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5.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00.5.

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Table of Contents

3 Environment-friendly Products and Services ……………………………………………………………………… 14
3.1 Solutions for Environmental Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
3.1.1 Conserving the Environment through Technology ……………………………………………………………………… 15
3.1.2 Environmental Cleanup Technology ………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.2 Products and Services: Reducing the Environmental Impact ……………………………………………………………… 22
3.2.1 Improvement of Fuel Economy ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
3.2.2 Reduction of Exhaust Emissions ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.2.3 Reduction of Noise and Vibration ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.2.4 Reduction of Environmentally Burdensome Substances ………………………………………………………………… 26
3.2.5 Improvements in Recyclability ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
3.2.6 Development of Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil ……………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.2.7 Recycling of Rubber Crawler Shoes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.2.8 Reman ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

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We are proud to say that Komatsu’s ecological. refining. environmental policies are directly connected with customer fuel costs. In fact. and soil excavated during preparation and construction. with conventional technologies. Komatsu actively develops and promotes the use of recycling equipment to support customers recycle construction waste. We at Komatsu therefore advocate that waste materials be crushed and recycled on-site to the greatest extent possible.10 5:08 PM ページ 14 3 Environment-friendly Products and Services As part of our efforts to conserve the environment. and at the same time. Environment-friendly products thus represent a viable solution to the evolutionary state of environmental issues. The creation of such a technology demands that we see things from a different perspective–that we discern the true nature of the issue and use that as an inspiration for our research and development. This concept of “ecology and economy in balance” guides all of Komatsu’s technical development related to environmental conservation. to implement environmental conservation on a continuing basis. it is also a matter of cost. This is the meaning of Komatsu’s “ecology and economy in balance” policy. there may be no cost reduction for the customer or there may even be a cost increase. Of course. such products would not proliferate and would ultimately fail to contribute to the conservation of our earth environment. If appropriate fuel-conserving devices are developed which will be quickly adopted. we work to utilize technological innovations to control costs.5. we know the disposal of construction waste and excess soil is a major subject of concern. construction processes. boulders. For example. the simplest solution is to dispose on-site by crushing.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. only taking on the challenge of technological innovation makes it possible to reduce both environmental impact and customer costs. Using technological innovation to develop environment-friendly products. The Environmental Forum has been their network and the crystallization of their knowledge. enables us to help improve the environment on a global scale. also reduce their costs by doing so. . We believe that this system is about to change the relationship involving building materials. including the processing of contaminated soil and waste recycling at quarry sites. No matter how good the product is. combine. and the environment. in the case of reducing CO2 emissions. we need to devise a new technology that helps protect the environment while enhancing the manufacturer’s competitiveness. Through it. This is the reason that Komatsu has placed its Environmental Forum on our in-house computer network database. and develop the views and ideas of our own experts. which are also economically beneficial to the customers. however. whose knowledge encompasses many fields. With all our environmental policies. and recycling the felled trees. waste disposal is not just a matter of environmental responsibility. It is not enough simply to extend 14 Economy Promoting Solutions through Unique Technologies Komatsu’s environment-friendly construction machinery is a notable example of “ecology and economy in balance. our traditional way of thinking.5. if such environment-friendly products were to increase the customer’s operating costs. Komatsu offers other unique solutions for customer engagement in environmental activities. economical solutions are the result of brainstorming by experts in various fields. and also provides the means to discover a technology with which we can contribute to the environment at a higher level. The Promise of Komatsu Technology: Ecology and Economy in Balance Technology for environmental conservation Ecology & Cost Importance of Facilitating Rapid Implementation Komatsu is striving to develop environment-friendly measures at a reasonable cost that will help to facilitate their rapid implementation. Therefore. “Environmental Forum” Incubates Ideas for Ecology and Economy The control of manufacturing costs is a constant concern in the development of products that are respectful of the environment. Because economic considerations form a barrier to acceptance in such a case. In the case of NOx emissions. we can gather. Anyone with an idea on how to be more environmentfriendly can casually post a message in the Environmental Forum. It serves as a means to gather expertise from different fields. the customer will not be able to employ the product if it is prohibitively expensive.” Given our involvement in the construction industry. However.

081 (7.0%) Beverage.3 Gross profits 2. metal debris) 1 (1%) Construction industry Mixed construction 76. materials generated at the construction site can be recycled without the need to transport them elsewhere for processing. the creation of a new recycling method that is not hindered by conventional methods is being sought.610 (18. This has prompted the Ministry of Construction to promote early-stage recycling by mandating recycling to those who order construction.6%) (Source: Comprehensive measures against construction byproducts) Construction sludge 10 (10%) Public civil engineering 384 (86%) Concrete blocks 36 (37%) (Source: Survey on the state of construction byproducts.4%) Mining Industries 30.6 1. Mobile Crusher has helped minimize the environmental impact of construction while reducing overall construction costs. This constitutes a major portion of industrial waste and is hard to handle. low-cost waste-disposal method.1.0 Direct construction expenses 0. 856 (2. Therefore.4%) Electricity. heat supply and water industry 74. which are designed to improve the public infrastructure.878 (18.8%) Food manufacturers 11. most of Amount of Industrial Waste Generated (FY 1994) Amount of Construction Waste Generated by Category (FY 1995) Other industries 36.931 (19. Trends in Waste Management Waste is generated through various construction activities such as building demolition and road construction.928 (4. January 2000) 1990 1999 Fiscal year 15 .793 (7. wood scrap. Ministry of Construction) Changes in the Value Structure model of Construction 3.5 Value Remaining years 3. it becomes more difficult to secure locations for its disposal.0 1. the increased cost of waste disposal due to the lack of landfill space poses a threat to company profit margins.5 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Fiscal year (Source: Nikkei Construction.7 2. paper and processed paper product manufacturers 24. 3. Under such circumstances.425 (4.0%) waste 10 (10%) Chemical industry 17.1 2.0 3.917 (6.5.4%) Nationwide Total 405. and each year.8%) Pulp. Through this system.1 Conserving the Environment through Technology Trends in the Construction Industry Japan’s economic recession has placed great pressure on the construction industry to reduce construction expenses.455 Agricultural thousand tons industry 74. Moreover. and tobacco manufacturers 7. Concrete debris. gas. and other materials generated in construction are commonly referred to as construction waste or construction byproducts.6 2.9%) Constructiongenerated wood 6 (6%) Other (waste plastic. the establishment of new landfills is difficult.0 2. resulting in the need to employ an efficient.1%) Amount of Soil Generated by Construction (FY 1995) Asphalt/concrete debris 36 (36%) Nationwide total 99 million tons Private civil engineering 18 (4%) Nationwide total 446 million m3 Construction 43 (10%) Steel industry 30.5.657 (9.5 Decreased unit cost of construction 2.5 3.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. waste paper. Komatsu has developed the Mobile Crusher as a means of achieving on-site recycling of construction waste.5%) Ceramics and stone-and-clay product manufacturers 19. feed.0 Disposal expenses Increased cost 1. Additionally.1 Solutions for Environmental Activity 3 Environment-friendly Products and Services the soil that is excavated by hydraulic excavators is too weak and unstable to be reused as is. Ministry of Construction) Number of Remaining Years for Landfills (Source: Survey on the state of construction byproducts.377 (1.10 5:08 PM ページ 15 3.

