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# Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied

Sciences
TEP LAB REPORT
FLUID FRICTION EXPERIMENT
Submitted To:
Dr. Inam-ul-Haq

Submitted By:
Fayaz Ali
21849)

Group:
3
Semister:
1
Department:
Nuclear Engineering

(MS-13-PH-

3) Investigation of Flow coefficient for orifice. 2) Investigation of Coefficient of head loss across small radius 90⁰ bend. glove valve. nozzle and venturi tube Head Loss: Head loss is the reduction in the total head of a fluid caused by the friction present in the fluid's motion. sudden enlargement and contraction tube. gradual enlargement and reduction tube. From Bernoulli equation   P1     V12 P V2  Z1  2  2  Z 2  hloss  2g  2g  .Objective: 1) Investigation of Friction Factor for water flow in various sectional pipes. gate valve and cock to Reynolds Number. There are two types of head losses 1) Major Head Loss Major head loss occurs due to fluid friction as the fluid flows through the straight pipes.

Reynolds Number: In fluid mechanics. joints. Major loss due to friction is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation hf = fLV2/(2gD) Where ΔP f V D L = head Loss = = = = friction factor Fluid velocity diameter of pipe Length of pipe 2) Minor Head Loss Minor losses are head losses that occur due to bends. valves. joints. elbows.Where hlossrepresents the total head lost From the above equation for horizontal pipe we can get the head loss h L as HL=(P1-P2)/g*density These losses is mainly due to friction plus other minor losses in the bends . valves. It will be different for bends. and other fittings in the systems. the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and . The value of ‘k’ strongly depends upon the geometry of component considered. elbows. and other fittings in the systems. Minor loss is calculated from the following formula hm = K(V2/2g) ‘K’ represents the ‘loss Co-efficient’. Whenever there is a change in the direction of flow or a change in the crosssectional area a head loss will occur.change in cross-section area etc.

consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. transient or turbulent. Reynolds number and relative roughness for fully developed flow in a circular pipe.  (m²/s). D is inner diameter of pipe The Reynolds Number can be used to determine if flow is laminar.  is the kinematic viscosity (  is the density of the fluid (kg/m³). .  is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m² or kg/(m·s)). The flow is  laminar when Re < 2300  transient when 2300 < Re < 4000  turbulent when Re > 4000 Moody Chart: The Moody chart or Moody diagram is a graph in non-dimensional form that relates the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor. the Reynolds number is generally defined as: [7] where:  is the mean velocity of the fluid (SI units: m/s). For flow in a pipe or tube.

Then the Flow coefficient is given by C d= Qactual Qtheoretical . In the end the relation between Reynolds’s number and Flow coefficient is seen graphically to easily visualize the observations.Investigation of Flow coefficient for orifice. nozzle or a venture meter. nozzle and venturi tube The objective of this section of the experiment was to find out the behavior of fluid as it flows across the orifice. The mathematical relations used are given below: Qtheoritical=area*velocity = πd2/4(2gh)1/2 While the actual discharge is found from the rotameter.

00012 66 0.0002 8 0.8 6395 .949052 48 3.00 79 0.00012 66 0.950149 u lev el m m low er leve l mm de lh m m 304 125 290 135 276 150 17 9 15 5 12 6 263 165 98 255 174 81 245 180 65 235 193 42 217 200 17 240 188 52 235 140 95 233 230 190 198 43 32 del pm 0.00012 66 0.0006 4 0.0206 8190 0.4 5005 .8 3707 L 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 f 0.3 4171 .06 5 0.00028 49 0.7 5 0.09 8 0.4032 Re= DVp/ u 7507 .04 2 0.00012 66 0.02 05 0.923578 73 5.3/4”and 1” diameter pipe respectively Q= l/h Q=m/s ec D= in Area= m2 v=Q/A 270 0 250 0 230 0 200 0 180 0 150 0 120 0 100 0 0.0007 5 0.03 del p (Pascals )= (density of mercury )gh hf=(del p )/(pg) 22554 2.0005 6 0.Measurements and graph of Reynolds Number VS Friction Flow Factor: (for ½”.00 97 0.5 0 0.0003 3 0.0005 0.953 15876 1.5 0 0.0006 9 0.17 9 0.15 5 0.00 82 0.242671 78 1.387836 09 3.7 5005 .12 6 0.5 0 0.197 5418 4032 0.00012 66 5.819 5292 0.02 .00012 66 0.00 83 0.2554 19530 1.7 0.5876 12348 1.00 81 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.7 5 0.290877 07 2.2142 6552 0.632701 66 2.5 0 0.632701 66 2.046011 51 4.09 5 0.5292 2142 0.00028 2.484795 12 5.00012 66 0.04 3 0.00028 49 0.2348 10206 1.6 5561 .0006 4 0.0005 0.00 57 0.05 2 0.0006 9 0.08 1 0.5 0 0.03 84 0.1 3336 .00012 66 0.3 4634 .5418 0.0007 5 0.437686 72 2.5 4263 .00 82 0.193918 05 270 0 250 0 230 0 200 0.6552 11970 1.5 0 0.00028 49 0.01 7 0.9 2780 .00 96 0.7 5 0.0004 2 0.9 6951 .01 8 0.

