what information was sent and received.

Verify
This setting will ask you to verify all communication with the server before
proceeding with a download. This means that whenever you query the DAP server,
the server will show you what is being requested and ask you to authorize it.
Click the [Accept] button to give permission to connect to the server or click the
[Deny] button if you do not want toconnect.
All communication with the server is saved in a log file on your local computer so
that you can check to see what information was sent and received. This is the
default setting.

Restricted
This setting will not authorize any communication with the server. This means
that you do not want any communication with the server to take place. With this
setting, you will not be able to connect to the server.

Tip:

You can modify your Internet Trust Settings at any time by selecting the
Internet option from the GX|Global Settings menu.

Metadata Browser
The Metadata Browser is a tool for viewing metadata associated with a DAP dataset.
Metadata is information about data. Metadata can be simple or complex and the
descriptive needs of different kinds of data are infinitely diverse. To allow for this

Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP) 267

and provide flexibility, Geosoft metadata is stored in a hierarchical data structure
called a "meta". The Metadata browser will displays the meta structure (also called a
"schema") and the metadata information of a specific data source. Each branch of a
metadata structure may contain a set of Attributes with associated Values, and other
branches.
Following is an example of the metadata that Geosoft may store with Oasis montaj
grid files:

Data: The Data branch contains all metadata associated with any spatial data type.
The information at the "Data" level is common to all types of spatial data.
Grid: This example describes a grid of data, hence there is a "Grid" branch, which
contains metadata that is specific to grids.
Display: Grids may contain display information about the grid data set, which is
stored in the "Grid/Display" branch.
Statistics: Grids may contain statistical information about the grid data set, which is
stored in the "Grid/Statistics" branch.
Location: The information that locates a 2-D grid array within the "Data" coordinate
system is stored in the "Grid/Location" branch.

268 Tutorial 15: Data Access Protocol (DAP)

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 269

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool
This tutorial is designed to demonstrate how you can use the Trend Enforcement
Gridding Tool to alleviate a traditional problem in gridding geophysical data, i.e. the
aliasing problem that occurs due to the presence of more samples “along the lines”
than across lines. This problem leads to obvious effects including ellipsoids or
ellipsoidal “beads” between lines in gridded data. There are various solutions to these
types of effects including filtering and gridding along trend directions. However,
these techniques may reduce geologic signal or obscure local trends.
In this tutorial, you will first grid a database and examine the resulting grid. You will
notice that there are areas of the grid that have “jagged” edges which can be
misinterpreted as faults and that may complicate geologic interpretation.
These effects occur as an artefact of the gridding process and are independent of the
method (i.e. line-based gridding or random gridding). In the case of random gridding
(i.e. using RANGRID), the result would be a “bull’s eyes” effect rather than jagged
edges (i.e. from BIGRID).
A traditional solution is to add a trend line. This method works as long as you match
high values and low values. The Trend Enforcement algorithm is designed to
perform this process automatically – smoothly joining highs to highs, and lows to
lows. The algorithm also makes sure that the highs and lows do not cross (i.e.
backtrack).

Before trend enforcement

After trend enforcement

The Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool algorithm is designed to provide a solution
that preserves the character of local trends while eliminating aliasing effects. This
tutorial will show you how to:
• Create a project (page 270)

270 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool










Access the Trend enforcement menus (page 271)
Open a database for manipulation (page 271)
Grid your data using Bigrid (page 272)
Display colour-shaded grid (page 274)
Find trends with the Trend Enforcement Tool (page 275)
Access trend line channels in the database (page 276)
Plot trends (page 277)
Add your own trends (page 278)
Grid trend enforced data (page 279)
Deselect/Select trend lines (page 281)

Before you begin
This section describes how to begin working with the Trend Enforcement system in
Oasis montaj. The topics discussed in this chapter include:
• Create a project
• Access the Trend Enforcement menus
This tutorial uses sample data provided on the Oasis montaj CD and installed in your
C:\Program Files\Geosoft\Oasis montaj\data\trend directory. Before you begin the
tutorial you need to create a working directory to store all your data.
To start this tutorial, please create a working directory called D:\Tutorial. A general
rule to follow in working with Geosoft applications is to avoid working in the
Geosoft directory. In these tutorials, we will follow this rule by keeping all the
working data in our working directory D:\Tutorial.

Creating a project
To work in Oasis montaj requires an open project. An Oasis montaj "Project"
controls your working directory. When you create a project, the system assumes that
all your project files are located in the same directory.
T O C REATE

A

P ROJECT :

1. Start Oasis montaj.
2. On the File menu, select Project and then click New. The New Project dialog is

displayed.

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 271

Oasis montaj assumes that your data is in the directory containing this project
(i.e. D:\Tutorial)
3. Specify a name and directory for the project. For example, name the project
(Trend) and specify the working directory as D:\Tutorial.
Note:

4. Click the [Save] button. The system saves the project and indicates it is open by

adding menus to the menu bar, adding buttons to the Standard Short-cut bar and
by displaying the Project Explorer window. These are visual clues indicating that
you are ready to start working with the system.

Accessing the Trend Enforcement menus
The Trend enforcement menu can be accessed from the Grid and Image menu on the
Oasis montaj main menu bar.
TO

ACCESS THE

T REND E NFORCEMENT M ENU :

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding and then select Trend enforcement.

The Trend Enforcement menu will be displayed.
(TRENDDB.GX)
(TRNDPATH.GX)
(TRNDDIGI.GX)

2. These menus items (GXs) will enable you to eliminate aliasing effects while

preserving the character of local trends.

Opening a Database
In this exercise, you will be working with the database (trend_mag.gdb), which
should be copied into your current working directory D:\Tutorial.

272 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool
T O D ISPLAY

A

D ATABASE

1. On the Database menu, select Open database. The Open database dialog is

displayed.
2. Select the (trend_mag.gdb) and click the [Open] button. The database is opened

and displayed in a spreadsheet window.

Gridding your data using Bigrid
Gridding refers to the process of interpolating data onto an equally spaced “grid” of
values in a specified coordinate system, such as X-Y. The Trend Enforcement Tool
enables you to use either the Bigrid (Bi-Directional) gridding method for line-based
data, and Rangrid (Minimum curvature) or Kriging (Statistical local estimation)
gridding technique for random based data. In this exercise we will use the Bigrid
method.
T O A PPLY B I -D IRECTIONAL G RIDDING

TO

D ATA:

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding, then select Bi-Directional Line

Gridding. The Bi-directional gridding of line data dialog is displayed.

2. Using the Channel to grid dropdown list, select Mag. Specify the Output grid as

(trend) and specify the Grid cell size, as (25).

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 273
Note:

If no cell size is specified, the default is ¼ of the line spacing. For more

information, click the Help ( ) button.
3. To access the Advanced gridding parameters, click the [Advanced>] button. The
Advanced Gridding options dialog is displayed.

4. You can leave these parameters to the intelligent default values. For more

information, click the Help (

) button.

5. To return to the Bi-directional gridding of line data dialog click the [<Back]

button. Click the [OK] button to grid the data. The grid (trend.gdb) is displayed
in a temporary map.

274 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool

Displaying a Colour Shaded Grid
When working with the Trend Enforcement Tool system it is sometimes useful to
display the data as a Colour-shaded grid.
T O D ISPLAY C OLOUR S HADED G RID :
1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Display grid and then select Colour-shaded

grid. The Colour-shaded grid image dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 275
2. Using the Grid name dropdown list, select (trend.grd). Leave the remaining

parameters to the default values and click the [Current Map] button to display
the Colour-shaded grid on the current map (trend.grd).

Colour-shaded grid displaying aliasing effects

Finding Trends
A traditional problem in gridding geophysical data is the aliasing problem that occurs
due to the presence of more samples “along the lines” than “across lines”. This leads
to obvious effects including ellipsoids or ellipsoidal “beads” between lines in gridded
data.
T O F IND T RENDS :
1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding|Trend Enforcement and then select

Find trends. The Find trend lines in a database dialog is displayed.