The BR200T was introduced to the market in fiscal 1999 . It should also be compact yet fully capable of handling large amounts of waste. BR60. At Komatsu. If the waste could be crushed and processed at the source. responding to the need to crush debris from a demolished house so that it could be reused as a banking material on-site. though. and bad soil can be improved for use as a roadbed material. we would be able to minimize our impact on the environmental. the machinery must be mobile so that it can be set up in the immediate presence of waste generation. as well as to cut back on construction costs.5. we established the following basic structure for our family of mobile recycling equipment products: (1) A crawler-type mobile device (2) A crushing device (3) A device to feed materials to the crusher (hopper/feeder) (4) A device for the discharge of crushed materials (belt conveyer) (5) A power unit (engine) In fiscal 1992. and transportation can be kept to a minimum.5. and soil through excavation and the removal of trees. Traditionally. These products have won acclaim in a society that now avidly promotes recycling. based on customer requests. such construction waste and soil has been transported off-site for disposal. To that end. roots and felled trees can be turned into chips for mulching or spraying materials. the first model of the series marketed in fiscal 1992 16 On-site Recycling Machine: Mobile Crusher When considering a construction method for on-site recycling. Since the costs associated with waste-disposal. new materials. Specifically. The result is not only a reduction in the amount of waste generated but also produces savings in the use of new materials (resources) and energy for transportation.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. thereby contributing to environmental conservation. boulders. we hit upon the idea of employing an on-site recycling method in which materials could be recycled and reused on the premises. a product equipped with an impact crusher. the total cost of construction can be drastically reduced. Ultimately. Since then we developed a variety of mobile recycling equipment and in fiscal 1999 we marketed the Mobile Tub Grinder BR200T. the development of an on-site recycling machine designed for the on-site crushing and recycling of waste materials became the basis for an “onsite recycling construction method.10 5:08 PM ページ 16 Employing an On-site Recycling Construction Method (toward “Zero emission” construction) New road construction generates vast amounts of roots and felled trees. boulders can be turned into grading materials.” The presence of a recycling machine at the construction site will make the crushing of materials more efficient. we put together the Mobile Crusher BR60.

10 5:08 PM ページ 17 On-site Recycling Construction Method Tree-planting on slopes Logging Excavating Felled trees Banking Boulders Bad soil Traditional Construction Method Paving Recycling Felled trees Mobile tub grinder Mulching materials Boulders Mobile crusher Grading materials Bad soil Mobile soil recycler Roadbed materials Logging Tree-planting on slopes Excavating Felled trees Transporting to outside the construction site for disposal Transporting Boulders Banking Bad soil Paving Disposal Outside collection and transport to the construction site Transporting Collecting new materials 17 .5.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00.5.

5. Komatsu has sold roughly 1. we offer a lineup of sixteen models. or as a small-plant system in conjunction with peripheral units. our machines continue to serve in site-optimized configurations. and others BR250RG.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. these units have contributed to environmental conservation in Japan and other countries. Komatsu’s Mobile Recycling Equipment Products Natural rock Concrete debris/asphalt concrete debris Oversized garbage mixtures Excavated soil (excess soil) Wood-based Mobile crusher BR200T Mobile crusher BZ200. and others BR210JG. such as junkyards for the disposal of tires and household appliances. As a key component in on-site recycling construction.10 5:08 PM ページ 18 Our mobile recycling equipment becomes a series Amid the growing demand for on-site recycling construction methods. the series has drawn attention for its potential application in other areas. As a single unit.5. we expanded our range of products. as of fiscal 1999. and others Mobile soil recycler BR1600JG (made to order) BR500JG. Moreover. and others Supporting the entire product family units on-site BM2014C mobile belt conveyer 18 BM3618S mobile screen . Currently.400 units of this series’ products in Japan and 150 overseas. and others Mobile crusher Mobile tub grinder BR300S.