2646 2142 0.0 0 1.00050 65 0.0 0 1.0002 8 2 3780 0.096959 02 0.01 0.0 0 1.548479 51 0.0 0 1.9 3197 .02 2 0.0002 8 0.755134 44 1.02 0.6 2085 .00050 65 0.126 1008 0.0003 3 0.6 1638 0.01 5 0.822719 27 0.0004 2 0.1512 0.0 0 1.2772 2142 0.7 2224 .00050 65 0.07 39 0.0004 2 0.658175 41 0.0003 3 5 0.987263 12 0.00050 65 0.378 2772 0.7 5 49 0.2142 .261502 88 1.02 1 0.8 2780 .0 180 0 150 0 120 0 6 0.02 47 0.7 5 0.05 32 0.01 2 2520 0.5 1668 .04 93 0.0006 4 0.170089 62 100 0 0.00028 49 0.02 34 0.00050 65 0.03 28 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.00050 65 1.0005 0.05 67 0.4 2 02 0.00050 65 0.03 42 0.01 7 219 206 13 0.00028 49 37 1.0005 6 1.9 2780 .00028 49 0.00028 49 0.01 3 230 200 30 225 204 21 222 205 17 225 205 20 222 207 15 220 208 12 219 209 10 217 209 8 3754 3475 .0 0 0.01 7 3780 0.0 0 1.4 1390 .02 98 2 0.975074 69 270 0 250 0 230 0 200 0 180 0 150 0 120 0 100 0 0.2142 0.00050 65 0.189 1512 0.08 51 .03 0.8 0.6 3336 .252 1890 0.1638 1853 .0 0 1.462612 03 1.7 5 0.03 57 0.00 8 1260 0.0005 0.378 2646 0.03 0.7 2502 .1008 230 200 30 225 203 22 222 205 17 0.371198 78 1.0007 5 0.0006 9 0.7 5 0.04 38 0.480894 68 1.

06 0.08 0.0.05 friction factor f 3/4 inch dia 0.04 1 inch dia 1/2 inch dia 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.09 0.01 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Reynold Number Measurements and graph of Coefficient of Head Loss VS Reynolds Number (k vs Re: .

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60 50 for 90 bend for sudden expansion for sudden contraction for gate valve for nozzle for venturimeter 40 Head loss coeffecient K for globe valve 30 for ball valve 20 10 for orificemeter 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Reynold Number Measurements and graph of Reynolds Number VS Flow Coefficient: .

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0.1 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Reynold number Re Results and Comments: There are prominent changes in the results of the graphs from theoretical graph trends. . Due to minor head losses.4 Cd for venturimeter Cd for nozzle 0.3 0.8 0.9 0. k values are closely related to each others.2 0.5 Cd Coeffecient of discharge cd for orifemeter 0. these may be due to 1) Ill calibration of the apparatus 2) Air and vent contents in pipe and manometer 3) Roughness of the inner surface of pipes 4) Calculations 5) Due to random error 6) Error in taking readings of head loss 7) Due to opening of undesired valves instead of desired ones.7 0.6 0.