276 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool

2. Using the Data channel for trends dropdown list, select (mag). In the Window for

Max-Min Search box, specify (500) and in the Preferred angle for trends box
specify (125). Then, in the Allowable deviation in angle box, specify (30.0) and in
the Maximum length for joins box, specify (1000). You can leave the remaining
parameters to the intelligent default values. For a detailed description of these
parameters, click the Help (

) button.

3. When ready to continue, click the [OK] button. The system calculates the Trend

lines and places this information in your database.
Note: When using Rangrid as your gridding technique, you must specify a value in
the “Re-sampling interval along trends” parameter. If no value is entered, the
Trend Enforcement Tool will not calculate the appropriate trend lines. For
more information on Finding Trends click the Help (

) button.

Accessing Trend Lines in Database
You may want to review your trend lines before you plot them on a map or regrid
your data using the trend enforced data.
T O A CCESS T REND L INES

IN

D ATABASE :

1. To access the trend lines select your database (trend_mag.gdb).
2. Click on the Line Header Cell (upper left cell). Click the right mouse button.

From the popup menu select List. Another popup menu will appear containing a
list of the lines in the database. Scroll down the list and select R0:0 (the minima
trend lines). The system displays the minima trend lines (start and end points) in
the database.

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 277
Note:

When you click on a data value (X, Y or Z) in the database, you will notice
that the linked map cursor moves to the selected location of the trend line on
the map.

Linked data point

Plotting Trend Lines
The Trend Enforcement Tool displays the trend lines in the original database. Two
new lines will be added, R0:0 (Minima trend) and R1:0 (Maxima trend).
T O P LOT T REND L INES :
1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding|Trend Enforcement and then select

Plot trends. The Trend Line path plot dialog is displayed.

2. Using the Colour for minimum trends (R0, R2, etc) and the Colour for maximum

trends (R1, R3, etc), select (red) and (blue) and for Line thickness specify (0.15).
(These colours are the opposite of the gridding convention so that these show up
clearly on the map.)
3. Click the [OK] button. The No defined map scale dialog is displayed.

278 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool

4. Note that, this dialog is displayed whenever drawing to a map for which a map

scale has not been defined. This situation most commonly occurs when a map has
been opened just to display a grid image (as applies here). A map scale is
required to determine appropriate scaling for drawing text, patterned lines, and
other map graphic details.
5. Click the [OK] button to accept the default parameters, for more information

click the Help (

) button.

6. The trend lines are plotted on the current map (trend.map).

Trend lines, Maximum values (blue), Minimum values (red).

Adding Your Own Trend Lines
The Trend Enforcement Tool may not find all of the trend lines in your database.
You can interactively digitize a trend line from a grid and add it to the end of a line in
the current database. You also have the ability to resample the trend line to a
specified sample interval (necessary when using the random gridding techniques).
T O A DD Y OUR O WN T REND

LINES :

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding|Trend Enforcement and then select

Add trend line. The Add new digitized trend line dialog is displayed.

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 279

2. Using the [Browse] button, locate the Grid to digitize as (trend2_s.grd) and from

the Output channel dropdown list, select (mag). In the Re-sample interval box
specify (25). (It is recommended that the trend line be re-sampled at the same cell
size as the grid.)
3. Click the [OK] button to continue. The Digitize to database dialog box is

displayed.

7. Click the [OK] button to begin digitizing.
8. Draw a Trend Line by selecting points (either minimum or maximum point

values) on the displayed grid. When you are finished each line, click the rightmouse button and select Done.
9. The digitized trend line data values, which have been interpolated to the specified

re-sample interval, will be added to trend line “R2” in the database. Additional
trend lines added to the database will be added to the end of trend line “R2”
separated by a dummy value ( * ).

Gridding Trend Enforced Data
You can now re-grid your data, using the same parameters as the trend.grd.
T O A PPLY B I -D IRECTIONAL G RIDDING

TO

T REND E NFORCED D ATA:

1. On the Grid and Image menu, select Gridding, then select Bi-Directional line

gridding. The Bi-directional gridding of line data dialog is displayed.

280 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool

2. We will be using the same parameters as the original grid (trend.grd) except we

will change the name of the Output grid file to (Trend_2.grd).
3. Click the [OK] button to grid the data and display the grid in a temporary map.

Comparing the two grids
We can display the two grids side by side to see the difference the trend enforced
gridding has on the data (note that, the grid (trend_2.grd) should be displayed as a
colour shaded grid to properly compare the two grids).

Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool 281

The original grid trend.grd (left) the Trended grid trend_2.grd (right).
Note: The actual data values and locations are exactly the same in both grids. The
Trend Enforcement Tool forces the gridding process to honour the trended
data. Trend lines must be selected to be included in gridding. You can
deselect the trend line(s) for other processes with the database.

Deselecting/Selecting Trend Lines
You may want to deselect/select your trend lines for other processing applications.
T O D ESELECT /S ELECT T REND L INES

IN A

D ATABASE :

To access the trend lines select your database (trend_mag.gdb).
1. Click on the Line Header Cell (upper left cell).
2. Click the right mouse button and from the popup menu, select Selections and then

select Selection Tool.

282 Tutorial 16: Trend Enforcement Gridding Tool

3. The Line Selection Tool dialog box is displayed.

4. Scroll down the list and highlight R0:0 then click the [Deselect highlight] button.

The check mark beside the line is removed.
5. Repeat the previous step for R1:0 and R2:0. Click the [OK] button to continue.
6. To select lines repeat above procedure clicking the [Select highlight] button and

a check mark will be placed beside the line.

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 283

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums
Spheroids
A spheroid is an oblate ellipsoid of revolution (basically an ellipsoid) that is used to
model the surface of the earth for making maps. A spheroid is defined by an earth
radius, which is the major axis of the ellipsoid, and the flattening (f), which can also
be expressed as the eccentricity (e) or ellipticity (l).

l = 1/f
e = sqrt((2/l) - 1/(l*l))
e = sqrt(2f - f*f )
In the past, as cartographers created maps of different parts of the earth, spheroids
were chosen to best approximate the shape of the earth in the region of the map. This
led to a number of different spheroids or ellipsoids (such as Clarke 1866, Hayford
1910, etc.) that are in common use for different parts of the world.
In some cases, maps of a particular region of the earth have been created with
different spheroids and it is necessary to convert coordinates from one spheroid to
another. This only works if both spheroids share the same earth centre, which they
normally will for older maps. This is because map survey work has normally used
gravity as the reference for the earth centre, and maps of the same area will clearly
have used the same gravity field.
Datums
The problem with using spheroids alone to define an earth model becomes apparent
when working with satellite locations from GPS receivers. GPS systems commonly
base locations on a spheroid known as World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984),
which naturally places the centre of the earth at the true centre of gravity.
Unfortunately, this differs from the earth centre that has been used for most local
maps of the world because these maps use an assumed earth centre based on the local
gravity field, which is perpendicular to the geoid at that location.
To account for this we need a datum. A datum includes a spheroid and an earth centre
offset from WGS 1984. Some datums may also include a rotation of the minor axis of
the spheroid relative to WGS 1984. Datums for various countries and regions of the
world have been compiled and defined in the MAPPROJ.DTM file.
W HAT

DOES THIS MEAN ?