concrete and asphalt concrete debris is made of most of rock. This material can then be used as mulch spread over. sand. while the coarser pieces of 50 to 150 mm are used to build up and prevent the erosion of beaches.5. Processing Felled Trees at a Land-reclamation Site in Oita Prefecture The lava. ▼ Used as mulch spread 19 . Chips after processing Lava. when we remove foreign objects such as reinforcing steel bars and wood chips from the debris and crush and sort the remainder. we can recycle that material as base materials used for road grading and construction backfill. and Natural Rock Application of Mobile Tub Grinder (2): Wood-based waste Generally. stumps. Shizuoka Prefecture. and rock removed is crushed and sifted through a screen. as well as for fuel. ▼ Crushed rock from 50 to 150 mm is utilized in beach construction projects. and rock accumulated at the Osawa Delta. the foliage. sand. sand. where a downslide of lava. Ministry of Construction: Construction to remove rock from the Osawa avalanche site at Mt. Therefore. However. Fine pieces of 50 mm or less are utilized in roadbeds and as material to raise the ground level of houses. Komatsu proposes a solution in which felled trees can be processed into wood chips. we recently began crushing and sorting debris down to midsize blocks ranging between 150 and 250 millimeters for reuse in riverside breakwater work. and stone occurred. Fuji Sand-Control Office. Conventionally. and roots of trees felled for land reclamation were burned. Traditionally.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. Fuji. trees felled for the purpose of construction have for the most part been burned on-site. Now they can be crushed into chips on-site and recycled for use as ground cover in reforestation areas or as woodchips or mulch.10 5:08 PM ページ 19 Application of Mobile Crusher (1): Concrete Debris.5. They can also be used as fertilizer and in the manufacture of board. Additionally. Asphalt Concrete Debris. in light of new regulations banning field burning and the rise of the dioxin problem. the proper disposal of felled trees has become an issue of concern in recent years.

▼ The soil excavated from construction sites has high watercontent.. Ltd. However. thus necessitating its transport to processing plants where it is reconstituted. Chugoku Bureau of Japan Highway Public Corporation Completed roadbed improvement work Improving the roadbed of the Chugoku Highway (Shimane Prefecture) The dirt excavated at the site has excessively high moisture content and cannot be used as is. negatively affecting the environment and increasing total construction costs.11 3:23 PM ページ 20 Application of Mobile Soil Recycler (3): Excavated Soil Therefore. Awards won by the Mobile Recycling Equipment Series The series is widely recognized as construction machinery that contributes to environmental conservation. Chugoku Highway. Compared with conventional methods. This is another product that we have commercialized as part of the series.Chairman’s Award from the Japan recycler saving Machinery Machinery Foundation BZ200 mobile soil recycler The Japan Machinery Federation FY 2000 Technical Award Mobile soil (through joint application recycler with Tokyo Gas Co. The excavated dirt is therefore improved by mixing it on-site with a hardening agent. As such. The improved dirt is then used to raise the roadbed. it has won the following awards. the necessary transport distances tend to be excessive.5. Product Award Prize Name Sponsor Mobile crusher FY 1995 Award for Recycling Development Project et al The Minister of International Trade and Industry Award Development project for mobile crushers Clean Japan Center Mobile crusher 21st Award for Outstanding Environmental Machinery Chairman’s Award from the Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers Mobile recycling debris crusher The Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers Mobile soil FY 1998 Award for Recycling recycler Development Project et al MITI Environmental Development of mobile Protection and Industrial Location soil recycler Bureau Director’s Award Mobile soil FY 1999 Chairman’s Award from Japan Construction recycler Mechanization Association Encouragement prize Clean Japan Center Development of the BZ200 mobile soil recycler Japan Construction Mechanization Association Mobile soil FY 1999 Outstanding Energy. Komatsu has developed an on-site. recycling soil-stabilization method that improves soil quality by combining it with fortifying materials on-site. with the current small number of stationary processing plants available. this process both improves the quality of the mixture and increases work efficiency.頁20 00.) Recycling excavated soil through use of a mobile soil-recycling plant The Japan Gas Association 20 JGA technical award . It enables excavated soil to be recycled on-site and put to immediate use as a banking material in the construction process.

Metals with positive ions. 21 . One of the typical apatite minerals is apatite hydroxide Ca5(PO4)3OH.1. In fiscal 1999. such as lead (Pb). which are present in the soil.S.5. we have commercialized a soil admixture for use with leaching resistance over a wide pH range. nontoxic mineral as an apatite.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. into a water-insoluble. they are prevented from leaching into and contaminating external media.2 Environmental Cleanup Technology Apatite Treatment: A Cleanup Technology for Soil Contaminated with Heavy Metals Komatsu General Atomics Engineering Corporation* in 1998 introduced a technology developed in the U. Komatsu has discovered that a simple modification to the inorganic sludge can result in outstanding clay properties and watersolubility. Unlike the conventional. designed to clean soil contaminated with heavy metals. However.5. In 1998. compared to the cement-fixation method. thanks to a joint project with Komatsu IM Engineering. chemically insoluble treatment. however. The resultant isomorphous apatite naturally exhibits the fundamental characteristics of apatite minerals. pH-neutral admixture is safe to groundwater. In this way. we undertook a consigned research study on behalf of the Environmental Agency to establish a soil-contamination cleanup technology and verify its feasibility.10 5:08 PM ページ 21 3. this treatment barely affects the condition of a medium like soil. which heretofore had been the conventional cleanup method for soils contaminated with heavy metals. Taking advantage of the properties of this recycled clay. Furthermore. This metal-contaminated soil-treatment technology turns toxic heavy metals. and contaminated soil and develops. Komatsu IM Engineering provides consultation on the operation of pipe-laying machinery and manufactures and sells excavation additives. Agitation and creation of plugs 1. Adjust the injection of the admixture. and proved to dramatically improve impermeability to water and soil discharge in damp areas. In fiscal 1999. the technology was Cleanup of hexavalent chromium-contaminated Soil Using a Mobile Soil recycler underground excavators. and sells related processing technologies and equipment. the material turns into a very hard mineral crystal with great Recycling of Quarry Waste The inorganic sludge generated in quarry operations has long been disposed of as industrial waste. The results of that study proved the advantages of apatite cleanup over chemically insoluble treatments. toxic waste. Admixture Injection Cycle Clean dumper Multi planter Water hose or slurry hose Plug zone 3. and since then has successfully expanded its activities in the cleanup business. then pump the mixture. 2. this environment-friendly. can infiltrate the apatite hydroxide structure replacing calcium (Ca).* Compared to the conventional alkaline admixtures. Agitate the water and admixture. 4. Injection Preparing the Admixture Komatsu General Atomics Engineering Corporation processes hazardous materials. thus turning the apatite into Ca5-n Pbn(PO4)3OH (where n is 5 or less). manufactures. this admixture was marketed as the excavation additive Gravel Coat.

we established a set of standardized. Life-cycle Cost To achieve “ecology and economy in balance” we are offering the customer environment-friendly products while reducing the life-cycle cost. Environment-friendly Products and Services 3. we established the four Midterm Development Targets for Environmental Technology as guidelines for the reduction of our environmental impact. we are taking the concept a step further. which we have established in accordance with our findings in LCA research. In fiscal 1999 with these calculation methods. agriculture. we are modifying the specifications of our existing products. 22 Disposal 500 600 (t CO2) Recyclability Construction equipment has traditionally enjoyed a greater degree of recyclability by comparison with automobiles and household appliances. • Further commitment to reductions in CO2 emissions. Concerned by the findings of our LCA activitie—indicating that an overwhelming proportion of total CO2 emissions is generated during the use of machinery—we turned our efforts toward research and development.10 5:08 PM ページ 22 3.5 percent recyclable by 2010. and to halve that result again by 2010. Introducing the LCA Concept Komatsu organized a task force in fiscal 1998 in order to do the groundwork for our implementation of LCA. To do so. to achieve the interim 2005 target of 97 percent. at Komatsu. Accordingly.” Komatsu will implement environmental measures that lead to greater customer satisfaction—measures that safeguard the environment and effectively reduce the lifecycle costs associated with our products. In the meantime. It is no exaggeration to state that the degree of impact a product will have on the environment is largely determined during the design stage. simple calculation methods for which the common objective was to identify an effective yet unique approach. As we continue under the slogan of “ecology and economy in balance. civil engineering. Studying the published applications of LCA in various fields.5 percent for 2010. Then. and elsewhere. we must modify their concrete counterweights and rubber shoes so they can be recycled. we then conducted inventory analysis on our major products with regard to CO2 emissions.5. to ultimately make our products 99. . The results enabled us to achieve a better understanding of the burdens these products would have on the environment.5% or greater △50% Comparison △75% Comparison to FY 1998 result to FY 1998 result △20% Comparison to FY 1998 result Total CO2 Emissions per Lifecycle of 0. Today we are striving to achieve the four Midterm Development Targets for Environmental Technology. • Providing remanufactured components for a reasonable price through our Reman operation. For instance.7-m3 Hydraulic Excavator Material 0 Manufacturing 100 200 Use (10.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. as a result. Midterm Development Targets for Environmental Technology (set forth in fiscal 1999) Objectives (1) CO2 Emissions (2) Recyclability Result of 1998 PC200-6…81% fiscal year WA100-3…92% (3) Environmentally burdensome substances (4) Life-cycle cost Fiscal 2005 △5% Comparison to FY 1998 result Fiscal 2010 △10% Comparison to FY 1998 result 97% or greater 99. Midterm Development Targets for Environmental Technology Reducing CO2 Emission Our goal regarding CO2 emissions is to reduce the base level by 10 percent—beyond the national target—by fiscal 2010. based on a comprehensive approach to emissions reduction that would address not only the engine but also the body components as well. In fact.5. we are endeavoring to halve the current volume by 2005. Komatsu uses life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a means of studying the design of its construction equipment. Accordingly. Accordingly. many of the products we are now developing are designed to achieve the 2005 emission target. We have therefore set a recyclability target of 99. with hydraulic excavators. reduction in fuel costs.000h) 300 400 Results calculated according to the Komatsu Engineering Standard. We are working to develop machines that not only benefit people but also have less of an impact on the earth’s environment.2 Products and Services: Reducing the Environmental Impact Construction equipment—Komatsu’s mainstay product—is employed in the fields of resource development. while striving to extend the serviceability of components. which calls for a minimum reduction of 5 percent. we are changing our antifreezes to the non-amine-type and phasing out the use of lead in all solder. we use practices of technology development such as: • Reduced parts/equipment costs through the prolonged service life of oil filters and other components. we will develop as many as ten new recycling technologies. all of which is intended to make our lives more comfortable. providing regenerated rubber crawler shoes at a reduced cost. Yet. Environmentally Burdensome Substances Regarding substances that pose a burden on the environment.