What this means is that longitude/latitude in one datum is not necessarily the same as
in another datum (there may be an offset and rotation). Before the earth centre was
introduced, all we needed was a spheroid (ie. Hayford 1910). This worked fine for
projections within the same country or region of the earth because the earth centre
was the same. Note that Hayford 1910 is not a datum, it is a spheroid. If the spheroid

284 Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

alone is specified, an earth offset (X,Y,Z) of (0,0,0) with no rotation (see
MAPPROJ.DTM) is required.
Working with spheroids and datums
A common mistake that is made when using projections in Oasis montaj is to mix
projections based on a spheroid with projections that use a datum. For example, you
may be in South America and you have data that is defined as using the Hayford 1910
spheroid, and you wish to convert this to a local map datum, say the Brazil Corrego
Alegre datum, which is based on the International 1924 spheroid with an earth centre
offset of (206,-172,6). In this case, your input projection datum should be HAYF1910
(Hayford 1910), and your output projection datum should be INT1924 (International
1924), NOT 55INT924 (Brazil Corrego Allegre). This is because you only know the
spheroid of the input, not the full datum, so you must only use the spheroid of the
output system and assume that both coordinates use the same earth centre, which is
usually the case.
The only exception is when dealing with GPS locations based on WGS 1984 as the
input coordinate. Here, you in fact do know the full datum of the input because all
WGS 1984 has a (0,0,0) offset. In this case, specify the input projection as WGS1984
and the output projection as 55INT924.

Understanding local datums
Local datum transforms are used to convert coordinates between different map
datums. For example, a local datum transform is required to convert longitude,
latitude coordinates on the WGS 84 datum to longitude, latitude coordinates on the
NAD27 (North American Datum 1927). The difference in location that arises
between map datums can be up to several hundred metres.
The key to understanding local datum transforms is an understanding of the geoid and
its relationship to a Datum. A geoid is the actual shape of the earth at mean sea level,
which is everywhere normal due to the earth’s gravitational force. Because of local
and regional variations in the earth’s gravity field, the geoid is not a perfect
mathematical form, but rather it has local variations. These variations are illustrated
in the following diagram (from Verhoogan, John, Francis J. Turner, Lionel E. Weiss,
Clyde Wahrhaftig, William S. Fyfe (1970), The Earth, Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
Inc., New York.):

topographic surface
geoid
ellipsoid

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 285

To make maps, an ellipsoid is used to approximate the geoid for a specific region of
the world. An ellipsoid is an ellipse rotated about its shorter axis (also called an
oblate spheroid), which is what the geoid would be if the mass of the earth were
uniformly distributed. A datum is the earth model that is used to map a specific
region of the world. A datum includes an ellipsoid (described by the major axis and
flattening), the prime meridian (location of 0 longitude, normally Greenwich
England), and a tie point, which is the location on the earth at which the ellipsoid and
the geoid are the same for the region that the Datum is used. The ellipsoid and tie
point have been chosen so that the differences between the surface of the ellipsoid
and the geoid are minimised. Most common mapping operations within the same
datum are only concerned with the ellipsoid, which is why an ellipsoid name is often
used interchangeably with a datum name.
With the advent of satellites and later the Global Positioning System, it became
necessary to define datums tied to the gravitational centre of the earth (as opposed to
being tied to a location on the earth’s surface). Such datums are called geocentric, and
the most common example is WGS 84. Most of the difference between an earth
surface ties datum and a geocentric datum can be described by a shift in the location
of the centre of the ellipsoid (the assumed earth centre). However, there can also be a
small rotation difference caused by differences in the direction of North, and a scale
factor caused by differences between the elevation of the tie point and mean sea level.
In addition, local perturbations of the geoid that result from local gravity variations
within a Datum will produce additional “residual” differences.
To convert between datums requires knowledge about all aspects of both datums (the
ellipsoids, prime meridians and the local perturbations of the Geoid). There are a
number of methods used to transform coordinates between datums (see
http://www.petroconsultants.com/products/geodetic2.html), although in practice, the
following two methods supported in Oasis montaj are the most commonly used:
Method 1
The most familiar method is to perform an earth centre shift, rotation and scale,
commonly referred to as the Bursa Wolf 7-parameter transform (parameters are
X,Y,Z offsets, X,Y,Z rotations and a scale factor). The Molodenski transform is a
simplification that deals with three parameters only (X,Y,Z offsets). These transforms
are only close approximations to the true perturbations, and datums that cover a large
region often require a number of different "local" definitions (for example, NAD27
has at least 6 different transforms to WGS 84).
The Bursa Wolf transform is supported in Oasis montaj. Parameters of the transform
are listed in the file “datumtrf.csv” for different local datums, and the file
“ldatum.csv” contains a reference list based on the common area of use for each
datum transform.

286 Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

Method 2
Some national mapping agencies have carefully measured accurate “residual”
differences across a Datum. This is done by measuring the differences between local
map coordinates and WGS 84 at numerous locations. Such differences are described
by “correction "grids”, which contain longitude, latitude and elevation shifts as a
function of location. Examples are NADCON in the US and NTv2 in Canada, both of
which are supported in Oasis montaj (NTv2 in Oasis Montaj is a 20 minute
approximation of the full NTv2 transform). Note that NADCON and NTv2 are not
accurately defined for offshore areas and should not be used for offshore mapping
purposes.
In Oasis montaj, the residual grids are stored as compressed look-up tables in files
with extension “.ll2” in the Oasis montaj/etc directory. The name of the table is
found in the square brackets that are part of the local datum transform name. For
example, the lookup tables used for local datum transform “*NAD27 NTv2 (20 min)
[NTv2]” are found in the file “NTv2.ll2”.
Note that Bursa Wolf transforms are very much faster than NADCON or NTv2, and
will normally be accurate to the sub-metre level for local regions. In future, as more
correction grid models are defined, they will be added to the model list.

Choosing a local datum transform
A local datum transform is used to convert coordinates between different datums. The
most common example of this is the conversion of GPS locations on the WGS-84
datum to a local map datum. The list below shows the options for the Choose local
datum transform dialog box.
Datum

The currently selected datum name is displayed for your
information. You must go back to the previous dialog to change
the datum.

Local datum
transform

Select a local datum transform name from the list. Normally, the
list will only include known local datum(s) for the Datum
specified. If there are no local datum for the datum specified, all
datums will be available in the list and the default transform will
be “<unknown>”. If you do not know the local datum transform
to use, or if you will always be working the same datum, you will
want to select the <unknown> option in this box. When this
option is applied, no local transform is used.

[List All]

If the specified datum has a set of known local datum transforms,
these will appear in the list by default. However, if you have
chosen the wrong datum, and you know the local datum
transform, you may choose to list all known local datum
transforms.

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 287

Local datum CSV files
Local datum transforms are listed in the files “ldatum.csv”, which is the list used by
this dialog. The local datum EPSG/POSC 1 name is referenced in the “Datum_trf”
column of this file, and the “datumtrf.csv” file contains the actual local datum
transform parameters. If you add your own custom local datum, it must be added to
both files.
Each local datum transform has an associated Datum (such as NAD27). If you choose
a local datum transform that is for a datum different from the one selected previously,
the datum will be changed. This is allowed, but under normal circumstances it means
that there is probably something wrong about the coordinate system you are using.
Changing the datum should therefore only be done with caution and an understanding
of datum issues.
Adding your own local datum transform
You cannot add lookup-based local datum transforms. You can add your own 7parameter local datum transforms to the datum tables. For example, perhaps we want
to define a special version of the “Luzon 1911” datum that we have used which is
part of the Philippines.
T O A DD

A

L OCAL D ATUM T RANSFORM :

1. To add this datum, you need to modify two CSV files in the Geosoft directory

using the following information:
EPSG datum name

The name of the datum on which the local transform is
based. This should be an accepted EPSG name, one of the
datum names listed in the table “datum.csv”. In this case,
the datum is “Luzon 1911”.

Transform name

Choose a name that describes the datum. Since your name
is not an EPSG name, you must start the name with a “*”
character. For example, “*Luzon special”.

Area of use

Describe the area of use so that the transform can be chosen
based on the area. For example, “[Luzon 1911] Philippines
-special”. By convention, we include the datum name in
square brackets at the beginning of each area of use
description.

dX,dY,dZ

Translation vector in metres to be added to a geocentric
Cartesian coordinate point in the projection to produce
WGS 84 geocentric Cartesian coordinates. For example, “130,-77,-50”. Note that the sign convention is important,
and Geosoft conforms to EPSG convention as described

1

EPSG (European Petroleum Survey Group) / POSC (Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation).