Under the corporate ideal of “Developing engines that boast the world’s best fuel efficiency. is an important goal. Inc. With these strengths. and antifreezes.5. given the current injection pressures available with conventional fuel–injection systems. to make low-floor bus designs possible. for oils. taking measures to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx)—one of the controlled substances present in exhaust gas—generally inflicts adverse effects on the amount of fuel such an engine must consume. Komatsu entered into a joint-venture agreement with Cummins Engine Co. of the U. Energy-saving automatic transmissions help improve access for the physically challenged Komatsu is working on fuel conservation in areas other than engines for construction equipment. Moreover. and ensure simpler methods of disposal. 3.* as its new development arm. plus the advantage of employing the Komatsu Group’s electronics engineering arm. IPA. To that end. including the following: Newly Developed 6D170 Series Engines ZF-Ecomat (automatic transmission for low-floor buses) Development of an Ultra-high-pressure Fuel Injection System The Tier II emission regulations scheduled to take effect in 2001 with regard to off-road machines will impose tough new standards. is engaged in the research and development of diesel engines. we are finding ways to extend their life. As a member of the Komatsu Group. slated for production in 2000.” In fiscal 1999 IPA is moving forward in the development of various systems. At the same time. HPI is capable of an injection pressure rated at 196 MPa. (IPA). which includes a fuel-saving idling stop system that stops the engine while the bus is idling. such regulations will make it difficult to reduce the fuel-consumption rate and still comply with regulations on emissions controls.—the world’s leading designer and manufacturer of diesel engines—to establish Industrial Power Alliance. thereby reducing the rate of fuel consumption. one viable solution is to inject fuel at high pressure and promoting a better fuel-air mixture. Moreover. It has therefore become a top-priority issue for today’s engine manufacturers to reduce emission gases while reducing the fuel-consumption rate. and hence. our target is to halve the current volume by 2005 and halve that result again by 2010. However.S. The system also achieves best-in-class fuel economy of 188 g/kWh. manufactures and sells automatic transmissions for large buses and trucks. a figure unmatched in its class. However. On the other hand. such as used hoses and rubber shoes. Engine-control Systems for the Next Generation of Construction Equipment Enhancing a vehicle’s total efficiency is another effective means of decreasing fuel-consumption. a cause of global warming (3) Bringing significant economic benefits to the customer The diesel engines that drive Komatsu’s construction equipment provide higher thermal efficiency than gasoline engines.10 5:08 PM ページ 23 Waste Consumables With waste consumables. filters. Komatsu ZF Automotive* manufactures and sells the energy-saving ZF-Ecomat automatic transmission. diesel internal combustion engines are inherently more conducive to the reduction of CO2. For example. which is located on the premises of the Oyama plant. low-floor buses are rapidly being adopted. Komatsu ZF Automotive Co..5. in January 1998. (1) Protecting the earth’s limited resources (2) Reducing CO2 emissions. these transmissions can be mounted transversely at the rear of the bus along with the engine.. Komatsu’s 6D170 series engines. will be equipped with a Cummins’ injection system called HPI (High-pressure Fuel Injection). IPA is now developing control systems that will allow the engine to always operate at maximum efficiency yet ensure practical use of the vehicle itself. To provide better access for the physically challenged. reduce waste. into usable resources.2. we must pursue further innovation in order to respond to the increasingly strict requirement regarding engines.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. we are developing recycling/regeneration technologies that will allow us to convert waste consumables. As such. Komatsu’s diesel engines have for years been among the world’s most efficient units in terms of fuel consumption. Reducing fuel consumption incorporates the following three benefits.1 Improvement in Fuel Economy The volume of CO2 generated by construction equipment is basically proportional to the volume of fuel consumed. 23 . IPA has the advantage of full deployment in Komatsu vehicles.

9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00.5. it is more than likely that diesel engines will remain the most common power source used in heavy vehicles and construction equipment. the use of this method alone causes combustion conditions to deteriorate. As a result.S. Moreover. development of low emission engines is a priority in Komatsu. we are conducting the following developments with the aim of reducing emissions.2 decreasing. reduction of NOx leads to increase of particulates. which in turn reduces the emission of NOx. improvement of performance factors such as fuel efficiency and horsepower output are limited.S. so it is not easy to reduce both NOx and particulates. Delayed fuel-injection timing is widely used as a means of reducing NOx. EPA’s* Tier I emission regulation (from 1996) 0. EPA: Environment Protection Agency of the United States 24 2 4 6 8 . Reduction of Exhaust Emissions In 1996. Consequently. compared to the increase in pressure provided by turbochargers. Nevertheless.2. However. That is why Komatsu has adopted a high-pressure injection system.5. due to its high thermal efficiency and ease of integration.S. We are currently developing engines with air-cooled aftercoolers that provide a significant effect in order to meet Tier II emission regulation. Considering this problem. resulting in higher levels of particulates and diminished fuel economy. This will enable us to prevent the particulate level from increasing and fuel economy from Komatsu’s Low-emission Diesel Engine The pressurized supply air in a turbocharged engine can reach temperatures exceeding 150ºC. An air-cooled aftercooler can reduce the temperature of supply air through the use of outside air. depending on the output. For this reason. Not only does that increase NOx due to higher combustion temperatures. for many years to come.2 During mass production U. In diesel engine technology.S.10 5:08 PM ページ 24 3. the temperature of State of Emission Control for Construction Equipment and Diesel Engines Air-cooled aftercooler Turbocharger + Intake-air cooler Before measures were taken Fuel-injection-type FCD piston Particulates (g/HPh) 0.6 High-pressure fuel-injection pump Increased air flow Adoption of an Air-cooled Aftercooler U. Komatsu has addressed Tier I emission regulation by adopting a water cooled aftercooler that is chilled by the engine coolant. Tier I of federal exhaust emission standards for offroad diesel engines came into effect in the U. the temperature of the supply air drops. but it also reduces the density of air intake. which itself embodies a technology designed to reduce fuel consumption.4 0. EPA’s Tier II emission regulation (beginning in 2001) Under development 0 10 NOx (g/HPh) U.

Our target is to expand use of this technology by the time Tier II emission regulation takes effect. sound-absorbent materials made from PET fiber were utilized for the first time ever in construction equipment. thanks to an improvement in the shape of the intake path. Manufacture and Delivery of Engines That Meet Regulations 3. In fiscal 1999. low-noise devices were placed in two types of hydraulic excavators.5.5. Ultra low noise Hydraulic Excavator (PC128UU) Example of noise reduction measures Noise-reduction measures at exhaust systems • High-performance soundabsorbent ventilator • Sound-absorbent manifold duct Measures for the reduction of exhaust noise • Large. two-way exhaust muffler • Tailpipe with a built-in silencer High-performance sound-absorbent compound materials FCD Piston Noise-reduction measures at intake systems • High-performance soundabsorbent blade Measures for the reduction of engine noise • Rigid cylinder block • Light-weight FCD piston • Noise-absorbent.) That translates into a reduction of humanly audible noise to just one-tenth. we are achieving a high degree of standardization of their design specifications.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. we have already begun installing air-cooled aftercoolers in certain models.10 5:08 PM ページ 25 which is lower than that of the engine coolant. We are even developing high-performance exhaust pipes. Specifically. Komatsu is engaged in advanced research projects that will allow us to meet the regulation. and all other mass-production vehicles. Optimized Combustion-chamber Shape through Use of FCD Pistons The reduction of particulates requires the optimized mix of fuel and air within the combustion chamber.2. Regular testing of engine exhaust gas and other steps are undertaken voluntarily to ensure that the engines we manufacture and ship are always in compliance with regulations. To apply this technology to equipment other than hydraulic excavators. At Komatsu. where our engines are manufactured. Preparations for Tier III Emission Regulation Even stricter Tier III emission regulation are scheduled to take effect in 2005. Komatsu has established the Engine Environmental Group at the Oyama plant. Accordingly. (The noise level measured at 7 meters from the vehicle was 70 dB with the conventional model and 60 dB with the prototype. Komatsu is promoting the reduction of equipment noise by adopting sound-absorbent blades and ventilators. and our efforts have resulted in the development of a prototype low-noise vehicle (hydraulic excavator PC128UU) with a level of operating noise representing a decrease of 10 dB from that of the conventional model. soundproof cover 25 . Therefore. dump trucks. and to promote recycling. not only can it reduce NOx but it is also expected to help in the reduction of particulates and improvements in fuel economy. we are now developing low-noise devices that can be installed in bulldozers. Moreover. Komatsu has met this challenge by combining two factors: an enhanced combustion-chamber profile via the adoption of highstrength ductile cast iron (FCD) pistons as well as increased air flow. along with high-performance sound-absorbent materials to reduce noise from the air inlets of engine compartments.3 Reduction of Noise and Vibration Komatsu has been working to reduce equipment noise.

such as packing and wrapping materials. etary technologies. arsenic.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. with regard to the current applications. Moreover. Our awareness of environmental conservation grew further with the 1992 institution of Komatsu’s Earth Environment Charter. we began a new initiative regarding the comprehensive reduction of environmentally burdensome substances. this stan- ment is officially included in our corporate agenda.2.5. polyvinyl chloride. which was issued in 1999. Among Komatsu’s propri- set of standards. In 1998. According to those findings. cadmium.” should observe. This section explains the controlled substances contained in secondary materials. et al. which we completed in fiscal 1999. which is used for purposes of sound and/or heat insulation. we have added the section. The results of that dard for all companies in the Komatsu Group. In 1992. alternative CFCs.4 Reduction of Environmentally Burdensome Substances Komatsu has responded quickly to environmental concerns.) Substances for which Use Will Be Limited Environmentally burdensome substances such as heavy metals (mercury. as discussed in assessment were compiled in the Environmental KES. our technology subcommittee has established the following policies on environmentally burdensome substances. easily recycled materials. It also dard not only serves as “things that we can rely on” to improve means the environmental guidelines are drawn as “things that product quality. Plastic Materials that Are Difficult to Recycle We will limit the use of FRP (fiberglass reinforced with plastic). Komatsu has endeavored to achieve the aforementioned objectives as part of a standardization effort known as KES*. Those policies will be fully implemented by our Development Division.” * MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet * OSHA: Occupational Safety and Healthy Administration * KES: Komatsu Engineering Standard 26 . With particular regard to FRP. which was the Technical Standard Committee and officially announced by officially announced to the Komatsu Group as an original. selenium. flame-retardant plastic in new applications. Regarding the rubber shoes made from composite materials. “List of Controlled Substances under Environment-Conscious Procurement Regulations” to our Guidelines for Environment-Conscious Procurement. calling for the evaluation and understanding of the overall environmental impact represented by our construction equipment. asbestos. items and contents that are not regulated by the ISO and JIS standards are standardized by the KES.). we introduced a marking system for the classification/recycling of plastic parts under a company-wide initiative. and are reviewing the actual method of recycling. The institution of the Environmental KES means the environ- Established in accordance with company objectives. About Environmental KES Every Komatsu Group company participated in examining the The Komatsu Engineering Standard (KES) is an in-house stan- content of the environmental standards. we are examining a new.5. (These substances are no longer used but were specified as a means of reaffirming our commitment. With respect to glass wool. Furthermore. reduce costs.10 5:08 PM ページ 26 3. we have set forth our commitment to environmental issues from an early stage. and triethanolamine) shall not be used other than in current applications for which no alter- natives exist (solder. Specific Substances for which Use Will Be Completely Eliminated Three types of substances—PCBs. Given the fact that similar measures are needed for articles we purchase. we are studying a possible switch to urethane and PET (polyethylene terephthalate). new the officer in charge of engineering. we are working to replace materials containing chlorine–a substance that can produce dioxin–by encouraging our Purchasing Department and parts suppliers to use alternative materials that are free of chlorine. and streamline engineering work we can rely on” in specific engineering operations as well as in our repeated operations but also serves as “things that we “things that we should observe. we eliminated the use of asbestos in our products and adopted MSDS* maintenance in compliance with OSHA* recommendations. we will work wholeheartedly toward reductions in their use. Other Hard-to-Recycle Materials Komatsu is now promoting the use of alternatives to glass wool and composite materials. and halogen-based. lead. As such achievements demonstrate. In 1999. hexavalent chromium. we will actively promote a change to alternative. easy-torecycle road liner that facilitates partial repair. and specified CFCs—were selected for complete elimination.