288 Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

here. The inverse sign convention is also in common use
elsewhere.
rX,rY,rZ

Rotations in arc-seconds (degrees/3600) to be added to a
geocentric Cartesian coordinate point vector in the
projection to produce a WGS 84 geocentric Cartesian
coordinate vector. The sign convention is such that a
positive rotation about an axis is defined as a clockwise
rotation of the position vector when viewed from the
positive direction of the axis. A positive rotation about the
Z axis (Rz) will result in a larger longitude. Most transforms
(all Molodenski based projections) will use “0,0,0”.

Scale

The scale correction to be multiplied by the geocentric
Cartesian coordinate in the map projection to obtain the
correct scale in WGS 84 coordinates. This scale is
expressed in ppm so that the actual scale is (1 +
scale/1,000,000). For example, “0.225”.

2. Once you have gathered this information, edit the file “datumtrf.csv” (this can be

edited in Excel or in a text editor). The first line of the file contains the column
header that describes each data field as follows:
DATUM_TRF,CODE,MAPINFO,AREA_OF_USE,DATUM,TARGET,DX,DY,DZ,RX,RY,RZ,SCALE

For the transform described in the example above, the line would be:
“*Luzon special”,,,"[Luzon 1911] Philippines - special","Luzon 1911","WGS 84",-130,-77,50,0,0,0,0.225

The “CODE” and “MAPINFO” columns are used to reference the EPSG code and
MapInfo code when exporting data to these systems. In this case, these codes are not
known and are left blank. Unknown MapInfo codes can also be set to “0”. The
“WGS84” is specified as the “TARGET” since these transform parameters are
relative to WGS84 (by far the most commonly used geocentric datum).
3. Now edit the “ldatum.csv” file and add an entry so that the transform will be

visible to the user in the projection wizard dialogue screens. This table contains
the following columns:
AREA_OF_USE,DATUM,DATUM_TRF

The new entry would be:
"[Luzon 1911] Philippines – special ","Luzon 1911","“*Luzon special"

The DATUM_TRF in this file must match exactly the DATUM_TRF column in the
“datumtrf.csv ” file.

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 289

Oasis montaj projection files and reference tables
This section is for users who want to develop their own projections or know the
details of the projection methods used in Oasis montaj. The section contains
information on the various files used by Oasis montaj for projections.
GI projection files (*.gi)
Map views and databases have the projection information imbedded in the file.
Oasis montaj stores all the projection information for a particular grid file (.grd) in a
GI (.gi) file. For example, the grid file mag.grd, would have an associated projection
file named mag.grd.gi.
Important!

When copying a grid file to another directory, you must copy any
existing (grd.gi) files associated with the data file in order to
maintain the projection information for the grid.

Projection table files
Oasis montaj 5.1 uses CSV files as lookup tables for projection information. These
reference files are described in the list below:
Reference Files

Description

ipj_pcs.csv

List of all known projected coordinate systems, provides the
Transform and the Datum lookup names

transform.csv

List of known transforms of the world, and their parameters

datum.csv

List of known datums of the world, provides central meridian
and the ellipsoid lookup

ellipsoid.csv

All known ellipsoids of the world and their parameters

datumtrf.csv

All known local datums, provides Datum lookup and the local
datum transform parameters

ldatum.csv

A listing of local datums by area of use. This table is only
used by the Projection Wizard

All names in the tables are POSC (Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation)
compliant, unless they begin with an *. The asterix usually signifies that the
projection is a custom projection.

290 Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

Projection name tables
The following tables are used to define a common set of key parameters for
projections and units used in GXF. The first column of each table is a key name,
which is unique within each table. Key names that are not POSC compliant start with
an (asterisk) character.
Table 1: Projection transformation methods
This table identifies all defined projection transformation methods. The parameters
are listed in the order required in the #MAP_PROJECTION data object.
This table was compiled using EPSG (as of 2000/12/28)) as data sources. The order
of parameters is based on the enumerated parameter order specified in the EPSG table
"TRF_METHOD", with unused parameters omitted. Should EPSG add new methods
in the future, GXF support for those methods implied, and order of required
parameters will be as defined by EPSG.
EPSG "Transverse Mercator (South Orientated)" is the same as POSC "Transverse
Mercator (South Oriented)", which corrects the spelling of "Oriented".
P ARAMETER N OTES :





All distance references must be specified in metres.
All geographic references (latitudes and longitudes) are specified in degrees.
Longitudes in the Western hemisphere are negative.
Latitudes in the Southern hemisphere are negative.
Longitudes are relative to the prime meridian of the datum
Projection method

Required parameters

Geographic

No parameters. This indicates that coordinates are
longitudes and latitudes.

Hotine Oblique Mercator

Latitude of projection centre
Longitude of projection centre
Azimuth of initial line
Angle from Rectified to Skew Grid
Scale factor on initial line
False Easting
False Northing

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 291

Laborde Oblique Mercator

Latitude of projection centre
Longitude of projection centre
Azimuth of initial line
Scale factor on initial line
False Easting
False Northing

Lambert Conic Conformal
(1SP)

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Lambert Conic Conformal
(2SP)

Latitude of first standard parallel
Latitude of second standard parallel
Latitude of false origin
Longitude of false origin
Easting at false origin
Northing at false origin

Lambert Conformal (2SP
Belgium)

Latitude of first standard parallel
Latitude of second standard parallel
Latitude of false origin
Longitude of false origin
Easting at false origin
Northing at false origin

Mercator (1SP)

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Mercator (2SP)

Latitude of first standard parallel
Longitude of natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

292 Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums

New Zealand Map Grid

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Oblique Stereographic

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Polar Stereographic

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Swiss Oblique Cylindrical

Latitude of projection centre
Longitude of projection centre
Easting at projection centre
Northing at projection centre

Transverse Mercator

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Transverse Mercator (South
Oriented)

Latitude of natural origin
Longitude of natural origin
Scale factor at natural origin
False Easting
False Northing

Equidistant Conic

Latitude of first standard parallel
Latitude of second standard parallel
Latitude of false origin
Longitude of false origin
Easting at false origin
Northing at false origin

Appendix 1: Understanding Spheroids and Datums 293

Latitude of false origin

Polyconic

Longitude of false origin
Scale factor at natural origin
Easting at false origin
Northing at false origin

Table 2: Length units
The following table is compiled from the UNIT_OF_LENGTH table in the EPSG
tables. The unit names are the abbreviations defined in POSC. This table is for
convenient reference only, and the EPSG table is considered the primary reference.
Unit

Description

Factor to metres

m

metre

1.0

ft

foot

0.3048

ftUS

US survey foot

0.3048006096012

ftMA

modified American foot

0.3048122529845

ftCla

Clarke's foot

0.3047972651151

ftInd

Indian foot (Clarke)

0.3047995102481

ftSe

foot (Sears)

0.3047994715387

lkCla

link (Clarke)

0.201166194976

lkBen

link (Benoit)

0.2011678249438

lkSe

link (Sears)

0.2011676512155

chBen

chain (Benoit)

20.1167824943759

chSe

chain (Sears)

20.1167651215526

ydSe

yard (Sears)

0.914398414616

ydInd

Indian yard

0.9143985539701

fathom

Fathom

1.8288

nautmi

nautical mile

1852.0

mGer

German legal metre

1.0000135965

dega

Degrees (angular)

n/a

294 Appendix 2: Geosoft Line and Pattern Styles

Appendix 2: Geosoft Line and Pattern Styles
Geosoft provides a number of Line and Pattern Styles for use in Oasis montaj. The
following table displays the “Family” name of each Line and Pattern Style and some
examples. The following five pages include all of the available Line and Pattern
Styles that are currently available in Oasis montaj and can be printed and used as a
reference.
L INE S TYLES
Family Name