1. the requirements for these machines-including exterior design and operator comfort-grew proportionately. 3. • Consumables: Reduce the usage. it is conducting trial calculations to grasp problems present in the current models. it is an effort based on the Three Rs. and manufacturers began using plastic parts in order to address such requirements. which is of course the mainstay product line at Komatsu. Again. plastic Equipment out of service Can be recycled 92% Equipment frame Example of a wheel loader (WA100-3) 27 . Our ideas and information on the current problems regarding recycling are communicated to the material/parts vendors. 1.5. Reuse: Reuse directly as a product or part. in order that we might devise solutions based on our mutual understanding. It was the first such system in the industry. Consequently. Lifecycle of Construction Equipment and the Three Rs 3 Recycle Recyclability of Main Products Construction equipment In-process recycling (Material and energy) 2 Reuse Sales/service Used equipment Can be recycled 81% Manufacturing (Manufacturer) Usage (Customer) 1 Reduce 3 Recycle Example of a hydraulic excavator (PC200-6) 2 Reuse Extend life Reduction Material Used parts Regenerated parts Energy Disassembly (Disassembly companies) Ferrous and nonferrous metals Rubber. Moreover. Improvements in Recyclability Indication of Material Identification Codes on Plastic Parts The late 1980s saw an increase in the demand for construction equipment used in urban civil-engineering projects. • Durable goods: Extend the life. Komatsu introduced a system in 1992 to indicate the material identification code on plastic parts.” a statement defining our basic approach to recycling activities. Reduce: Reduce the amount of waste generated. • Broaden the use of rebuilt components and parts.2. Use recycled materials wherever possible 4. • Increase the product’s value in the resale market. Initiatives by the Development Division Our Development Division is working to set design standards that embody the above definitions.5 With construction equipment.10 5:08 PM ページ 27 3.5. Adopt structures that are easy to recycle 3. 2. Use materials that are easy to recycle 2. • Materials recycling: Reuse as materials • Thermal recycling: Reuse as a source of thermal energy. To facilitate the disposal of these parts. Toward Greater Recyclability Komatsu established the Standard Definitions for Recyclability in fiscal 1998. Komatsu established the “Three Rs. we will also be tackling new issues such as the facilitation of disassembly. as outlined below. The Three Rs were aimed at safeguarding and conserving our global environment and natural resources. To further improve the recycling rate. we are extending our effort to promote recycling over the lifecycle of every machine we build. to ensure a common understanding on behalf of more thorough recycling. Reduce the use of substances that are environmentally burdensome Birth of a New Concept in Recycling In fiscal 1993.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. Recycle: Convert recyclables into new resources by changing their original form.

Maintains the designed durability of construction equipment being operated in harsh conditions. The following explains the contents of our rubbercrawler shoe recycling effort.10 5:09 PM ページ 28 3. has been honored with encouragement prizes by the Japan Construction Mechanization Association in fiscal 1997 and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in fiscal 1998 on behalf of its technical merit. Accordingly. BO46-G4 was awarded the new Eco Mark.5.5. Completely biodegradable. The guidelines require that all construction equipment operated within the confines of designated nature reserves use biodegradable hydraulic oil in order to prevent the pollution of valuable water sources and forests. Since construction equipment is frequently used outdoors. Biodegradable Oil Cans 28 Loading of Non-recyclable Parts at the Collection Facility . Processing of Used Rubber Crawler Shoes Approximately 14.7 Development of Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil Recycling of Rubber Crawler Shoes Unique Characteristics of Construction Equipment and Biodegradable Oil Among various used parts. 2. which requires higher standards than ever before.2. with less environmental impact. This allows us to use biodegradable oil in the cutting-edge construction equipment currently in operation. Unlike regular oil. No need for design change or dedicated parts.2. Combining the environmentally safe properties of conventional biodegradable oil with added functions designed to uphold the equipment’s original capabilities. it may cause environmental pollution should oil leakage occur during oil exchange.6 3. Measures at Komatsu We responded to the issue with the development of Komatsu Genuine Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil BO46-G4. 5. the rubber crawler shoes commonly used in small. biodegradable oil is broken down naturally by bacteria present in the soil. Concern for such a risk of environmental damage resulted in the enactment of administrative guidelines in Europe in the 1980s. Provides sufficient braking force compared to that of ordinary biodegradable oil. or failure of high-pressure hoses. In fiscal 1999. BO46-G4 provides the following features: 1.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. No problems will occur even if new product is mixed with leftover oil during an oil change.000 used rubber crawler shoes are generated each year. Easy to collect and will not cause environmental damage in the event that leakage should occur. recognized for the superior quality and performance as summarized above.) (4) Treatment as industrial waste (manifest control) Recycling with a Vulcanizing Press BO46-G4. 4.to mid-sized hydraulic excavators represent a greater environmental impact due to their large quantities and high disposal costs. we have designated them one of the highest priority targets in our recycling initiative. 3. the first of its kind in the world. They are processed by the distributors in the following ways: (1) Regeneration or recycling (2) Recycling in electric furnaces (3) Incineration (The iron part is salvaged as scrap following incineration. 6.

we have become the first in the industry to recycle used rubber crawler shoes and sell recycled parts as a viable business. and Kansai/Chubu areas.5. we are recommending regeneration and recycling as the preferred processing methods for rubber crawler shoes. this operation is now being implemented in Tohoku.10 5:09 PM ページ 29 Of the above. Initiated by the Japan Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association. as well as reduction in transportation costs. The further promotion of this processing method. load liner-type rubber crawler shoes enable only damaged parts to be replaced and are much easier to dispose of because they can be easily dismantled. Realization of a lower distribution cost Komatsu is addressing these issues through the establishment of an original recycling channel in cooperation with Komatsu Parts*. Today.5. approximately 3. 29 . Through this channel. at Komatsu.000 used rubber crawler shoes are recycled annually at our two facilities. specializes in the sale of parts and equipment. Recycling Initiatives Rubber crawler shoe before recycling The key issues in the recycling of used rubber crawler shoes are as follows: 1. approximately 200 tons of rubber shoes were processed in this manner in fiscal 1999. Compared to conventional one-piece rubber crawler shoes. Collection of parts in good condition for recycling 2. however. would require collaboration with electric Processing Flow of Used Rubber Crawler Shoes Rubber crawler shoe after recycling Building in Recyclability During the Development Phase Komatsu has also developed highly recyclable load liner-type rubber crawler shoes and is promoting their utilization. and distribution/logistics. Processing of Non-recyclable Parts in Electric Furnaces Rubber shoes that are in poor condition are processed in an electric furnace that allows the collection of iron.9-コマツ環境報告書/3章 00. incineration and industrial-waste treatment are the likely cause of the environmental impact. Recycling into new rubber crawler shoes Regeneration/ recycling Recycling in electric furnaces Recycling iron Used rubber crawler shoes Environmental impact Recycling as scrap iron Incineration Decreasing final-treatment facilities/remote location Treatment as industrial waste Manifest control Komatsu Parts Ltd. In fact. Kanto. Therefore. furnace manufacturers throughout Japan. product design.

For these reasons. the degree of performance may or may not be guaranteed in the same way as a new part.” Rebuilding is another concept similar to remanufacturing. This is Komatsu’s concept of “remanufacturing operations. Komatsu Remanufacturing Company* leads the remanufacturing of engines. . At the same time. with a rebuilt component. As shown. the machine must cease operating while the components are repaired. Komatsu’s Reman operation offers numerous advantages.9-コマツ環境報告書/P30 00. Expansion of Komatsu’s Remanufacturing Operation Komatsu is expanding its remanufacturing operation through Reman Centers located in the world’s six principle regions. transmissions. rebuilt components are those that have been repaired only upon the request of the customer. Features of Reman Components Komatsu’s reman components offer the following benefits: Poster showing the remanufacturing process 30 1. with rebuilt components. Moreover. Quality: Can be used reliably. not to mention a significant contribution to the conservation of our environment. The following describes an example of engine remanufacturing in Japan from the perspective of resource savings. components are revived to near-new quality and reassembled as replacement parts during repairs and routine overhauls. since the level of quality differs from one component to another. Delivery: Machine downtime can be reduced by a quick replacement of the defective component with a Reman component taken from properly controlled stock.” Through the processes described in the poster below. 3. reman components are preferable to rebuilt parts. the worn components replaced in this process are remanufactured at our Reman Centers. Therefore. 2. This allows us to bring them back to the market as reman components. Cost: Cheaper than new components. hydraulic cylinders.11 10:39 AM ページ 30 3. Ecology: Reman components can contribute to resource conservation and to reduce waste through the reuse and recycling of components and parts.5. 4. Essentially. with a guarantee of quality/performance equivalent to a new part.5.2. requiring loweroperating costs. In Japan. torque converters.8 Reman What is “Reman”? “Reman” is an abbreviation for “remanufacturing. and other major components used in construction equipment under the “CR” designation.

Reuse Preparation of Remanufacturing Manuals The components returned from the customer are disassembled. Komatsu Castex Ltd. but also leads to cost reductions. U. and hydraulic equipment. England KEISA Reman Center Japan Komatsu Remanufacturing Training Center ★ □■ Komatsu ★ Lexington. the reuse rate of parts increased 26 percent over the level obtained when we began remanufacturing. however. To find answers. Increasing the number of reusable parts not only contributes to resource savings and waste avoidance. the engine return rate exceeded 98 percent. Balikpapan. Cast parts that cannot be repaired or reused by Komatsu Remanufacturing are forwarded to the Oyama Manufacturing Department of Komatsu Castex* where they are melted for the manufacture of new parts. and the final durability target needed to improve remanufacturing.11 1:09 PM ページ 1 Extended Life for Engine Parts Recycling The relevant Komatsu companies are engaged in an effort to improve engine durability by jointly developing engines that are easy to remanufacture. screening and repair in fiscal 1999.頁31-33 00. Australia NSK East Coast Reman Center Pearth. Komatsu Remanufacturing Asia ★ ★ Johannesburg. thanks to improvements in inspection. Australia NSK West Coast Reman Center Komatsu Remanufacturing Company Ltd. as in the recommendation that our Reman Centers overseas use cleaning solvents having less environmental impact. The company has also developed and marketed a range of production facilities/equipment based on its advanced casting technologies. repairs and reuses these components in order to make CR units. Virginia. Items under scrutiny are the durability of the engine.5. Now. Komatsu’s Reman Centers Worldwide Newcastle. and also sells regenerated components. we are collaborating with our Development Division. 31 . The manuals will also address the environmental measures to be practiced globally. transmissions. With our 12V140-series engines. This is resulting in the collection of data on construction equipment operation and the establishment of specific targets for individual parts in order to develop products that offer high durability and easier remanufacturing. Components that were no longer usable were previously disposed of by the customer or distributor. Komatsu Reman North America Inc. they are collaborating with our Reman Centers in six regions worldwide. produces castings for use in construction and industrial machinery. Komatsu Remanufacturing Company Ltd. remanufactures engines. Indonesia P.S.T. proper overhaul timing. manufacturing facilities and Komatsu Remanufacturing to create manuals that define the reusability standards and repair procedures for individual parts. they are returned to our Reman Centers for processing into reusable components. In 1999. To improve the reusability of parts. for example. South Africa KSA Reman Center ★ ★ Brisbane. and reusable parts are selected by checking each part against our strict standards of reusability.