Examples

P ATTERN S TYLES
Family Name

Standard

Solid fill

Fancy

Objects

Geology

Hatches

Arrows

Geology

Slashes

Shapes

Example
Solid Orange

STANDARD PATTERNS
Solid Line

Long Dash

Dotted
Short Dash

Long, Short Dash
Dash Dot

Pattern #7

Pattern #8

Very Short Dash

Pattern #10

Double Line
Bold Dots

Dots - 2
Pattern #148

Pickets Dash Down - 4

FANCY LINES

Equals

Railroad Dash - 4

Railroad Dash -2

Railroad - Dash

Railroad - 4

Railroad - 2

Railroad

Pattern #150

Pattern #149

Pickets Dash Up - 4

Pickets Dash Up - 2

Pickets Dash Up

Pickets Up - 4

Pickets Up - 2

Pickets Up

Pattern #130

Pattern #129

Pattern #128

Bold Dots - 2

Sidewalk #1

Sidewalk #2

Sidewalk #3
Stripe #1

Stripe #2

Stripe #3

Ecks
Ecks - 2

Ecks - 4

Ecks Line

Pattern #11

Pattern #12

Pattern #138
Pattern #139

Ecks Line - 2
Ecks Line - 4

Pattern #13

Pattern #14

Pattern #140
Pickets Down

Ecks Dash
Ecks Dash - 2

Pickets Down - 2

Pickets Down - 4

Ecks Dash - 4
Ecks Dotted

Pickets Dash Down
Pickets Dash Down - 2

Ecks Dotted - 2
Dots

SLASHES

Forward Slash

Forward Slash #2

Forward Slash - Line Down

Forward Slash - Line Up

Forward Slash - Line #2 Down

Forward Slash - Line #2 Up

Backward Slash

Backward Slash #2

Backward Slash - Line Down

Backward Slash - Line Up

Backward Slash - Line #2 Down

Backward Slash - Line #2 Up

Hash

Pattern #501

Pattern #502
Pattern #503

Arrow Forward

Arrow Forward - 2

Arrow Forward - 4

Pattern #507

Dashed Arrow Forward

Dashed Arrow Forward - 2

Dashed Arrow Forward - 4

Pattern #511

Pattern #512

Pattern #513

Arrow Backward

Arrow Backward - 2

Arrow Backward - 4

Pattern #517

ARROWS

Dashed Arrow Backward

Dashed Arrow Backward - 2

Dashed Arrow Backward - 4

Arrows Up

Arrows Up - 2

Arrows Down

Arrows Down - 2

Pattern #525

Pattern #526

Pattern #527

Arrows Line Up

Arrows Line Up - 2

Arrows Line Up - 4

Arrows Dash Up

Arrows Dash Up - 2

Arrows Dash Up - 4

Pattern #535

Pattern #536

Pattern #537

Arrows Line Down

Arrows Line Down - 2

Arrows Line Down - 4

Arrows Dash Down

Arrows Dash Down - 2

Arrows Dash Down - 4

SHAPES

Empty Triangles Down - 2

Empty Triangles Down

Filled Circles #2

Filled Star of David

Filled Circles

Empty Circles

Empty Star of David

Filled Star of David - 2

Filled Diamonds

Empty Star of David - 2

Empty Circles #2

Filled Diamonds #2

Empty Diamonds #2

Empty Star

Filled Star - 2

Filled Star

Filled Triangles Up

Empty Star - 2

Empty Diamonds

Filled Triangles Up - 2

Filled Square

Empty Square - 2

Empty Square

Filled Square - 2

Filled Triangles Down

Filled Triangles Down - 2

Empty Triangles Up

Empty Triangles Up - 2

Fault

Shear

Pattern #203

Right Fault Line

Pattern #205

Right Fault Line - 2

Pattern #207

Right Fault Line 4
Pattern #209

Right Fault

Pattern #211

Right Fault 2

Pattern #213

Thrust Dash

Line Thrust - 2

Line Thrust

Geosoft GEOLOGY Linestyles - SHEET 1 of 2

Thrust Dash 2

Left Fault Line 2

Pattern #219

Pattern #270

Half Circle Line

Half Circle Line - 2

Half Circle Line - 4

Half Circle Dash

Half Circle Dash - 2

Half Circle Dash - 4

Half Empty Circle - 2

Half Empty Circle
Pattern #259

Pattern #280

Empty Half Circle Line - 2

Empty Half Circle Line

Line Thrust Down - 2

Half Circle Down - 2

Half Circle Down

Empty Half Circle Dash - 4

Empty Half Circle Dash - 2

Empty Half Circle Dash

Empty Half Circle Line - 4

Half Circle - 2

Half Circle

Dash Thrust Down - 4

Dash Thrust Down - 2

Dash Thrust Down

Line Thrust Down - 4

Line Thrust Down

Pattern #260

Pattern #258

Dash Thrust - 4

Dash Thrust - 2

Dash Thrust

Line Thrust - 4

Thrust Dash 4

Pattern #250

Pattern #249

Pattern #248

Thrust Dash Down - 4

Thrust Dash Down - 2

Thrust Dash Down

Thrust Line Down - 4

Thrust Line Down - 2

Thrust Line Down

Pattern #240

Thrust Down - 2

Thrust Down

Left Fault Line 4

Pattern #221

Left Fault

Pattern #223

Left Fault 2

Pattern #225

Left Fault 4

Clastic Shear

Thrust

Thrust 2

Pattern #230
Thrust Line

Right Fault 4

Pattern #215

Thrust Line 2

Thrust Line 4

Left Fault Line

Pattern #217

Pattern #290

Geosoft GEOLOGY Linestyles - SHEET 2 of 2

Empty Circle Dash

Empty Circle Dash - 2

Filled Circle

Filled Circle - 2

Pattern #328

Half Circle Down Line

Filled Circle - 4

Dip Dash Down

Dip Dash Down - 2

Dip Dash Down - 4

Anticline - 4

Anticline Dash

Anticline Dash - 2

Pattern #348

Pattern #368

Half Circle Down Line - 2

Pattern #329

Pattern #349

Dip Dash Up

Dip Line Up - 4

Dip Line Up - 2

Stitch Dash

Stitch - 4

Stitch - 2

Stitch

Filled Circle Dash - 4

Anticline Dash - 4

Pattern #330

Dip Dash Up - 2

Stitch Dash - 2

Dip Line Up

Empty Circle

Dip Dash Up - 4

Stitch Dash - 4

Pattern #359

Pattern #360

Anticline

Anticline - 2

Syncline Dash - 4

Syncline Dash - 2

Syncline Dash

Syncline - 4

Syncline - 2

Syncline

Pattern #370

Pattern #369

Filled Circle Line

Filled Circle Line - 2

Filled Circle Line - 4

Empty Circle - 2

Pattern #338

Filled Circle Dash - 2

Pattern #320

Dip Line Down

Dip Line Down - 2

Pattern #358
Pattern #339

Empty Circle Line

Empty Circle Line - 2

Empty Circle Line - 4

Pattern #340

Pattern #321

Filled Circle Dash

Pattern #350

Half Circle Down Line - 4

Half Circle Down Dash

Half Circle Down Dash - 2

Half Circle Down Dash - 4

Empty Half Circle Down

Empty Half Circle Down - 2

Pattern #300

Empty Half Circle Down Line

Empty Half Circle Down Line - 2

Empty Half Circle Down Line - 4

Empty Half Circle Down Dash

Empty Half Circle Down Dash - 2

Empty Half Circle Down Dash - 4

Dip Line Down - 4

GEOSOFT FILL PATTERNS

Horizontal Lines

HATCH
Alluvium

Vertical Lines

Half Diagonal Right

GEOLOGY

Schist

Diagonal Right

Half Diagonal Left

Horizontal Half

Random Conglomerate

Tuff

Diagonal Left

Conglomerate

Clastic 1

Igneous

Staggered Lines

Bricks

Vertical Half

Clastic 2

Siltstone

Cross Hatch

Clastic 3

Dolomite

Diagonal Cross Hatch

Diagonal Basket Weave

Basket Weave

Chert

Volcanic 1

Volcanic 2

Mudstone

Diamond

Volcanic 3

Hexagonal Triangles

OBJECTS
Dots

Random Triangles

Plus

Hexagonal Dots

Random Dots

Diagonal Plus

X'es

Dashes

Boxes

Random Plus

Random Circle

Circle

Diagonal Boxes

Random Boxes

Triangles

300 Glossary

Glossary
array channels

channels
column
database
datum

desktop

Special channels in columns of the spreadsheet that contain multiple channels
of data. Array channels are represented graphically by a curve in the
spreadsheet. See also channels, sub-array channels.
In the Oasis montaj spreadsheet, a channel is essentially a column that
contains a specific type of data.
In the Oasis montaj spreadsheet, a vertical line of cells that contain data.
See Oasis database
A reference value to which other measurements are referred. Also, an arbitrary
reference level to which measurements are corrected. For example, a datum for
elevation would be sea level.
Background area in the Oasis montaj project. You can open and display a
virtually unlimited number of Spreadsheet, Profile and Map windows in this
area.

ellipsoid

A solid figure (shaped like an egg or oval) for which every cross-section is an
ellipse.

fiducials

Points accepted as fixed bases of reference. Marks indicating the order in
which each reading or sample reading was taken.

Graphical User Interface

Interactive software environment where functions are performed by selecting
graphic objects.

grid

Collection of points along rows and columns that define a two-dimensional
rectangular area on some plan, usually a ground plan.

Grids or Grid file

groups

GX or Geosoft eXecutable
images or image file

line
local datum transform
main window

Files containing location (X and Y) and data (Z) values. Values are typically
interpolated to create a regular and smoothly sampled representation of the
locations and data.
A set of graphics elements that make up a graphic component of the map. For
example, a line path plot, a contour plot or a profile plot would all be separate
graphics groups within the Data View.
Programmed process (identified by the *.GX file extension) used to process
data in Oasis montaj.
Files containing location (X and Y) and Colour values. The values are not
interpolated. Standard PC file types created using imaging or electronic photoediting techniques.
Linear array of observation points.
A datum adjusted for use in a specific location on the earth. Earth centre
offset, rotation, scale factor relative to WGS 84.
Primary tool used to create and maintain databases, display data and process
data. Oasis montaj is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) system that provides
all functionality required to process and display virtually any type of Earth
Science data.

Glossary 301

Map (*.MAP)

map description file (*.MDF)

menu (*.OMN)
Oasis database

Oasis montaj

Project (*.GPF)

Projection Method

random xyz data

row
spheroid
sub-array channels
template
view

Geosoft-developed file that integrates all graphics elements (lines, polygons
and text) and layers (base maps, data, grids, plots and images) constructed in
Oasis montaj.
File used when making a standard map that has a sheet size and margins inside
which there is a map area with a specified origin and scale. Usually, MDF files
are created with the MAPSET GX. MDF files may also be created manually
by editing an ASCII file with extension .MDF.
Graphical list of commands or functions that a user may choose from.
Object-oriented database that stores Earth Science data in a form that delivers
fast access to data and efficient storage required for applications that deal with
very large volumes of data.
Oasis montaj is the core software platform that provides all functionality
required to manage, manipulate, visualize and map spatially located Earth
Science data.
Binary file that defines a desktop environment. It is essentially an
“electronic briefcase” that helps organise data and the activities related to
a data processing project.
The mathematical algorithm used to transform points on a spheroid to their
relative locations on a flat surface (i.e. Transverse Mercator, Lambert
Conformal).
Located XYZ data that cannot be grouped naturally into separate lines. For
example, regional gravity surveys or geochemical surveys are commonly
considered random data because the locations appear somewhat random in
nature.
In the Oasis montaj spreadsheet, a horizontal line of cells that contain data.
A spheroid is an oblate ellipsoid of revolution (basically an ellipsoid) that is
used to model the surface of the earth for the purpose of making maps.
Individual channels of data from an array channel.
A file used to manage data in a particular format.
Stored snapshot of the screen settings, current line, displayed channels and
displayed profiles in Oasis montaj.

302 Index

Index
grids, 119


*. See dummy values
**. See column width


3D
Mapping, 262
Tool, 262
Viewer, 262
Voxel, 260
3-D shading, 153


-9999. See dummy values


Access. See Microsoft Access
accessing
online help system, 3
technical support, 3
Acrobat PDF, 3
activating
Image Colour Tool, 155
adding
contours to maps, 119
database comments, 236
printer configuration, 242
advanced
gridding, 173
mapping, 173
AGG. See Geosoft aggregate file
aggregate, 128
applying
formulas, 176
mask to a view, 135
ArcGIS
MXD file, 38
ArcView
Shapefile, 238
TIFF, 238
array channels, 307
ASCII
comma delimited, 81
importing. See Microsoft Access
ASCII files
comma delimited, 81
editing, 162
attributes
polygon, 143
Authorize
Internet, 272
AutoCAD DXF, 238
Auto-Recolour


base map
control file, 161
surround, 97, 99
base maps
creating, 95
custom, 161
figure style, 95
map style, 97
base view, 19, 127, 128
basic statistics, 58
batch
printing, 245
processing, 167
bi-directional gridding, 108, 190
Bigrid Control File, 113
control file, 114
BIGRID GX, 108
control file, 114
dialog controls, 113
bitmap, 150, 238
Bookmark
Snapshot, 121
bucket, 145


CAD tools, 125
calculating
basic statistics, 58
variogram, 193
cells
channel header, 48
data, 48
CGM Plot, 238
changes
discard, 75
saving database, 75
changing
default settings, 31
line attributes, 138
Channel
Master sample, 74
channel header cell, 48, 56, 59
channels, 307
array, 307
deleting, 65
editing, 66
listing, 56
protecting, 62
removing, 56
spreadsheet, 16
statistics, 58
type, 83
unprotecting, 62

Index 303
working, 63
clipboard
bitmap, 150
copying maps to, 150
creating montage maps, 149
EMF, 150
exporting graphics, 151
overview, 148
paste georeferenced, 149
pasting, 150
properties, 148
closing
project, 41, 123, 151
colour
interactive shading, 157
palette, 155
percentile groups, 157
polygon fill, 143
polygons, 145
shaded images, 153
spectrum, 157
zones, 155
colour bars
plotting, 178
colour imaging
interactive, 155
Colour Shading Tool, 157
colour tables
for gridding, 117
coloured symbols
plotting proportional size, 180
plotting simple, 179
column, 307
delimiters, 83
removing, 56
width, 57
Comma separated value
exporting, 81
importing, 81
comment header, 240
comments
database, 236
compression
database, 48
Computer Aided Drafting. See CAD
computer ID
eLicensing, 27
conditional expressions, 67
configuration
printing, 241
configure
printer and page, 241
configuring
settings, 31
contouring
methods, 120
Contouring
Voxel Isosurface, 261
contours
plotting, 119
control file

base map, 161
Bigrid, 114
for contouring, 120
MAPPLOT GX, 161
copying
from Powerpoint, 150
from Word, 150
georeferenced information, 149
maps to clipboard, 150
tutorial files, 39
creating
base maps, 95, 97
channels, 64
database, 47, 173
lines from polygons, 140
map groups, 131
montage maps, 149
new channel, 63
new maps, 89
project, 39, 125
scripts, 167
working channels, 63
working directory, 39
CSV. See Comma separated value
custom
base maps, 161


DAP
Dapple, 267
data, 267
download, 267
metadata, 267
Metadata Browser, 267
Dapple
Data, 267
Internet, 267
data
cells, 48
comma delimited, 82
correlation, 193
displaying, 56
dynamic data links, 158
geochemical, 111, 173
gridding, 108, 197
gridding random, 110
importing, 53, 80, 173
importing for kriging, 192
interpolating, 70
plotting, 198
plotting profiles, 100
processing, 58, 176
range to map, 90
selecting, 88
semivariance, 192
spikes, 67
statistical, 111
Data
Dapple, 267
data channel, 181

304 Index
Data Import Wizard, 82, 83
data values, 178
posting on map, 179
data view, 19, 127
database, 307
adding comments, 236
applying formulas, 176
channels, 48
compression, 48
creating, 47
creating second, 173
details, 235
drag-n-drop, 55, 85
editing, 66
exporting, 78
fields, 48
Geosoft, 14
groups, 48
importing data, 53
indivdual table, 78
lines, 48, 56
maintenance utilities, 235
Oasis, 14
proprietary, 14
relational, 14
saving changes, 56
single table, 78
size, 48
size limits, 236
database elements, 236
databases
creating, 80
defragmenting, 236
discard changes, 75
growing, 236
importing, 80
importing tables, 80
packing. See defragmenting
repairing, 236
saving changes, 75
verifying, 236
datum, 307
Dbase, 77
default
colour table, 32
error level reporting, 34
grid element type, 33
grid input fromat, 33
grid output fromat, 33
image cache, 34
map font, 32
menus, 32, 42
printing memory, 34
settings, 31
symbol font, 32
Default settings
SETTINGS GX, 31
default.i0, 55, 175
define x,y projections, 207
defining projection, 207
defragmenting

database, 236
deleting
channels, 65
delimited
comma, 82
desktop, 307
details
database, 235
dialog controls
Bigrid, 113
discard changes, 75
disk cache
images, 34
disk space, 236
displaying
grids, 117
interpretation map, 126
profile, 60
spreadsheet data, 56
drag-n-drop
database, 85
grid, 119
xyz, 55
drawing
base map, 95
map groups, 127
polylines, 136
symbols, 179
dummy values, 55
including in export, 240
interpolating, 70
DXF AutoCAD, 238
dynamic
data links, 158
linking, 153
links, 7, 20, 22
process link, 24


edge
symbol colour, 178
editing
ASCII files, 162
channels, 66
groups, 128, 131
legend boxes, 142
maps, 125
polygons, 142
scripts, 169
eLicense
Park, 29
Transfer, 30
Update, 31
eLicenses
Lock/Unlock, 31
Upgrade, 29
eLicensing, 27
Licensing management system, 27
ellipsoid, 307
Encapsulated Post Script, 238

Index 305
Enhanced Metafile, 238
Enhanced Windows Metafile, 148, 150
equal zoning, 155
ER Mapper ECW Compressor, 238
ER Mapper RGB, 238
error level reporting
default, 34
Excel. See Microsoft Excel
Explorer tools
Tools, 9
export formats, 77
exporting
graphics, 151
individual tables, 78
maps, 238
Microsoft Access, 78
single table, 78
to CSV file, 81
to database applications, 239
to GIS applications, 239
to spreadsheet applications, 239
expressions
conditional, 67
eyedropper, 145


fiducial, 66
fiducials, 307
figure style
base maps, 95
file types
.AGG, 38, 178
.CSV, 81
.EMF, 148, 150
.GDB, 38
.GI, 39
.GM, 39
.GPF, 38
.GRD, 38
.GS, 38, 167
.GX, 38
.ITR, 178
.MAP, 38
.MDB, 80
.MDG. See Microsoft Access
.MXD, 38
.OMN, 38
.SMN, 38
.TBL, 178
.XML, 38
.ZON, 178
ASCII. See Microsoft Access
files
for tutorial, 39
fill
patterns, 143
symbol colour, 178
filling
polygons, 145
filling gaps

using interpolation, 70
flight lines
plotting, 100
formulas
applying to database, 176
FoxPro, 77
full map, 105, 239


gaps
filling, 70
Gaussian value, 193
gdb
drag-n-drop, 85
GDB. See Geosoft database file
geochemical data, 111, 173
gridding, 190
georeference
connections, 158
georeferenced objects
pasting, 149
Geosoft
aggregate file, 38, 178
colour zone file, 178
database file, 38
grid file, 38
image transform file, 178
map file, 38, 39
menu file, 38
project file, 38, 40
projection file, 39
Script file, 38
sub-menu file, 38
table file, 178
XML file, 38
XYZ files, 53
Geosoft Colour Grid, 238
Geosoft eXecutables, 38, 307
description, 23
Geosoft plot file, 238
Geosoft projections, 206
Geosoft script files. See scripts
GeoTIFF, 238
Get Colour tool, 145
GI. See Geosoft projection file
GM. See Geosoft map file
GPF. See Geosoft project file
Graphical User Interface, 307
graphics
exporting, 151
high-resolution, 31
grd
drag-n-drop, 119
GRD. See Geosoft Grid file
grid, 307
creating new, 115
drag-n-drop, 119
grid element type
default, 33
grid file. See Geosoft Grid file

306 Index
grid image
exporting, 151
grid input format
default, 33
grid output format
default, 33
grid projection, 218
gridding, 87
advanced, 173
bi-directional, 108, 190
data, 108, 197
description, 108
dialog, 113
dialog controls, 114
displaying grids on maps, 117
kriging, 190
krigrid, 110
minimum curvature, 109, 188
random, 190
random data, 188
tinning, 191
trend-enforced, 112
using colour tables, 117
Gridding
Voxel, 260
grids, 307
colour shaded, 153
contouring, 119
displaying, 117
Grids
recolour, 119
groups, 307
copying, 149
creating new, 131
definition, 19
editing, 128, 131
hiding, 133
in maps, 19
in spreadsheet, 16
masking, 134, 135
moving, 133
on map, 127
pasting georeferenced, 149
selecting, 128, 131
growing databases, 236
GS, 167, See Geosoft script file file
GX. See also Geosoft eXecutables
dialog box, 23
GX Developer, 23
GXs
BIGRID, 108, 113, 114
KRIGRID, 110
MAPPLOT, 161, 162, 165
RANGRID, 110, 188


header cell, 56
help
accessing online, 42, 44
hiding

groups, 133
high-resolution
graphics, 31


image cache
default, 34
Image Colour tool, 155
images
colour shaded, 153
images or image file, 307
imaging, 153
interactive colour, 155
interactive colour shading, 157
import formats, 77
import template, 55
importing
ASCII data, 77
data, 53
data for kriging, 192
database tables, 80
databases, 80
Excel data, 77
from CSV file, 81
into second database, 173
XYZ data, 173
XYZ files, 53
indentifying
linear features, 136
Install
Administrator, 28
eLicense, 27, 28
Installing
Oasis montaj, 28
interactive
colour imaging, 155
colour shading, 157
shadowing, 155
Internet
communications, 272
connectivity, 272
interpolating
data, 70
interpretation map
displaying, 126
Isosurface
3D contour, 261


JPEG, 238


kriging, 110, 190
overview, 191
krigrid
plotting data, 198
KRIGRID GX, 110

Index 307


last map view, 105
layers
moving, 128
on map, 127
legend
ternary colour, 204
legend boxes
editing, 142
legend symbols, 187
legends
plotting, 178
Line Command Toolbar, 61
line path
plotting, 100
Line Selection Tool, 89
linear features
indentifying, 136
linear zoning, 155
lines, 307
changing attributes, 138
creating polygons from, 140
database maximum, 48
non-parallel, 110
on map, 127
plotting survey, 100
polylines. See polylines
selecting, 61, 88
selecting by range, 89
snapping to, 138
linking, 153
data, 22
data points, 158
dynamic, 22
objects, 22
links
dynamic process, 24
list
channels, 56
loading
menus, 42
local datum transform, 307
log contour, 120
log10, 176


main window, 307
maintenance
database, 235
maker, 24
manuals
accessing online, 42, 44
printing, 45
map. See also maps
Map
Base view, 19
creating, 89
Data view, 19
default font, 32

description file, 308
description of, 19
full, 105
groups, 19
last view, 105
navigating, 102
object, 128
origin, 150
panning, 104
redraw, 105
shrink, 105
Snapshot, 121
surround, 127
templates, 89, 92
views, 19
zooming, 103
MAP. See maps
Map (*.MAP), 308
map projections, 205
map style
base maps, 97
Map view projection, 222
MapInfo TAB, 238
MapInfo TIFF, 238
mapping, 87
advanced, 173
selecting data for, 88
tools, 125
Mapping
3D, 262
MAPPLOT GX, 161, 162
control file, 161, 165
maps
adding contours, 119
adding grids, 117
adding profiles, 100
adding survey lines, 161
base map, 95, 161
base view, 127
batch printing, 245
clipboard, 148
creating groups, 131
data view, 127
editing, 125
exporting, 238
exporting graphics, 151
function, 127
groups, 127
interpretion, 126
linking data, 159
montage, 150
offset, 150
opening, 126
parts of, 127
pasting georeferenced, 149
pasting graphics, 151
print preview, 243
printing, 238, 241, 244
scale, 150
shaded relief, 153
mark statistics, 58

308 Index
masking
apply to view, 135
groups, 134, 135
rectangular, 134
math formula tool, 67
new channel, 64
maximum
groups, 48
lines, 48
value, 59
MDB files. See Microsoft Access
memory
printing, 34
menu, 308
menus
loading, 42
setting default, 42
Metadata
Tool, 273
viewing data, 273
Microsoft Access, 77, 79, 80
database file, 80
exporting to, 78
Microsoft Excel
exporting to, 81
importing from, 81
minimum curvature
gridding, 109, 188
interpolation method, 71
montage maps
using clipboard, 149
moving
groups, 133
multiple projections on map, 228
MXD. See ArcGIS MXD file


navigating
map, 102
new
channel, 64
database, 48, 80, 173
group, 131
project, 125
new channel, 63
normal zoning, 155
north arrow, 19, 95, 127
nugget, 195


Oasis database, 308, See database
Oasis montaj, 308
default settings, 31
integrated environment, 6
Mapping and Processing System, 4
starting, 37
Viewer, 4
oasis.omn, 42
object

maker, 24
objects
pasting georefenced, 149
ODBC. See Open Database Connectivity
offset, 150
OMN. See Geosoft menu file
online help
accessing, 3
Manuals, 42, 44
Technical notes, 42, 44
Tutorials, 42, 44
opening
maps, 126
project, 153
output format, 239


packing databases. See defragmenting
panning map, 104
Paradox, 77
parameters
variogram, 195
pasting
georeferenced groups, 149
on map, 150
patterns
copying, 145
polygon fill, 143
PCX, 238
PDF
Acrobat file, 3, 45
percentile groups
colour, 157
plotting. See printing
colour bars, 178
contours, 119
krigrid data, 198
legend symbols, 187
legends, 178
profiles, 100
proportional coloured symbols, 180
range classified symbols, 184
simple coloured symbols, 179
survey lines, 100
symbols, 178
zone coloured symbols, 182
PNG, 238
points
snapping to, 137
Polygon Fill tool, 145
polygons
creating from lines, 140
editing, 142
fill patterns, 143
polylines
drawing, 136
poster
using clipboard, 149
posting data values, 178, 179
power value, 193

Index 309
Powerpoint. See Microsoft Powerpoint
previewing printing, 243
printer drivers, 241
printing
batch, 245
configuration, 241
maps, 238, 241, 244
online tutorials, 45
options
Geosoft bands, 241
Geosoft bands and dither, 241
HP-RTL, 241
previewing, 243
setup, 241
printing memory
default, 34
processing
data, 58, 176
selecting data for, 88
using scripts, 167
processing speed, 48
profile view, 66
profile window, 18, 60
profiles, 18
displaying, 60
linking data, 159
options, 60, 72
plotting, 100
scale, 60, 72
variables, 18
project
closing, 41, 123, 151
creating, 39, 125
opening, 153
saving, 41, 123, 151
Project, 8
project coordinate, 208
Project Explorer, 8
projected long,lat, 214
projected x,y, 209
projecting data, 205
Projection datum, 205
Projection ellipsoid, 205
Projection Local Datum Transform, 205
projection method, 308
Projection method, 205
Projection spheriod, 205
Projection Warp, 228
projections, 205
Projects
*.gpf files, 9
proportional size
symbols, 178, 180
protecting
channels, 62


quick contour, 120


random
gridding, 190
random data
gridding, 188
random xyz data, 308
range classified symbols, 178, 184
range/slope, 195
RANGRID GX, 110, 188
recolour
grids, 119
recording
scripts, 167
rectangular mask, 134
redraw map, 105
relief image, 153
removing
channels, 56
rendering
map groups, 127
order, 19
repairing
databases, 236
resolution
map, 150
rows, 16, 308
running
scripts, 171


sample
interval, 16
saving
databases, 75
project, 41, 123, 151
scale bar, 19, 94, 95, 127
scaling
profile windows, 60, 72
Script file, 38
scripts, 167
creating, 167
editing, 169
recording, 167
running, 171
sample file, 169
second database, 173
selecting
current view, 149, 150, 151
data, 88
groups, 128, 131
lines, 89
variogram model, 195, 196
semivariance, 192
semi-variogram. See variogram
setini, 169
setting
default menus, 42
settings
configuring, 31

310 Index
default, 31
setup
printing, 241
shaded images, 153
shadowing
interactive, 155
show profile, 60, 66
shrink map, 105
sill, 195
size
database, 48
SMN. See Geosoft sub-menu file
Snap to line, 138
Snap to point, 137
snapping
mode, 150
Snapshot
bookmark, 121
Map, 121
spectrum
colour, 157
speed, 48
spherical model
nugget, 195
spherical value, 193
spheroid, 308
spikes
removing, 67
spreadsheet, 16
column width, 57
columns. See channels
components, 16
description, 47, 56
displaying data, 56
linking data, 159
processing data, 176
view, 16, 56
window, 16, 61, 65, 177
statistics
channel, 58
marking, 58
report, 58
saving, 59
sub-array channels, 308
survey lines
parallel, 108
plotting, 100
tie, 108
surveys
plotting lines, 100
symbol font
default, 32
symbols
colour legend bars, 178
horizontal colour legend bars, 178
legend, 178, 187
plotting, 178
proportional size, 178, 180
range classified, 178, 184
zone coloured, 178, 182


template, 308
map layout, 92
xyz import, 55
ternary colour legend, 204
tie lines
gridding, 108
TIFF, 238
TIFF Compressed, 238
tinning, 191
Tool
Metadata Browser, 273
trend-enforced gridding, 112
tutorial files
list, 39
tutorials
accessing online, 42, 44
printing, 45


unprotecting
channels, 62
utilities
database maintenance, 235


value
dummy, 55
variogram
calculating, 193
parameters, 195
selecting model, 195
spherical model, 195
variogram model
selecting, 196
variograms, 191
calculating, 192
displaying, 192
verifying databases, 236
view, 308
View/Group Manager, 131
View/Group Manager Tool, 128
viewed region, 239
Viewing
Metadata, 273
views
applying a mask, 135
base, 127
changing, 150
copying, 149
data, 127
pasting, 149
Visual Basic, 23
Voxel
3D Grid, 260
3D Kriging, 260
Isosurface, 261

Index 311


Warp Image file, 231
Warp Projection, 228
Windows
clipboard, 148
printer driver, 241
working channels
creating, 63
working directory
creating, 39


XML. See Geosoft XML file
xyz
drag-n-drop, 55
XYZ data
importing, 53, 173


zone colour symbols, 178, 182
zoning, 155
data, 155
zooming map, 103